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  1. Developing Public Health Regulations for Marijuana: Lessons From Alcohol and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes—not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century. PMID:24825201

  2. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  3. [Perceived norms among Honduran university students about peers and tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine use].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Syntia Dinora Santos; Cunningham, John; Strike, Carol; Brands, Bruna; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the difference between perceived norms and peers' drug use among sophomore and junior university students (from the field of education) aged 18 to 24 years. The Social Norms Theory was used as the theoretical framework. In total, 286 students participated in the study, 67% of which reported having consumed alcohol at least once in a lifetime and 28% stated being daily users. Students perceived that 62% of their peers used tobacco and 63% used alcohol. The perceived norm for drug use was slightly higher in women than in men. In conclusion, there is an overestimation between the perceived norm and use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and cocaine.

  4. Alcohol and Marijuana Use in the Context of Tobacco Dependence Treatment: Impact on Outcome and Mediation of Effect

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol and marijuana are among the most commonly used substances together with tobacco worldwide, but their relationship to smoking cessation is unclear. Although alcohol use decreases the likelihood of abstinence from tobacco, mechanisms of this effect have not been identified. Moreover, a small literature has yielded inconsistent findings regarding the effect of marijuana use on tobacco dependence treatment outcome. The aims of this study were to test increased positive-reinforcement smoking urge as a mediator of the relationship between alcohol and cigarette use and evaluate the impact of marijuana use on abstinence from tobacco. Methods: Participants were adult cigarette smokers (N = 739) from 3 randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation treatment. Alcohol consumption and marijuana use were assessed at pretreatment and postcessation. Biochemically verified, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was determined at Weeks 12, 24, 36, and 52, as were urges to smoke as measured by the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Results: Increased positive-reinforcement urge mediated the effect of postcessation alcohol use on smoking abstinence. Although pretreatment alcohol use was associated with a decreased likelihood of abstinence from tobacco, increased positive-reinforcement urge did not account for this relationship. Marijuana use was not associated with abstinence from tobacco. Conclusions: Smoking cessation treatments should provide those who drink during a quit attempt techniques designed to mitigate positive-reinforcement urge to smoke. Additional research is needed to determine how pretreatment alcohol consumption exerts its effect on cigarette use. Modifying the use of marijuana might not be critical to the success of tobacco interventions. PMID:22259148

  5. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  6. Variation in youthful risks of progression from alcohol and tobacco to marijuana and to hard drugs across generations.

    PubMed Central

    Golub, A; Johnson, B D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Much research has documented that youthful substance use typically follows a sequence starting with use of alcohol or tobacco or both and potentially proceeding to marijuana and then hard drug use. This study explicitly examined the probabilities of progression through each stage and their covariates. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (1979-1997) was conducted with particular sensitivity to the nature of substance use progression, sampling procedures, and reliability of self-report data. RESULTS: Progression to marijuana and hard drug use was uncommon among persons born before World War II. The stages phenomenon essentially emerged with the baby boom and rose to a peak among persons born around 1960. Subsequently, progression risks at each stage declined. Progression risks were also higher among younger initiators of alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in youthful marijuana use has been offset by lower rates of progression to hard drug use among youths born in the 1970s. Dire predictions of future hard drug abuse by youths who came of age in the 1990s may be greatly overstated. PMID:11211630

  7. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067

  8. The Association of Family and Peer Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Chilean adolescents in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-09-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles of substance use.The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.

  9. Triple Comorbid Trajectories of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Brook, David W.; Finch, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled triple trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods. We assessed urban African American and Puerto Rican participants (n = 816) in the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study, a psychosocial investigation, at 4 time waves (mean ages = 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). We used Mplus to obtain the 3 variable trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from time 2 to time 5 and then conducted logistic regression analyses. Results. A 5-trajectory group model, ranging from the use of all 3 substances (23%) to a nonuse group (9%), best fit the data. Membership in the trajectory group that used all 3 substances was associated with an increased likelihood of both ASPD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.83; 95% CI = 1.14, 40.74; P < .05) and GAD (AOR = 4.35; 95% CI = 1.63, 11.63; P < .001) in adulthood, as compared with the nonuse group, with control for earlier proxies of these conditions. Conclusions. Adults with comorbid tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use should be evaluated for use of other substances and for ASPD, GAD, and other psychiatric disorders. Treatment programs should address the use of all 3 substances to decrease the likelihood of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:24922120

  10. Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood?

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie M; Caetano, Raul; Suglia, Shakira F; Martins, Silvia S; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age = 16): N = 14,101; Wave 4 (mean age = 29): N = 11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents' highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in

  11. Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: Is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie; Caetano, Raul; Suglia, Shakira F; Martins, Silvia S.; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age=16): N=14,101; Wave 4 (mean age=29): N=11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents’ highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in cigarette and

  12. Extending the theory of planned behavior to predict alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among youth of Mexican heritage.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Matsunaga, Masaki; Hecht, Michael L; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the applicability of extending the theory of planned behavior to explain the normative processes in substance use among Mexican-heritage youth. The theory identifies norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control as predictors of intentions, which in turn, predict behaviors. To date, the theory had a limited conceptualization of norms and had not been extended to youth of Mexican descent, one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population and one at particular risk for alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Based on norm focus theory, it was hypothesized that norms are multidimensional, consisting of parental injunctive, peer injunctive, descriptive, and personal substance use norms. Second, it was hypothesized that parental injunctive, peer injunctive, and descriptive norms indirectly affect substance use intentions through attitudes, personal norms, and perceived behavioral control. The third hypothesis postulated that the model would operate differently based on Mexican-heritage youths' country of origin. Mexican-heritage youth (N = 1,499) from 30 elementary schools in Phoenix, AZ completed questionnaires in three waves over 18 months as part of a larger study. The findings supported the first hypothesis, showing the multidimensionality of norms. The second hypothesis was partially supported by findings from a multi-group multilevel path analysis using Mplus. Descriptive norms' association with intentions was partially mediated by attitudes, personal norms, and perceived behavioral control, while parental and peer injunctive norms were fully mediated, partially supporting the second hypothesis. Contrary to the third hypothesis, the mediation model did not differ based on Mexican-heritage youths' country of origin.

  13. Marijuana and Tobacco Co-Use in Young Adults: Patterns and Thoughts About Use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Hall, Sharon M.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the frequency and intensity of tobacco use and thoughts about abstinence among young adults in the United States as a function of their use of marijuana. We hypothesized that heavier marijuana use would be associated with heavier tobacco use and fewer attempts to quit smoking, and we explored relationships between marijuana use and ratings of intentions and thoughts related to quitting tobacco. Method: This was a cross-sectional survey consisting of online recruitment and anonymous self-report. Participants were English literate, were between the ages of 18 and 25 years, and reported past-month tobacco use. More than half (53%) had smoked marijuana in the past 30 days. Tobacco use (quantity/frequency, Heavy Smoking Index, past-year quit attempt), thoughts about tobacco use (outcome expectancies, desire, self-efficacy, difficulty of quitting, abstinence goal, pros and cons, stage of change), alcohol use, and other drug use were assessed. Results: Compared with those who smoked only tobacco, co-users were younger and had smoked for fewer years; had higher household income; were more likely to be male, multiethnic, and nondaily smokers; and reported greater alcohol and other drug use. The variable of days using marijuana in the past 30 days was associated with multiple measures of tobacco use intensity/frequency. Only one association was significant between marijuana use and tobacco-related cognitions: Co-users had a lower likelihood of planning to quit tobacco for good (odds ratio = 0.75, 95% CI [0.58, 0.98]). Conclusions: Findings support the association between tobacco and marijuana use among young people but speak to the importance of addressing tobacco cognitions in young adult smokers regardless of level of marijuana use. PMID:23384378

  14. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems.

  15. Variation in Youthful Risks of Progression from Alcohol and Tobacco to Marijuana and to Hard Drugs Across Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined 1979-97 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse data to investigate the probabilities of progression through a sequence of stages of substance use. Progression to marijuana and hard drugs was uncommon in people born before World War II. The stages phenomenon emerged with the baby boom and peaked among people born around 1960.…

  16. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... efficacy of preemployment drug screening for marijuana and cocaine in predicting employment outcome. JAMA . 1990;264(20): ...

  17. The Relationship between Youth's Moral and Legal Perceptions of Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana and Use of These Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonini, Claudia; Donovan, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Youth's perceptions of the morality of alcohol and other drug use and the perceived legitimacy of laws regulating such use have received scant attention in the international public health literature. To date, the focus has mainly been on emphasizing the health and social disbenefits of substance use in an attempt to counter the perceived…

  18. Polytobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use patterns in college students: A latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Haardörfer, Regine; Berg, Carla J; Lewis, Michael; Payne, Jackelyn; Pillai, Drishti; McDonald, Bennett; Windle, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Limited research has examined polysubstance use profiles among young adults focusing on the various tobacco products currently available. We examined use patterns of various tobacco products, marijuana, and alcohol using data from the baseline survey of a multiwave longitudinal study of 3418 students aged 18-25 recruited from seven U.S. college campuses. We assessed sociodemographics, individual-level factors (depression; perceptions of harm and addictiveness,), and sociocontextual factors (parental/friend use). We conducted a latent class analysis and multivariable logistic regression to examine correlates of class membership (Abstainers were referent group). Results indicated five classes: Abstainers (26.1% per past 4-month use), Alcohol only users (38.9%), Heavy polytobacco users (7.3%), Light polytobacco users (17.3%), and little cigar and cigarillo (LCC)/hookah/marijuana co-users (10.4%). The most stable was LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users (77.3% classified as such in past 30-day and 4-month timeframes), followed by Heavy polytobacco users (53.2% classified consistently). Relative to Abstainers, Heavy polytobacco users were less likely to be Black and have no friends using alcohol and perceived harm of tobacco and marijuana use lower. Light polytobacco users were older, more likely to have parents using tobacco, and less likely to have friends using tobacco. LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users were older and more likely to have parents using tobacco. Alcohol only users perceived tobacco and marijuana use to be less socially acceptable, were more likely to have parents using alcohol and friends using marijuana, but less likely to have friends using tobacco. These findings may inform substance use prevention and recovery programs by better characterizing polysubstance use patterns.

  19. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  20. Smoking tobacco along with marijuana increases symptoms of cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Benoit, Ellen; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Aim User practices/rituals that involve concurrent use of tobacco and marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – are hypothesized to increase cannabis dependence symptoms. Design Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of marijuana users who appeared to be 17–35 years old. Setting New York City, including non-impoverished areas of Manhattan, the transitional area of East Village/Lower East Side, low-income areas of northern Manhattan and South Bronx, and diverse areas of Brooklyn and Queens. Participants 481 marijuana users ages 14–35, 57% male, 43% female; 27% White, 30% Black, 19% Latino, 5% Asian, 20% of other/multiple race. Measurements Among many other topics, group surveys measured cannabis dependence symptoms; frequencies of chasing, blunt smoking, joint/pipe smoking, using marijuana while alone, and general tobacco use; and demographic factors. Findings Blunt smoking and chasing marijuana with tobacco were each uniquely associated with five of the seven cannabis dependence symptoms. Across symptoms, predicted odds were 2.4–4.1 times greater for participants who smoked blunts on all 30 of the past 30 days than for participants who did not smoke blunts in the past 30 days. Significant increases in odds over the whole range of the five-point chasing frequency measure (from never to always) ranged from 3.4 times to 5.1 times. Conclusions Using tobacco with marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – contributes to cannabis dependence symptoms. Treatment for cannabis dependence may be more effective it addresses the issue of concurrent tobacco use. PMID:18339491

  1. Tobacco, Marijuana Use and Sensation-seeking: Comparisons Across Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Groups

    PubMed Central

    Trocki, Karen F.; Drabble, Laurie A.; Midanik, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined patterns of smoked substances (cigarettes and marijuana) among heterosexuals, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals based on data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey (NAS), a population-based telephone survey of adults in the United States. We also examined the effect of bar patronage and sensation-seeking/impulsivity (SSImp) on tobacco and marijuana use. Sexual orientation was defined as: lesbian or gay self-identified, bisexual self-identified, heterosexual self-identified with same-sex partners in the last five years, and exclusively heterosexual (heterosexual self-identified, reporting no same sex partners). Findings indicate that bisexual women and heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners had higher rates of cigarette smoking than exclusively heterosexual women. Bisexual women, lesbians and heterosexual women with same-sex partners also used marijuana at significantly higher rates than exclusively heterosexual women. Marijuana use was significantly greater and tobacco use was elevated among gay men compared to heterosexual men. SSImp was associated with greater use of both of these substances across nearly all groups. Bar patronage and SSImp did not buffer the relationship between sexual identity and smoking either cigarettes or marijuana. These findings suggest that marijuana and tobacco use differ by sexual identity, particularly among women, and underscore the importance of developing prevention and treatment services that are appropriate for sexual minorities. PMID:20025368

  2. Alcohol and marijuana effects on ocular tracking.

    PubMed

    Flom, M C; Brown, B; Adams, A J; Jones, R T

    1976-12-01

    Experienced alcohol and marijuana users were instructed to track with their eyes a small spot that moved horizontally back and forth in pendular (sinusoidal) motion across a 7.5-degree field. The frequency of spot oscillation was gradually increased from 0.5 to 3.0 Hz in 40 sec. Eye movement recordings showed the frequency at which smooth tracking and, soon thereafter, saccadic tracking broke down. These smooth and saccadic cutoff frequencies were reduced after administration of alcohol, but not after marijuana or placebo. For low alcohol doses, smooth tracking was impaired and saccadic tracking was unaffected, much like an effect previously reported for barbiturates. Alcohol seems to affect smooth tracking by increasing the central processing time required to generate the appropriate eye movement. It affects saccadic tracking by slightly decreasing saccadic velocity and to a greater extent by increasing latency time, part of which may be devoted to central processing. The site of action of alcohol appears to be central to both the paramedian pontine reticular formation and the flocculus of the cerebellum.

  3. Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S C; Duncan, T E; Hops, H

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the progressive relations among adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana using latent growth curve analyses. Specifically, the present study examined three models to determine (1) the effect of prior cigarette use on alcohol use and development and the relationship between change in cigarette use and the development of alcohol use (N = 115), (2) the effect of prior alcohol use on cigarette use and development and the relationship between change in alcohol use and the development of cigarette use (N = 199); and (3) the effect of prior alcohol and cigarette use on marijuana use and development, and the relationship between change in alcohol use and cigarette use and the development, of marijuana use (N = 287). Support was found for the relation between prior levels of substance use and involvement in other substances. Cigarette use, in particular, was particularly important in the subsequent involvement of alcohol and marijuana.

  4. Behaviors, Attitudes and Knowledge of UNO Students Regarding Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco: 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David; Davis, Joe

    1989-01-01

    This report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among 715 University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) students. The report focuses on drug use at the higher frequency levels, rather than reporting proportions who have ever used various drugs. The separate classes of drugs distinguished are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, and…

  5. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  6. Availability of Tobacco Products Associated with Use of Marijuana Cigars (Blunts)

    PubMed Central

    Juliet, P. Lee; Morrison, Chris; Bridget, Freisthler

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines factors associated with availability of tobacco products for marijuana cigars (i.e., blunts) in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. Methods The study is based on data collected in 943 tobacco outlets. Neighborhood demographics, community adult marijuana prevalence, medical marijuana policy and access to medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services were included. Results Multilevel logistic regression analyses indicated that compared with small markets, availability of tobacco products associated with use of blunts was significantly higher in convenience stores, smoke/tobacco shops and liquor stores. None of the neighborhood demographics were associated with availability of blunt wrappers and only a small percent of Whites was positively associated with availability of blunt cigars, small cigars or cigarillos at the store. Controlling for outlet type and neighborhood demographics, higher city prevalence of adult marijuana use was associated with greater availability of blunt wrappers. Also, policy that permits medical marijuana dispensaries or private cultivation was positively associated with availability of tobacco products for blunts. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services, however, was negatively associated with greater availability of these products at tobacco outlets. Conclusions Results suggest that availability of tobacco products associated with blunts is similar in neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and racial and ethnic composition. Results also suggest the important role that community norms that support marijuana use or legalization of medical marijuana and medical marijuana policy may play in increasing availability of tobacco products associated with blunts. PMID:24290366

  7. Trajectories of Marijuana Use Beginning in Adolescence Predict Tobacco Dependence in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the “stage theory” suggests that marijuana use occurs after the initiation of tobacco smoking, substantial evidence exists that they occur concurrently, and that the use of marijuana may influence the use of tobacco. Methods This study uses trajectory analysis to examine the relationship between marijuana use and adult tobacco dependence in a 5-wave longitudinal study (mean ages in each wave: 14, 19, 24, 29, and 32). The sample consisted of 816 participants (52% African Americans, 48% Puerto Ricans), of whom 60 % were females. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict later tobacco dependence from earlier trajectories of marijuana use. Results A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the chronic marijuana use trajectory group (OR=10.93, p<.001; AOR=10.40, p <.001), for the increasing marijuana use trajectory group (OR=6.94, p <.001; AOR=6.73, p <.001), and for the moderate marijuana use trajectory group (OR=3.13, p <.001; AOR=3.18, p <.001) was associated with an increased likelihood of being dependent on tobacco compared with the BPP of the no or low marijuana use trajectory group. Conclusions The results underscore the value of considering multiple patterns of marijuana use within a person-centered approach. Thus, it would be appropriate for marijuana cessation programs to incorporate the prevention, assessment, and cessation of tobacco use in their health promotion strategies. PMID:25259421

  8. Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth. PMID:25268294

  9. "Fry:" A Study of Adolescents' Use of Embalming Fluid with Marijuana and Tobacco. TCADA Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, William N.

    Adolescent use of marijuana and tobacco has increased throughout the 1990s. Perhaps as a part of this trend, increasingly there have been reports of adolescents who use marijuana or tobacco cigarettes dipped in embalming fluid. Unfortunately, most of these reports involve young people coming for drug treatment, many of whom were incoherent. The…

  10. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  11. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. PMID:26400900

  12. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  13. Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. PMID:22939992

  14. Social determinants of alcohol and marijuana effects: a systematic theory.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, J D

    1975-01-01

    Based on the sociological perspective on recreational drug effects, three social determinants are propositionally related to the normal effects of alcohol and marijuana. Effects vary across drugs, users, and situations along an experimental-behavioral dimension termed "effect-orientation." The content of normative expectations toward effects and the interactional characteristics of drug-using situations are conceptualized as direct determinants of effect-orientations. The relative clarity of normative expectations indirectly influences effect-orientations through its relationship to the other two social determinants. The theory stresses the importance of comparative research on the normal uses of alcohol and marijuana.

  15. Correlates of Alcohol and Marijuana Use within a College Freshman Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Studied correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college students (n=557) and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes. Major predictors for alcohol use were maternal alcohol use followed by peer use. Major predictors for marijuana use were desire for legalization followed by peer use…

  16. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  17. Patterns of Alcohol and Marijuana Use at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adolescent substance use has been examined extensively. Beyond simple prevalence estimates, however, little research has been conducted on substance use in the school context. The present investigation was an in-depth study of students' attitudes and behaviors regarding alcohol and marijuana use during the school day. Based on a…

  18. Waiting for the Opportune Moment: The Tobacco Industry and Marijuana Legalization

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Rachel Ann; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    Context In 2012, Washington State and Colorado legalized the recreational use of marijuana, and Uruguay, beginning in 2014, will become the first country to legalize the sale and distribution of marijuana. The challenge facing policymakers and public health advocates is reducing the harms of an ineffective, costly, and discriminatory “war on drugs” while preventing another public health catastrophe similar to tobacco use, which kills 6 million people worldwide each year. Methods Between May and December 2013, using the standard snowball research technique, we searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of previously secret tobacco industry documents (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu). Findings Since at least the 1970s, tobacco companies have been interested in marijuana and marijuana legalization as both a potential and a rival product. As public opinion shifted and governments began relaxing laws pertaining to marijuana criminalization, the tobacco companies modified their corporate planning strategies to prepare for future consumer demand. Conclusions Policymakers and public health advocates must be aware that the tobacco industry or comparable multinational organizations (eg, food and beverage industries) are prepared to enter the marijuana market with the intention of increasing its already widespread use. In order to prevent domination of the market by companies seeking to maximize market size and profits, policymakers should learn from their successes and failures in regulating tobacco. PMID:24890245

  19. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  20. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teen Users’ IQ Decline ( August 2016 ) Study Links Medical Marijuana Dispensaries to Reduced Mortality From Opioid Overdose ( May ... Marijuana in Teen Users’ IQ Decline Study Links Medical Marijuana Dispensaries to Reduced Mortality From Opioid Overdose Nora's ...

  1. Respiratory Effects of Marijuana and Tobacco Use in a U.S. Sample

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brent A; Augustson, Erik M; Moser, Richard P; Budney, Alan J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although a number of studies have examined the respiratory impact of marijuana smoking, such studies have generally used convenience samples of marijuana and tobacco users. The current study examined respiratory effects of marijuana and tobacco use in a nationally representative sample while controlling for age, gender, and current asthma. DESIGN Analysis of the nationally representative third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). SETTING U.S. households. PARTICIPANTS A total of 6,728 adults age 20 to 59 who completed the drug, tobacco, and health sections of the NHANES III questionnaire in 1988 and 1994. Current marijuana use was defined as self-reported 100+ lifetime use and at least 1 day of use in the past month. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Self-reported respiratory symptoms included chronic bronchitis, frequent phlegm, shortness of breath, frequent wheezing, chest sounds without a cold, and pneumonia. A medical exam also provided an overall chest finding and a measure of reduced pulmonary functioning. Marijuana use was associated with respiratory symptoms of chronic bronchitis (P =.02), coughing on most days (P =.001), phlegm production (P =.0005), wheezing (P <.0001), and chest sounds without a cold (P =.02). CONCLUSION The impact of marijuana smoking on respiratory health has some significant similarities to that of tobacco smoking. Efforts to prevent and reduce marijuana use, such as advising patients to quit and providing referrals for support and assistance, may have substantial public health benefits associated with decreased respiratory health problems. PMID:15693925

  2. Heavy Alcohol Use Compared to Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Do College Students Experience a Difference in Substance Use Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…

  3. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Psychoactive Drug Use among High School Students in Bogota, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2000-01-01

    Investigated health behaviors practiced by 10th graders in Bogota, Colombia. Data from a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that there was a high use of gateway substances (tobacco and alcohol) among respondents, but lower usage, when compared to U.S. students, of other mind-altering substances such as marijuana,…

  4. Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown.

  5. Alcohol and marijuana use among college students: economic complements or substitutes?

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Liccardo Pacula, Rosalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Wechsler, Henry

    2004-09-01

    Previous research has shown that the recent tightening of college alcohol policies has been effective at reducing college students' drinking. Over the period in which these stricter alcohol policies have been put in place, marijuana use among college students has increased. This raises the question of whether current policies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption are inadvertently encouraging marijuana use. This paper begins to address this question by investigating the relationship between the demands for alcohol and marijuana for college students using data from the 1993, 1997 and 1999 waves of the Harvard School of Public Health's College Alcohol Study (CAS). We find that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements and that policies that increase the full price of alcohol decrease participation in marijuana use. PMID:15362176

  6. Beyond Invulnerability: The Importance of Benefits in Adolescents' Decisions To Drink Alcohol and Smoke Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Julie H.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Millstein, Susan G.

    This study examines the influence of perceived risks as well as the understudied role of benefits on alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Ninth grade students and young adults were asked about the perceived risks and benefits of alcohol and marijuana use. Analyses showed a consistent pattern: perceived benefits were more…

  7. Alcohol Environment, Perceived Safety, and Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Bradshaw, CP; Webster, DW; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during pre-adolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8-13 (86% African American). Participants' residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (OR=1.14, p=.04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR=1.15, p<.01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets. PMID:25125766

  8. Effects of Alcohol and Combined Marijuana and Alcohol Use During Adolescence on Hippocampal Volume and Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Converging lines of evidence suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of alcohol and marijuana use, especially during adolescence. The goal of this study was to examine hippocampal volume and asymmetry in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Methods Participants were adolescent (aged 15–18) alcohol (ALC) users (n=16), marijuana and alcohol (MJ+ALC) users (n=26), and demographically similar controls (n=21). Extensive exclusionary criteria included prenatal toxic exposure, left handedness, and psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use, cognitive, and anatomical measures were collected after at least 2 days of abstinence from all substances. Results Adolescent ALC users demonstrated a significantly different pattern of hippocampal asymmetry (p<.05) and reduced left hippocampal volume (p<.05) compared to MJ+ALC users and non-using controls. Increased alcohol abuse/dependence severity was associated with increased right > left (R>L) asymmetry and smaller left hippocampal volumes while marijuana abuse/dependence was associated with increased L>R asymmetry and larger left hippocampal volumes. Although MJ+ALC users did not differ from controls in asymmetry, functional relationships with verbal learning were found only among controls, among whom greater right than left hippocampal volume was associated with superior performance (p<.05). Conclusions Aberrations in hippocampal asymmetry and left hippocampal volumes were found for adolescent heavy drinkers. Further, the functional relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning was abnormal among adolescent substance users compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest differential effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use on hippocampal morphometry and the relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning performance among adolescents. PMID:17169528

  9. Identifying classes of conjoint alcohol and marijuana use in entering freshmen.

    PubMed

    Haas, Amie L; Wickham, Robert; Macia, Kathryn; Shields, Micah; Macher, Rayna; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    The current study identified classes of conjoint marijuana and alcohol use in entering college freshmen using latent profile analysis (N = 772; 53% male, 60% White; Mage = 18). Results yielded 4 distinct groups: Class 1 (moderate drinking with recent marijuana use: 22% of sample), Class 2 (moderate drinking with no recent marijuana use: 25%), Class 3 (light drinking with no recent marijuana use: 40%) and Class 4 (heavy drinking with recent marijuana use: 14%). Separate pairwise contrasts examined cross-class differences in demographics and drinking behaviors, comparing differences in drinking when current marijuana use was controlled (Class 1 vs. 4) and differences in marijuana use when drinking was held relatively constant (Class 1 vs. 2). Among moderate drinkers, recent marijuana users were more likely to drink more than intended, drink to get drunk, and had more problems (including higher rates of blackouts, physical injury, and DUI) relative to peers who refrained from marijuana. No cross-class differences were found for alcohol expectancies or behavioral motives. Findings from these analyses show the presence of distinct groups of conjoint users with different drinking behaviors and consequence profiles, and suggest that conjoint alcohol-marijuana use may be more problematic overall than single substance involvement and highlight the need for developing campus prevention and intervention programs that address the increased risk from polysubstance involvement. PMID:26168228

  10. Identifying classes of conjoint alcohol and marijuana use in entering freshmen.

    PubMed

    Haas, Amie L; Wickham, Robert; Macia, Kathryn; Shields, Micah; Macher, Rayna; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    The current study identified classes of conjoint marijuana and alcohol use in entering college freshmen using latent profile analysis (N = 772; 53% male, 60% White; Mage = 18). Results yielded 4 distinct groups: Class 1 (moderate drinking with recent marijuana use: 22% of sample), Class 2 (moderate drinking with no recent marijuana use: 25%), Class 3 (light drinking with no recent marijuana use: 40%) and Class 4 (heavy drinking with recent marijuana use: 14%). Separate pairwise contrasts examined cross-class differences in demographics and drinking behaviors, comparing differences in drinking when current marijuana use was controlled (Class 1 vs. 4) and differences in marijuana use when drinking was held relatively constant (Class 1 vs. 2). Among moderate drinkers, recent marijuana users were more likely to drink more than intended, drink to get drunk, and had more problems (including higher rates of blackouts, physical injury, and DUI) relative to peers who refrained from marijuana. No cross-class differences were found for alcohol expectancies or behavioral motives. Findings from these analyses show the presence of distinct groups of conjoint users with different drinking behaviors and consequence profiles, and suggest that conjoint alcohol-marijuana use may be more problematic overall than single substance involvement and highlight the need for developing campus prevention and intervention programs that address the increased risk from polysubstance involvement.

