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Sample records for alcohol-based hand disinfectants

  1. Efficacy of 2 alcohol-based gels and 1 alcohol-based rinse for surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Frederic; Djamdjian, Laura; Neyme, Denis; Passot, Christophe; Petit, Jean-Claude

    2007-08-01

    We assessed the efficacy of 2 alcohol-based gels and 1 alcohol-based rinse for surgical hand disinfection, using European standard EN 12791. Volunteers performed surgical hand disinfection with a reference product and each of the 3 study products, with 1-week intervals between disinfection episodes. The immediate and sustained antimicrobial activities of each study product were not significantly less than those of the reference product. The study products passed the efficacy requirements of the EN 12791 standard, and they are considered suitable for surgical hand disinfection.

  2. Alcohol-based hand disinfection: a more robust hand-hygiene method in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Tvedt, C; Bukholm, G

    2005-03-01

    This study involved observation of hand-hygiene behaviour and evaluation of the effect of alcohol-based hand disinfection and handwashing with plain liquid soap on microbial flora. The study was performed in a combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. We demonstrated a crude compliance of hand hygiene of 50.4%, which was only performed adequately in 20.8% of cases. Of this group, handwashing and hand-disinfection procedures were performed properly 34.0% and 71.6% of the time, respectively. Hand samples for bacteriological examinations with the glove juice method demonstrated that whilst handwashing was sensitive to the way in which hand hygiene was performed, alcohol-based hand disinfection was less sensitive to such performance. Our study demonstrated that alcohol-based hand disinfection is a robust hand-hygiene method with many advantages in a practical setting. It is very feasible for use in hospital wards.

  3. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene.

  4. Clinical double-blind trial on the dermal tolerance and user acceptability of six alcohol-based hand disinfectants for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Bernig, T; Kampf, G

    2002-06-01

    Six commercially available alcohol-based hand rubs [AHD 2000, Desderman, Mucasept A, Manorapid (Poly-Alkohol, Spitacid, and Sterillium] were investigated in a clinical double-blind trial involving 10 participants who had no previous experience of using hand rubs (Group 1), and seven who had substantial professional experience of using hand rubs (Group 2; virology laboratory staff). Group 1 was studied for one week with 20 applications on day 1 and then five applications per day for six days. Transepidermal water loss, dermal water content and superficial sebum content of the skin were measured before and after the seven-day application of the products, as well as user acceptability (self-assessment of smell, speed of drying, emolliant effect, skin dryness). Group 2 used each preparation twice for two weeks in a random sequence, and carried out self assessment at the end of each fortnight. Transepidermal water loss (mean baseline: 18.7 g/m(2)h), dermal water content (mean baseline dorsum: 75.6) and superficial sebum content (mean baseline dorsum: 4.8 microg/cm(2)) did not change significantly. In both groups assessments of the smell and the speed of drying did not reveal any significant differences between the six products. Sterillium had the best emollient effect of all products (P<0.05; Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney-U test) and was significantly better than Desderman, AHD 2000, and Mucasept A, causing less skin dryness after seven days use in Group 1 (P<0.05; Mann-Whitney-U test). Manorapid caused significantly less dryness than Spitacid, AHD 2000, and Mucasept A in Group 2 after the first use, but no significant difference was observed after the second use. Thus alcohol-based hand rubs that contain emolliants, irrespective of the type of alcohol (n-propanol, iso-propanol or ethanol), are well tolerated and do not dry out or irritate the skin. Personal assessments showed significant differences for the emolliant effect and the extent of dryness. Both factors are

  5. Quality of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and their regulatory status. Development and marketing authorisation.

    PubMed

    Stengele, Michael

    2008-10-01

    A 2005 survey showed that there are at least four legal product classifications for hand disinfectants in the European Union: medicinal products, biocidal products, cosmetics and medical devices. An internationally harmonized classification does not exist. The regulatory status of those products is defined at national level. In order to assure compliance with the regulations these four classifications provide different levels of official surveillance varying from product-specific marketing authorisations and production site audits to the obligation to just work in accordance with certain general guidelines. Biocidal product regulations cover eco-toxicological and toxicological aspects, but do not very much address to the customers' quality and efficacy expectations. In contrast, the medicinal product legislation is the most ambitious one claiming quality, safety, efficacy, and an independent benefit risk-assessment by an authority. In respect of ambition, the two remaining product categories--cosmetics and medical devices--rank between the both classifications mentioned above. For medical devices, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to make sure the products meet defined essential requirements regarding quality, safety and performance and to have an appropriate quality assurance system implemented under third party control. For cosmetics there are some legal restrictions, but within these it is the sole responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that the products are safe and fulfil their claims. This paper describes one way out of this increasingly complex situation, the definition of a single quality standard meeting the users' expectations as well as all legal requirements regardless of the specific sales country. This international quality standard for products would take priority over any individual national standard, to the benefit of users.