  11. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  12. Prevalence and Perceived Financial Costs of Marijuana versus Tobacco use among Urban Low-Income Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Jessica R; Svikis, Dace S; Ondersma, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative prevalence of marijuana and tobacco use among low-income post-partum women, using self-report, urine, and hair testing data; and to further explore perceptions of the substances among postpartum women by evaluating perceived risk and monetary cost of prenatal marijuana versus tobacco use. Methods Data from two studies were available for a total of 100 (Study 1) and 50 (Study 2) low-income, primarily African-American post-partum women. Study 1 participants completed brief self-report measures of substance use as well as urine and hair samples; study 2 participants completed a brief opinion survey regarding the risks and monetary costs of prenatal marijuana use. Results In Study 1, the self-reported prevalence of any tobacco or marijuana use in the past three months was 17% and 11%, respectively. However, objectively-defined marijuana use was more prevalent than self-reported tobacco use: 14% tested positive for marijuana by urinalysis, and 28% by hair analysis. Study 2 participants were more likely to believe that there is a safe level of marijuana use during pregnancy, and nearly half believed that using marijuana during pregnancy was less expensive than smoking cigarettes. Conclusion Marijuana use may be as or more prevalent than tobacco use among low-income, African-American pregnant women. These findings may in part be attributable to perceptions of roughly equivalent cost and the lack of a clear public health message regarding prenatal marijuana use, combined with growing pro-marijuana advocacy. A broader public health response to address prenatal marijuana use, along with other substances of abuse, is needed. PMID:23858392

  13. Validity of Brief Screening Instrument for Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism developed an alcohol screening instrument for youth based on epidemiologic data. This study examines the concurrent validity of this instrument, expanded to include tobacco and drugs, among pediatric patients, as well as the acceptability of its self-administration on an iPad. METHODS: Five hundred and twenty-five patients (54.5% female; 92.8% African American) aged 12 to 17 completed the Brief Screener for Tobacco, Alcohol, and other Drugs (BSTAD) via interviewer-administration or self-administration using an iPad. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition substance use disorders (SUDs) were identified using a modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2 Substance Abuse Module. Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were obtained to determine optimal cut points on the BSTAD in relation to SUDs. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine (30.3%) adolescents reported past-year use of ≥1 substances on the BSTAD: 113 (21.5%) used alcohol, 84 (16.0%) used marijuana, and 50 (9.5%) used tobacco. Optimal cut points for past-year frequency of use items on the BSTAD to identify SUDs were ≥6 days of tobacco use (sensitivity = 0.95; specificity = 0.97); ≥2 days of alcohol use (sensitivity = 0.96; specificity = 0.85); and ≥2 days of marijuana use (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.93). iPad self-administration was preferred over interviewer administration (z = 5.8; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The BSTAD is a promising screening tool for identifying problematic tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in pediatric settings. Even low frequency of substance use among adolescents may indicate need for intervention. PMID:24753528

  14. Testing the effects of peer socialization versus selection on alcohol and marijuana use among treated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community studies, there was evidence of both peer socialization and peer selection for alcohol use, and only evidence of peer selection for marijuana use. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  15. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  16. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  17. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491

  18. Changes in Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors toward Tobacco and Marijuana during U.S. Students’ First Year of College

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mara W; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco and marijuana are commonly used by college students and have negative health effects. The purpose of this study was to understand how students’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors toward tobacco and marijuana change during freshman year and to examine how attitude and intention predict use of these substances. 275 college students completed phone interviews before and after their freshman year. The identical interviews assessed students’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors toward both substances. Attitudes and intentions increased significantly. 12.2% of participants initiated tobacco use and 13.5% initiated marijuana use. Only intention predicted tobacco initiation, while both attitude and intention predicted marijuana initiation. Overall, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors changed significantly toward favored use. Predictors of use varied by substance, suggesting that different prevention approaches may be beneficial. PMID:24761133

  19. Alcohol and marijuana effects on static visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Adams, A J; Brown, B; Flom, M C; Jones, R T; Jampolsky, A

    1975-11-01

    Static visual acuity was measured at two contrast levels (12 and 49%) in ten subjects in a double blind experiment involving five drug conditions of alcohol and marijuana (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/kg body weight of 95% ethanol, 8 and 15 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and a placebo). We found no statistically significant change in static visual acuity for any of the dose levels at any of the measurement time up to six hours following drug ingestion; this is sharply contrasted with the marked decrements in acuity which were found in the same subjects under the same drug conditions when the targets were in motion and required corrdinated eye movements for their resolution.

  20. Alcohol and marijuana: effects on epilepsy and use by patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E; Devinsky, O

    2001-10-01

    We review the safety of alcohol or marijuana use by patients with epilepsy. Alcohol intake in small amounts (one to two drinks per day) usually does not increase seizure frequency or significantly affect serum levels of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Adult patients with epilepsy should therefore be allowed to consume alcohol in limited amounts. However, exceptions may include patients with a history of alcohol or substance abuse, or those with a history of alcohol-related seizures. The most serious risk of seizures in connection with alcohol use is withdrawal. Alcohol withdrawal lowers the seizure threshold, an effect that may be related to alcohol dose, rapidity of withdrawal, and chronicity of exposure. Individuals who chronically abuse alcohol are at significantly increased risk of developing seizures, which can occur during withdrawal or intoxication. Alcohol abuse predisposes to medical and metabolic disorders that can lower the seizure threshold or cause symptoms that mimic seizures. Therefore, in evaluating a seizure in a patient who is inebriated or has abused alcohol, one must carefully investigate to determine the cause. Animal and human research on the effects of marijuana on seizure activity are inconclusive. There are currently insufficient data to determine whether occasional or chronic marijuana use influences seizure frequency. Some evidence suggests that marijuana and its active cannabinoids have antiepileptic effects, but these may be specific to partial or tonic-clonic seizures. In some animal models, marijuana or its constituents can lower the seizure threshold. Preliminary, uncontrolled clinical studies suggest that cannabidiol may have antiepileptic effects in humans. Marijuana use can transiently impair short-term memory, and like alcohol use, may increase noncompliance with AEDs. Marijuana use or withdrawal could potentially trigger seizures in susceptible patients.

  1. Neural Correlates of Verbal Learning in Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Alcohol and marijuana are the most widely used intoxicants among adolescents, yet their potential unique and interactive influences on the developing brain are not well established. Brain regions subserving learning and memory undergo continued maturation during adolescence, and may be particularly susceptible to substance-related neurotoxic damage. Here, we characterize brain response during verbal learning among adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Design Participants performed a verbal paired associates encoding task during fMRI scanning. Setting Adolescent subjects were recruited from local public schools and imaged at a University-based fMRI Center. Participants Participants were 74 16- to 18-year-olds, divided into four groups: (1) 22 controls with limited alcohol and marijuana experience, (2) 16 binge drinkers, (3) 8 marijuana users, and (4) 28 binge drinking marijuana users. Measurements Diagnostic interview assured that all teens were free from neurologic or psychiatric disorders; urine toxicology and breathalyzer verified abstinence for 22–28 days before scanning; a verbal paired associates task was administered during fMRI. Findings Groups demonstrated no differences in performance on the verbal encoding task, yet exhibited different brain response patterns. A main effect of drinking pointed to decreased inferior frontal but increased dorsal frontal and parietal fMRI response among binge drinkers (corrected p < .05). There was no main effect of marijuana use. Binge drinking × marijuana interactions were found in bilateral frontal regions (corrected p < .05), where users of either alcohol or marijuana showed greater response than non-users, but users of both substances resembled non-users. Conclusions Adolescent substance users demonstrated altered fMRI response relative to nonusing controls, yet binge drinking appeared associated with more differences in activation than marijuana use. Alcohol and marijuana may have interactive effects that

  2. Marijuana: The Real Story. It's Your Choice!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on marijuana is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  3. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  4. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, G; Muñoz, R; Sees, K; Reus, V; Hall, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous research suggests higher rates of smoking, and smoking cessation failure, in alcohol- and drug-abusing populations. The present study examined the relationship of alcohol/drug treatment history and current alcohol and marijuana consumption with success in smoking cessation treatment in a smoking clinic population. Participants were 199 smokers; 23% reported a history of alcohol/drug problems, 12.6% reported a history of drug treatment, 78.7% reported alcohol use, and 21.3% reported marijuana use during treatment. Results indicate no significant differences in abstinence rates based on history of alcohol/drug problem or treatment. Differences were found for any current alcohol use but not for marijuana use. Both alcohol use at baseline and any alcohol use during treatment predicted smoking at all follow-up points. Alcohol users had significantly lower quit rates than did participants reporting no use. Neither use of marijuana at baseline nor during treatment predicted outcome. These findings suggest that even low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption during smoking cessation may decrease treatment success. PMID:10189984

  5. Talk to Your Kids about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Talk to Your Kids about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Browse Sections The Basics Overview When ... to your child about the dangers of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. Knowing the facts will help your ...

  6. Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16-25 Years - United States, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Lyerla, Rob

    2015-12-11

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among youths and young adults aged 16-25 years in the United States (1). The prevalence of drinking and driving among high school students aged 16-19 years has declined by 54%, from 22.3% in 1991 to 10.3% in 2011 (2). However, the prevalence of weekend nighttime driving under the influence of marijuana (based on biochemical assays) among drivers aged ≥16 years has increased by 48%, from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 2013-2014 (3). Use of marijuana alone and in combination with alcohol has been shown to impair driving abilities (4-9). This report provides the most recent self-reported national estimates of driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16-25 years, using data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2014. Prevalence data on driving under the influence of both substances were examined for two age groups (16-20 years and 21-25 years) and by sex and race/ethnicity. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol alone significantly declined by 59% among persons aged 16-20 years (from 16.2% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2014; p<0.001) and 38% among persons 21-25 years (from 29.1% in 2002 to 18.1% in 2014; p<0.001). In addition, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana combined significantly declined by 39%, from 2.3% in 2002 to 1.4% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 16-20 years and from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 21-25 years. The prevalence of driving under the influence of marijuana alone declined 18%, from 3.8% in 2002 to 3.1% in 2014 (p = 0.05) only among persons aged 16-20 years. Effective public safety interventions,* such as minimum legal drinking age laws, prohibition of driving with any alcohol level >0 for persons aged <21 years, targeted mass media campaigns

  7. Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16-25 Years - United States, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Lyerla, Rob

    2015-12-11

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among youths and young adults aged 16-25 years in the United States (1). The prevalence of drinking and driving among high school students aged 16-19 years has declined by 54%, from 22.3% in 1991 to 10.3% in 2011 (2). However, the prevalence of weekend nighttime driving under the influence of marijuana (based on biochemical assays) among drivers aged ≥16 years has increased by 48%, from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 2013-2014 (3). Use of marijuana alone and in combination with alcohol has been shown to impair driving abilities (4-9). This report provides the most recent self-reported national estimates of driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16-25 years, using data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2014. Prevalence data on driving under the influence of both substances were examined for two age groups (16-20 years and 21-25 years) and by sex and race/ethnicity. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol alone significantly declined by 59% among persons aged 16-20 years (from 16.2% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2014; p<0.001) and 38% among persons 21-25 years (from 29.1% in 2002 to 18.1% in 2014; p<0.001). In addition, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana combined significantly declined by 39%, from 2.3% in 2002 to 1.4% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 16-20 years and from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 21-25 years. The prevalence of driving under the influence of marijuana alone declined 18%, from 3.8% in 2002 to 3.1% in 2014 (p = 0.05) only among persons aged 16-20 years. Effective public safety interventions,* such as minimum legal drinking age laws, prohibition of driving with any alcohol level >0 for persons aged <21 years, targeted mass media campaigns

  8. The Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol, Marijuana, Angry Affect, and Dating Violence Perpetration: A Daily Diary Study With Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Although a robust literature documents a positive association between alcohol and intimate partner violence (IPV), there is limited temporal research on this relation. Moreover, the role of marijuana in influencing IPV has been mixed. Thus, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the temporal relationship between alcohol and marijuana use and dating violence perpetration. A secondary aim was to examine whether angry affect moderated the temporal relation between alcohol and marijuana use and IPV perpetration. Participants were college women who had consumed alcohol in the previous month and were in a dating relationship (N = 173). For up to 90 consecutive days, women completed daily surveys that assessed their alcohol use, marijuana use, angry affect (anger, hostility, and irritation), and violence perpetration (psychological and physical). On alcohol use days, marijuana use days, and with increases in angry affect, the odds of psychological aggression increased. Only alcohol use days and increases in angry affect increased the odds of physical aggression. Moreover, the main effects of alcohol and marijuana use on aggression were moderated by angry affect. Alcohol was positively associated with psychological and physical aggression when angry affect was high, but was unrelated to aggression when angry affect was low. Marijuana use was associated with psychological aggression when angry affect was high. Findings advance our understanding of the proximal effect of alcohol and marijuana use on dating violence, including the potential moderating effect of angry affect on this relation. PMID:24274434

  9. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  10. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  11. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  12. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  13. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  14. Executive Functioning in Preschool-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol, Cocaine, and Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Julia S.; Singer, Lynn T.; Arendt, Robert E.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Reports from clinical and experimental (animal) research converge on the suggestion that prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, or marijuana undermines executive functioning (EF) and its neurological underpinnings. However, large, adequately controlled, prospective studies of alcohol and marijuana effects on EF have reported conflicting findings, and there have been no such studies of cocaine exposure. Methods EF was investigated in a cohort (n = 316) of 4-year-old children the majority of whose mothers had used varying combinations of cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana during pregnancy. With use of postpartum maternal report and biological assay, children were assigned to overlapping prenatal cocaine-exposed, alcohol-exposed, and marijuana-exposed groups and to complementary control groups. The postnatal environmental assessment included measures of maternal intellectual and psychosocial functioning, current drug or alcohol use, and home environment. Results The children in the alcohol-exposed group had worse tapping-inhibition performance than children in the non–alcohol-exposed group, and this effect persisted when potential confounding environmental variables, other drug variables, and concurrent verbal intelligence were controlled for. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol is predictive of decreased EF in early childhood that could not be attributed to environmental factors. The results are discussed in terms of the age and overall high-risk status of the children. PMID:12711927

  15. Kansas Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    One of a series of state profiles, this report describes the dimensions of the problems caused by alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in Kansas and the public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. It highlights positive developments and identifies areas to be strengthened. Demographic characteristics, state agency organization, and state…

  16. Rural Indiana Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in rural parts of Indiana, as well as public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. The report is based on epidemiological, health, and criminal justice indicators; focus groups; and in-depth interviews with local officials, researchers, service providers, and civic leaders.…

  17. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse: The Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Neuropsychological Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Robert J.; Monnig, Mollie A.; Lysne, Per A.; Ruhl, David A.; Pommy, Jessica A.; Bogenschutz, Michael; Tonigan, J. Scott; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period in which cognition and brain undergo dramatic parallel development. Whereas chronic use of alcohol and marijuana is known to cause cognitive impairments in adults, far less is known about the effect of these substances of abuse on adolescent cognition, including possible interactions with developmental processes. Methods Neuropsychological performance, alcohol use, and marijuana use were assessed in 48 adolescents (ages 12–18), recruited in three groups: a healthy control group (HC, n = 15), a group diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence (SUD, n = 19), and a group with a family history positive for alcohol use disorder (AUD) but no personal substance use disorder (FHP, n = 14). Age, drinks per drinking day, percentage days drinking, and percentage days using marijuana were considered as covariates in a MANCOVA in which 6 neuropsychological composites (Verbal Reasoning, Visuospatial Ability, Executive Function, Memory, Attention, and Processing Speed) served as dependent variables. Results More drinks per drinking day predicted poorer performance on Attention and Executive Function composites, and more frequent use of marijuana use was associated with poorer Memory performance. In separate analyses, adolescents in the SUD group had lower scores on Attention, Memory, and Processing Speed composites, and FHP adolescents had poorer Visuospatial Ability. Conclusions In combination, these analyses suggest that heavy alcohol use in adolescence leads to reduction in attention and executive functioning and that marijuana use exerts an independent deleterious effect on memory. At the same time, premorbid deficits associated with family history of AUD appeared to be specific to Visuospatial Ability. PMID:20958330

  19. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  20. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  1. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  2. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  3. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  4. Visual search and urban driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lamers, C. T. J.; Ramaekers, J. G.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of low doses of marijuana and alcohol, and their combination, on visual search at intersections and on general driving proficiency in the City Driving Test. Sixteen recreational users of alcohol and marijuana (eight males and eight females) were treated with these substances or placebo according to a balanced, 4-way, cross-over, observer- and subject-blind design. On separate evenings, subjects received weight-calibrated doses of THC, alcohol or placebo in each of the following treatment conditions: alcohol placebo + THC placebo, alcohol + THC placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol. Alcohol doses administered were sufficient for achieving a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of about 0.05 g/dl. Initial drinking preceded smoking by one hour. The City Driving Test commenced 15 minutes after smoking and lasted 45 minutes. The test was conducted over a fixed route within the city limits of Maastricht. An eye movement recording system was mounted on each subject's head for providing relative frequency measures of appropriate visual search at intersections. General driving quality was rated by a licensed driving instructor on a shortened version of the Royal Dutch Tourist Association's Driving Proficiency Test. After placebo treatment subjects searched for traffic approaching from side streets on the right in 84% of all cases. Visual search frequency in these subjects did not change when they were treated with alcohol or marijuana alone. However, when treated with the combination of alcohol and marijuana, the frequency of visual search dropped by 3%. Performance as rated on the Driving Proficiency Scale did not differ between treatments. It was concluded that the effects of low doses of THC (100 &mgr;g/kg) and alcohol (BAC < 0.05 g/dl) on higher-level driving skills as measured in the present study are minimal. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:12404559

  5. Perceived Ease of Access to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances in Rural and Urban US Students

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Methods Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513,909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using chi-square analysis. Results In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. Conclusions In summary, the current study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban

  6. A Trajectory Analysis of Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hubbard, Alan; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined alcohol and marijuana use trajectories among Latino adolescents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Methods A total of 410 Latino adolescents aged 14–19 years were recruited from community venues from years 2001 to 2004 and followed up for 2 years. In separate models, we identified groups with similar temporal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use using semi-parametric latent group trajectory modeling. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the probability of trajectory group membership. Results The use of alcohol (76%) and marijuana (55%) in the previous 6 months was common. Three alcohol-use trajectories were identified: low users (18%), moderate users (37%), and frequent users (45%). Low alcohol users (vs. moderate users) were found to be younger in age, preferred Spanish language, and had more parental monitoring. Frequent users were more likely to be male, sexually active, gang exposed, and have less parental monitoring than moderate users. Similarly, three marijuana-use trajectories were identified: low users (36%), moderate users (35%), and frequent users (28%), with similar correlates of group membership. Conclusions Urban Latino adolescents’ substance use is shaped by complex cultural and environmental influences. Patterns of substance use emerge by early adolescence highlighting the need for timely intervention. PMID:21094433

  7. The association between substance use disorders and early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana in two American Indian populations

    PubMed Central

    O'CONNELL, JOAN M.; NOVINS, DOUGLAS K.; BEALS, JANETTE; WHITESELL, NANCY R.; SPICER, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relationships between early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana with diagnoses of alcohol and marijuana use disorders in two American Indian (AI) populations. Method Data were drawn from a psychiatric epidemiologic study of 3084 AIs living on or near two reservations. We analysed data for adults aged 18–54 years at the time of interview (n = 2739). Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana with lifetime diagnoses of abuse and dependence. Results Overall, younger AIs (18–29 years old) were more likely than older AIs (40–54 years old) to initiate substance use early and initiate use with marijuana, with or without alcohol. Persons who initiated alcohol use before age 14 were more than twice as likely as those who initiated use at older ages to meet criteria for alcohol or marijuana use disorders (p < 0.01). The odds of abuse or dependence were two to five times higher among persons who reported combined use of alcohol and marijuana (p < 0.01) than among those who reported use of either substance. Conclusions These findings document the need to address both early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana in prevention and treatment programmes. PMID:26582968

  8. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  9. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  10. The Significance of Marijuana Use Among Alcohol Using Adolescent ED Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Thomas H.; Spirito, Anthony; Hernández, Lynn; Fairlie, Anne M.; Sindelar-Manning, Holly; Eaton, Cheryl A.; Lewander, William

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine if adolescents presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) for an alcohol-related event requiring medical care differ in terms of substance use, behavioral and mental health problems, peer relationships, and parental monitoring, based on their history of marijuana use. Methods Cross-sectional comparison of adolescents 13–17 years old, with evidence of recent alcohol use, 13–17 years old, presenting to a PED based on a self-reported history of marijuana use. Assessment tools included the Adolescent Drinking Inventory, Adolescent Drinking Questionnaire, Young Adult Drinking and Driving Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Peer Substance Use and Tolerance of Substance Use Scale, Results Compared to alcohol only (AO) using adolescents, adolescents who use alcohol and marijuana (AM) have higher rates of smoking (F=23.62) and binge drinking (F=11.56), consume more drinks per sitting (F=9.03), have more externalizing behavior problems (F=12.53), and report both greater peer tolerance of substance use (F=12.99) and lower parental monitoring (F=7.12). Conclusions Adolescents who use both AM report greater substance use and more risk factors for substance abuse than AO using adolescents. Screening for a history of marijuana use may be important when treating adolescents presenting with an alcohol-related event. Alcohol and marijuana co-use may identify a high risk population, which may have important implications for ED clinicians in the ED care of these patients, providing parental guidance, and planning follow-up care. PMID:20078438

  11. Primary Healthcare Provider Knowledge, Beliefs and Clinic-Based Practices Regarding Alternative Tobacco Products and Marijuana: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S.; Scott, Kimberly N.; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A.; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This…

  12. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  13. Interplay of Network Position and Peer Substance Use in Early Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…

  14. Do Alcohol and Marijuana Use Decrease the Probability of Condom Use for College Women?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (Mage = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation-seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking (HED) than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; additionally, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest that marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  15. Dressing in Costume and the Use of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Other Drugs by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kimberly A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared behavior of college students who wore costumes on Halloween with those who did not. Findings from 805 females and 448 males surveyed over 5-year period revealed significant associations between dressing in costume and drinking alcohol and between masquerading with group and using marijuana and other drugs. Found no significant…

  16. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…

  17. Marijuana, Alcohol Use and Attempted Smoking Cessation in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Kong, Grace; Bagot, Kara; Hoff, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the relationship between the frequency of current marijuana and alcohol use and cigarette-quit attempts in male and female adolescent smokers. Methods Data from a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors in high-school-age adolescents were analyzed. Current cigarette smokers (n=804) who reported use of at least 1 cigarette in the past month were divided into those with and without a history of at least 1 quit attempt (a self-reported episode of trying to “stop smoking”). Logistic regression models were fit to describe the association between the frequency of marijuana/alcohol use and a history of cigarette-quit attempts. Results Among the total sample, higher frequency marijuana use (more than six times in the past 30 days) and frequent binge drinking (more than 5 days of binge drinking in the past 30 days) decreased the odds of having a past cigarette-quit attempt (higher frequency marijuana adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.36–0.86) (frequent binge drinking AOR=0.49; 95%CI=0.29–0.83). A significant gender interaction was observed for the relationship between higher frequency marijuana use and a history of cigarette-quit attempts (p=0.03), with decreased odds in boys (AOR=0.41; 95% CI=0.22–0.77) but not in girls (AOR=0.71; 95% CI=0.37–1.33). Conclusions Adolescent smokers who report higher frequency marijuana use or frequent binge drinking have a decreased likelihood of a history of a cigarette-quit attempt. The gender-related association between higher frequency marijuana use and a history of quit attempts suggests that boys with greater substance use may need particularly intensive support to initiate quit attempts. PMID:25174418

  18. Effects of Marijuana Use on Impulsivity and Hostility in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Emily B.; Laws, Holly B.; Roche, Michael J.; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marijuana use is increasingly prevalent among young adults. While research has found adverse effects associated with marijuana use within experimentally controlled laboratory settings, it is unclear how recreational marijuana use affects day-to-day experiences in users. The present study sought to examine the effects of marijuana use on within-person changes in impulsivity and interpersonal hostility in daily life using smartphone administered assessments. METHODS Forty-three participants with no substance dependence reported on their alcohol consumption, tobacco use, recreational marijuana use, impulsivity, and interpersonal hostility over the course of 14 days. Responses were analyzed using multilevel modeling. RESULTS Marijuana use was associated with increased impulsivity on the same day and the following day relative to days when marijuana was not used, independent of alcohol use. Marijuana was also associated with increased hostile behaviors and perceptions of hostility in others on the same day when compared to days when marijuana was not used. These effects were independent of frequency of marijuana use or alcohol use. There were no significant effects of alcohol consumption on impulsivity or interpersonal hostility. CONCLUSIONS Marijuana use is associated with changes in impulse control and hostility in daily life. This may be one route by which deleterious effects of marijuana are observed for mental health and psychosocial functioning. Given the increasing prevalence of recreational marijuana use and the potential legalization in some states, further research on the potential consequences of marijuana use in young adults’ day-to-day life is warranted. PMID:25595054

  19. Alliance between tobacco and alcohol industries to shape public policy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Aims The tobacco and alcohol industries share common policy goals when facing regulation, opposing policies such as tax increases and advertising restrictions. The collaboration between these two industries in the tobacco policy arena is unknown. This study explored if tobacco and alcohol companies built alliances to influence tobacco legislation, and if so, how those alliances worked. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Findings In the early 1980s, tobacco companies started efforts to build coalitions with alcohol and other industries to oppose cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air policies, and tobacco advertising and promotion constraints. Alcohol companies were often identified as a key partner and source of financial support for the coalitions. These coalitions had variable success interfering with tobacco control policymaking. Conclusions The combined resources of tobacco and alcohol companies may have affected tobacco control legislation. These alliances helped to create the perception that there is a broader base of opposition to tobacco control. Advocates should be aware of the covert alliances between tobacco, alcohol, and other industries and expose them to correct this misperception. PMID:23587076

  20. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection.

  1. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection. PMID:27556668

  2. Expert-recommended warnings for medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings, the first ever from marijuana experts, come from 13 experts. The expert-recommended warnings pertain to risks relating to (1) safety, (2) physical health, (3) fetal harm, (4) mental health, (5) withdrawal and dependence, and (6) adolescent development. The results provide initial expert recommendations for warnings to be required on packages of medical marijuana.

  3. Dressing in costume and the use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs by college students.

    PubMed

    Miller, K A; Jasper, C R; Hill, D R

    1993-01-01

    This study compared the behavior of college students who wore costumes on Halloween with those who did not. It was designed to examine the degree to which college students disguised their identity at Halloween, whether they masqueraded with a group, and whether these factors were related to alcohol and other drug use behaviors. The sample included 805 females and 448 males from two colleges. They were surveyed over a five-year period. The findings revealed significant associations between dressing in costume and drinking alcohol, and between masquerading with a group and using marijuana and other drugs. No significant associations were found between disguise of identity and the use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs. PMID:8456608

  4. Dressing in costume and the use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs by college students.

    PubMed

    Miller, K A; Jasper, C R; Hill, D R

    1993-01-01

    This study compared the behavior of college students who wore costumes on Halloween with those who did not. It was designed to examine the degree to which college students disguised their identity at Halloween, whether they masqueraded with a group, and whether these factors were related to alcohol and other drug use behaviors. The sample included 805 females and 448 males from two colleges. They were surveyed over a five-year period. The findings revealed significant associations between dressing in costume and drinking alcohol, and between masquerading with a group and using marijuana and other drugs. No significant associations were found between disguise of identity and the use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs.

  5. Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... teens said they frequently used alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, the study found. Teens with clinically significant symptoms of mental health problems were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco and marijuana than those without ... use among adolescents in different settings are crucial," said senior study ...

  6. Group motivational interviewing for adolescents: Change talk and alcohol and marijuana outcomes

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Houck, Jon M.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about what may distinguish effective and ineffective group interventions. Group motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising intervention for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use; however, the mechanisms of change for group MI are unknown. One potential mechanism is change talk, which is client speech arguing for change. The present study describes the group process in adolescent group MI and effects of group-level change talk on individual alcohol and marijuana outcomes. Method We analyzed 129 group session audio recordings from a randomized clinical trial of adolescent group MI. Sequential coding was performed using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC) and the CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions (CACTI) software application. Outcomes included past-month intentions, frequency, and consequences of alcohol and marijuana use, motivation to change, and positive expectancies. Results Sequential analysis indicated that facilitator open-ended questions and reflections of change talk (CT) increased group CT. Group CT was then followed by more CT. Multilevel models accounting for rolling group enrollment revealed group CT was associated with decreased alcohol intentions, alcohol use and heavy drinking three months later; group sustain talk was associated with decreased motivation to change, increased intentions to use marijuana, and increased positive alcohol and marijuana expectancies. Conclusions Facilitator speech and peer responses each had effects on change and sustain talk in the group setting, which was then associated with individual changes. Selective reflection of CT in adolescent group MI is suggested as a strategy to manage group dynamics and increase behavioral change. PMID:25365779

  7. Neighborhood income and income distribution and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David

    2007-06-01

    Evidence about the relationship between contextual variables and substance use is conflicting. Relationships between neighborhood income and income distribution and the prevalence and frequency of substance use in 59 New York City (NYC) neighborhoods were assessed while accounting for individual income and other socio-demographic variables. Measures of current substance use (in the 30 days prior to the survey) were obtained from a random-digit-dial phone survey of adult residents of NYC and data from the 2000 U.S. Census to calculate median neighborhood income and income distribution (assessed using the Gini coefficient). Among 1355 respondents analyzed (female=56.2%, mean age=40.4), 23.9% reported cigarette, 40.0% alcohol, and 5.4% marijuana use in the previous 30 days. In ecologic assessment, neighborhoods with both the highest income and the highest income maldistribution had the highest prevalence of drinking alcohol (69.0%) and of smoking marijuana (10.5%) but not of cigarette use; there was no clear ecologic association between neighborhood income, income distribution, and cigarette use. In multilevel multivariable models adjusting for individual income, age, race, sex, and education, high neighborhood median income and maldistributed neighborhood income were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use but not of cigarette use. Both high neighborhood income and maldistributed income also were associated with greater frequency of alcohol use among current alcohol drinkers. These observations suggest that neighborhood income and income distribution may play more important roles in determining population use of alcohol and marijuana than individual income, and that determinants of substance use may vary by potential for drug dependence. Further research should investigate specific pathways that may explain the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and use of different substances.

  8. Primary healthcare provider knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding alternative tobacco products and marijuana: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S; Scott, Kimberly N; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J

    2016-06-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This qualitative study explored knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding traditional and alternative tobacco products (cigar-like products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes) and marijuana among rural and urban Georgia primary healthcare providers. The sample comprised 20 healthcare providers in primary care settings located in the Atlanta Metropolitan area and rural southern Georgia who participated in semi-structured interviews. Results indicated a lack of knowledge about these products, with some believing that some products were less harmful than traditional cigarettes or that they may be effective in promoting cessation or harm reduction. Few reported explicitly assessing use of these various products in clinic. In addition, healthcare providers reported a need for empirical evidence to inform their clinical practice. Healthcare providers must systematically assess use of the range of tobacco products and marijuana. Evidence-based recommendations or information sources are needed to inform clinical practice and help providers navigate conversations with patients using or inquiring about these products.

  9. Stress system changes associated with marijuana dependence may increase craving for alcohol and cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen C.; Tuit, Keri L.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, little research exists defining bio-behavioral adaptations associated with both marijuana abuse and risk of craving and relapse to other drugs of abuse during early abstinence. Method Fifty-nine treatment-seeking individuals dependent on alcohol and cocaine were recruited. Thirty of these individuals were also marijuana (MJ) dependent; 29 were not. Twenty-six socially drinking healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were exposed to three 5-min guided imagery conditions (stress, alcohol/cocaine cue and relaxing), presented randomly, one per day across three consecutive days. Measures of craving, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol were collected at baseline and subsequent recovery time points. Results The MJ-dependent group showed increased basal anxiety ratings and cardiovascular output alongside enhanced alcohol craving and cocaine craving, and dampened cardiovascular response to stress and cue. They also demonstrated elevated cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, which were not observed in the non-MJ-dependent group or controls. Cue-related alcohol craving and anxiety were both predictive of a shorter number of days to marijuana relapse following discharge from inpatient treatment. Conclusions Findings provide some support for drug cross-sensitization in terms of motivational processes associated with stress-related and cue-related craving and relapse. PMID:23280514

  10. Media Sharp: Analyzing Tobacco and Alcohol Messages. Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This curriculum guide for educators, youth group leaders, and health professionals provides materials for teaching young people to critically evaluate the media which influences them, with particular reference to alcohol and tobacco use. Part 1, "Youth, Media, Tobacco, Alcohol," presents background facts and concepts. The relationship of youth and…

  11. HOW CAN WE USE OUR KNOWLEDGE OF ALCOHOL-TOBACCO INTERACTIONS TO REDUCE ALCOHOL USE?

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Weinberger, Andrea H.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, 8.5% of the US population meets criteria for alcohol use disorders, with a total cost to the US economy estimated at $234 billion per year. Alcohol and tobacco use share a high degree of co-morbidity and interact across many levels of analysis. This review begins by highlighting alcohol and tobacco co-morbidity and presenting evidence that tobacco increases the risk for alcohol misuse and likely has a causal role in this relationship. We then discuss how knowledge of alcohol and tobacco interactions can be used to reduce alcohol use focusing on whether; 1) smoking status can be used as a clinical indicator for alcohol misuse; 2) tobacco policies reduce alcohol use; and 3) nAChR medications can be used to treat alcohol use disorders. PMID:23157448

  12. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  13. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  14. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide: Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This guide was designed to aid prevention specialists, educators, parents, and others in addressing tobacco problems among youth. Listed here are numerous publications--each one summarized--on tobacco use. The guide is divided into two sections: (1) Prevention Material for Tobacco; and (2) Studies, Articles, and Reports on Tobacco. Section one…

  15. The dynamics of alcohol and marijuana initiation: patterns and predictors of first use in adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Kosterman, R; Hawkins, J D; Guo, J; Catalano, R F; Abbott, R D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study, guided by the social development model, examined the dynamic patterns and predictors of alcohol and marijuana use onset. METHODS: Survival analysis and complementary log-log regression were used to model hazard rates and etiology of initiation with time-varying covariates. The sample was derived from a longitudinal study of 808 youth interviewed annually from 10 to 16 years of age and at 18 years of age. RESULTS: Alcohol initiation rose steeply up to the age of 13 years and then increased more gradually; most participants had initiated by 13 years of age. Marijuana initiation showed a different pattern, with more participants initiating after the age of 13 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that: (1) the risk of initiation spans the entire course of adolescent development; (2) young people exposed to others who use substances are at higher risk for early initiation; (3) proactive parents can help delay initiation; and (4) clear family standards and proactive family management are important in delaying alcohol and marijuana use, regardless of how closely bonded a child is to his or her mother. PMID:10705852

  16. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and marijuana: effects on motor development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Chandler, L S; Richardson, G A; Gallagher, J D; Day, N L

    1996-05-01

    Gross motor development of preschool children prenatally exposed to alcohol and marijuana was assessed as part of a longitudinal study. Most mothers in the study were light to moderate users and discontinued or decreased use of alcohol and marijuana after the first trimester of pregnancy. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, half of the sample was African-American, and most were single. Gross motor development was evaluated with balance and ball-handling items at 3 years. Balance items included walking on a line, walking on a balance beam, standing on one foot, standing on tiptoes, and stair climbing and descent. Ball-handling items included catching, throwing, and kicking a ball. Refusal to perform items was also recorded. Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure did not negatively affect gross motor development. The composite score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, age at assessment, gender, and examiner were significant predictors of gross motor performance and of refusal to participate in the balance items. The ponderal index, number of siblings, current income, examiner, current maternal use of tranquilizers, and first trimester exposure to amphetamines were also significant predictors of balance skills. Gender and number of hospitalizations predicted refusal to participate in balance items, whereas hearing and vision problems predicted refusal on ball-handling items. The components of timing, speed, and fine motor control have not been addressed in this study, and therefore it is premature to conclude that there is no impact of prenatal substance use on motor development.

  17. Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure: effects on neuropsychological outcomes at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gale A; Ryan, Christopher; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L; Goldschmidt, Lidush

    2002-01-01

    This report from a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure investigates whether these drugs affect neuropsychological development at 10 years of age. Women were recruited from a medical assistance prenatal clinic and interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 16 years. Half of the women were African American, and half were Caucasian. The women were generally from lower socioeconomic status families and had obtained high school degrees. At the 10-year follow-up, 593 children completed a neuropsychological battery, which focused on problem solving, learning and memory, mental flexibility, psychomotor speed, attention, and impulsivity. Prenatal alcohol use was found to have a significant negative impact on learning and memory skills, as measured by the WRAML. Prenatal marijuana exposure also had an effect on learning and memory, as well as on impulsivity, as measured by a continuous performance task. The effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure persisted when other predictors of learning and memory were controlled. We continue to follow these offspring into the adolescent years when further neuropsychological deficits may become evident.

  18. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  19. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  20. Alcohol and marijuana use while driving--an unexpected crash risk in Pakistani commercial drivers: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant proportion of road traffic crashes are attributable to alcohol and marijuana use while driving globally. Sale and use of both substances is illegal in Pakistan and is not considered a threat for road traffic injuries. However literature hints that this may not be the case. We did this study to assess usage of alcohol and marijuana in Pakistani commercial drivers. Methods A sample of 857 commercial bus and truck drivers was interviewed in October 2008 at the largest commercial vehicle station in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Time location cluster sampling was used to select the subjects and a structured questionnaire was used to assess the basic demographic profile, substance abuse habits of the drivers while on the road, and reasons for usage of illicit substances while driving were recorded. Self reported information was collected after obtaining informed consent. Chi square and fisher exact tests were used to assess differences between groups and logistic regression was used to identify significant associations between driver characteristics and alcohol and marijuana use. Results Almost 10% of truck drivers use alcohol while driving on Pakistani roads. Marijuana use is almost 30% in some groups. Statistically different patterns of usage are seen between population subgroups based on age, ethnicity, education, and marital status. Regression analysis shows association of alcohol and marijuana use with road rage and error behaviours, and also with an increased risk of being involved in road crashes. The reported reasons for using alcohol or marijuana show a general lack of awareness of the hazardous nature of this practice among the commercial driver population. Conclusion Alcohol and marijuana use is highly prevalent in Pakistani commercial drivers. The issue needs to be recognized by concerned authorities and methods such as random breath tests and sobriety check points need to be employed for proper law enforcement. PMID:22369479

  1. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  2. Alcohol and Marijuana Use and Treatment Nonadherence Among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Huang, Quian; Levy, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adolescents face peak risks for onset and intensification of alcohol and marijuana use. However, we know little about these behaviors and their associations with knowledge or treatment adherence among chronically ill youth, a medically vulnerable group. METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of consented youth ages 9 to 18 years receiving care for asthma/cystic fibrosis, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using a self-administered online tool. Prevalence and correlates of risk behaviors and associations with knowledge and treatment adherence were estimated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, controlling for demographics, mental health, and the multiclinic sampling frame. RESULTS: Of 403 consented youth (75.8% response), 51.6% were girls, 75.1% were white, and average age was 15.6 years. Of high school youth, 36.5% and 12.7% reported past-year alcohol use and binge drinking, respectively; 20% reported past-year marijuana use. Among high school youth, 53.1% and 37.2% answered correctly that alcohol can interfere with their medications and laboratory tests; youth answering incorrectly were 8.53 and 4.46 times more likely to drink and binge drink, respectively (P values < .001). Thirty-two percent and 8.3% of high school youth reported regularly forgetting or skipping their medications in the past 30 days; compared with past-year nondrinking youth, drinkers were 1.79 and 1.61 times as likely to report regularly missing or skipping medications (P values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and marijuana use are common among youth with chronic medical conditions. Alcohol use is associated with treatment nonadherence. Education and preventive interventions are warranted to ameliorate risk. PMID:26668849

  3. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  4. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  5. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  6. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  7. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  8. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  9. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  10. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  11. Saying No to Marijuana: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher's guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  12. Patterns of alcohol and tobacco use in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Banta, Jim E; Addison, Askari; Job, Jayakaran S; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    Few studies have considered whether the habitual use of tobacco in Southeast Asia is part of an established pattern of addiction that includes regular alcohol use. As part of a national survey of adult tobacco use in Cambodia (n = 13 988), we found that men who smoked were 2 times more likely to have drank alcohol in the past week (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 2.10-3.03). By age 18 to 25 years, 47% of male smokers drank alcohol, and this pattern of alcohol and tobacco use increased to >55% through the fifth decade. Women using smokeless tobacco with betel quid were more likely to be alcohol drinkers (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.98). Past week's drinking declined by late middle age and was associated with lower education and being currently married; the behavior was lower in some ethnic groups (ie, Cham). Our findings indicate an important association between alcohol and tobacco use, and raise the possibility that reducing alcohol consumption can be an important component of tobacco control.

  13. Perspective view of door to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of door to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the bureau occupies the southern third of the building - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Are homeschooled adolescents less likely to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Maynard, Brandy R.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly two million school-aged children in US are currently homeschooled. This study seeks to examine homeschooled adolescents’ attitudes toward, access to, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) compared to their non-homeschooled peers. Methods The study uses data between 2002 and 2013 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for school-attending respondents aged 12–17 (n = 200,824). Participants were questioned regarding peer use of licit and illicit substances, ease of accessing illicit substances, and past 12-month substance use. Survey adjusted binary logistic regression analyses were systematically executed to compare non-homeschooled adolescents with homeschooled adolescents with respect to views toward, access to, and use of substances. Results Findings indicate that homeschooled adolescents were significantly more likely to strongly disapprove of their peers drinking (AOR = 1.23) and trying (AOR = 1.47) and routinely using (AOR = 1.59) marijuana. Homeschooled adolescents were significantly less likely to report using tobacco (AOR = 0.76), alcohol (AOR = 0.50), cannabis (AOR = 0.56) and other illicit drugs and to be diagnosed with an alcohol (AOR = 0.65) or marijuana (AOR = 0.60) use disorder. Finally, homeschooled adolescents were also less likely to report easier access to illicit drugs and to be approached by someone trying to sell drugs compared to non-homeschooled peers. Conclusions Homeschooled adolescents’ views, access, use and abuse of ATOD are uniquely different from those of non-homeschooled adolescents. Findings point to the need to more extensively examine the underlying mechanisms that may account for these differences. PMID:26338482

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Intervention for Alcohol and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Yurasek, Ali M.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A recent study demonstrated that a single 50-minute supplemental session that targeted the behavioral economic mechanisms of substance-free reinforcement and delayed reward discounting (Substance Free Activity Session: SFAS) enhanced the efficacy of a standard alcohol brief motivational intervention (BMI) for college drinkers. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial intended to replicate and extend the aforementioned study by focusing on both drug and alcohol misuse and reducing session length in order to enhance dissemination potential. Method Participants were 97 college students (58.8% women; 59.8% white/Caucasian & 30.9% African American; M age = 20.01, SD = 2.23) who reported at least one heavy drinking episode in the past month (M = 4.01 episodes). Most participants (62%) reported recent marijuana use (M = 12.22 days of past-month use). After completing a baseline assessment and an individual 30-minute alcohol-focused BMI, participants were randomized to either the 30-minute SFAS session or an education control session. Results A series of mixed model intent-to-treat analyses revealed that both groups reported drinking reductions and that participants in the BMI+SFAS group reported fewer days using marijuana at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions These results do not support the incremental efficacy of the briefer SFAS for reducing drinking but suggest that it may improve marijuana outcomes. Future research is needed to identify the ideal length and timing of the SFAS supplement to BMIs. PMID:26191947

  16. Multigenerational and transgenerational inheritance of drug exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Nicole L; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Blendy, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation.

  17. Policies and Practices Regarding Alcohol and Illicit Drugs among American Secondary Schools and Their Association with Student Alcohol and Marijuana Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines school policies relating to alcohol and illicit drug use, and their associations with the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana use among students. Both "punitive" and "supportive" policies are examined. Other studies examining punitive disciplinary measures--such as close monitoring of student behavior, having various security…

  18. Seventh-grade cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use: distribution in a north central U.S. metropolitan population.

    PubMed

    Murray, D M; Perry, C L; O'Connell, C; Schmid, L

    1987-04-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were examined in a seventh-grade population from a north central U.S. metropolitan community. Participation exceeded 94% and biological testing was used to increase the disclosure of drug use during the survey. Drug use was related to age, gender, race, family structure, and parental occupation in a series of logit analyses to identify high-risk groups. While univariate analyses uniformly supported earlier studies, the logit analyses revealed patterns not previously reported and at times contrary to previous reports. Significant associations were observed between drug use and each of the demographic factors; the likelihood of drug use increased by as much as 80-fold in subgroups defined by interactions among these variables. Native Americans, Hispanics, Black females, and adolescents whose mothers held white-collar jobs were substantially more likely to report drug use compared to other groups; females were generally similar to males in their level of use after adjustment for other factors. These results suggest that multivariate analyses which consider higher-order interactions may more adequately model the distribution of drug use in adolescent populations, compared to those based on univariate or first-order multivariate techniques.

  19. Enhanced alveolar monocytic phagocyte (macrophage) proliferation in tobacco and marijuana smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Barbers, R.G.; Evans, M.J.; Gong, H. Jr.; Tashkin, D.P. )

    1991-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that enhanced cell division accounted for the augmented numbers of monocytic phagocytes with characteristics attributed to alveolar macrophages (AM) found in the lungs of habitual tobacco (T) and marijuana (M) smokers. The monocytic phagocytes, that is, alveolar macrophages, were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 12 nonsmoking subjects; 10 subjects who smoked T only (TS); 13 subjects who smoked M only (MS); and 6 smokers of both T and M (MTS). The replication of these cells was determined by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into the DNA of dividing cells and visually counting 2,000 cells on autoradiographically prepared cytocentrifuge cell preparations. This study demonstrated that the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled monocytic phagocytes with characteristics of alveolar macrophages from either TS or MS have a higher proliferative index compared to cells (macrophages) from nonsmokers, p less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. The total number of BAL macrophages that are in mitosis in TS (17.90 +/- 4.50 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) or MTS (10.50 +/- 4.20 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are 18- and 10-fold greater, respectively, than the number obtained from nonsmokers (1.01 +/- 0.18 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml). Interestingly, the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled macrophages from MS (2.90 +/- 0.66 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are also greater than the number obtained from nonsmokers, although this is not statistically significant. The stimulus augmenting alveolar macrophage replication is as yet unknown but may likely be found in the T or M smoke.

  20. Adverse psychosocial outcomes associated with drug use among US high school seniors: a comparison of alcohol and marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Fenstermaker, Michael; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Ompad, Danielle C.; Cleland, Charles M.; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is debate about whether marijuana (cannabis) use is more dangerous than alcohol use. Although difficult to make objective comparisons, research is needed to compare relative dangers in order to help inform preventive efforts and policy. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (2007–2011; Weighted n = 7437; modal age: 18) who reported lifetime use of alcohol or marijuana. Students were asked to indicate whether they experienced various adverse psychosocial outcomes resulting from use of each substance. We examined which outcomes were more prevalent for each substance. Results Compared to alcohol use, marijuana use was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with teachers or supervisors, result in less energy or interest, and result in lower school or job performance. Compared to marijuana use, alcohol was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with friends and significant others; it was also reported to lead to more regret (particularly among females), and driving unsafely. Marijuana users were more likely to report no adverse outcomes. Females and white students were more likely to report various adverse outcomes and higher frequency use of each substance also increased occurrences of reported adverse outcomes. Conclusions Marijuana and alcohol are associated with unique adverse psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes differ by sex and race/ethnicity, and perception or experience of outcomes may also be related to legal status and associated stigma. Public health interventions may be more effective by focusing on harm reduction strategies for these drug-specific outcomes. PMID:25169838

  1. Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Ahern, Jennifer; Boscarino, Joseph A; Bucuvalas, Michael; Gold, Joel; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2002-06-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in the United States since the Civil War. Studies after earlier disasters have reported rates of psychological disorders in the acute postdisaster period. However, data on postdisaster increases in substance use are sparse. A random digit dial telephone survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of increased cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among residents of Manhattan, New York City, 5-8 weeks after the attacks. Among 988 persons included, 28.8% reported an increase in use of any of these three substances, 9.7% reported an increase in smoking, 24.6% reported an increase in alcohol consumption, and 3.2% reported an increase in marijuana use. Persons who increased smoking of cigarettes and marijuana were more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder than were those who did not (24.2% vs. 5.6% posttraumatic stress disorder for cigarettes; 36.0% vs. 6.6% for marijuana). Depression was more common among those who increased than for those who did not increase cigarette smoking (22.1 vs. 8.2%), alcohol consumption (15.5 vs. 8.3%), and marijuana smoking (22.3 vs. 9.4%). The results of this study suggest a substantial increase in substance use in the acute postdisaster period after the September 11th attacks. Increase in use of different substances may be associated with the presence of different comorbid psychiatric conditions.

  2. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  3. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  4. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  5. Associations among Sexual Attraction Status, School Belonging, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Rural High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Owens, Gina P.; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of data collected from 1725 9th graders from 25 rural high schools revealed that students reporting same-sex attraction or uncertainty about their attraction status also reported significantly lower GPAs, lower school belonging, and higher marijuana and alcohol use. Regression analyses confirmed that beyond the effects of GPA and…

  6. Neuropsychological Performance in Adolescent Marijuana Users with Co-Occurring Alcohol Use: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Infante, M. Alejandra; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Meruelo, Alejandro D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of adolescent marijuana use on brain development remains unclear despite relaxing legal restrictions, decreased perceived harm, and increasing use rates among youth. The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to evaluate the long-term neurocognitive effects of adolescent marijuana use. Method Adolescent marijuana users with concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=49) and control teens with limited substance use histories (CON, n=59) were given neuropsychological and substance use assessments at project baseline, when they were ages 16-19. They were then re-assessed 18 and 36 months later. Changes in neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for lifetime alcohol use, and examined the effects of group, time, and group by time interactions on cognitive functioning. Results MJ+ALC users performed significantly worse than controls, across time points, in the domains of complex attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial functioning (ps<.05). Earlier age of marijuana use onset was associated with poorer processing speed and executive functioning by the 3-year follow-up (ps≤.02). Conclusions Frequent marijuana use throughout adolescence and into young adulthood appeared linked to worsened cognitive performance. Earlier age of onset appears to be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes that emerge by young adulthood, providing further support for the notion that the brain may be uniquely sensitive to frequent marijuana exposure during the adolescent phase of neurodevelopment. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will determine the extent of neural recovery that may occur if use abates. PMID:25938918

  7. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses. PMID:23390804

  8. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  9. Frequency and Risk of Marijuana Use among Substance-Using Health Care Patients in Colorado with and without Access to State Legalized Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melissa K; Pampel, Fred C; Rivera, Laura S; Broderick, Kerryann B; Reimann, Brie; Fischer, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    With increasing use of state legalized medical marijuana across the country, health care providers need accurate information on patterns of marijuana and other substance use for patients with access to medical marijuana. This study compared frequency and severity of marijuana use, and use of other substances, for patients with and without state legal access to medical marijuana. Data were collected from 2,030 patients who screened positive for marijuana use when seeking health care services in a large, urban safety-net medical center. Patients were screened as part of a federally funded screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) initiative. Patients were asked at screening whether they had a state-issued medical marijuana card and about risky use of tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit substances. A total of 17.4% of marijuana users had a medical marijuana card. Patients with cards had higher frequency of marijuana use and were more likely to screen at moderate than low or high risk from marijuana use. Patients with cards also had lower use of other substances than patients without cards. Findings can inform health care providers of both the specific risks of frequent, long-term use and the more limited risks of other substance use faced by legal medical marijuana users. PMID:25715066

  10. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  11. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  12. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  13. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  14. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  15. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  16. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  17. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  18. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  19. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  20. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…

  1. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma-ray emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, John A.; Lindquist, Roy P.