  6. [Optimizing surgical hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Rotter, M; Widmer, A

    2006-08-01

    For more than 110 years hands of surgeons have been treated before a surgical procedure in order to reduce the bacterial density. The kind and duration of treatment, however, has changed significantly over time. Recent scientific evidence suggests a few changes with the aim to optimize both the efficacy and the dermal tolerance. Aim of this article is the presentation and discussion of new insights in surgical hand disinfection. A hand wash should be performed before the first disinfection of a day, ideally at least 10 min before the beginning of the disinfection as it has been shown that a 1 min hand wash significantly increases skin hydration for up to 10 min. The application time may be as short as 1.5 min depending on the type of hand rub. Hands and forearms should be kept wet with the hand rub for the recommended application time in any case. A specific rub-in procedure according to EN 12791 has been found to be suitable in order to avoid untreated skin areas. The alcohol-based hand rub should have a proven excellent dermal tolerance in order to ensure appropriate compliance. Considering these elements in clinical practice can have a significant impact to optimize the high quality of surgical hand disinfection for prevention of surgical site infections.

  7. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health

  8. In vitro-in vivo sequence studies as a method of selecting the most efficacious alcohol-based solution for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaino, M J; Herruzo, I

    2010-05-01

    The use of alcohol-based hand rubs serves to reduce hospital-acquired infections. Many products of this type are now on offer and it is essential to know how to rank their efficacy. A sequence of tests is proposed here to compare any given new alcohol-based solution against the reference solution (60% 2-isopropyl-alcohol) with 30 s of contact time: (i) in vitro (with pig skin as carrier) testing of >30 species of microorganism; (ii) in vitro assessment of residual efficacy (after 30 min of drying); (iii) in vivo study of transient microbiota (modification of the EN 1500 standard procedure) using four ATCC strains; (iv) in vivo study of resident hand microbiota. After performing the in vitro evaluation of seven alcohol-based hand rubs, the two most efficacious (chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol and mecetronium- alcohol) were chosen and studied, comparatively with the reference solution (60% isopropyl alcohol), in vitro (for chemical sustainability on the skin) and in vivo (against transient and resident microbiota). Chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol proved to be significantly superior to mecetronium-alcohol or the reference solution in all tests, except against resident microbiota for which the improvement was not statistically significant.

  9. Hand disinfection in hospitals - benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2010-12-01

    The WHO regards hand hygiene as an essential tool for the prevention of noso-comial infections. The hygienic hand disinfection has a superior antimicrobial efficacy compared to hand washing and should be performed as the treatment of choice before and after a variety of activities at the point of patient care. Washing hands should be preferred when the hands are visibly soiled. Skin irritation is quite common among healthcare workers and is mainly caused by water, soap and long lasting occlusion. Compliance with hand disinfection in clinical practice is often low. Measures to improve compliance include training, provision of hand rubs where they are needed, and the responsibility of doctors to set a good example. Improved compliance in hand hygiene and targeted use of alcohol-based hand rubs can reduce the nosocomial infection rate by up to 40 %. The benefit of hand disinfection is therefore much larger than possible risks.

  10. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses.

  11. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness.