    1994-10-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, CA, border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992, to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  2. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma ray emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.; Lindquist, R.P.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, Ca. border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992 to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  3. Multigenerational and Transgenerational Inheritance of Drug Exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Yohn, Nicole L.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Blendy, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation. PMID:25839742

  4. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K. Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P.; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world’s third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. Objectives To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18 years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Results Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p < 0.05). Urinary thiocyanate (p < 0.001) and urinary concentrations of many VOC metabolites, including metabolites of acrylonitrile (p < 0.001) and acrylamide (p < 0.001), were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers. Conclusions We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. PMID:26690539

  5. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  6. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  7. Alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among fourth-grade urban schoolchildren in 1988/89 and 1990/91.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, P J; Iannotti, R J

    1993-01-01

    A public-school-based epidemiological survey of fourth-grade students in Washington, DC, was performed in 1988/89 (n = 4675) and 1990/91 (n = 4678). Comparisons of data for the two periods revealed that the lifetime prevalence of self-reported alcohol use, alcohol use without parental knowledge, and smoking more than a puff of cigarettes declined; marijuana use and cigarette experimentation did not. Seven variables were associated with use. Declines were observed in perceived peer pressure to use; seeing a family member/friend selling drugs; and being offered alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana by peers. No declines were observed in family use, perceived friends' use, being bothered a lot if best friends use, or seeing someone else selling drugs. PMID:8417594

  8. Tobacco: The Real Story. It's Your Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on tobacco is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  9. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs May Harm the Unborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Paddy Shannon; And Others

    This book combines in a single volume the findings of basic research and clinical studies conducted on the effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs on the fetus, the mother, and the baby after birth and through lactation. It first outlines changing perspectives on teratology (the study of causes for birth defects), as knowledge about the…

  10. Positivity Coping Style and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…

  11. Interventions by Students in Friends' Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; Stoduto, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Investigated students' (N=1,184) self-reported interventions in the alcohol-, tobacco-, illicit-drug use, and drinking-driving of their friends. Results indicate that almost one-third of students intervened in friends' illegal drug use and drinking-driving, whereas about one-half intervened with smoking. Intervenors were usually older and worked…

  12. Marihuana, Alcohol and Tobacco: Reassessment of a Presumed Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas; Williams, Franklin P., III

    1981-01-01

    Concludes little relationship exists between the three substances marihuana, alcohol and tobacco. Youthful subjects tend to overestimate the relationships between the three substances and cannot be generalized to other populations. Suggests an explanation of this youthful association focuses on simultaneous experimentation rather than causal…

  13. Peer Influence: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Alberto; Pritchard, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk-taking behavior (eg, alcohol abuse, tobacco usage, misuse of prescription medications) among college students is a widespread problem. This study focused not only on the frequency of risky health behaviors in college students, but also the companions with whom they engaged in such behaviors. Methods: Three hundred and twelve…

  14. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  15. Marijuana use and pregnancy: prevalence, associated characteristics, and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure.

  16. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  17. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Jo; Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11-17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70-3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030

  18. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People

    PubMed Central

    Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11–17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75–4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70–3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030

  19. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Jo; Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11-17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70-3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol.

  20. Consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among New York City residents six months after the September 11 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Resnick, Heidi; Boscarino, Joseph A; Gold, Joel; Bucuvalas, Michael; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2004-05-01

    Early analyses following the September 11 terrorist attacks on New York City showed an increase in cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, but it was unknown whether these increases would persist. A random-digit dial phone survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of increased substance use among residents of New York City six to nine months after the attacks. Among 1570 adults, 9.9% reported an increase in smoking, 17.5% an increase in alcohol use, and 2.7% an increase in marijuana use compared to the month before September 11. These increases were comparable to increases reported in the first one to two months after September 11. Persons who increased use of cigarettes were more likely than those who did not to report symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the past month (4.3% and 1.2% respectively). Depression was more common among those who increased use of cigarettes (14.6% and 5.2% respectively), alcohol (11.8% vs. 5.2%), and marijuana (34.1% vs. 5.3%). Among residents living in Manhattan below One Hundred Tenth Street, the prevalence of PTSD and depression declined by more than half in the first six months after September 11, while the increase in substance use did not decline substantially. These results suggest that the increase in substance use after a disaster may be a cause for public health concern in the long-term.

  1. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  2. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  3. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  4. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  5. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  6. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Brumback, T; Castro, N; Jacobus, J; Tapert, S

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed. Based on the current data, we provide aims for future studies to more clearly delineate the effects of marijuana on the developing brain and to define underlying mechanisms of the potential long-term negative consequences of marijuana use. PMID:27503447

  7. Tobacco and alcohol use among urban Malaysians in 1980.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W

    1985-01-01

    Data from 100 Chinese, 50 Malay, and 50 Indian adults resident in 1980 in the greater urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, indicate a heavy use of cigarettes among males of all ethnic groups, light use among female Chinese, and none among female Malay and Indian. Consumption of other tobacco products was important only among Indian males; chewing betal quid among Indian males and also among Malay and Indian females. Alcohol use is increasing among both sexes and all ethnic groups, but Chinese and Indian groups use alcoholic drinks more frequently and in larger quantity than Malay. Beer and liquor are the most common drinks.

  8. Are There Secondary Effects on Marijuana Use From Brief Alcohol Interventions for College Students?

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Jiao, Yang; Ray, Anne E.; Huh, David; Atkins, David C.; Larimer, Mary E.; Fromme, Kim; Corbin, William R.; Baer, John S.; Labrie, Joseph W.; Mun, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether brief motivational interventions (BMIs) designed for reducing heavy drinking among college students have secondary effects on reducing marijuana use. Method: The data came from Project INTEGRATE, which combined data from 24 independent trials of BMIs and other individual-focused interventions designed to reduce heavy drinking and related problems among college students. We analyzed data from 10 samples across nine studies that used random assignment of participants into either a BMI or a control group and assessed marijuana use outcomes (N = 6,768; 41.5% men; 73.2% White; 57.7% first-year students; 19.2% current marijuana users at baseline). We derived three marijuana use groups within studies by cross-tabulating baseline and follow-up data: Nonusers, Reducers, and Stayers/Increasers. Results: Peto’s one-step odds ratio analyses for meta-analysis revealed no significant intervention effects on marijuana use at either short-term (1–3 month) or long-term (6–12 month) follow-up. Subsequent exploratory analyses showed that those who reduced drinking were more likely to be a marijuana Reducer or Nonuser, compared with a Stayer/Increaser, at both follow-ups. Conclusions: The BMIs to reduce heavy drinking evaluated in this study did not reduce marijuana use. However, our exploratory results suggest that if we can develop interventions for college students that effectively reduce drinking, we may also reduce their marijuana use. Furthermore, as recreational use of marijuana becomes legal or decriminalized and marijuana becomes more readily available, it may be necessary to develop interventions specifically targeting marijuana use among college students. PMID:25978822

  9. A longitudinal examination of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette perceived norms among middle school adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Ewing, Brett A.; Shih, Regina A.; Tucker, Joan S.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents tend to overestimate the prevalence of substance use among their peers and these perceived norms are associated with their current and future use. However, little is known about how perceived norms change over time during middle school, a developmental period when adolescents are at-risk for initiating substance use. Method We examined changes in perceived norms of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes over a two year period among a large and diverse sample of 6th and 7th grade youth (N = 6,097; 50.1% female; 54% Hispanic). Participants completed a baseline survey and two subsequent annual surveys. Participants estimated the percentage of their peers they believed used each substance, as well as indicated levels of personal use, offers to use from peers, and exposure to peers who were using each substance. Results Perceived norms of all three substances increased over time. Increases were somewhat attenuated when controlling for demographic factors, personal use, and peer factors, but remained significant. Female adolescents and those reporting non-Hispanic White ethnicity experienced the greatest increase in perceived norms over time. Conclusion Normative perceptions of substance use increase greatly during the middle school years, an effect which cannot be fully explained by demographics, personal use, or peer factors. Given that perceived norms are often associated with personal use, early interventions with middle school youth are warranted to prevent the growth of these influential factors during this developmental period. PMID:24012070

  10. Early predictors of age at first use of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J P; Kellam, S G; Brown, C H

    1982-08-01

    This paper is a report of the relationships between various measures of social adaptation to the first grade classroom and the age at which alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were first used by teenagers who began elementary school in a poor black urban community on the South Side of Chicago. Prospective longitudinal community epidemiological data were collected periodically in first and third grades from consecutive total cohorts of children in the 1960s. The 1966-67 population (cohort 3) was followed up at age 16 or 17. This population of 705 children is reported on here regarding early predictors of their first use of these substances. There are three main findings: (1) boys tended to use all substances at an earlier age than girls; (2) students who performed better on first grade IQ and Readiness tests tended to initiate substance use at an earlier age; (3) girls (but not boys) who were rated by their first grade teachers as shy or having learning problems tended to initiate use at a later age. The relationships of these findings to our past investigations of paths leading to substance use are discussed. PMID:6982159

  11. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  12. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of THC compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. While previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

  13. The early use of alcohol and tobacco: its relation to children's competence and parents' behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C; Henriksen, L; Dickinson, D; Levine, D W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Use of tobacco and alcohol during childhood predicts heavy use of these substances and use of illicit drugs during adolescence. This study aims to identify developmental correlates of tobacco and alcohol use among elementary-school children. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were used to measure tobacco and alcohol use, multiple indicators of child competence, parenting behaviors, and parental modeling of tobacco and alcohol use in a sample of 1470 third- and fifth-grade children. Both self-report and teacher-rated assessments were obtained, which allowed collateral testing of study hypotheses. RESULTS: Children's tobacco and alcohol use was strongly related to low scores on several measures of child competence, both self-reported and teacher rated. Children's tobacco and alcohol use was also associated with less effective parenting behaviors and with parental use of tobacco and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Children's early experience with tobacco and alcohol is associated with weak competence development and exposure to socialization factors that promote risk taking. Interventions to prevent early use of tobacco and alcohol are needed. PMID:9096534

  14. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  15. Opium, tobacco and alcohol: the evolving legitimacy of international action.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin

    2009-08-01

    There is a broad consensus that international trade in goods is beneficial, providing of course that it is fair. Yet not all things that are traded are goods. Some can more appropriately be considered as 'bads'. The way things are viewed can change over time. Over a century ago the U.K. fought a war with China for the right to trade in narcotics yet now interdicts such shipments on the high seas. More recently, the international community has agreed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, showing that tobacco is moving from a good to a bad. However, there are other things that are legitimately traded where restrictions may be needed, such as alcohol. Global trade is simply a means to an end. The ultimate goal must include better health for all.

  16. Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of their co-use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco (TOB) and marijuana (MJ) are the most widely used drugs among adolescents and young adults. The literature on their co-use, however, has not been systematically reviewed. We identified 163 English language articles published from 1999-2009 examining TOB and MJ co-use, correlates or consequences of co-use, or interventions for prevention or cessation of couse with participants age 13-25 years. Most studies (n = 114, 70%) examined TOB and MJ couse, and 85% of relationships studied indicated a significant association. Fifty-nine studies (36%) examined correlates or consequences of co-use. Factors consistently associated with increased likelihood of co-use, defined as significant associations in at least four studies, were African-American ethnicity, mental and physical health characteristics (e.g., high-intensity pleasure temperament), and school characteristics (e.g., good grades). The only consistent consequence of co-use was exacerbation of mental health symptoms. Few studies examined prevention (n = 3) or cessation (n = 2) interventions for TOB and MJ co-use, and the findings were stronger for prevention efforts. A sufficient literature base has documented that TOB and MJ use are strongly related in young people, yet few consistent correlates and consequences of co-use have been identified to inform intervention targets. PMID:22245559

  17. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

  18. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  19. [Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis: Review of teratogenicity studies in animals].

    PubMed

    Spézia, F

    2006-10-01

    Despite an intensive national campaign of information, the drugs most frequently consumed by young adults undoubtedly continue to be alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. If the impact of these drugs on the health of the consumers can be evaluated in conjunction with the clinical and epidemiologic data, the consequences on the embryo due to their consumption by the pregnant women can be appreciated thanks to the abundant literature describing their effects in the gravid animal. Taking into account the abundant literature available in multiple animal species, the zero drug recommendation should be widely diffused to pregnant women.

  20. Initiation of use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances in US birth cohorts since 1919.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R A; Gerstein, D R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined recent trends in initiation of psychoactive drug use. METHODS: Data from the 1991 through 1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse were used to compare the percentages of US cohorts born from 1919 through 1975 who began using drugs before the ages of 15, 21, and 35. RESULTS: Initiation of cigarette smoking by males peaked in the 1941-1945 cohort, then declined steadily. For females, early smoking initiation rose through the 1951-1955 cohort and then stabilized. Initiation of alcohol use was less common than smoking for pre1950 cohorts but increased steadily, approaching cigarette use for cohorts born in the early 1970s. Only 2% of teenagers born in 1930-1940 tried marijuana; half the teenagers born in 1956-1965 did so. The percentage initiating marijuana use declined in the 1980s, more so among young adults than among teenagers. The use of cocaine and other illicit drugs echoed the rise of marijuana use but peaked later and showed less evidence of subsequent decline. Sex differences declined over time for every drug. CONCLUSIONS: Cohorts born since World War II have had much higher rates of illicit drug use initiation, but trends have varied by drug type, possibly reflecting changes in relative prices. PMID:9584029

  1. Functional Activation during the Stroop is Associated with Recent Alcohol but not Marijuana Use Among High-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Dodd, Andrew B.; Hansen, Natasha S.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Ling, Josef M.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite studies showing the relevance of different decision-making abilities, including response inhibition, to likelihood of using substances during adolescence, few have examined these neural processes among high-risk, substance-using youth. The current study explored associations between alcohol and marijuana use and functional activation differences during Stroop performance among a large sample (N = 80) of ethnically-diverse, high-risk youth in an fMRI-based task. In the absence of associations between substance use and task behavioral performance, adolescents with greater alcohol use showed less activation during the more cognitively difficult portion of the task across clusters in bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and right and left superior temporal gyrus. No associations were observed with marijuana use. The current results may suggest neural patterns of deactivation in regions important for cognitive control, such that alcohol use may confer additional risk for future decreased inhibition among these high-risk adolescents. The ability to inhibit prepotent responses has been shown to predict later response to treatment, and early interventions to encourage further development of cognitive control could represent promising options for treatment. PMID:26395403

  2. Is the Association between Neighborhood Drug Prevalence and Marijuana use Independent of Peer Drug and Alcohol Norms? Results from a Household Survey of Urban Youth.

    PubMed

    Leifheit, Kathryn M; Parekh, Jenita; Matson, Pamela A; Moulton, Lawrence H; Ellen, Jonathan M; Jennings, Jacky M

    2015-08-01

    To inform policy debates surrounding marijuana decriminalization and add to our understanding of social and structural influences on youth drug use, we sought to determine whether there was an independent association between neighborhood drug prevalence and individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a household survey of 563 youth aged 15-24 in Baltimore, Maryland. The study population was 88 % African-American. Using gender-stratified, weighted, multilevel logistic regression, we tested whether neighborhood drug prevalence was associated with individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. Bivariate analyses identified a significant association between high neighborhood drug prevalence and marijuana use among female youth (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.26, 2.47); the association was in a similar direction but not significant among male youth (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.87). In multivariable regression controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms, high neighborhood drug prevalence remained significantly associated among female youth (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.27). Among male youth, the association was attenuated toward the null (AOR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.63, 1.45). In the multivariable model, peer drug and alcohol norms were significantly associated with individual-level marijuana use among female youth (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and male youth (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.65, 4.07). This work suggests that individual-level marijuana use among female youth is associated with neighborhood drug prevalence independent of peer norms. This finding may have important implications as the policy landscape around marijuana use changes.

  3. The Relationship Between Editorial and Advertising Content about Tobacco and Alcohol in United States Newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Rouner, Donna; Slater, Michael; Long, Marilee; Stapel, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined the relationship between amount of alcohol and tobacco advertising and related news-editorial content. This study found less tobacco and alcohol advertising in newspapers than did previous research and no relationship between coverage and number of advertisements. PMID:21499450

  4. The Role of Parenting in Alcohol and Tobacco Use among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Joshua H.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Kelley, Norma J.; Hill, Linda; Sipan, Carol L.; Schmitz, Katherine E.; Kolody, Bohdan; Chambers, Christina D.; Friedman, Lawrence S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Parents can impact adolescent substance use, but it is unclear which substances are most affected. This study compared associations between parenting behaviors and alcohol and tobacco use to see if parenting was equally related to both behaviors. Alcohol and tobacco use data were collected from 252 Latino adolescents living along the San…

  5. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  6. Lessons from the Field: Profiling State Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This document is a step-by-step guide to profiling statewide alcohol, tobacco, and other drug problems and policies. Profiles of this sort capture the complexity of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse indicators at the local level, incorporating data from a range of disciplines and making it possible to design data-driven interventions. The…

  7. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. Methods With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. Findings The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Conclusions Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence. PMID:18257873

  8. Liver cirrhosis, tobacco, alcohol, and cancer among blacks.

    PubMed

    Keller, A Z

    1978-08-01

    Attributes of age, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption were studied in order to elucidate their roles in the increased risks of blacks for selected neoplasms. Black cancer patients with and without liver cirrhosis were compared by cancer sites, age, tobacco usage, and alcohol consumption. Subsequently, non-cirrhotic blacks and whites with cancer were characterized on the same variables.Black males with cancer and liver cirrhosis, when compared with similar males without liver cirrhosis, were significantly younger and had more than triple the frequencies of esophageal and hepatic cancers but less than one fourth the frequencies of gastric and prostatic cancers. Cirrhotic patients were rarely nondrinkers but drank whiskey excessively. Noncirrhotic blacks, when compared with noncirrhotic whites, had very high risks of liver, stomach, and prostate cancers and smoked less heavily but drank significantly more whiskey. Hence, factors associated with patterns of smoking cigarettes and drinking, especially whiskey, if not these habits themselves, are probably related to the increased risks of blacks for stomach and liver cancers when compared with non-cirrhotic whites and for esophageal and hepatic cancers when compared with non-cirrhotic blacks.

  9. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite. PMID:25697213

  10. Alcohol as a Gateway Drug: A Study of US 12th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Tristan; Barry, Adam E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Gateway Drug Theory suggests that licit drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, serve as a "gateway" toward the use of other, illicit drugs. However, there remains some discrepancy regarding which drug--alcohol, tobacco, or even marijuana--serves as the initial "gateway" drug subsequently leading to the use of…

  11. Getting higher: Co-occurring drug use among marijuana using emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Tzilos, Golfo K.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used illicit drug in the United States (US) continues to be marijuana, and its use among emerging adults continues to rise. Marijuana use can result in a range of negative consequences and has been associated with other drug use in adolescents and emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between marijuana use frequency and use of six other drug classes (opiates, cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and sleep medications) among emerging adults. The design was a cross-sectional interview with a community sample of 1,075 emerging adults in the northeastern US. Using logistic regression analysis controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, and frequency of binge alcohol, daily marijuana use was associated with a significant increase in the expected odds of opiate, cocaine, stimulant, hallucinogen, inhalant, and tobacco use. The findings identify a subgroup of emerging adult marijuana users – those who use daily –that may be vulnerable to additional negative consequences associated with polysubstance use. PMID:25115183

  12. Saying No to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  13. The association of media exposure and media literacy with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-ching; Miao, Nae-fang; Lee, Ching-mei; Chen, Ping-hung; Chiu, Chiung-hui; Lee, Shu-ching

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of media exposure and media literacy to alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 10th-grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan, completed a questionnaire in 2010. The multivariable analysis results indicated that the students with higher alcohol and tobacco media exposure were more likely to use alcohol and tobacco and have intentions to drink and smoke, while students with higher media literacy were less likely to use alcohol and have intentions to drink and smoke.

  14. Performance-based testing for drugs of abuse: dose and time profiles of marijuana, amphetamine, alcohol, and diazepam.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Emurian, C S; Fischman, M W

    1993-09-01

    The time courses of the effects of acute doses of amphetamine (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), alcohol (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg), diazepam (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), and marijuana (2.0% and 3.5% delta 9-THC) on performance engendered by each of four computerized behavioral tasks were evaluated in six human subjects. These performance-based tasks have potential commercial utility for drug-use detection in the workplace. Alcohol and marijuana effects were reliably detected for up to three hours following dose administration with most procedures. Amphetamine and diazepam effects were also detected, but the dose effects and time courses were variable. The profile of behavioral effects varied across drugs, suggesting that performance-based testing procedures might be useful in discriminating which drug was administered and the time course of the drug's effects. Results indicate that repeated measurement with performance-based drug detection procedures can provide immediate indications of performance impairment in a cost-effective and noninvasive manner and, as such, would be a useful supplement to biological sample testing for drug-use detection.

  15. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section and by 28 CFR 0.172 to the Chief Counsel of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  16. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.132 Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  17. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.132 Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  18. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section and by 28 CFR 0.172 to the Chief Counsel of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  19. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of this section and by 28 CFR 0.172 to the Chief Counsel of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  20. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: Linkages and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to increases in obesity in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco and alcohol taxes have proven to be effective tools to reduce tobacco and alcohol use. Many public health advocates propose using similar taxes to reduce consumption of SSBs. South Africa is a middle-income country that is considered a leader in the area of tobacco tax policy. A case study of tobacco and alcohol taxes is used to better understand optimal tax structures for SSBs. The case study tracks aggregate data over time on taxes, prices, consumption, tax revenues, and marketing expenditures at the brand level. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are shown to be effective in reducing the demand for tobacco. Additionally, taxes on the dose of alcohol rather than the volume of the beverage may incentivize producers to reduce the volume of alcohol in beverages through the supply side. While specific taxes based on the volume of beverages are likely to reduce the demand for SSBs, policy makers should also consider taxes on alcohol and SSBs that tax the dose of the alcohol and calories in order to create supply-side incentives for producers to lower alcohol and calorie levels in existing products or promote products with lower levels of alcohol and calories.

  1. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: Linkages and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to increases in obesity in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco and alcohol taxes have proven to be effective tools to reduce tobacco and alcohol use. Many public health advocates propose using similar taxes to reduce consumption of SSBs. South Africa is a middle-income country that is considered a leader in the area of tobacco tax policy. A case study of tobacco and alcohol taxes is used to better understand optimal tax structures for SSBs. The case study tracks aggregate data over time on taxes, prices, consumption, tax revenues, and marketing expenditures at the brand level. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are shown to be effective in reducing the demand for tobacco. Additionally, taxes on the dose of alcohol rather than the volume of the beverage may incentivize producers to reduce the volume of alcohol in beverages through the supply side. While specific taxes based on the volume of beverages are likely to reduce the demand for SSBs, policy makers should also consider taxes on alcohol and SSBs that tax the dose of the alcohol and calories in order to create supply-side incentives for producers to lower alcohol and calorie levels in existing products or promote products with lower levels of alcohol and calories. PMID:26005761

  2. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  3. Intervention Effects on Health-Risking Sexual Behavior Among Girls in Foster Care: The Role of Placement Disruption and Tobacco and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia C.; Smith, Dana K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the Middle School Success intervention (MSS), a program to promote healthy adjustment in foster girls, on their health-risking sexual behavior, using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. As hypothesized, girls in the intervention condition (n = 48) showed significantly lower levels of health-risking sexual behavior than did girls in the control condition (n = 52) at 36 months postbaseline. Further path analysis indicated that this intervention effect was fully mediated through its effects on girls’ tobacco and marijuana use. Findings highlight the importance of providing preventive intervention services to foster girls during early adolescence. PMID:24043921

  4. Alcohol: The Real Story. It's Your Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on alcohol is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  5. Saying No to Tobacco: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher's guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  6. Which matters most? Demographic, neuropsychological, personality, and situational factors in long-term marijuana and alcohol trajectories for justice-involved male youth.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Filbey, Francesca M; Loughran, Thomas A; Chassin, Laurie; Piquero, Alex R

    2015-09-01

    Justice-involved youth have high rates of alcohol and marijuana use. However, little is known about what may drive these rates over time. Using a large-scale (N = 1,056; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic) longitudinal study with strong retention (M retention = 90% over Years 1-7), we utilized random-effects regression to determine the comparative contribution of four sets of factors in justice-involved males' patterns of marijuana and heavy alcohol use (number of times drunk) over 7 years of follow-up: demographic, personality, situational, and neuropsychological factors. Across both marijuana and heavy alcohol use models, three factors were particularly strong contributors to lower rates of substance use: (a) Hispanic ethnicity, (b) less exposure (street) time, and (c) better impulse control. Similarly, two factors were strong contributors to increased rates of marijuana and heavy alcohol use: (a) delinquent peers and (b) family member arrest. Together, these findings indicate the relative superiority of these independent variables over other categories (i.e., neuropsychological factors) in predicting high-risk youths' long-term (7-year) rates of substance use. These findings also suggest the importance of evaluating the connection of these areas for high-risk, adjudicated youth.

  7. Which matters most? Demographic, Neuropsychological, Personality, and Situational Factors in Long-Term Marijuana and Alcohol Trajectories for Justice-Involved Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Filbey, Francesca M.; Loughran, Thomas A.; Chassin, Laurie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    Justice-involved youth have high rates of alcohol and marijuana use. However, little is known about what may drive these rates over time. Using a large-scale (N=1,056; 41.4% African-American, 33.5% Hispanic) longitudinal study with strong retention (M retention = 90% over Years 1–7), we utilized random-effects regression to determine the comparative contribution of four sets of factors in justice-involved males’ patterns of marijuana and heavy alcohol use (number of times drunk) over the seven years of follow-up: demographic, personality, situational, and neuropsychological factors. Across both marijuana and heavy alcohol use models, three factors were particularly strong contributors to lower rates of substance use: (1) Hispanic ethnicity, (2) less exposure (street) time, and (3) better impulse control. Similarly, two factors were strong contributors to increased rates of marijuana and heavy alcohol use: (1) delinquent peers and (2) family member arrest. Together, these findings indicate the relative superiority of these independent variables over other categories (i.e., neuropsychological factors) in predicting high-risk youths’ long term (seven year) rates of substance use. These findings also suggest the importance of evaluating the connection of these areas for high-risk, adjudicated youth. PMID:26030166

  8. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  9. Substitution of Marijuana for Alcohol: The Role of Perceived Access and Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Randi J.; Lohrmann, David K.; Greene, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown significant declines in gateway drug use among participants in a school/community substance abuse prevention intervention in a midwestern, suburban school district (Lohrmann, Alter, Greene, & Younoszai, 2005). Though still at or below national levels, student marijuana use was not impacted as positively. The current study…

  10. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  11. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  12. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  13. Pulmonary effects of marijuana inhalation.