  12. Antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels.

    PubMed

    Guilhermetti, M; Marques Wiirzler, L A; Castanheira Facio, B; da Silva Furlan, M; Campo Meschial, W; Bronharo Tognim, M C; Botelho Garcia, L; Luiz Cardoso, C

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, several commercial alcohol-based hand gels have appeared on the market to improve the hand-cleansing compliance of healthcare workers. Although the antimicrobial efficacy of these products has been reported in different countries, few studies have investigated this subject in Brazil. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of 12 alcohol-based hand gels produced in Brazil, containing 70% w/w or v/v ethyl alcohol as the active ingredient, according to the European Standard EN 1500 (EN 1500). The following alcohol gels were tested: Hand Gel, Voga Gel, Solumax Solugel, Doctor Clean, Rio Gel, Clear Gel, Sevengel, Hand CHC, Gel Bac, WBL-50 Gel, Sanigel and Soft Care Gel. In addition, 70% w/w ethyl alcohol and three alcohol-based hand rubs (Sterillium, Sterillium Gel, and Spitaderm), commonly used in Europe and effective according to EN 1500, were also tested. All the products tested, except for two, were approved by the EN 1500 test protocol with a 60s application. The results confirmed the antimicrobial efficacy of the majority of the alcohol gels produced in Brazil for hand hygiene of healthcare workers.

  13. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, Sterillium, and Septicidine on skin flora. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 20 volunteers. Subjects disinfected their hands with three test products. At first, subjects washed their hands with soap. Then pre-value sample was taken from the finger tips in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB).1 After that, the hands were disinfected with one of the surgical hand rubs with as much volume as necessary to keep the hands wet, at the recommended application time. Immediate post-value sample was taken from one hand and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After removing the surgical glove, 3 h post-value sample (sustained effect) was taken from the hand. Results: All products remarkably decreased the colony forming units (CFU) immediately (P < 0.0001) and 3 h (P < 0.0001) after disinfection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among immediate post-values (P < 0.005). Septicidine was significantly the least effective than the others, whereas 3 h effect of the three products was similar (P = 0.630, ANOVA). Conclusions: Our results confirm the effectiveness of the three alcohol-based hand rubs. Considering the short application time, less volume used, and more antibacterial effect, however, Sterillium seems to be a better choice. PMID:25878700

  14. Suitability of Sterillium Gel for surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Kapella, M

    2003-07-01

    In some countries, alcohol-based hand gels are used for hygienic hand disinfection but their efficacy and suitability for surgical hand disinfection has never been investigated. The efficacy of Sterillium Gel was investigated according to prEN 12791 in two separate experiments. Finger tips of 20 volunteers per experiment were sampled for resident skin bacteria before surgical hand disinfection. In a cross-over design, each volunteer carried out a surgical hand disinfection with the reference alcohol [n-propanol 60%, (v/v)] or Sterillium Gel [ethanol 85% (v/v)] for 3 min. After the product application, one hand was sampled for the immediate effect, the other hand was gloved for 3 h and then sampled for the sustained effect. Samples were analysed for remaining resident bacteria. The mean of the pre-value, the 0 h and 3 h values of the reference disinfection and the test product were calculated. With the reference alcohol, respective mean immediate log10-reduction factors of 2.06+/-0.76 and 2.23+/-1.13 were found in both experiments. The mean sustained effects with the reference alcohol were 2.03+/-1.14 and 1.44+/-0.81. Sterillium Gel achieved respective mean immediate effects of 2.48+/-1.06 and 2.13+/-0.81, the mean sustained effects were 2.77+/-0.95 and 2.18+/-0.72. They proved significantly larger than those obtained with the reference alcohol (P<0.05; pair-wise Wilcoxon test). Sterillium Gel, therefore, more than fulfils the efficacy requirements for surgical hand disinfection of prEN 12791. In addition, 25 of 26 operating theatre healthcare workers in an orthopaedic hospital found it suitable for surgical hand disinfection after a single use, which included putting on a pair of surgical gloves. Although none of them had ever used an alcohol-based gel before, they had rather been accustomed to alcohol-based liquid products for years. The main reasons given for the positive assessment were better skin feeling after use, smell and easier donning of the surgical

  15. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting.