    PubMed

    Howden, Megan L; Naughton, Matthew T

    2011-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug around the world. It is most often consumed through smoking, placing the respiratory system in direct contact with the toxic constituents of the drug, which are similar to those of tobacco cigarettes. However, accurate study of the adverse effects of marijuana is difficult to perform, owing to marijuana's illegal status, variation in smoking technique, often short duration of use compared with tobacco and the frequently confounding factor of concomitant consumption of both marijuana and tobacco. Despite this, there is evidence to suggest that marijuana can impair lung function, damage large airway mucosa and possibly contribute to bullous disease, while its carcinogenic potential is controversial. PMID:21348589

  14. Content Analysis of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drugs in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Dalton, Madeline A.; Carroll, Mary V.; Agarwal, Aaron A.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To perform a comprehensive content analysis of substance use in contemporary popular music. Design We analyzed the 279 most popular songs of 2005 according to Billboard magazine. Two coders working independently used a standardized data collection instrument to code portrayals of substance use. Outcome Measures Presence and explicit use of substances and motivations for, associations with, and consequences of substance use. Results Of the 279 songs, 93 (33.3%) portrayed substance use, with an average of 35.2 substance references per song-hour. Portrayal of substance use varied significantly (P<.001) by genre, with 1 or more references in 3 of 35 pop songs (9%), 9 of 66 rock songs (14%), 11 of 55 R&B/hip-hop songs (20%), 22 of 61 country songs (36%), and 48 of 62 rap songs (77%). While only 2.9% of the 279 songs portrayed tobacco use, 23.7% depicted alcohol use, 13.6% depicted marijuana use, and 11.5% depicted other or unspecified substance use. In the 93 songs with substance use, it was most often motivated by peer/social pressure (45 [48%]) or sex (28 [30%]); use was commonly associated with partying (50 [54%]), sex (43 [46%]), violence (27 [29%]), and/or humor (22 [24%]). Only 4 songs (4%) contained explicit antiuse messages, and none portrayed substance refusal. Most songs with substance use (63 [68%]) portrayed more positive than negative consequences; these positive consequences were most commonly social, sexual, financial, or emotional. Conclusions The average adolescent is exposed to approximately 84 references to explicit substance use daily in popular songs, and this exposure varies widely by musical genre. The substance use depicted in popular music is frequently motivated by peer acceptance and sex, and it has highly positive associations and consequences. PMID:18250243

  15. Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

  16. Health and Educational Effects of Marijuana on Youth. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (October 21, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These proceedings of a hearing before the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Subcommittee include testimony about the health and educational effects of marijuana on young people. The materials describe recent findings on the extent of drug use among youth, recent changes in drug use trends, and the consequences of marijuana use on health and intellectual…

  17. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E; Krystal, John H

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups--that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking.

  18. Topical trends in tobacco and alcohol articles published in three dental journals, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Neff, James Alan; Gunsolley, John C; Alshatrat, Sabha Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a review of articles about tobacco or alcohol published from 1980 to 2010 in the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), Journal of Dental Education (JDE), and Journal of Public Health Dentistry (JPHD) in an attempt to identify trends by decade in topics relevant to oral health consequences, oral cancer linkages, and cessation counseling. NVivo qualitative analysis software was used to code abstracts using the keywords "tobacco" or "alcohol." The search identified 269 articles: tobacco=211 (78%), alcohol=58 (22%). This number represented 2.4% of the total articles published in these journals for the specified years. While the percentage of tobacco-related articles increased over this period (with highs in the 1990s of 4.1% in the JDE and 9% in the JPHD), the percentage of alcohol articles reached only 1% for JADA and 3.3% for the JPHD in the 2000s. The number of tobacco-related articles addressing oral health effects, oral cancer linkages, and cessation counseling increased in the 1990s. Although there were modest increases in the number of articles about alcohol-related oral health effects and oral cancer linkages (particularly in the JPHD in the 2000s), only two articles (in JADA in the 2000s) addressed alcohol cessation counseling. This study concluded that tobacco and alcohol have received limited, though increasing, attention in these three major journals between 1980 and 2010, with alcohol receiving less attention than tobacco. These results suggest a need for more published studies on tobacco and alcohol interventions in dental and allied dental education to prepare students to contribute to this aspect of their patients' health.

  19. Topical trends in tobacco and alcohol articles published in three dental journals, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Neff, James Alan; Gunsolley, John C; Alshatrat, Sabha Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a review of articles about tobacco or alcohol published from 1980 to 2010 in the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), Journal of Dental Education (JDE), and Journal of Public Health Dentistry (JPHD) in an attempt to identify trends by decade in topics relevant to oral health consequences, oral cancer linkages, and cessation counseling. NVivo qualitative analysis software was used to code abstracts using the keywords "tobacco" or "alcohol." The search identified 269 articles: tobacco=211 (78%), alcohol=58 (22%). This number represented 2.4% of the total articles published in these journals for the specified years. While the percentage of tobacco-related articles increased over this period (with highs in the 1990s of 4.1% in the JDE and 9% in the JPHD), the percentage of alcohol articles reached only 1% for JADA and 3.3% for the JPHD in the 2000s. The number of tobacco-related articles addressing oral health effects, oral cancer linkages, and cessation counseling increased in the 1990s. Although there were modest increases in the number of articles about alcohol-related oral health effects and oral cancer linkages (particularly in the JPHD in the 2000s), only two articles (in JADA in the 2000s) addressed alcohol cessation counseling. This study concluded that tobacco and alcohol have received limited, though increasing, attention in these three major journals between 1980 and 2010, with alcohol receiving less attention than tobacco. These results suggest a need for more published studies on tobacco and alcohol interventions in dental and allied dental education to prepare students to contribute to this aspect of their patients' health. PMID:26034032

  20. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  1. Incapacitated, forcible, and drug/alcohol-facilitated rape in relation to binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use: a national survey.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the relation between rape and substance use problems as a function of three legally recognized forms of rape: forcible, incapacitated, and drug/alcohol facilitated rape. Data were collected via structured telephone interview within a national household sample of U.S. women aged 18-34 years (n = 1,998). Lifetime experience of incapacitated rape was associated with increased odds of past-year binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use. Lifetime history of forcible rape and drug/alcohol facilitated rape were associated with increased odds of marijuana and illicit drug use. Findings highlight the importance of including incapacitated and drug/alcohol facilitated rape in trauma history assessments, particularly among substance abusing populations, and have implications for secondary prevention and treatment of women with victimization histories.

  2. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  3. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  4. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  5. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  6. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  7. Marijuana use and later problems: when frequency of recent use explains age of initiation effects (and when it does not).

    PubMed

    Ellickson, Phyllis L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Collins, Rebecca L; Klein, David J

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana are among the most commonly used drugs during adolescence. Initiation of marijuana use typically peaks at age 15, with risk of initiation continuing throughout adolescence. The goal of the current study was to prospectively examine the influence of age of marijuana initiation on four outcomes: physical health, mental health, illicit drug use other than marijuana, and marijuana-use related consequences at age 18. We controlled for several important predictors of adolescent drug use and its associated consequences, including demographics, social bonding variables, personality variables, and recent use of marijuana. Baseline survey data were collected in 1984 at grade 7 and follow up surveys were conducted at grades 8, 9, 10, and 12 (N = 2079). This initiates-only sample was 47% female, 66% White, 11% African American, 13% Hispanic, 5% Asian, and 5% other race or ethnicity. Findings indicated that age of initiation predicted marijuana consequences and other illicit drug use after controlling for demographic, social, and behavioral factors. However, once frequency of recent marijuana use was included in the models, age of initiation was only associated with other illicit drug use. Both primary and secondary prevention are needed to curb marijuana use and its associated harms. PMID:15776981

  8. California Programs To Prevent and Reduce Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among In-School Youth: An Interim Report about Tobacco Use. Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Regional Lab., Los Alamitos, CA.

    This document presents an interim report about tobacco use and its prevention among students in California schools. It focuses on the efforts of the Tobacco Use Prevention Education (TUPE) program, a part of the California Department of Education's Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Education (DATE) program. It is noted that TUPE programs have operated in…

  9. A Review of Epigenetic Markers of Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Robert; Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, advances in genetic technologies have posed unexpected challenges to the ethical and legal framework guiding the application of the most recent advances in healthcare technologies. By and large, these challenges have been successfully met by the introduction by statutes such as the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). However, over the past several years, these advances in the ability to measure genetic (or heritable) contributions to medical illness have been joined by advances in epigenetic (or acquired) contributions to common medical illnesses. Unfortunately, the moral and legal framework for the use of these epigenetic technologies, which can objectively determine the presence of medical illnesses such as diabetes or the consumption of substances of abuse, is not as well developed. This communication provides an introduction to the fundamentals of epigenetics and then reviews how some of the latest advances in this technology can now be used to assess the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Next, the possible mechanisms through which these tools could be employed clinically are discussed. Finally, the authors outline the potential for misuse of this technology and suggest that well-informed policy could play a critical role in shaping the optimal implementation of epigenetic technologies.

  10. A Long-Term Longitudinal Examination of the Effect of Early Onset of Alcohol and Drug Use on Later Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Finan, Laura J.; Schulz, Jessica; Hesselbrock, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Early onset of alcohol use has been linked to later alcohol problems in adulthood. Currently, it is not clear whether early onset of marijuana and tobacco use similarly predicts alcohol problems. Moreover, most studies examining the effect of early substance use onset on later problems only have followed youth into their early 20s. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to examine whether early onset of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use predicts alcohol problems beyond the transition to adulthood. Methods The sample included 225 15-19 year old youth (60% girls; 62% Caucasian) who were surveyed in 1993-1998 (Time 1), 1998–2003 (Time 2), and 2003-2007 (Time 3). Participants reported their age of onset for regular drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use. At each time of measurement, they also completed surveys relating to their alcohol use and abuse. Results Participants with an earlier age of onset of drinking regularly scored higher on the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and drank more frequently to get high and drunk throughout their twenties. Tobacco use onset and marijuana use onset were not associated with later alcohol use or abuse. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that the relationship between the onset of substance use and later substance abuse may be substance specific. Of note, early onset of regular drinking was associated with alcohol problems during adulthood, underscoring the importance of delaying the onset of regular alcohol use among youth. PMID:25671782

  11. fMRI BOLD Response in High-risk College Students (Part 1): During Exposure to Alcohol, Marijuana, Polydrug and Emotional Picture Cues†

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Suchismita; Hanson, Catherine; Hanson, Stephen J.; Bates, Marsha E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined reactivity to alcohol, polydrug, marijuana and emotional picture cues in students who were referred to a college alcohol and drug assistance program. Methods: The fMRI data of 10 participants (5 females; 5 males) were collected while they viewed standardized emotional and appetitive cues. Results: Positive and negative emotional cues produced greater activity than neutral cues in the expected brain areas. Compared with neutral cues, alcohol cues produced greater brain activation in the right insula, left anterior cingulate, left caudate and left prefrontal cortex (Z = 2.01, 1.86, 1.82, 1.81, respectively; P < 0.05). Drug cues produced significantly greater left prefrontal activity compared with neutral cues, with polydrug cues activating the right insula and marijuana cues activating left anterior cingulate. Conclusions: Students at-risk for alcohol abuse showed neural reactivity to alcohol cues in four brain regions, which is consistent with their greater use of alcohol. Insula activation to appetitive cues may be an early marker of risk for progression to alcohol/drug abuse. PMID:20729530

  12. Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.

  13. Increased tobacco and alcohol use among women with joint hypermobility: a way to cope with anxiety?

    PubMed

    Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.

  14. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  15. Kindergarten Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Burt, April V.; Corley, Donna; Sheffel, Kristy Lea

    2000-01-01

    Assessed kindergartners' knowledge of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATODs), examining the congruence between parent ATOD use and children's knowledge. Data collected prior to an ATOD prevention trial for kindergartners and parents indicated that most students recognized cigarettes, half recognized alcoholic beverages, and 17 percent…

  16. Alcohol and tobacco cue effects on craving in non-daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, Marcel P J; McGrath, Daniel S; Telbis, Dessislava; Barrett, Sean P

    2014-12-01

    Non-daily smokers commonly smoke cigarettes following the consumption of alcohol, yet the reason(s) for this remains poorly understood. The present study examined the impact of alcohol consumption on responses in tobacco salient cues 49 male and 50 female non-daily smokers. After the administration of an alcohol, placebo, or control beverage, participants were exposed to series neutral video clips and tobacco smoking salient video clips, and their subjective states and heart rates were monitored. The timing of the exposure to the tobacco smoking clips was randomly determined to coincide with the timing of either the ascending limb or the descending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve of the alcohol beverage condition. The tobacco smoking clips were found to increase cigarette craving regardless of beverage condition or timing of exposure (p = .002). Alcohol consumption was associated with increased ratings of intoxication (p < .001), increased heart rate across participants (p < .001), and increased cigarette craving in female participants specifically (p = .017). Alcohol did not influence responses to the smoking videos. These results suggest that smoking salient cues and alcohol may impact cigarette craving in non-daily smokers through independent processes.

  17. Latino Youths' Knowledge of Oral Cancer and Use of Tobacco and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Goodman, Harold S.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Watson, Maria Rosa; Duran-Medina, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Latino youths completed surveys about their knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer and tobacco and alcohol use. Additionally, trained youths attempted to purchase cigarettes from local stores. Respondents were ill-informed about oral cancer. Over half knew risk factors for smoking and alcohol use. Over half of the stores would have sold…

  18. Laws about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drugs: A Guidebook for California's Parents and Educators. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Jill; Munger, Beth

    With the increasing concern over alcohol and other drug use among young people, adults must educate themselves about legal issues. This booklet is a resource for parents and educators to help them learn tobacco, alcohol, and other drug laws in California. The material is organized by type of drug with the legal codes as they apply to that drug…

  19. The frequency and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertising in televised sports, 1990 through 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, P A; Grube, J W

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the frequency and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertising in a random sample of 166 televised sports events representing 443.7 hours of network programming broadcast from fall 1990 through summer 1992. More commercials appear for alcohol products than for any other beverage. Beer commercials predominate and include images at odds with recommendations from former Surgeon General Koop. The audience is also exposed to alcohol and tobacco advertising through the appearances of stadium signs, other on-site promotions, and verbal or visual brief product sponsorships. Moderation messages and public service announcements are rare. PMID:8296959

  20. Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Risk Behaviors in Film: How Well Do MPAA Ratings Distinguish Content?

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Jennifer J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline L.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of MPAA ratings for parental selection of appropriate films for children, the 100 top grossing movies each year from 1996 through 2004 (N=900) were content analyzed to measure risk behaviors in each film. More restrictive MPAA ratings (R and PG-13) were associated with increased mean seconds of portrayals of tobacco use, alcohol use, and sexual content; increased frequency of violent content; and increased salience of drug use. However, MPAA ratings did not clearly distinguish films based on tobacco or alcohol use. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 124 seconds or more of tobacco use, comparable to 26% of PG-13 and 17% of PG movies. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 162 seconds or more of alcohol use, comparable to 49% of PG-13 and 25% of PG movies. Because of the high degree of overlap in alcohol and tobacco content between rating categories, the MPAA rating system, as currently defined, is not adequate for parents who wish to limit their children’s exposure to tobacco or alcohol content in movies. PMID:20029709

  1. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.

  2. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have not had relief from other treatments. Unlike medical marijuana, the active ingredient in these drugs can be ... American Academy of Neurology. Medical Marijuana in Certain Medical Disorders. ... . Accessed August 24, 2015. ...

  3. Determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in indoor air as an indicator of marijuana cigarette smoking using adsorbent sampling and in-injector thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chou, Su-Lien; Ling, Yong-Chien; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Pai, Chung-Yen

    2007-08-13

    The marijuana leaves are usually mixed with tobaccos and smoked at amusement places in Taiwan. Recently, for investigation-legal purposes, the police asked if we can identify the marijuana smoke in a KTV stateroom (a private room at the entertainment spot for singing, smoking, alcohol drinking, etc.) without marijuana residues. A personal air-sampler pump fitted with the GC liner-tube packed with Tenax-TA adsorbent was used for air sampling. The GC-adsorbent tube was placed in the GC injector port and desorbed directly, followed by GC-MS analysis for the determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) in indoor air. The average desorption efficiency and limit of detection for delta9-THC were 89% and 0.1 microg m(-3), respectively, approximately needing 1.09 mg of marijuana leaves smoked in an unventilated closed room (3.0 m x 2.4 m x 2.7 m) to reach this level. The mean delta9-THC contained in the 15 marijuana plants seized from diverse locations was measured to be 0.32%. The delta9-THC in room air can be successfully identified from mock marijuana cigarettes, mixtures of marijuana and tobacco, and an actual case. The characteristic delta9-THC peak in chromatogram can serve as the indicator of marijuana. Positive result suggests marijuana smoking at the specific scene in the recent past, facilitating the formulation of further investigation.

  4. Trends in marijuana and other illicit drug use among college students: results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveys: 1993-2001.

    PubMed

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study were used in the study. They found significant increases in percentages of students' use of marijuana in the past 30 days (from 13% to 17%), past year (from 23% to 30%), and lifetime (from 41% to 47%) between 1993 and 2001, with most of the increase occurring between 1993 and 1997. Past 30-day use of other illicit drugs increased from 4% to 7% and past year use increased from 11% to 14%. More than 98% of marijuana and other illicit drug users used another substance. They also either smoked, were binge drinkers, and/or were users of another illicit drug. Drug prevention programs should emphasize heavy alcohol use and smoking and should start when students are in high school or earlier.

  5. Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T J; Vainio, H U; Ojajärvi, I A; Kauppinen, T P

    1997-06-01

    A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Consumption of distilled beverages did not increase risk, but heavy drinking of wine or beer did. History of pancreatitis was a strong risk factor.

  6. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  7. How High Is Up? An Innovative Manual for Infusing Tobacco, Alcohol & Other Drugs Education into Middle School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krusi, Carolynne; Schellens, Dick

    Curriculum infusion makes a new topic an integral part of an existing curriculum, integrating it into subject areas throughout the curriculum over time. In a tobacco, alcohol, and other drug infusion curriculum, examples might include: discussing alcohol-related themes as they arise in literature, evaluating tobacco statistics in math, studying…

  8. Reducing the Role of the Food, Tobacco, and Alcohol Industries in Noncommunicable Disease Risk in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and…

  9. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  10. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  11. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  12. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  13. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  14. Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?

    PubMed

    Pacula, R L

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not substitutes. Further, this research finds that increases in the federal tax on beer will generate a larger reduction in the unconditional demand for marijuana than for alcohol in percentage terms.

  15. TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE AMONG CHRONIC DISEASE PATIENTS IN CAMBODIA, MYANMAR AND VIETNAM.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use and to determine the factors associated with tobacco and alcohol use among chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4,803 adult chronic disease patients (mean age 49.3 years; SD=16.5) recruited systematically from health facilities. Fifteen point five percent of those studied were current smokers, 14.5% current smokeless tobacco users, 20.7% daily tobacco users (smokers or smokeless tobacco), 9.3% problem drinkers and 4.1% both daily tobacco users and problem drinkers. Having been diagnosed with hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver disease, and dyslipidemia were positively associated with daily tobacco use; liver disease, gout and other musculoskeletal conditions, kidney disease, and dyslipidemia were positively associated with problem drinking. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, socio-demographics (being male, older age, lower education, coming from Myanmar, being single, divorced or widowed, rural residence and part-time employed), problem drinking and having two or more chronic health conditions were associated with daily tobacco use. Socio-demographics (being male, younger age, coming from Vietnam, being married or cohabiting), daily tobacco use and not having depressive symptoms were found to be associated with problem drinking. High prevalences of daily tobacco use and problem drinking were found among chronic disease patients and several socio-demographic, disease specific, and other health risk behavior factors were identified which can guide substance use intervention programs for this population. PMID:27405138

  16. Adolescents’ exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi‐Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Design Ten‐second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12‐week period in 2013/14; on‐line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high‐content videos. Setting Great Britain. Participants A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11–18 years who completed an on‐line survey. Measurements Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Findings Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33–51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13–27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0–4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2–11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0–7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0–3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E‐Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re‐watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re‐watch the videos than boys, P < 0.001. Conclusions Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. PMID:25516167

  17. Alcohol and tobacco use during adolescence: the importance of the family mealtime environment.

    PubMed

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Despite evidence that frequent family meals are associated with low levels of substance use during adolescence, prior studies have not examined the role of how adolescents perceive mealtimes. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, perceived priority, atmosphere and structure of mealtimes as predictors of alcohol and tobacco consumption, using data from 550 adolescents (50% boys; age range 11-16). Frequent family meals were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol and tobacco use. However, this association was explained by adolescents' perception of the atmosphere at mealtimes. These findings suggest adolescents' perception of the mealtime environment contributes to family meals' protective effect.

  18. The Influence of Social Norms on College Student Alcohol and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Clemens, Elysia

    2008-01-01

    The Alcohol and Other Drug survey (adapted from D. Thombs, 1999) was administered to 235 undergraduates at a southeastern university to assess the influence that gender-specific normative perceptions have on 2 substance abuse patterns. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that gender-specific normative beliefs accounted for variance in alcohol…

  19. Effects of Emerging Alcohol and Marijuana Use Behaviors on Adolescents’ Neuropsychological Functioning Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Castro, Norma; Matt, Georg E.; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brumback, Ty; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a period of neuromaturation concomitant with increased substance involvement. Most substance use studies of adolescents have focused on categorical classifications (e.g., dependent vs. nondependent), but little is known about the influence of specific substance use behaviors on cognitive functioning in youth. Method: This study prospectively evaluated the quantitative effects of different substance use behaviors on neuropsychological functioning. A cognitive test battery was administered at baseline (ages 12–14 years), before substance use initiation, and at follow-up (M = 4.0 years, SD = 2.0) to evaluate changes in verbal memory, visuospatial ability, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and working memory. Robust regressions examined substance use behaviors as predictors of neuropsychological functioning (N = 234). Results: Several substance use behaviors predicted follow-up neuropsychological functioning above and beyond effects of baseline performance on the same measure (ps < .05). Specifically, more alcohol use days predicted worse verbal memory ( = -.15) and visuospatial ability ( = -.19). More postdrinking effects ( = -.15) and greater drug use ( = -.11) predicted worse psychomotor speed. Processing speed was not predicted by substance involvement (ps > .05). Unexpectedly, more alcohol use predicted better working memory performance ( = .12). Conclusions: The frequency and intensity of adolescent alcohol use may be more intricately linked to neuropsychological outcomes than previously considered. The low prevalence of substance use disorder in the sample suggests that subdiagnostic users may still experience adverse effects to verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed after initiating intense or frequent alcohol use. PMID:26402354

  20. Increases in Alcohol and Marijuana Use During the Transition Out of High School Into Emerging Adulthood: The Effects of Leaving Home, Going to College, and High School Protective Factors*

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, HELENE RASKIN; McMORRIS, BARBARA J.; CATALANO, RICHARD F.; FLEMING, CHARLES B.; HAGGERTY, KEVIN P.; ABBOTT, ROBERT D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of leaving home and going to college on changes in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use shortly after leaving high school. We also examined how protective factors in late adolescence predict post-high school substance use and moderate the effects of leaving home and going to college. Method Data came from subjects (N = 319; 53% male) interviewed at the end of 12th grade and again approximately 6 months later, as part of the Raising Healthy Children project. Results Leaving home and going to college were significantly related to increases in the frequency of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking from high school to emerging adulthood but not to changes in marijuana use. Having fewer friends who used each substance protected against increases in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use. Higher religiosity protected against increases in alcohol-and marijuana-use frequency. Higher parental monitoring protected against increases in heavy episodic drinking and moderated the effect of going to college on marijuana use. Lower sensation seeking lessened the effect of going to college on increases in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions To prevent increases in substance use in emerging adulthood, interventions should concentrate on strengthening prosocial involvement and parental monitoring during high school. In addition, youths with high sensation seeking might be targeted for added intervention. PMID:17060997

  1. Trends in alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students: 1989 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Zila M; Prado, Mariangela Cainelli Oliveira; Sanudo, Adriana; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Nappo, Solange A; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends of the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students.METHODS We analyzed data published between 1989 and 2010 from five epidemiological surveys on students from the 6th to the 12th grade of public schools from the ten largest state capitals of Brazil. The total sample consisted of 104,104 students and data were collected in classrooms. The same collection tool - a World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire - and sampling and weighting procedures were used in the five surveys. The Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence from different years.RESULTS The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use varied among the years and cities studied. Alcohol consumption decreased in the 10 state capitals (p < 0.001) throughout 21 years. Tobacco use also decreased significantly in eight cities (p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of alcohol use was found in the Southeast region in 1993 (72.8%, in Belo Horizonte) and the lowest one in Belem (30.6%) in 2010. The highest past-year prevalence of tobacco use was found in the South region in 1997 (28.0%, in Curitiba) and the lowest one in the Southeast in 2010 (7.8%, in Sao Paulo).CONCLUSIONS The decreasing trend in the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among students detected all over the Country can be related to the successful and comprehensive Brazilian antitobacco and antialcohol policies. Despite these results, the past-year prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year remained high in all Brazilian regions. PMID:26465662

  2. Trends in alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students: 1989 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M; Prado, Mariangela Cainelli Oliveira; Sanudo, Adriana; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Nappo, Solange A; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends of the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students. METHODS We analyzed data published between 1989 and 2010 from five epidemiological surveys on students from the 6th to the 12th grade of public schools from the ten largest state capitals of Brazil. The total sample consisted of 104,104 students and data were collected in classrooms. The same collection tool – a World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire – and sampling and weighting procedures were used in the five surveys. The Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence from different years. RESULTS The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use varied among the years and cities studied. Alcohol consumption decreased in the 10 state capitals (p < 0.001) throughout 21 years. Tobacco use also decreased significantly in eight cities (p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of alcohol use was found in the Southeast region in 1993 (72.8%, in Belo Horizonte) and the lowest one in Belem (30.6%) in 2010. The highest past-year prevalence of tobacco use was found in the South region in 1997 (28.0%, in Curitiba) and the lowest one in the Southeast in 2010 (7.8%, in Sao Paulo). CONCLUSIONS The decreasing trend in the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among students detected all over the Country can be related to the successful and comprehensive Brazilian antitobacco and antialcohol policies. Despite these results, the past-year prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year remained high in all Brazilian regions. PMID:26465662

  3. Availability of Tobacco and Alcohol Products in Los Angeles Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-01-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists’ Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products. PMID:21644021

  4. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  5. Rules regarding marijuana and its use in personal residences: findings from marijuana users and nonusers recruited through social media.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  6. The Protective Influence of Spiritual-Religious Lifestyle Profiles on Tobacco Use, Alcohol Use, and Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Andereck, Kathleen; Montoya, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The costs associated with the use of addictive substances and practices underscore the need for research on protective factors that inhibit use. In this study, the protective influences of various spiritual-religious lifestyle profiles on tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and gambling frequency and expenditures are examined. Among the predominantly…

  7. Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…

  8. A General Causal Model to Guide Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Prevention: Assessing the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.

    2004-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…

  9. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart C of... - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determinations under 31 CFR 1.27(e) with respect to records of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau.... Initial determination under 31 CFR 1.26, whether to grant requests for notification and access to records... 202-453-2331. 3. Requests for amendment of record. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.27...

  10. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  11. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart C of... - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determinations under 31 CFR 1.27(e) with respect to records of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau.... Initial determination under 31 CFR 1.26, whether to grant requests for notification and access to records... 202-453-2331. 3. Requests for amendment of record. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.27...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart C of... - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determinations under 31 CFR 1.27(e) with respect to records of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau.... Initial determination under 31 CFR 1.26, whether to grant requests for notification and access to records... 202-453-2331. 3. Requests for amendment of record. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.27...

  17. Emotional Self-Efficacy and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Teoli, Dac A.; Valois, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and alcohol and tobacco use in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n?=?2,566). The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression analyses indicated the presence of any significant race by…

  18. Schools and the Community Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Environment: Opportunities for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Schools have long been central to community-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention programs. Yet research consistently shows that school programs have only a marginal effect on student substance use and community ATOD problems. Schools are only one of the many influences on young people, and even the best curriculum will fail if…

  19. The Save-Your-Life Glossary of Alcohol, AIDS, Drug, & Tobacco Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Deborah

    This document presents the Save-Your-Life Glossary, which consists of four parts: (1) the glossary itself, which defines alcohol, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), drug, and tobacco-related terms; (2) the alerts sections, which focus on popular drugs or issues that concern young people; (3) the focus sections, which categorize and…

  20. Secondary School Students: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials on drug and alcohol prevention for secondary school students. The information is divided into three sections: (1) prevention materials, including information on inhalants, AIDS, sports and drugs, and sex and alcohol; (2) studies, articles, and reports on secondary school students, including…

  1. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  2. A novel application in the study of client language: Alcohol and marijuana-related statements in substance-using adolescents during a simulation task.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Benjamin O; Garcia, Tracey A; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-09-01

    The current study explored whether laboratory-based techniques can provide a strategy for studying client language as a mechanism of behavior change. Specifically, this study examined the potential of a simulation task to elicit healthy talk, or self-motivational statements in favor of healthy behavior, related to marijuana and alcohol use. Participants (N = 84) were adolescents reporting at least 10 lifetime substance use episodes recruited from various community settings in an urban Pacific Northwest setting. Participants completed the Adolescent Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation (A-SIDE), a validated paradigm for assessing substance use decision making in peer contexts. Participants responded to 4 types of offers in the A-SIDE: (a) marijuana, (b) food (marijuana control), (c) alcohol, and (d) soda (alcohol control). Using a validated coding scheme adapted for the current study, client language during a structured interview assessing participants' response to the simulated offers was evaluated. Associations between percent healthy talk (PHT, calculated by dividing the number of healthy statements by the sum of all substance-related statements) and cross-sectional outcomes of interest (previous substance use, substance use expectancies, and behavioral willingness) were explored. The frequency of substance-related statements differed in response to offer type; rate of PHT did not. PHT was associated with behavioral willingness to accept the offer. However, PHT was not associated with decontextualized measures of substance use. Associations between PHT and global expectancies were limited. Simulation methods may be useful in investigating the impact of context on self-talk and to systematically explore client language as a mechanism of change. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454368

  3. [Frequency of smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol and using drugs by the junior high school youth].

    PubMed

    Rzeńicki, Adam; Kowalska, Alina; Krakowiak, Jan; Chowański, Kamil; Stelmach, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    There is systematic decrease in the age of tobacco, alcohol and drug initiation in Poland among children and adolescents. Education concerning damage caused by smoking tobacco drinking alcohol and taking drugs, if started in due course, is of essence when it comes to the inhibition of these unfavourable phenomena. The aim of this work was to recognise the participation of smokers, people who drink alcohol and take drugs among students of junior high school as well as checking the dependency between early tobacco initiation and taking to drugs and alcohol among the youth. In March 2014, 288 students of 1-3 grades were included in the study of some selected junior high schools from the Moniecki region in Podlaskie voivodeship. While collecting empirical material, anonymous survey was carried out including 35 questions. Students were asked to fill it in freely during a lesson. In order to elaborate the collected data, descriptive meth, ods were used as well as methods of statistical interference. 163 women (56.6%) and 125 men (43.4%) were included in the survey. The most numerous group consisted of respondents at the age of 15 (40.1%) In the surveyed group, 100 students (34.7%) admitted to smoking at least one cigarette in their life. 6.3% of the respondents (18 people) smoked daily, whereas 9.0% (26 people) claimed they smoked occasionally. Majority of the surveyed people (51%, 147 people) answered that they had already drunk alcohol. 2.4% of the respondents (7 people) declared drinking daily whereas 18.4% (53 people) claimed to be drinking occasionally. Every tenth junior high school student stated the had used drugs at least once in their life (10.1%, 29 people). Despite the law in Poland prohibiting drug possession and trade as well as alcohol and tobacco purchase and consumption among minors, frequency of drinking alcohol, smoking cigarette, and using drugs was high among the junior high school students.

  4. Non-smoking youths' "perceived" addiction to tobacco is associated with their susceptibility to future smoking.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Richardson, Chris G; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L

    2009-12-01

    Smoking initiation places adolescents at risk for adult onset diseases, including heart disease, respiratory illness, and cancer. Adolescents that smoke have levels of 'perceived' tobacco addiction that are associated with several measures of nicotine dependence. Nonsmoking adolescents also report feeling addicted to tobacco even with minimal or no prior tobacco use, suggesting some vulnerability to tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived tobacco addiction and smoking susceptibility among adolescents with very minimal tobacco use. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 5155 nonsmokers who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II, a school-based survey conducted during 2004. Measures included demographics, tobacco use (ever puffed a cigarette), substance use (marijuana and alcohol), exposure to family members' smoking in the home, peers' tobacco use, depressive symptoms, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, and smoking susceptibility. The adolescents who were most susceptible to smoking were female, younger and in a lower school grade; had ever puffed a cigarette, had used alcohol or marijuana; had family members or peers who smoked; had higher depression scores, and higher perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived mental addiction but not perceived physical addiction to tobacco was significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. Understanding factors associated with smoking initiation, and ways to identify "at- risk" adolescents can enhance early intervention and prevention programs. Perceived mental addiction to tobacco appears to be an important indicator of smoking susceptibility. PMID:19643546

  5. The Long Arm of Adolescence: School Health Behavioral Environments, Tobacco and Alcohol Co-Use, and the 5HTTLPR Gene

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Jonathan; Boardman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Although sociologists, demographers, and others have thoroughly studied contextual and life-course influences on tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood, far less attention has been paid to the determinants of tobacco and alcohol co-use. This is important to remedy because co-use has non-additive effect on long-term health. In this paper, we use nationally representative, longitudinal data from adolescence to young adulthood to examine patterns of joint tobacco and alcohol use behaviors across the life course. Importantly, we describe how these trajectories are linked to their high school's joint profile of tobacco and alcohol use, measured two ways: the proportion of tobacco and alcohol co-users, and as the ‘excess proportion’ above that expected based on the marginal probabilities of smoking and drinking in that school. Joint tobacco and alcohol use is associated with both measures, emphasizing the ‘long arm’ of adolescent contexts. Furthermore, we extend previous research to assess whether there is a gene-environment interaction between this school-level measure, 5HTTLPR, and tobacco and alcohol co-use, as suggested by recent work analyzing drinking and smoking separately. We find evidence of such a pattern, but conclude that it is likely to be due to population stratification or other forms of confounding. PMID:25343362

  6. The Role of Constraint in the Development of Nicotine, Marijuana, and Alcohol Dependence in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, Scott I.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The personality-related construct of behavioral disinhibition is hypothesized to confer a generalized risk for alcohol and drug dependence. On average, rates of substance use and scores on measures of disinhibition peak in adolescence and decline as people mature into adulthood. The present study investigated this developmental change by evaluating the relationship between disinhibition and substance use disorders using a longitudinal study of 2,608 twins assessed at ages 17, 24, and 29. These ages include the period of highest risk for substance use disorders (ages 17-24) as well as when substance dependence symptoms typically decline (ages 24-29). Disinhibition was measured with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire higher-order scale of Constraint, as well as its constituent facet scales of Harm Avoidance, Control, and Traditionalism. Constraint’s relationship with substance dependence was statistically significant but small and largely genetic, with the genetic relationship declining from adolescence into adulthood. However, this result appeared to be almost entirely driven by Traditionalism, a propensity to hold traditional moral and social values, and not an obvious component of behavioral disinhibition. The results suggest that personality measures of Control and Harm Avoidance play only a small role in the development of substance dependence during late adolescence, and previous findings linking personality measures of disinhibition and substance use may be driven significantly by social and moral values than deficits in impulse control. PMID:24343204

  7. Employment experience in relation to alcohol, tobacco, and betel nut use among youth in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wen-Chun; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Lee, Ching-Mei; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Duan-Rung; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Lin, Chaucer C H; Yang, Ming-Jen; Lai, Te-Jen; Chen, Wei J

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the association linking employment experience with alcohol, tobacco, and betel nut involvement among youth in Taiwan. In 2004, an outreach program was conducted during weekdays to recruit youth sample in seven major geographic regions. A total of 5886 youth aged 12-18 years drawn from 26 cities or towns were assessed by a two-page anonymous self-administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic characteristics, employment-, development-, and drug-related experiences. In Taiwan, youthful experience of alcohol, tobacco, and polydrug use varies by employment status, work intensity, and job type. Holding a full-time job and working in certain settings (e.g., grocery, restaurants) were found associated with an excess of drug-using behaviors. With taking age, male gender, family context, disposable allowance, and school attendance into account, working youths were two to four times as likely to have recent drug involvement than their non-working counterparts, especially for tobacco and polydrug (OR=3.32, 95% CI: 2.58-4.27, p<0.001; OR=3.76, 95% CI: 2.76-5.13, p<0.001). Youths in the labor force emerge as a subgroup experiencing greater use of alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and polydrug. Future prevention programs may target this high-risk group to reduce possible drug-related negative consequences in developmental and health domains in Taiwan. PMID:16600528

  8. Associations between Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use with Coronary Artery Plaque among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sean G.; Plankey, Michael; Post, Wendy S.; Li, Xiuhong; Stall, Ronald; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Witt, Mallory D.; Kingsley, Lawrence; Cox, Christopher; Budoff, Matthew; Palella, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We characterized associations between smoking, alcohol, and recreational drug use and coronary plaque by HIV serostatus within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Methods MACS participants (N = 1005, 621 HIV+ and 384 HIV-) underwent non-contrast CT scanning to measure coronary artery calcium; 764 underwent coronary CT angiograms to evaluate plaque type and extent. Self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco, smoked/inhaled cocaine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, marijuana, inhaled nitrites, and erectile dysfunction drugs was obtained at semi-annual visits beginning 10 years prior to CT scanning. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were performed, stratified by HIV serostatus. Results Among HIV+ men, current smoking, former smoking, and cumulative pack years of smoking were positively associated with multiple coronary plaque measures (coronary artery calcium presence and extent, total plaque presence and extent, calcified plaque presence, and stenosis >50%). Smoking was significantly associated with fewer plaque measures of comparable effect size among HIV- men; current smoking and calcified plaque extent was the only such association. Heavy alcohol use (>14 drinks/week) was associated with stenosis >50% among HIV+ men. Among HIV- men, low/moderate (1–14 drinks/week) and heavy alcohol use were inversely associated with coronary artery calcium and calcified plaque extent. Few significant associations between other recreational drug use and plaque measures were observed. Conclusion Smoking is strongly associated with coronary plaque among HIV+ men, underscoring the value of smoking cessation for HIV+ persons. Alcohol use may protect against coronary artery calcium and calcified plaque progression in HIV- (but not HIV+) men. Few positive associations were observed between recreational drug use and coronary plaque measures. PMID:26811937

  9. A Brief Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Pappas, Deborah M.; Edgemon, Patricia; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2002-01-01

    Studies of athletes suggest that they are at increased risk for using alcohol, smokeless tobacco, steroids, and marijuana. They are also a readily available audience during annual preparticiaption physical examinations. In this article, Dr. Werch and colleagues report on the results from their pilot study, using a modified version of STARS (Start…

  10. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  11. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  12. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.

  13. Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls' substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use.

  14. Do Brief Alcohol Interventions Reduce Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes studies of brief interventions (BIs) that targeted alcohol consumption and reported both alcohol and tobacco outcomes. It examines whether BIs reduce alcohol and tobacco use for adolescents and young adults among interventions that (1) directly targeted tobacco and alcohol use, or (2) did not target tobacco use but measured it as a secondary outcome. Multiple databases and grey literature sources were searched (1980–2012) resulting in the identification of 18 randomized or controlled quasi-experimental studies (5949 participants). Analyses were conducted using random effects inverse-variance weighted three-level models. BIs were associated with a significant reduction in alcohol consumption relative to control groups (ḡ = 0.11, 95% CI [0.04, 0.17]) but not with a significant decrease in tobacco use (ḡ = 0.07, 95% CI [−0.01, 0.16]). Directly addressing tobacco was not a significant moderator affecting tobacco use outcomes. Post-hoc exploratory analysis revealed potential questions to address with future research. PMID:26130030

  15. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals.

  16. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  17. Toxic effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Scott-Goodwin, A C; Puerto, M; Moreno, I

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine are the most consumed psychoactive drugs throughout the population. Prenatal exposure to these drugs could alter normal foetal development and could threaten future welfare. The main changes observed in prenatal exposure to tobacco are caused by nicotine and carbon monoxide, which can impede nutrient and oxygen exchange between mother and foetus, restricting foetal growth. Memory, learning processes, hearing and behaviour can also be affected. Alcohol may cause physical and cognitive alterations in prenatally exposed infants, fundamentally caused by altered NMDAR and GABAR activity. Tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of cannabis, is capable of activating CB1R, inducing connectivity deficits during the foetal brain development. This fact could be linked to behavioural and cognitive deficits. Many of the effects from prenatal cocaine exposure are caused by altered cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and dendritic growth processes. Cocaine causes long term behavioural and cognitive alterations and also affects the uteroplacental unit.

  18. Toxic effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Scott-Goodwin, A C; Puerto, M; Moreno, I

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine are the most consumed psychoactive drugs throughout the population. Prenatal exposure to these drugs could alter normal foetal development and could threaten future welfare. The main changes observed in prenatal exposure to tobacco are caused by nicotine and carbon monoxide, which can impede nutrient and oxygen exchange between mother and foetus, restricting foetal growth. Memory, learning processes, hearing and behaviour can also be affected. Alcohol may cause physical and cognitive alterations in prenatally exposed infants, fundamentally caused by altered NMDAR and GABAR activity. Tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of cannabis, is capable of activating CB1R, inducing connectivity deficits during the foetal brain development. This fact could be linked to behavioural and cognitive deficits. Many of the effects from prenatal cocaine exposure are caused by altered cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and dendritic growth processes. Cocaine causes long term behavioural and cognitive alterations and also affects the uteroplacental unit. PMID:27037188

  19. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue.

  20. Methodology for the estimation of use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Belmonte Cortés, Susana; Serrano Zarceño, Carmen; Granado de la Orden, Susana

    2015-02-26

    The objective of this article is to revise the methods used for the assessment of the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Analysing the advantages of using one method or the other, as well as the most frequent methodological difficulties and problems in medication and classification of each one of these indicators. The main sources of information available from European, National and Madrid Autonomous Community levels have been consulted to estimate the most relevant aspects of these forms of substance abuse.

  1. Prevalence of obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption by socioeconomic status among six communities in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors (overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption) and identify correlations between these and sociodemographic characteristics in western and central Nicaragua. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1 355 participants from six communities in Nicaragua conducted in September 2007–July 2009. Demographic and NCD risk-related health behavior information was collected from each individual, and their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and renal function were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and (non-stratified and stratified) logistic regression models. Results Of the 1 355 study participants, 22.0% were obese and 55.1% were overweight/obese. Female sex, higher income, and increasing age were significantly associated with obesity. Among men, lifelong urban living correlated with obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 4.39, 1.18–16.31). Of the total participants, 31.3% reported ever smoking tobacco and 47.7% reported ever drinking alcohol. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were strikingly more common among men (OR = 13.0, 8.8–19.3 and 15.6, 10.7–22.6, respectively) and lifelong urban residents (OR = 2.42, 1.31–4.47 and 4.10, 2.33–7.21, respectively). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of obesity/overweight across all income levels. Women were much more likely to be obese, but men had higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The rising prevalence of NCD risk factors among even the poorest subjects suggests that an epidemiologic transition in underway in western and central Nicaragua whereby NCD prevalence is shifting to all segments of society. Raising awareness that health clinics can be used for chronic conditions needs to be priority. PMID:23183562

  2. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  3. The relationship of perceived age and sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage customers.

    PubMed

    Merrill, R M; Stanford, E J; Lindsay, G B; Neiger, B L

    2000-10-01

    The ability of store clerks to estimate the age of their customers is critical in preventing illegal sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage individuals. To avoid illegal sales of tobacco products to minors, the Food and Drug Administration created a policy in 1997 requiring store clerks to request identification of anyone perceived to be underage 27. A similar age standard has not been implemented for alcohol. The purpose of this article is to assess whether age 27 is adequate for minimizing tobacco sales to those under age 18 and whether this age is also a useful standard for minimizing illegal alcohol sales to those under age 21. The analysis is based on age estimates from 49 gas station and convenience store clerks. Each clerk estimated ages of 45 people filmed on video whose actual ages ranged from 15 to 29. T-tests, analysis of variance, contingency tables and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Store clerks found it more difficult to estimate ages of female customers than male customers. In addition, the store clerks significantly underestimated age of male customers under 18 and of female customers under 21. In contrast, the clerks significantly overestimated age of customers 21 years and older. Among underage customers, the store clerks' age, gender, work experience, education, and training in requesting identification had no influence on ability to judge age, nor did it have a strong influence on whether an underage customer was considered 18 or older or 21 or older. The results suggest that age 27 is adequate for minimizing illegal tobacco sales. Adoption of a similar or slightly older age may be appropriate for minimizing illegal alcohol sales. PMID:10982013

  4. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Marmor, J B

    1998-06-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects.

  5. A common public health-oriented policy framework for cannabis, alcohol and tobacco in Canada?

    PubMed

    Kirst, Maritt; Kolar, Kat; Chaiton, Michael; Schwartz, Robert; Emerson, Brian; Hyshka, Elaine; Jesseman, Rebecca; Lucas, Philippe; Solomon, Robert; Thomas, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Support for a public health approach to cannabis policy as an alternative to prohibition and criminalization is gaining momentum. Recent drug policy changes in the United States suggest growing political feasibility for legal regulation of cannabis in other North American jurisdictions. This commentary discusses the outcomes of an interdisciplinary policy meeting with Canadian experts and knowledge users in the area of substance use interventions. The meeting explored possibilities for applying cross-substance learning on policy interventions for alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, towards the goal of advancing a public health framework for reducing harms associated with substance use in Canada. The meeting also explored how the shift in approach to cannabis policy can provide an opportunity to explore potential changes in substance use policy more generally, especially in relation to tobacco and alcohol as legally regulated substances associated with a heavy burden of illness. Drawing from the contributions and debates arising from the policy meeting, this commentary identifies underlying principles and opportunities for learning from policy interventions across tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, as well as research gaps that need to be addressed before a public health framework can be effectively pursued across these substances. PMID:26986906

  6. A common public health-oriented policy framework for cannabis, alcohol and tobacco in Canada?

    PubMed

    Kirst, Maritt; Kolar, Kat; Chaiton, Michael; Schwartz, Robert; Emerson, Brian; Hyshka, Elaine; Jesseman, Rebecca; Lucas, Philippe; Solomon, Robert; Thomas, Gerald

    2016-03-16

    Support for a public health approach to cannabis policy as an alternative to prohibition and criminalization is gaining momentum. Recent drug policy changes in the United States suggest growing political feasibility for legal regulation of cannabis in other North American jurisdictions. This commentary discusses the outcomes of an interdisciplinary policy meeting with Canadian experts and knowledge users in the area of substance use interventions. The meeting explored possibilities for applying cross-substance learning on policy interventions for alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, towards the goal of advancing a public health framework for reducing harms associated with substance use in Canada. The meeting also explored how the shift in approach to cannabis policy can provide an opportunity to explore potential changes in substance use policy more generally, especially in relation to tobacco and alcohol as legally regulated substances associated with a heavy burden of illness. Drawing from the contributions and debates arising from the policy meeting, this commentary identifies underlying principles and opportunities for learning from policy interventions across tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, as well as research gaps that need to be addressed before a public health framework can be effectively pursued across these substances.

  7. Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment: Effect on Daily Process Measures of Alcohol Relapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Ned L.; Litt, Mark D.; Sevarino, Kevin A.; Levy, Lucienne; Kranitz, Linda S.; Sackler, Helen; Cooney, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of alcohol treatment along with concurrent smoking treatment or delayed smoking treatment on process measures related to alcohol relapse risk. Method Alcohol dependent smokers (N = 151) who were enrolled in an intensive outpatient alcohol treatment program and were interested in smoking cessation were randomized to a concurrent smoking cessation (CSC) intervention or to a waiting list for delayed smoking cessation (DSC) intervention scheduled to begin three months later. Daily assessments of relapse process measures were obtained using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system for 12 weeks after the onset of smoking treatment in the CSC condition, and before beginning smoking treatment in the DSC condition. Smoking outcomes were assessed at 2 and 13 weeks after starting treatment. Results Seven-day CO-verified smoking abstinence in the CSC condition was 50.5% at 2 weeks and 19.0% at 13 weeks compared to 2.2% abstinence at two weeks and 0% abstinence at 13 weeks for those in the DSC condition. Drinking outcomes were not significantly different for CSC vs. DSC treatment conditions. On daily IVR assessments, CSC participants had significantly lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies relative to DSC participants. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses of within-person effects across the 12 weeks of daily monitoring showed that daily smoking abstinence was significantly associated with same day reports of lower alcohol consumption, lower urge to drink, lower negative affect, lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies, greater alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, greater alcohol abstinence readiness to change, and greater perceived self-control demands. Conclusions; Analyses of process measures provide support for recommending smoking intervention concurrent with intensive outpatient alcohol treatment. Public Health Significance Statement Study results support conveying a message to alcohol dependent smokers that

  8. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  9. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  10. Roles of alcohol and tobacco exposure in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Kwon, Oh Sang; Song, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the roles of alcohol and tobacco exposure in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic heavy alcohol exposure is a major risk factor for HCC, which is the most frequent type of liver cancer. Alcohol ingestion may initiate and or promote the development of HCC by: 1) acetaldehyde-DNA adduct formation; 2) cytochrome P4502E1-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, p53 mutation, and conversion of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens; 3) iron accumulation that leads to ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, p53 mutation, and initiation of inflammatory cascade via nuclear factor-KappaB (NF-kB) activation; 4) glutathione depletion leading to oxidative stress; 5) s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) depletion and associated DNA hypomethylation of oncogenes ; 6) retinoic acid depletion and resultant hepatocyte proliferation via up-regulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1); 7) initiating an inflammatory cascade through increased transfer of endotoxin from intestine to liver, Kupffer cell activation via CD14/toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), oxidative stress, NF-kB or early growth response-1(Egr-1) activation, and generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; 8) induction of liver fibrosis; and 9) decreasing the number and/or function of Natural Killer cells. Tobacco exposure is also a risk factor for HCC. It may contribute to the initiation and promotion of HCC due the presence of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds as well as by causing oxidative stress due to generation of ROS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Simultaneous exposure to alcohol and tobacco is expected to promote the development of HCC in an additive and/or synergistic manner. PMID:23123447

  11. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to stereotypes seen in the media, several studies have found use of alcohol and other substances among racial and ethnic minority college students to be lower than among white students. At historically black colleges, for instance, about half the percentage of students report using tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine compared with students at…

  12. Predictors of alcohol and tobacco use prior to and during pregnancy in the US: the role of maternal stressors.

    PubMed

    Witt, Whitney P; Mandell, Kara C; Wisk, Lauren E; Cheng, Erika R; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Wakeel, Fathima; Park, Hyojun; Zarak, Dakota

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the association between stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs) and women's alcohol and tobacco use prior to and during pregnancy, and the continuation of such use through pregnancy. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 9,350). Data were collected in 2001. Exposure to PSLEs was defined by indications of death of a parent, spouse, or previous live born child, divorce or marital separation, or fertility problems prior to conception. Survey data determined alcohol and tobacco usage during the 3 months prior to and in the final 3 months of pregnancy. Weighted regressions estimated the effect of PSLEs on alcohol and tobacco use at each time point and on the continuation of use, adjusting for confounders. Experiencing any PSLE increased the odds of tobacco use prior to (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.87) and during pregnancy (AOR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.19-2.07). Women exposed to PSLEs smoked nearly five additional packs of cigarettes in the 3 months prior to pregnancy (97 cigarettes, p = 0.011) and consumed 0.31 additional alcoholic drinks during the last 3 months of pregnancy than unexposed women. PSLEs are associated with tobacco use before pregnancy and alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy. Alcohol and tobacco screening and cessation services should be implemented prior to and during pregnancy, especially for women who have experienced PSLEs.

  13. The crowding-out effects of tobacco and alcohol where expenditure shares are low: analyzing expenditure data for Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pu, Cheng-yun; Lan, Virginia; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Lan, Chung-fu

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we used data from the 2004 Survey of Family Income & Expenditure of Taiwan to show that the problem of the crowding-out effects of tobacco and alcohol in a country with low expenditure can still be serious. Most studies that have investigated this issue have focused on developing countries with a high expenditure share on tobacco or alcohol, and have often overlooked the effects in countries with a low expenditure on such goods. After controlling for the endogeneity of tobacco and alcohol expenditure, and the possibility that households with a zero expenditure on tobacco and alcohol may result from a corner solution rather than abstention, we found that the lowest income households are still most vulnerable to tobacco and alcohol expenditures despite an overall low expenditure in Taiwan. Even higher income households may suffer a lower standard of living due to such expenditure. In addition, some goods and services may be perceived differently by households with different levels of income and this may be caused by the difference in composition across broad expenditure categories. Our results suggest that the government ought to tackle the problem of smoking and drinking outside the realm of health, since these expenditures may harm the country's standard of living even when there is high income.

  14. The effects of parental divorce on adult tobacco and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Wolfinger, N H

    1998-09-01

    I use data from the 1977-1994 National Opinion Research Council General Social Survey to examine the impact of parental divorce on the alcohol and tobacco consumption of adult offspring. Divorce greatly increases the likelihood of being a smoker and, for men, a problem drinker. Parental remarriage completely offsets the effects of parental divorce on men's drinking but does not substantially affect cigarette use. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics accounted for a portion of the relationship between parental divorce and smoking but did not affect rates of problem drinking. Social control and psychosocial adjustment--two established explanations for the effects of parental divorce--could not adequately explain my findings.

  15. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. PMID:26187691

  16. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine.