  16. Efficacy of an alcohol-based healthcare hand rub containing synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Shintre, Milind S; Gaonkar, Trupti A; Modak, Shanta M

    2006-09-01

    Healthcare workers are required to disinfect the hands several times a day using hand disinfectants, which leads to chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials contained in the disinfectants, which could compromise the skin integrity. This problem may be addressed by developing hand disinfectants containing synergistic combinations of small amounts of antimicrobials and other agents. The synergistic effect of farnesol and essential oils with several antimicrobials was studied in vitro to select an effective antimicrobial system in preservative concentration for use in healthcare hand rub. Farnesol and lemon oil showed synergistic activity against S. aureus, in combination with benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride, but not with other antimicrobials studied. All essential oils studied showed synergy with benzethonium chloride against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. An alcohol-based healthcare hand rub (ZBF hand rub) containing this unique synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride was then developed and its efficacy as a healthcare hand rub was evaluated in human volunteers according to the US FDA-TFM protocol using Serratia marcescens as a marker organism. The ZBF hand rub showed a 3.22 log(10) reduction in the microbial count after the first application and a 5.49 log(10) reduction after the tenth application in vivo and exceeds the US FDA-TFM criteria for healthcare hand rub. The ZBF hand rub did not irritate the hands when tested on human volunteers when applied 10 times everyday for five consecutive days. The ZBF hand rub exhibits more than 5.5 log(10) reduction in the microbial count within 15s and more than 2.8 log(10) reduction in the two types of viruses tested within 30s in vitro. When evaluated in an in vitro pig skin model, the ZBF hand rub shows better prolonged activity (20-35 min post-application) against transient bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) compared to other alcohol-based hand rubs. These

  17. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  18. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  19. New non-alcoholic formulation for hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Marco; Giachetti, Daniela; Miraldi, Elisabetta; Figura, Natale

    2014-04-01

    Hand washing is considered as the single most important strategy to prevent infections. World health organization (WHO) defines hand hygiene as a primary issue of personal care with particular reference to hospital personnel and health facility workers. In this work, we investigated a new combination for hand disinfection as an alternative to alcohol-based and chlorhexidine products. The new combination of 5-pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) and copper sulphate pentahydrate (CS) was tested upon different bacterial species that normally colonize hands, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MR S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis, multidrug resistant S. epidermidis (MDR S. epidermidis), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and three clinical isolates: MR S. aureus, MDR S. epidermidis, and an E. coli strain. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices, and fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) indices were evaluated. Ethanol 70% V/V, isopropanol 60% V/V, and 4% w/V chlorhexidine solution were used as reference hand disinfectants. Copper sulphate pentahydrate was very effective against all tested microorganisms: The MIC and MBC for CS ranged from 781 mg/l against S. pyogenes to 12500 mg/l against E. coli strains and C. albicans. In addition, PCA exhibited a good antimicrobial activity, in particular, against S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae. The combination of CS and PCA showed a strong synergistic effect and all FIC indices were ≤0·500. The combination of CS and PCA were more effective than ethanol 70% V/V and isopropanol 60% V/V. In addition to antimicrobial activity, the new formulation possesses peculiar features such as residual activity and moisturizing effect. This work identifies a new strategy for hand disinfection.

  20. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training.

  1. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  2. Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20–30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  3. Assessment of exposure to alcohol vapor from alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and H(2)SO(4). The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20-30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects.

  4. Surgical hand disinfection using alcohol: the effects of alcohol type, mode and duration of application.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, M; Gnant, G; Weinlich, M; Rotter, M

    2009-03-01

    Due to their strong antimicrobial activity, rapid action, good dermal tolerance and ease of application, alcohol-based hand rubs are recommended for pre-operative preparation of the surgical team's hands. Using the EN 12791 protocol, three commercial products containing either mixtures of propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol or ethanol at total alcohol concentrations (w/w) between 73% (propanols) and 78.2% (ethanol), as the main active agents, were tested with a shortened application of 1.5 min rather than the usual 3 min. Preparation A containing 30% propan-1-ol and 45% propan-2-ol not only passed the test at this short application but even exceeded, though not significantly, the efficacy of the reference disinfection procedure in EN 12791 when applied for 3 min. Preparation B containing 45% propan-1-ol and 28% propan-2-ol fulfilled the required standard whereas the ethanol (78.2%)-based product C did not (P<0.1). This demonstrates that some, but not all, alcohol-based hand rubs pass the test even within 1.5 min, emphasising the importance of validation before a product is introduced into clinical practice. In another series with both preparation A and 60% v/v propan-1-ol, it was demonstrated that the additional inclusion of the forearms into the disinfection procedure, not required by EN 12791 but normal practice in surgical hand disinfection, does not significantly interfere with the antimicrobial efficacy of either hand rub. Therefore, the mode of test procedure in EN 12791 does not need specific adaptation for hand disinfection by surgical teams.