  17. Combined Effects of Marijuana and Nicotine on Memory Performance and Hippocampal Volume

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca M.; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. PMID:26187691

  18. Perceived Harm of Tobacco Products and Individual Schemas of a Smoker in Relation to Change in Tobacco Product Use Over One Year Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Romero, Devan R.; Pulvers, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Given increases in nondaily smoking and alternative tobacco use among young adults, we examined the nature of change of various tobacco product use among college students over a year and predictors of use at one-year follow-up. Methods An online survey was administered to students at six Southeast colleges and universities (N = 4,840; response rate = 20.1%) in Fall 2010, with attempts to follow up in Fall 2011 with a random subsample of 2,000 participants (N = 718; response rate = 35.9%). Data were analyzed from 698 participants with complete data regarding tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use over a one-year period, perceived harm of tobacco use, and schemas of a “smoker” (as per the Classifying a Smoker Scale). Results Baseline predictors of current smoking at follow-up included being White (p = .001), frequency of smoking (p < .001), alternative tobacco use (p < .001), and perceived harm of smoking (p = .02); marginally significant predictors included marijuana use (p = .06) and lower scores on the Classifying a Smoker Scale (p = .07). Baseline predictors of current smoking at follow-up among baseline nondaily smokers included more frequent smoking (p = .008); lower Classifying a Smoker Scale score was a marginally significant predictor (p = .06). Baseline predictors of alternative tobacco use at follow-up included being male (p = .007), frequency of smoking (p = .04), alternative tobacco use (p < .001), and frequency of alcohol use (p = .003); marginally significant predictors included marijuana use (p = .07) and lower perceived harm of smokeless tobacco (p = .06) and cigar products (p = .08). Conclusions Tobacco control campaigns and interventions might target schemas of a smoker and perceived risks of using various tobacco products, even at low levels. PMID:25338288

  19. Independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on the risk of esophageal cancer in men and women.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; De Stefani, E; Victora, C G; Castelletto, R; Rolón, P A; Quintana, M J

    1999-08-27

    To estimate the independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, we analyzed data from a series of 5 hospital-based case-control studies of squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus conducted in high-risk areas in South America. A total of 830 case subjects and 1779 control subjects were included in the pooled analysis. All exposure characteristics of amount, duration, cessation and type of alcohol and tobacco consumed were strongly related to esophageal-cancer risk in both sexes. Women had the same exposure profile as men, but the magnitudes of the associations were lower than were those among men. Black-tobacco smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk as compared with the smoking of blond or mixed tobacco. Quitting either of the 2 habits significantly reduced esophageal-cancer risk. Alcohol and tobacco alone were strongly related to the risk of esophageal cancer, even in the absence of the other exposure. A history of simultaneous exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a strong multiplicative effect on risk. Concomitant exposure to heavy alcohol drinking and black-tobacco smoking identified the group with the highest risk for developing esophageal cancer (odds ratio = 107). A synergistic interaction was found between the 2 habits, particularly in women and in moderately exposed men. Moderate cigarette smoking without drinking and moderate alcohol drinking without smoking had a negligible effect on esophageal-cancer risk. However, simultaneous exposure to the same moderate amounts increased the risk 12- to 19-fold in men and in women respectively. The overall public-health implications of these findings are obvious for a tumor that depends on preventive strategies for its control.

  20. Decriminalizing Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Jon

    1989-01-01

    Argues for the decriminalization of marijuana and claims this action would provide a number of policy options. Cautions that a policy of total prohibition has unattainable goals. Points to the failure of recriminalization policies of the past 10 years as the most persuasive argument for decriminalization. (KO)

  1. Marijuana Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  2. Who Is Using What in the Public Schools: The Interrelationships among Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use by Adolescents in New Brunswick Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobe, Cary; Campbell, Elaine

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to discover patterns of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among public school children in New Brunswick using Provincial School Drug Survey (PSDS), an existing large-scale assessment. Recoded variables in PSDS dataset to derive profiles of typical tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol users. Found increase in predictive accuracy of regression…

  3. The influence of a family program on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E; Foshee, V A; Ennett, S T; Pemberton, M; Hicks, K A; King, T S; Koch, G G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined a family-directed program's effectiveness in preventing adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in a general population. METHODS: Adolescents aged 12 to 14 years and their families were identified by random-digit dialing throughout the contiguous United States. After providing baseline data by telephone interviews, they were randomly allocated to receive or not receive a family-directed program featuring mailed booklets and telephone contacts by health educators. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted 3 and 12 months after program completion. RESULTS: The findings suggested that smoking onset was reduced by 16.4% at 1 year, with a 25.0% reduction for non-Hispanic Whites but no statistically significant program effect for other races/ethnicities. There were no statistically significant program effects for smokeless tobacco or alcohol use onset. CONCLUSIONS: The family-directed program was associated with reduced smoking onset for non-Hispanic Whites, suggesting that it is worthy of further application, development, and evaluation. PMID:11291373

  4. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    PubMed

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  5. Delay Discounting in Current and Former Marijuana-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Baker, Forest; Moore, Brent A.; Badger, Gary J.; Budney, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found that a variety of drug dependent groups discount delayed rewards more than matched-controls. This study compared delay discounting for a hypothetical $1000 reward among dependent marijuana users, former dependent marijuana users, and matched-controls. Discounting of marijuana was also assessed in the currently marijuana-dependent group. No significant difference in discounting was detected among the groups, however currently dependent users showed a trend to discount money more than the other two groups. Within the dependent marijuana group, marijuana was discounted more than money, and discounting for money and marijuana were significantly and positively correlated. Regression analyses indicated that delay discounting was more closely associated with tobacco use than marijuana use. A variety of questionnaires were also administered, including impulsivity questionnaires. Dependent marijuana users scored as significantly more impulsive on the Impulsiveness subscale of the Eysenck Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire than controls. However, the three groups did not significantly differ on several other personality questionnaires including the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11. The Stanford Time Perception Inventory Present-Fatalistic subscale was positively correlated with money and marijuana discounting, indicating that a greater sense of powerlessness over the future is related to greater delay discounting. Results suggest that current marijuana dependence may be associated with a trend toward increased delay discounting, but this effect size appears to be smaller for marijuana than for previously examined drugs. PMID:20158299

  6. Effects of cannabis and tobacco on the enzymes of alcohol metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marselos, M; Vasiliou, V; Malamas, M; Alikaridis, F; Kefalas, T

    1991-01-01

    The effects of cannabis and tobacco on the enzymes of ethanol metabolism were studied in the Wistar rat. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH) were measured in the liver and the brain, after treatment with an extract of cannabis resin, with an extract of tobacco leaves, or with nicotine. A condensate of cannabis resin extract was collected in a smoking machine, using a tobacco cigarette as the vehicle. Unsmoked or smoked cannabis extracts were dissolved in olive oil and were given i.p. (twice daily, for 7 days). In both cases, a similar dose level was used in terms of starting material (raw cannabis resin), estimated at about 100 mg/kg body weight. Control animals were treated either with olive oil, or with the same amount of smoked condensate obtained from a reference cigarette. Nicotine was dissolved in olive oil and it was given i.p. (10 micrograms/kg, twice daily for 7 days). An extract of unsmoked tobacco was dissolved in olive oil and was given with the same schedule, at a dose which was estimated to correspond to about 10 micrograms nicotine/kg b.w. All groups of animals received an additional i.p. injection on day 8, one hour before sacrifice. Our results showed that unsmoked cannabis inhibited the hepatic activities of the microchondrial AlDH (low-Km and high-Km), the hepatic low-Km cytosolic AlDH (p less than 0.001), and the low-Km mitochondrial AlDH of the brain (p less than 0.001). Administration of smoked cannabis to the animals inhibited the hepatic mitochondrial low-Km AlDH (p less than 0.001), but it did not influence the brain enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A Study of the Use of Cigarettes, Alcohol, and Marijuana by Students Identified as "Seriously Emotionally Disturbed."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Peter E.; And Others

    A drug and alcohol survey was administered to 283 secondary school students in a large suburban school district in the eastern United States. The survey covered demographic information, life events, coping strategies, and prevalence of substance abuse, asking students about initial and current use of a wide range of substances including alcohol,…

  8. Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lang, Delia L.; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3% marijuana in cars. Allowing cigarettes in the home was associated with younger age, racial/ethnic minority status, living off campus, personal marijuana use, parental tobacco use and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in the home included older age, not having children, living off campus, positive perceptions of marijuana and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing cigarettes in cars included personal cigarette and marijuana use, parental tobacco and marijuana use, more cigarette-smoking friends and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in cars included being non-Hispanic black; positive perceptions of marijuana; and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Interventions must target distinct factors influencing policies regarding cigarette versus marijuana use in personal settings to address the consequences of marijuana and cigarette SHSe. PMID:25214515

  9. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes

  10. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... et al. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review. Curr Pharm Des . 2014;20( ...

  11. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  12. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  13. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  14. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  15. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  16. Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393

  17. Alcohol consumption and quitting smoking in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew; McKee, Sherry A; Thompson, Mary E; Cummings, K Michael

    2009-03-01

    Although greater alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased odds of quitting smoking in prospective studies, the aspects of drinking most strongly associated with quitting have not been fully explored and examination of potential confounder variables has been limited. Further studies are needed to inform efforts to enhance smoking cessation among the substantial portion of smokers who drink alcohol. The present study examines: (a) drinking frequency, average weekly quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of heavy drinking as prospective predictors of quit smoking behaviors, (b) difference across countries in this prediction, and (c) third variables that might account for the association between alcohol consumption and quitting smoking. Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective cohort study of smokers in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. A total of 4831 participants provided alcohol data at one study wave and were re-interviewed 1 year later. Individuals who drank heavily (4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively) more than once a week had significantly lower rates of quitting smoking than all other participants, in part due to the fact that a significantly lower proportion of those making a quit attempt remained quit for more than 1 month at follow-up. The role of frequent heavy drinking did not differ by country or sex and was not accounted for by demographics, smoking dependence, or attitudes regarding quitting smoking. Neither drinking frequency nor weekly quantity of consumption showed robust associations with quitting behaviors. Results indicate further study of interventions to address heavy drinking among smokers is warranted.

  18. Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465

  19. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. [Name removed] was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned [name removed]'s conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits.

  20. The Role of Gender in Adolescents' Social Networks and Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…

  1. It is pleasant and heavy: convergence of visual contents in tobacco, alcohol and food marketing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viacava, Keitiline R; Weydmann, Gibson J; de Vasconcelos, Mailton F; Jaboinski, Juliana; Batista, Graziele D; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2016-09-01

    The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. PMID:26069295

  2. Alcohol and tobacco use and cognitive-motivational variables in school settings: effects on academic performance in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence.

  3. Does Family Structure Matter in the Relationships between Youth Assets and Youth Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated significant relationships between youth assets and youth alcohol, tobacco, and drug use that differ according to family structure (one- or two-parent households). Data were collected from a randomly sampled inner-city population (n=1,256 teenagers and 1,256 parents of the teenagers) using in-home, in-person interviews.…

  4. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  5. Indonesian Muslim Adolescents' Use of Tobacco and Alcohol: Associations with Use by Friends and Network Affiliates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Rodkin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this longitudinal study were to predict the tobacco and alcohol use of Indonesian Muslim adolescents from their religiosity and the substance use of friends and network affiliates. At Year 1, there were 996 participants from eighth grade (n = 507, age = 13.4 years) and 10th grade (n = 489, age = 15.4); 875 were followed into the…

  6. Girls' Tobacco and Alcohol Use during Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Elam, Kit; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample…

  7. Parent-Child Communication about Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: What Do Parents Say and Does It Affect Youth Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Pemberton, Michael; Hicks, Katherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent-parent pairs (N=537) were interviewed concerning their communication about tobacco and alcohol use. Parent communication reports identified three domains: rules and discipline; consequences and circumstances; and media influences. Results show that parent-child communication was not related to initiation of smoking or drinking. However,…

  8. Decreasing Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs on a College Campus: Exploring Potential Factors Related to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Erin M.; Shutt, Michael D.; Oswalt, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    High-risk alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use has been a persistent problem on college campuses despite decades of prevention programming. However, some universities may begin to experience a lower prevalence of high-risk behaviors, not because of education efforts, but because of generational changes in the incoming student population.…

  9. Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Drug Use: Racial and Ethnic Differences among U.S. High School Seniors, 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Cooper, Shauna M.

    2002-01-01

    Study examines differences in adolescents' use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs by racial and ethnic groups. Results show significant differences by racial and ethnic groups, and indicate that these differences have changed over time. Future research should examine these differences and seek to identify the sources and consequences of the…

  10. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  11. Santa Clara County Survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Norm; And Others

    This report presents findings from the Santa Clara County (California) survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 administered during the spring of 1991 to 5,180 students in 51 randomly selected county schools. An executive summary discusses sampling error, sample demographics, and findings on drug use…

  12. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer: An Analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Michels, Karin B.; Casagrande, John T.; Cooke, Rosie; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Ewertz, Marianne; Falk, Roni T.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gkiokas, George; Habel, Laurel A.; Hsing, Ann W.; Johnson, Kenneth; Kolonel, Laurence N.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lynge, Elsebeth; Lubin, Jay H.; McCormack, Valerie A.; Negri, Eva; Olsson, Håkan; Parisi, Dominick; Petridou, Eleni Th.; Riboli, Elio; Sesso, Howard D.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Thomas, David B.; Willett, Walter C.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. Methods The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium provided 2,378 cases and 51,959 controls for analysis from 10 case-control and 10 cohort studies. Individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate study design-specific (case-control/cohort) odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), which were then combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. Results Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption and average grams of alcohol consumed per day were also not associated with risk; only one sub-analysis of very high recent alcohol consumption (>60 grams/day) was tentatively associated with male breast cancer (ORunexposed referent=1.29, 95%CI:0.97–1.71; OR>0–<7 g/day referent=1.36, 95%CI:1.04–1.77). Specific alcoholic beverage types were not associated with male breast cancer. Relations were not altered when stratified by age or body mass index. Conclusions In this analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project we found little evidence that tobacco and alcohol exposures were associated with risk of male breast cancer. Impact Tobacco and alcohol do not appear to be carcinogenic for male breast cancer. Future studies should aim to assess these exposures in relation to subtypes of male breast cancer. PMID:25515550

  13. Women Inmate Substance Abusers’ Reactivity to Visual Alcohol, Cigarette, Marijuana, and Crack-Cocaine Cues: Approach and Avoidance as Separate Dimensions of Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; Breiner, Mary J.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Christensen, Rita L.; Lang, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing recognition for multidimensional assessments of cue-elicited craving, few studies have attempted to measure multiple response domains associated with craving. The present study evaluated the Ambivalence Model of Craving (Breiner et al., 1999; Stritzke et al., 2007) using a unique cue reactivity methodology designed to capture both the desire to use (approach inclination) and desire to not consume (avoidance inclination) in a clinical sample of incarcerated female substance abusers. Participants were 155 incarcerated women who were participating in or waiting to begin participation in a nine-month drug treatment program. Results indicated that all four substance cue-types (alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and crack cocaine) had good reliability and showed high specificity. Also, the validity of measuring approach and avoidance as separate dimensions was supported, as demonstrated by meaningful clinical distinctions between groups evincing different reactivity patterns and incremental prediction of avoidance inclinations on measures of stages of change readiness. Taken together, results continue to highlight the importance of measuring both approach and avoidance inclinations in the study of cue-elicited craving. PMID:23543075

  14. Characterizing the Followers and Tweets of a Marijuana-Focused Twitter Handle

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter is a popular social media forum for sharing personal experiences, interests, and opinions. An improved understanding of the discourse on Twitter that encourages marijuana use can be helpful for tailoring and targeting online and offline prevention messages. Objectives The intent of the study was to assess the content of “tweets” and the demographics of followers of a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (@stillblazingtho). Methods We assessed the sentiment and content of tweets (sent from May 1 to December 31, 2013), as well as the demographics of consumers that follow a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (approximately 1,000,000 followers) using Twitter analytics from Demographics Pro. This analytics company estimates demographic characteristics based on Twitter behavior/usage, relying on multiple data signals from networks, consumption, and language and requires confidence of 95% or above to make an estimate of a single demographic characteristic. Results A total of 2590 tweets were sent from @stillblazingtho during the 8-month period and 305 (11.78%) replies to another Twitter user were excluded for qualitative analysis. Of the remaining 2285 tweets, 1875 (82.06%) were positive about marijuana, 403 (17.64%) were neutral, and 7 (0.31%) appeared negative about marijuana. Approximately 1101 (58.72%) of the positive marijuana tweets were perceived as jokes or humorous, 340 (18.13%) implied that marijuana helps you to feel good or relax, 294 (15.68%) mentioned routine, frequent, or heavy use, 193 (10.29%) mentioned blunts, marijuana edibles, or paraphernalia (eg, bongs, vaporizers), and 186 (9.92%) mentioned other risky health behaviors (eg, tobacco, alcohol, other drugs, sex). The majority (699,103/959,143; 72.89%) of @stillblazingtho followers were 19 years old or younger. Among people ages 17 to 19 years, @stillblazingtho was in the top 10% of all Twitter handles followed. More followers of @stillblazingtho in the United States were

  15. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  16. Twitter Chatter about Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L.; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users, and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. Methods We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n=7000) of influential marijuana-related Tweets (sent from 2/5 – 3/5/2014). Demographics of the users Tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (DemographicsPro for Twitter). Results Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment towards marijuana use, with pro-marijuana Tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana Tweets by a factor of over 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana Tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by Tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use and stating that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African American compared to the Twitter average. Conclusions Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at-risk for harms associated with marijuana use. PMID:25620299

  17. Trends in Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Intake, Tobacco Smoking, and Colorectal Cancer in Polish Population in 1960–2008

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men. PMID:24369529

  18. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  19. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  20. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous population-based studies have found that delusional-like experiences (DLE) are prevalent in the community, and are associated with a wide range of mental health disorders including substance use. The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances - tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and substance use. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8 773 participants, 8.4% (n = 776) subjects endorsed one or more DLE. With respect to tobacco use, compared to nonusers, DLE were more common in those who (a) had daily use, (b) commenced usage aged 15 years or less, and (c) those who smoked heavily (23 or more cigarettes per day). Participants with cannabis use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE; this association was most prominent in those with an onset of 16 years or younger. In contrast, the pattern of association between DLE versus alcohol use or dependence was less consistent, however those with early onset alcohol use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE probe items. Conclusions While cannabis use disorders have been previously linked with DLE, our findings linking alcohol and tobacco use and DLE suggest that the influence of these substances on psychosis-related outcomes warrants closer scrutiny in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:22204498

  1. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  2. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  3. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  4. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  5. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  6. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  7. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  8. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  9. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  10. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  11. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  12. Psychographic characteristics, tobacco, and alcohol use in a sample of young adults on the U.S./México border.

    PubMed

    Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V; Hernandez, Nora; Law, Jon

    2016-12-01

    Few studies using psychographic segmentation have been conducted; even fewer in minority samples. Study aims were to identify psychographic clusters and their relation to tobacco and alcohol use within a predominantly Hispanic (87%) young adult (ages 18-25) sample. Participants (N=754; 72.5% female; Mage=20.7 [2.2]) completed the following measures online: sociodemographics, tobacco use history, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire (Collins, Parks, & Marlatt, 1985), a social activities scale, a psychographic survey, a music preference item, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, & Donohew, 2002), and the Mini-International Personality Item Pool (Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, & Lucas, 2006). Two step cluster analysis identified two groups. 'Popular Extroverts' (49.3% of sample) reported higher: extroversion scores F(1, 652)=40.03, sensation seeking scores F(1, 652)=20.38, alcohol use (greater number of drinks per week [F(1, 652)=9.69]; and past month binge drinking [χ² (1)=12.80]), and lifetime tobacco use (χ² [1]=10.61) (all ps≤0.002). 'Mainstream/Conventionals' (50.7% of sample) reported greater intentions to smoke in the next month F(1, 284)=11.81, p=0.001. 'Popular Extroverts' may benefit from prevention/cessation messaging promoting peer support and intensity-oriented activities. For 'Mainstream/Conventionals,' messaging communicating negative attitudes toward smoking and the tobacco industry may be effective. Future directions include testing targeted messages which may be incorporated into mass media tobacco and alcohol interventions for young adults on the U.S./México border.

  13. Psychographic characteristics, tobacco, and alcohol use in a sample of young adults on the U.S./México border.

    PubMed

    Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V; Hernandez, Nora; Law, Jon

    2016-12-01

    Few studies using psychographic segmentation have been conducted; even fewer in minority samples. Study aims were to identify psychographic clusters and their relation to tobacco and alcohol use within a predominantly Hispanic (87%) young adult (ages 18-25) sample. Participants (N=754; 72.5% female; Mage=20.7 [2.2]) completed the following measures online: sociodemographics, tobacco use history, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire (Collins, Parks, & Marlatt, 1985), a social activities scale, a psychographic survey, a music preference item, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, & Donohew, 2002), and the Mini-International Personality Item Pool (Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, & Lucas, 2006). Two step cluster analysis identified two groups. 'Popular Extroverts' (49.3% of sample) reported higher: extroversion scores F(1, 652)=40.03, sensation seeking scores F(1, 652)=20.38, alcohol use (greater number of drinks per week [F(1, 652)=9.69]; and past month binge drinking [χ² (1)=12.80]), and lifetime tobacco use (χ² [1]=10.61) (all ps≤0.002). 'Mainstream/Conventionals' (50.7% of sample) reported greater intentions to smoke in the next month F(1, 284)=11.81, p=0.001. 'Popular Extroverts' may benefit from prevention/cessation messaging promoting peer support and intensity-oriented activities. For 'Mainstream/Conventionals,' messaging communicating negative attitudes toward smoking and the tobacco industry may be effective. Future directions include testing targeted messages which may be incorporated into mass media tobacco and alcohol interventions for young adults on the U.S./México border. PMID:27393933

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. PMID:21353750

  15. Using Internet to recruit immigrants with language and culture barriers for tobacco and alcohol use screening: a study among Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Safioti, Luciana; Rue, Tessa C; Miles, Lyndsay

    2015-04-01

    Limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face disparities in accessing substance abuse treatment, but little is known on how to reach this population. This study aimed to test online recruitment methods for tobacco and alcohol screening among LEP Portuguese speakers. The study was advertised in Portuguese using Facebook, Google, online newsletters and E-mail. Participants clicked ads to consent and access a screening for tobacco and alcohol dependence. Ads yielded 690 screening responses in 90 days. Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 (SD 12), with a higher proportion of women than men, 95% born in Brazil with high levels of LEP and low levels of acculturation. Facebook ads yielded 41.4% of responses, and were the lowest cost recruitment channel ($8.9, $31.10 and $20.40 per respondent, hazardous drinker and smoker, respectively). Online recruitment of LEP populations is feasible. Future studies should test similar strategies in other LEP groups. PMID:24563138

  16. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2 mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531 mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the "high risk" category with MOE < 10, the rest of the compounds except THC fall into the "risk" category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the "high risk" category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the "risk" category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572

  17. Association between opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) gene polymorphisms and tobacco and alcohol consumption in a Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    Francés, Francesc; Portolés, Olga; Castelló, Ana; Costa, José Antonio; Verdú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Evidence gained from animals and humans suggests that the encephalic opioid system might be involved in the development of drug addiction through its role in reward. Our aim is to assess the influence of genetic variations in the opioid receptor mu 1 on alcohol and tobacco consumption in a Spanish population. 763 unrelated individuals (465 women, 298 men) aged 18-85 years were recruited between October 2011 and April 2012. Participants were requested to answer a 35-item questionnaire on tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as to complete the AUDIT and Fagerström tests. Individuals were genotyped for three polymorphisms in the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) gene, using a TaqMan® protocol. In males, the rs10485057 polymorphism was associated with total pure ethanol intake and with the risk of being an alcohol consumer. Also, this polymorphism was significantly associated with higher Fagerström scores. Rs1799971 had a different influence on adaptive and maladaptive patterns of alcohol use. Despite the limited sample size, our study might enrich current knowledge on patterns of alcohol use, because it encompasses both extreme and adaptive phenotypes, providing thus a wider perspective on this subject. PMID:26042510

  18. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2 mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531 mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the “high risk” category with MOE < 10, the rest of the compounds except THC fall into the “risk” category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the “high risk” category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the “risk” category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572

  19. Risk of pancreatic cancer in relation to medical history and the use of tobacco, alcohol and coffee.

    PubMed

    Farrow, D C; Davis, S

    1990-05-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted to examine the relationship between certain medical conditions, the use of tobacco, alcohol and coffee, and the incidence of pancreatic cancer. Cases (N = 148) were married men ages 20 through 74 years diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from July 1982 through June 1986. Controls (N = 188) were identified by random digit dialing. Wives, responding as surrogates for both cases and controls, were interviewed by telephone and completed, alone, a food frequency questionnaire. The risk of pancreatic cancer was increased in individuals with a history of diabetes or pancreatitis, and decreased in those with a history of tonsillectomy. Individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes were at elevated risk of disease. This excess risk was confined to current smokers, in whom the odds ratio was 3.2 (95% CI 1.8-5.7); the risk among former smokers resembled that in those who had never smoked. There was no excess risk of pancreatic cancer among those who had ever used other forms of tobacco, including pipe tobacco, cigars and chewing tobacco. After adjustment for demographic and dietary characteristics, there was no association between pancreatic cancer risk and the intake of coffee, beer, red wine, hard liquor or all alcohol combined; a slight reduction in risk was seen among those consuming white wine daily. PMID:2335385

  20. Impulsivity, negative expectancies, and marijuana use: a test of the acquired preparedness model.

    PubMed

    Vangsness, Laura; Bry, Brenna H; LaBouvie, Erich W

    2005-06-01

    According to the 'acquired preparedness model,' expectancies mediate the relationship between an impulsive personality style and alcohol use. The current study evaluated whether the model can also be applied to marijuana use. Estimated probabilities and subjective evaluations of personally expected marijuana effects, along with impulsivity and frequency of marijuana use, were assessed in 337 college undergraduates. Tests of mediation examining positive and negative marijuana expectancies showed negative expectancies to be a significant mediator for both males and females. That is, participants who were higher on impulsivity had fewer negative expectancies and in turn used more marijuana. This study provides evidence that the acquired preparedness model may help to explain marijuana use.