  5. Lack of sustained efficacy for alcohol-based surgical hand rubs containing 'residual active ingredients' according to EN 12791.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Suchomel, M

    2017-02-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand rubs with 'sustained activity' for surgical hand preparation. This review aims to verify whether any of the alcohol-based hand rubs containing non-volatile 'active ingredients' such as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), mecetronium ethylsulphate (MES), or ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) provides such sustained efficacy for surgical hand disinfection. Literature was searched to find studies according to EN 12791. Published data sets were analysed to verify whether any of the formulations has a superior efficacy (P<0.01) after 3h in comparison to the reference procedure. Formulations with 0.5 and 1% CHG in 70% iso-propanol or 61% ethanol were not superior after 3h. Formulations with 0.2% MES in 45% iso-propanol and 30% n-propanol were also not superior when applied for 1min (one data set), 1.5min as currently recommended for use (14 data sets), and 2min (one data set). When applied for 3min the formulations were superior in three out of seven data sets. The hand rub with 0.1% OPP in 78.2% ethanol was also not superior to the reference treatment when applied as recommended for 1.5min. It appears reasonable and responsible to limit the dermal exposure and environmental input to biocidal agents with a clear benefit such as the alcohols. In analogy to avoiding dyes and fragrances in hand rubs, formulations containing 'active' substances without a clear benefit but with potential risks should be avoided when alternative formulations with the same level of antimicrobial activity, dermal tolerance, and user acceptability are available.

  6. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Below, Harald; Bieber, Nora; Kampf, Guenter; Toma, Cyril D; Huebner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied three hand-rubs containing 95% (hand-rub A), 85% (hand-rub B) and 55% ethanol (hand-rub C; all w/w). For hygienic hand disinfection, 4 mL were applied 20 times for 30 s, with 1 minute break between applications. For surgical hand disinfection, 20 mL of each hand rub was applied to hands and arms up to the level of the elbow 10 times for 3 minutes, with a break of 5 minutes between applications. Blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined immediately prior and up to 90 minutes after application using head space gas chromatography. Results The median of absorbed ethanol after hygienic hand disinfection was 1365 mg (A), 630 mg (B), and 358 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 2.3% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.9% (C). After surgical hand disinfection, the median of absorbed ethanol was 1067 mg (A), 1542 mg (B), and 477 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 0.7% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.5% (C). The highest median acetaldehyde concentration after 20 hygienic hand disinfections was 0.57 mg/L (hand-rub C, after 30 min), after 10 surgical hand disinfections 3.99 mg/L (hand-rub A, after 20 minutes). Conclusion The overall dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol was below toxic levels in humans and allows the conclusion that the use of the evaluated ethanol-based hand-rubs is safe. PMID:17927841

  7. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand rinses under frequent-use conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, E L; Eke, P I; Laughon, B E

    1986-01-01

    Fifty volunteers randomly assigned to one of five hand washing agents (10 subjects per agent)--a nonantiseptic liquid soap (control), an antiseptic hand rinse containing 60% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with emollients (Alc A), an antiseptic hand rinse containing 70% IPA and 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate with emollients (Alc B), an antiseptic containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 4% IPA (CHG), and 70% IPA--washed their hands 15 times per day for 5 days under supervision by using a standardized technique and measured amounts of test agent. Microbiologic samples of hand flora were obtained at base line and after hand washes 1 and 15 on test days 1 and 5. After the initial hand wash there were significant reductions over base line in aerobic and anaerobic log CFU among those using Alc A, CHG, and IPA. By the end of the first day of hand washing (15 washes), there were 2-log or greater reductions in aerobic counts among subjects using all antiseptics, but no significant reductions in controls. By the end of day 5, all agents produced significant reductions in aerobic (P = 0.0002) and anaerobic (P = 0.002) counts over control soap. Subject assessment of effects of hand washing on the skin and overall satisfaction varied significantly by product (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). We conclude that alcohol-based hand rinses are highly efficacious, and such products are recommended as a health care personnel hand wash, particularly when sink and running water are inaccessible. PMID:3789690

  8. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338

  9. Two in-vivo protocols for testing virucidal efficacy of handwashing and hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Nehrkorn, R; Meyer, A; Becker, K