  1. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  2. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  3. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  4. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  5. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  6. Risk for Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs on the Route to and from School: The Role of Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Bradshaw, CP; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    Despite the national push encouraging children to walk to school, little work has been done to examine what hazards children encounter on the route to school. This study examined the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on children’s route to school and perceived safety on the route to school as well as exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Data come from a community-based epidemiological study of 394 urban elementary school students. Participants’ residential address, school location, and alcohol outlet data were geocoded and the route to school was mapped. The route to school layer and the geocoded alcohol outlet data were joined to determine the number of alcohol outlets children pass on the route to school. Logistic regression models estimated the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on the route to school, alcohol and drug exposure, and self-reported safety. Children with an alcohol outlet on the route to school were more likely to be offered ATOD (OR= 2.20, p=.02) as well as be exposed to drug selling (OR=1.72, p=.02) and seeing people using drugs (OR=1.93, p=.02). After adjusting for individual-level variables the relationship between presence of alcohol outlets and being offered ATOD and seeing people using drugs remained significant. However, after adjusting for individual-level control variables and a proxy for the larger neighborhood context, the association between the presence of alcohol outlets and exposure to ATOD was no longer significant. As national campaigns are encouraging children to walk to school it is essential to consider what children are exposed to on the route to school. PMID:23408286

  7. Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

  8. Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hashibe, Mia; Straif, Kurt; Tashkin, Donald P; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-04-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States and is considered by young adults to be the illicit drug with the least risk. On the other hand, marijuana smoke contains several of the same carcinogens and co-carcinogens as the tar from tobacco, raising concerns that smoking of marijuana may be a risk factor for tobacco-related cancers. We reviewed two cohort studies and 14 case-control studies with assessment of the association of marijuana use and cancer risk. In the cohort studies, increased risks of lung or colorectal cancer due to marijuana smoking were not observed, but increased risks of prostate and cervical cancers among non-tobacco smokers, as well as adult-onset glioma among tobacco and non-tobacco smokers, were observed. The 14 case-control studies included four studies on head and neck cancers, two studies on lung cancer, two studies on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one study on anal cancer, one study on penile cancer, and four studies on childhood cancers with assessment of parental exposures. Zhang and colleagues reported that marijuana use may increase risk of head and neck cancers in a hospital-based case-control study in the United States, with dose-response relations for both frequency and duration of use. However, Rosenblatt and co-workers reported no association between oral cancer and marijuana use in a population-based case-control study. An eightfold increase in risk among marijuana users was observed in a lung cancer study in Tunisia. However, there was no assessment of the dose response, and marijuana may have been mixed with tobacco. Parental marijuana use during gestation was associated with increased risks of childhood leukemia, astrocytoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, but dose-response relations were not assessed. In summary, sufficient studies are not available to adequately evaluate marijuana impact on cancer risk. Several limitations of previous studies include possible underreporting where marijuana use is illegal, small

  9. Screening and Treatment for Alcohol, Tobacco and Opioid Use Disorders: A Survey of Family Physicians across Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Loheswaran, Genane; Soklaridis, Sophie; Selby, Peter; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a primary point of contact within the health care system, family physicians are able to play a vital role in identifying individuals with substance use disorders and connecting them to the appropriate treatment. However, there is very little data available on whether family physicians are actively screening for and treating substance use disorders. The objective of the current survey was to assess whether family physicians in Ontario are screening for alcohol, opioid and tobacco use disorders, using validated tools and providing treatment. Methods An online survey consisting of a series of 38 primarily close-ended questions was circulated to family physicians in Ontario. Rates of screening for alcohol, opioid and tobacco dependence, use of validated tools for screening, providing treatment for dependent individuals and the current barriers to the prescription of pharmacotherapies for these drug dependences were assessed. Results The use of validated screening tools was limited for all three substances. Screening by family physicians for the substance use disorders among adolescents was much lower than screening among adults. Pharmacotherapy was more commonly used as an intervention for tobacco dependence than for alcohol and opioid dependence. This was explained by the lack of knowledge among family physicians on the pharmacotherapies for alcohol and opioid dependence. Conclusions Findings from the current study suggest there is a need for family physicians to integrate screening for substance use disorders using validated tools into their standard medical practice. Furthermore, there is a need for increased knowledge on pharmacotherapies for alcohol and opioid use disorders. It is important to note that the low response rate is a major limitation to this study. One possible reason for this low response rate may be a lack of interest and awareness among family physicians on the importance of screening and treatment of substance use disorders in

  10. Ecodevelopmental Predictors of Early Initiation of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use Among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Estrada, Yannine; Huang, Shi; Martínez, Marcos; Sardinas, Krystal; Prado, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test the transactional relationships of risk and protective factors that influence initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and drug use among Hispanic youth. Ecodevelopmental theory was used to identify factors at multiple ecological levels with a focus on four school-level characteristics (i.e. school socioeconomic status, school climate, school acculturation, and school ethnic composition). A sample of 741 Hispanic adolescents (M age =13.9, SD =.67) and their caregivers were recruited from 18 participating middle schools in Miami-Dade County, FL. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized ecodevelopmental model of early substance use, accounting for school clustering effects. Results provided strong support for the model (CFI = .95; RMSEA =.03). School SES was indirectly related to the likelihood of starting to use substances through perceived peer use norms (β =.03, p <.02). Similarly, school climate had an indirect effect on substance use initiation through family functioning and perceptions of peer use norms (β = −.03, p < .01). Neither school ethnic composition nor school acculturation had indirect effects on initiation of substance use. Results highlight the importance of the interplay of risk and protective factors at multiple ecological levels that impact early substance use initiation. Further, findings underscore the key role of school level characteristics on initiation of substance use and present opportunities for intervention. PMID:26054814

  11. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand - purchases at lowest price; Omax - max. spent on marijuana; Pmax - price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants “purchased” high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2-weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine its reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  12. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Seema; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86–8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25–6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem. PMID:27630784

  13. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayakrishnan, Radhakrishnan; Geetha, Seema; Mohanan Nair, Jagathnath Krishna Kumara Pillai; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86-8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25-6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem. PMID:27630784

  14. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Seema; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86–8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25–6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem.

  15. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  16. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    PubMed

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-06-17

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.

  17. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    PubMed

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures. PMID:26132299

  18. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  19. Trends from 1987 to 1991 in Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) Use among Adolescents Exposed to a School District-Wide Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younoszai, Tina M.; Lorhmann, David K.; Seefeldt, Carol A.; Greene, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based prevention program initiated to reduce alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. Investigates changes in reported ATOD use from 1987 to 1991. Significant decreases were found for use of most drugs with the exception of alcohol. Involvement in problem behaviors was the most salient risk factor whereas…

  20. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  1. Research Reports: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana » Letter From the Director Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Letter From the Director Changes ... PDF (3MB) ePub (319KB) Kindle (625KB) Online Only Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  2. The synergy of tobacco and alcohol and glutathione S-transferase θ 1 gene deletion and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    D’ Mello, Sarah; Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Paremala, K; Makarla, Soumya; Sudhakara, M; Bhatt, Madhura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the leading cancer among males in India. It is related to tobacco habits and alcohol consumption as well as the individual susceptibility for xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms. Glutathione S-transferase θ 1 (GSTT1) is a Phase II metabolic enzyme which is directly involved in catalyzing chemicals to mutagenic intermediates. This gene is characterized by genetic polymorphism resulting in complete gene deletion and subsequent absence of the enzyme, which ultimately dictates the risk of cancer development. Scraping buccal mucosa to obtain DNA from the cells is a simple, readily acceptable and rapid method to detect and assess the gene. Aim: To assess GSTT1 gene deletion in individuals giving a history of tobacco smoking and/or chewing and alcohol consumption and absence of clinically detectable lesions; and in OSCC cases to gauge if GSTT1 gene deletion confers protection to an individual and whether it can be used as a “single” marker to arrive at this conclusion. To validate the use of buccal scrape for determining the genotype of an individual by assessing the polymorphism at GSTT1 gene locus (22q11.2). Materials and Methods: Fifty-two cases were evaluated using buccal mucosal scrapes of tobacco habituates for 8 or more years, without clinically evident lesion (Group I) and from mucosa of tobacco habituates with clinically evident and histopathologically confirmed OSCC (Group II). DNA extraction and genotype at GSTT1 gene locus was determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: 90.66% of subjects had GSTT1 null genotype in Group I subjects. In Group II, subjects with both clinically and histopathologically diagnosed oral cancer, about 76.96% had GSTT1 null genotype. Conclusion: GSTT1 null genotype confers protection to individuals with tobacco habits and alcohol consumption, predominantly to those who used

  3. The Economic Geography of Medical Marijuana Dispensaries in California

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Chris; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Remer, Lillian G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of laws that permit the use of marijuana for medical purposes has led to the emergence of a medical marijuana industry in some US states. This study assessed the spatial distribution of medical marijuana dispensaries according to estimated marijuana demand, socioeconomic indicators, alcohol outlets and other socio-demographic factors. Method Telephone survey data from 5,940 residents of 39 California cities were used to estimate social and demographic correlates of marijuana demand. These individual-level estimates were then used to calculate aggregate marijuana demand (i.e. market potential) for 7,538 census block groups. Locations of actively operating marijuana dispensaries were then related to the measure of demand and the socio-demographic characteristics of census block groups using multilevel Bayesian conditional autoregressive logit models. Results Marijuana dispensaries were located in block groups with greater marijuana demand, higher rates of poverty, alcohol outlets, and in areas just outside city boundaries. For the sampled block groups, a 10% increase in demand within a block group was associated with 2.4% greater likelihood of having a dispensary, and a 10% increase in the city-wide demand was associated with a 6.7% greater likelihood of having a dispensary. Conclusion High demand for marijuana within individual block groups and within cities is related to the location of marijuana dispensaries at a block-group level. The relationship to low income, alcohol outlets and unincorporated areas indicates that dispensaries may open in areas that lack the resources to resist their establishment. PMID:24439710

  4. Gastric cancer risk in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in Kerala, India - Karunagappally cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Hassani, Soroush; Nandakumar, Athira; Koriyama, Chihaya; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in the Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, South India. METHODS: This study examined the association of tobacco use and alcohol drinking with GC incidence among 65553 men aged 30-84 in the Karunagappally cohort. During the period from 1990-2009, 116 GC cases in the cohort were identified as incident cancers. These cases were identified from the population-based cancer registry. Information regarding risk factors such as socioeconomic factors and tobacco and alcohol habits of cohort members were collected from the database of the baseline survey conducted during 1990-1997. The relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for tobacco use were obtained from Poisson regression analysis of grouped survival data, considering age, follow-up period, occupation and education. RESULTS: Bidi smoking was associated with GC risk (P = 0.042). The RR comparing current versus never smokers was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.0-2.5). GC risk was associated with the number of bidis smoked daily (P = 0.012) and with the duration of bidi smoking (P = 0.036). Those who started bidi smoking at younger ages were at an elevated GC risk; the RRs for those starting bidi smoking under the age of 18 and ages 18-22 were 2.0 (95%CI: 1.0-3.9) and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively, when their risks were compared with lifetime non-smokers of bidis. Bidi smoking increased the risk of GC among never cigarette smokers more evidently (RR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-4.0). GC risk increased with the cumulative amount of bidi smoking, which was calculated as the number of bidis smoked per day x years of smoking (bidi-year; P = 0.017). Cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing or alcohol drinking was not significantly associated with GC risk. CONCLUSION: Among a male cohort in South India, gastric cancer risk increased with the number and duration of bidi smoking. PMID:26640345

  5. Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiological effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the subjective, physiological, and pharmacokinetic effects of marijuana smoked by these two methods. Marijuana blunt smokers (12 women and 12 men) were recruited and participated in a 6-session outpatient study. Participants were blindfolded and smoked three puffs from either a blunt or a joint containing marijuana with varying Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations (0.0, 1.8, and 3.6%). Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3h after smoking. Joints produced greater increases in plasma THC and subjective ratings of marijuana intoxication, strength, and quality compared to blunts, and these effects were more pronounced in women compared to men. However, blunts produced equivalent increases in heart rate and higher carbon monoxide levels than joints, despite producing lower levels of plasma THC. These findings demonstrate that smoking marijuana in a tobacco leaf may increase the risks of marijuana use by enhancing carbon monoxide exposure and increasing heart rate compared to joints. PMID:19443132

  6. Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kamangar, F; Aghcheli, K; Sotoudeh, M; Islami, F; Abnet, C C; Shakeri, R; Pourshams, A; Marjani, H A; Nouraie, M; Khatibian, M; Semnani, S; Ye, W; Boffetta, P; Dawsey, S M; Malekzadeh, R

    2008-06-01

    The very high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran was suggested by studies in the 1970s as partly due to opium use, which is not uncommon in this area, but based on limited numbers. From December 2003 to June 2007, we administered a validated structured questionnaire to 300 ESCC cases and 571 controls, matched on neighbourhood of residence, age (+/-2 years), and sex. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with those who used neither tobacco nor opium, risk of ESCC was increased in those who used tobacco only (OR, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.05-2.73), in those who used opium only (2.12, 1.21-3.74), and in those who used both tobacco and opium (2.35, 1.50-3.67). All forms of tobacco use (cigarettes, hookah, and nass) were associated with higher ESCC risk. Similarly, use of both crude opium and other forms of opium were associated with higher risk. Alcohol consumption was seen in only 2% of the cases and 2% of the controls, and was not associated with ESCC risk.

  7. Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kamangar, F; Aghcheli, K; Sotoudeh, M; Islami, F; Abnet, C C; Shakeri, R; Pourshams, A; Marjani, H A; Nouraie, M; Khatibian, M; Semnani, S; Ye, W; Boffetta, P; Dawsey, S M; Malekzadeh, R

    2008-01-01

    The very high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran was suggested by studies in the 1970s as partly due to opium use, which is not uncommon in this area, but based on limited numbers. From December 2003 to June 2007, we administered a validated structured questionnaire to 300 ESCC cases and 571 controls, matched on neighbourhood of residence, age (±2 years), and sex. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with those who used neither tobacco nor opium, risk of ESCC was increased in those who used tobacco only (OR, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.05–2.73), in those who used opium only (2.12, 1.21–3.74), and in those who used both tobacco and opium (2.35, 1.50–3.67). All forms of tobacco use (cigarettes, hookah, and nass) were associated with higher ESCC risk. Similarly, use of both crude opium and other forms of opium were associated with higher risk. Alcohol consumption was seen in only 2% of the cases and 2% of the controls, and was not associated with ESCC risk. PMID:18475303

  8. Tobacco, alcohol, asbestos, and nickel in the etiology of cancer of the larynx: a case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.D.; Howe, G.R.; Miller, A.B.; Semenciw, R.

    1981-12-01

    A case-control study of laryngeal cancer was conducted in southern Ontario between 1977 and 1979 with 204 subjects with newly diagnosed cancer and 204 controls, individually matched by sex, age, and residence. Tobacco products and alcohol showed strong associations with cancer of the larynx for males, with relative risks (RR) for users of cigarettes, cigars or cigarillos, pipes, and alcohol of 6.1, 2.9, 1.6, and 5.2, respectively. The population attributable risk percent for males using tobacco products and alcohol together was estimated to be 94%. Cigarette smoking was also an important risk factor for females, although the small number of female pairs (20) precluded any meaningful detailed analysis of other possible risk factors. The RR for males for exposure to asbestos after the effects of cigarette smoking were controlled was 2.3, and the effects seemed restricted to cigarette smokers. The findings on asbestos were based on small numbers of cases and controls exposed and consequently were subject to large sampling errors. The estimate was consistent, however, with that from other studies and supported a causal role for asbestos exposure and cancer of the larynx. The RR for males for exposure to nickel was 0.9.

  9. Ten Years and 1 Master Settlement Agreement Later: The Nature and Frequency of Alcohol and Tobacco Promotion in Televised Sports, 2000 Through 2002

    PubMed Central

    Zwarun, Lara

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. I sought to identify what kinds of promotion for alcohol and tobacco products are found in televised sports programming, as well as how frequently they occur. I compared my findings with data from 5 and 10 years earlier to examine the effects of the Master Settlement Agreement and detect industry trends. Method. A content analysis of more than 83 hours of televised sports programming from 2000 through 2002 was conducted. Composite week sampling was used to ensure results were representative of the overall population of television sports programs. Programs were examined for traditional advertising (commercials) and nontraditional advertising (stadium signs, announcer voiceovers, etc.). Results. Rates of certain types of alcohol advertising have decreased, but what remains is strategically chosen to increase the likelihood of audience exposure. Despite the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco advertising remains prevalent in many sports. A new trend of placing alcohol and tobacco brand names in commercials for other products is evident. Conclusions. Alcohol and tobacco marketers appear able to cleverly adapt to advertising challenges, such as digital video recorders and legislation. Alcohol and tobacco brands remain visible on sports programming. PMID:16809598

  10. Further Validation of a Marijuana Purchase Task

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Background A valid measure of the relative economic value of marijuana is needed to characterize individual variation in the drug’s reinforcing value and inform evolving national marijuana policy. Relative drug value (demand) can be measured via purchase tasks, and demand for alcohol and cigarettes has been associated with craving, dependence, and treatment response. This study examined marijuana demand with a marijuana purchase task (MPT). Methods The 22-item self-report MPT was administered to 99 frequent marijuana users (37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days, 15.2% cannabis dependent). Results Pearson correlations indicated a negative relationship between intensity (free consumption) and age of initiation of regular use (r=−0.34, p<0.001), and positive associations with use days (r=0.26, p<0.05) and subjective craving (r=0.43, p<0.001). Omax (maximum expenditure) was positively associated with use days (r=0.29, p<0.01) and subjective craving (r=0.27, p<0.01). Income was not associated with demand. An exponential demand model provided an excellent fit to the data across users (R2=0.99). Group comparisons based on presence or absence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence symptoms revealed that users with any dependence symptoms showed significantly higher intensity of demand and more inelastic demand, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Conclusions These results provide support for construct validity of the MPT, indicating its sensitivity to marijuana demand as a function of increasing cost, and its ability to differentiate between users with and without dependence symptoms. The MPT may denote abuse liability and is a valuable addition to the behavioral economic literature. Potential applications to marijuana pricing and tax policy are discussed. PMID:26002377

  11. Marijuana and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  12. Associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with HIV/STD risk behavior in high-risk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hendershot, Christian S.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest an association of marijuana use with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Most studies have focused on global associations of marijuana use with sexual risk outcomes and few have examined relevant cognitive variables. Adolescents in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV/STDs and preliminary evidence suggests that marijuana is a potentially important cofactor for sexual risk behavior in this population. This study evaluated global, situational and event-level associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with sexual risk outcomes in a large, racially diverse sample of adjudicated youth (n = 656, 66% male, mean age = 16.7 years). Cross-sectional and prospective analyses identified associations of marijuana use and dependence symptoms with sexual risk outcomes, including lower frequency of condom use and higher STD incidence. Stronger sex-related marijuana expectancies predicted greater intentions for and frequency of marijuana use in sexual situations. In event-level analyses that controlled for alcohol, marijuana use predicted a significantly decreased likelihood of condom use; this association was moderated by sex-related marijuana expectancies. Mediation analyses suggested that behavioral intentions partly accounted for the prospective association of expectancies with marijuana use before sex. These results provide further evidence that marijuana use is a potentially important cofactor for HIV/STD transmission in high-risk adolescents and suggest that cognitive factors could be important for characterizing this association. PMID:20853925

  13. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  14. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P.; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n=11), lung cancer (n=6), testicular cancer (n=3), childhood cancers (n=6), all cancers (n=1), anal cancer (n=1), penile cancer (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=2), malignant primary gliomas(n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), and Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by HPV status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared to tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use (summary odds ratios 1.56 (95%CI=1.09-2.23) for higher frequency; 1.50 (95%=1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years). For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  15. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA ( ... straight years, whereas driving under the influence of alcohol or riding with a driver who had been ...

  16. Medical marijuana: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, J T

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy.

  17. Preventing illegal tobacco and alcohol sales to minors through electronic age-verification devices: a field effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad; Capitman, John A; Oblak, Leslie; Cannon, Joanna B; Ruwe, Mathilda

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to prohibit the sales of tobacco and alcohol products to minors are widespread. Electronic Age Verification (EAV) devices are one possible means to improve compliance with sales to minors laws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of EAV devices in terms of the frequency and accuracy of age verification, as well as to examine the impact of EAV's on the retailer environment. Two study locations were selected: Tallahassee, Florida and Iowa City, Iowa. Retail stores were invited to participate in the study, producing a self-selected experimental group. Stores that did not elect to test the EAV's comprised the comparison group. The data sources included: 1) mystery shopper inspections: two pre- and five post-EAV installation mystery shopper inspections of tobacco and alcohol retailers; 2) retail clerk and manager interviews; and 3) customer interviews. The study found that installing EAV devices with minimal training and encouragement did not increase age verification and underage sales refusal. Surveyed clerks reported positive experiences using the electronic ID readers and customers reported almost no discomfort about being asked to swipe their IDs. Observations from this study support the need for a more comprehensive system for responsible retailing.

  18. Reducing the Role of the Food, Tobacco, and Alcohol Industries in Noncommunicable Disease Risk in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and food corporations in promoting NCD risk and unhealthy lifestyles in South Africa and in exacerbating inequities in NCD distribution among populations. Through their business practices such as product design, marketing, retail distribution, and pricing and their business practices such as lobbying, public relations, philanthropy, and sponsored research, national and transnational corporations in South Africa shape the social and physical environments that structure opportunities for NCD risk behavior. Since the election of a democratic government in 1994, the South African government and civil society groups have used regulation, public education, health services, and community mobilization to modify corporate practices that increase NCD risk. By expanding the practice of health education to include activities that seek to modify the practices of corporations as well as individuals, South Africa can reduce the growing burden of NCDs. PMID:27037150

  19. The role of drug use sequencing pattern in further problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Maurício; Martins, Silvia S.; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Nicastri, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been considerable debate regarding what typically occurs after experimentation with drugs throughout the life of young people who used various drugs. Aims To evaluate the clinical importance of the most common sequence for the first use of a drug by two models(the ‘gateway model’ and the ‘alternative model’, which is the most popular sequence for Brazilian university students according to a previous study) regarding the problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drugs, assessed by ASSIST. Method People who had already experimented with three or more drugs across different stages of the two models were selected from a representative sample of university students from 27 Brazilian capitals(n=12, 711). Findings There were no differences regarding the problematic use of the most consumed drugs in Brazil(alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) between the models. Multiple drug seekers and violators had more problematic use of illegal drugs other than cannabis than individuals in the model sequence. However, in the case of violators, this was only evident in the alternative model. Conclusions Multiple drug seekers and violators deserve special attention due to their increased risk of problematic use of other illegal drugs. Declaration of interest None. PMID:25188583

  20. Preventing illegal tobacco and alcohol sales to minors through electronic age-verification devices: a field effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad; Capitman, John A; Oblak, Leslie; Cannon, Joanna B; Ruwe, Mathilda

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to prohibit the sales of tobacco and alcohol products to minors are widespread. Electronic Age Verification (EAV) devices are one possible means to improve compliance with sales to minors laws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of EAV devices in terms of the frequency and accuracy of age verification, as well as to examine the impact of EAV's on the retailer environment. Two study locations were selected: Tallahassee, Florida and Iowa City, Iowa. Retail stores were invited to participate in the study, producing a self-selected experimental group. Stores that did not elect to test the EAV's comprised the comparison group. The data sources included: 1) mystery shopper inspections: two pre- and five post-EAV installation mystery shopper inspections of tobacco and alcohol retailers; 2) retail clerk and manager interviews; and 3) customer interviews. The study found that installing EAV devices with minimal training and encouragement did not increase age verification and underage sales refusal. Surveyed clerks reported positive experiences using the electronic ID readers and customers reported almost no discomfort about being asked to swipe their IDs. Observations from this study support the need for a more comprehensive system for responsible retailing. PMID:15015859

  1. Neurobiology of marijuana abuse.

    PubMed

    Abood, M E; Martin, B R

    1992-05-01

    Marijuana has a long history of abuse yet, as described here by Mary Abood and Billy Martin, there is little evidence that animals will self-administer the primary psychoactive constituent, tetrahydrocannabinol, or that marijuana stimulates brain reward pathways. While marked tolerance develops to marijuana, it has been difficult to demonstrate physical dependence, and until recently the mechanisms by which cannabinoids produced their behavioral effects were poorly defined. The development of new synthetic analogs played a critical role in the characterization and cloning of the cannabinoid receptor. Insight into cannabinoid receptors may lead to a better understanding of marijuana abuse in humans and provide new therapeutic strategies for several disorders.

  2. Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. Methods Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 – 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, including votes for the legalization of medical marijuana and the number of medical marijuana cards were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings Living in a county with more medical marijuana cards was not related to lifetime or 30 day marijuana use. However, voter approval of medical marijuana was positively related to lifetime and 30 day use. Perceived ease of access to marijuana was positively related to medical marijuana cards, but this relation became non-significant when voter approval was controlled. Among marijuana users, marijuana cards and voter approval were positively related to perceived ease of access. Conclusions The relation between medical marijuana cards and youth use may be related to an overall normative environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. Interventions to prevent youth marijuana use should focus on adult norms regarding use by and provision of marijuana to youths. PMID:23641127

  3. Dimensions and Severity of Marijuana Consequences: Development and Validation of the Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ)

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    The Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ) is a 50-item self-report measure modeled after the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ). College students (n = 315) completed questionnaires online. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 8-factor structure. The results indicate good convergent and discriminant validity of the MACQ. A brief, unidimensional, 21-item version (B-MACQ) was developed by a Rasch model. Comparison of item severity estimates of the B-MACQ items and the corresponding items from the YAACQ indicate that the severity of alcohol- and marijuana- problems is defined by a relatively unique pattern of consequences. The MACQ and B-MACQ provide promising new alternatives to assessing marijuana-related problems. PMID:22305645

  4. Prospective Predictors of Novel Tobacco and Nicotine Product Use in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Severson, Herbert H.; Barckley, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether risk factors for cigarette smoking assessed in adolescence predict the use of novel tobacco and nicotine products (hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes) in early emerging adulthood. Methods In a longitudinal study (N = 862), risk factors were measured in middle and high school and novel product use was measured in emerging adulthood (mean age 22.4 years). Structural equation modelling was used to test a model predicting lifetime use of any of hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes in early emerging adulthood from distal predictors (gender, maternal smoking through Grade 8, already tried alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana by Grade 8, and sensation seeking at Grade 8), and potential mediators (intentions to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol or smoke marijuana at Grade 9, and smoking trajectory across high school). Results The most prevalent novel tobacco product was hookah (21.7%), followed by little cigars (16.8%), and e-cigarettes (6.6%). Maternal smoking, having already tried substances, and sensation seeking each predicted the use of at least one of these products via an indirect path through intentions to use substances and membership in a high school smoking trajectory. Conclusions Risk factors for cigarette smoking were found to predict novel tobacco use, suggesting that interventions to prevent cigarette smoking could be extended to include common novel tobacco products. PMID:26206439

  5. Latent Classes of Young Adults Based on Use of Multiple Types of Tobacco and Nicotine Products

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: New tobacco and nicotine products such as snus, hookah, and electronic cigarettes have risen in popularity in recent years. Use of these products among young adults is of particular interest given that experimentation with new products is common in young adulthood. Methods: We conducted latent class analysis among a population-based sample of young adults to identify separate classes based on use of 6 types of tobacco or nicotine products: snus, hookah, electronic cigarettes, cigarillos, snuff, and cigarettes. We then examined how identified classes differed on demographic characteristics and marijuana and alcohol use. Results: We identified 5 classes: the largest group (60%) was characterized as reporting no or limited use of any of the products, while the smallest group (7%) was characterized by use of many types of products (poly-users). Of the 3 middle classes, 2 were the same size (10%) and were characterized by primarily using 2 of the products: one class used snus and snuff, and the other used cigarillos and hookah; the third class (13%) was characterized by primarily cigarette smoking. Numerous differences were seen across classes, including the poly-users being less likely to be college students/graduates and more likely to be male and use marijuana and alcohol. Conclusions: We found that young adults can be grouped into 5 subgroups based on types of tobacco/nicotine products they do and do not use. A poly-use group that uses all types of tobacco products is concerning, particularly given high levels of marijuana and alcohol use reported in this group. PMID:24604019

  6. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  7. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  8. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  9. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  10. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  11. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  12. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  13. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  14. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  15. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  16. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... heart rate. Similar to other addictive drugs like cocaine and heroin, nicotine increases levels of the neurotransmitter ...

  17. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  18. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  19. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  20. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  1. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  2. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  3. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  4. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  6. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  7. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  8. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  9. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  10. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  11. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  12. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  13. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  14. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  15. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  16. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  18. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  19. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  1. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  2. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  3. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  4. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  5. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  6. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  7. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  8. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  9. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  10. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  11. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  12. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  13. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  14. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  15. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  16. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  18. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  19. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...