    1995-01-01

    Whole-hands and fingerpads of seven volunteers were contaminated with poliovirus type 1 Sabin strain in order to evaluate virucidal efficacy of different forms of handwashing and handrub with alcohols and alcohol-based disinfectants. In the whole-hand protocol, handwashing with unmedicated soap for 5 min and handrubbing with 80% ethanol yielded a log reduction factor (RF) of > 2, whereas the log RF by 96.8% ethanol exceeded 3.2. With the fingerpad model ethanol produced a greater log RF than iso- or n-propanol. Comparing five commercial hand disinfectants and a chlorine solution (1.0% chloramine T-solution) for handrub, Desderman and Promanum, both composed of ethanol, yielded log RFs of 2.47 and 2.26 respectively after an application time of 60 s, similar to 1.0% chloramine T-solution (log RF of 2.28). Autosept, Mucasept, and Sterillium, based on n-propanol and/or isopropanol, were found to be significantly less effective (log RFs of 1.16, 1.06 and 1.52 respectively). A comparison of a modified whole-hand and the fingerpad protocol with Promanum showed similar results with the two systems suggesting both models are suitable for testing the in-vivo efficacy of handwashing agents and hand disinfectants which are used without any water.

  10. [Hygienic and dermatologic aspects of hand disinfection and prophylactic skin antisepsis].

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Jünger, M; Kampf, G

    2005-08-01

    Hygienic hand disinfection must be carried out after all patient-care activities associated with contamination risks, as well as when moving from contaminated to clean body sites, after contact with environmental surfaces in the immediate vicinity of patients, after glove removal and before aseptic procedures. Preparatory handwashing (for about 10 seconds) to mechanically remove soil and bacterial spores should be performed at least 10 minutes before surgical hand disinfection. This allows time for the normalization of increased skin hydration, a prerequisite for effective hand disinfection. Depending on the manufacturer's instructions, application times of 1.5, 3 or 5 minutes can be observed. The regular use of skin care and skin protection products can help to prevent toxic skin irritation. For skin antisepsis the recommended exposure times are > or =15 seconds before subcutaneous injections, > or =1 minute before puncture of joints and body cavities as well as preoperatively, and > or =10 minutes on skin areas rich in sebaceous glands. For all 3 indications, alcohol-based formulations are the agents of choice.

  11. [Effectiveness of alcoholic hand disinfectants against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Jarosch, R; Rüden, H

    1997-03-01

    In order to determine the efficacy of hand disinfectants based on alcohol against three MRSA strains and 3 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (MSSA), 1-propanol (60%) as well as Sterillium and Spitaderm were investigated in the quantitative suspension test at various dilutions and reactions times (15, 30 and 60s). All undiluted disinfectants revealed reduction factors > 6 against MRSA and MSSA after 30s. Diluted disinfectants (50%) were significantly less effective against MRSA at short reaction times (15 s) (p < 0.05). Sterillium in a dilution of 50% did not reach 5 reduction factors against either MRSA or MSSA after 30 s. The impact of an appropriate use of hand disinfectants in order to break chains of infections with MRSA is obvious.

  12. Tolerance and acceptability of 14 surgical and hygienic alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Girard, R; Bousquet, E; Carré, E; Bert, C; Coyault, C; Coudrais, S; Regard, A; Garcia, E Laprugne; Valdeyron, M L; Pergay, V

    2006-07-01

    Tests were performed under working practice conditions to measure the tolerance and acceptability of commercially available hand rubs with proven efficacy. The products were compared with those in current use at the Hospices Civils de Lyon for surgical hand disinfection (Sterillium) and hygienic hand disinfection (Purell) to obtain information for public sector purchases. The 12 test products were Alcogel H, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Dermalcool, Manugel Plus, Manugel Plus NPC, Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel, Purell 85, Spitacid, Spitagel and Sterillium Gel. They were tested from mid-November to mid-April over four periods of three weeks, separated by two-week intervals during which the customary product was re-introduced. Participation of hospital wards and theatres was voluntary. Skin dryness and irritation were scored before and after each test period. Acceptability and ease of use were assessed by means of a questionnaire. Among the eight surgical hand rubs, only Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel and Manugel Plus NPC did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Sterillium. For the 10 hygienic hand rubs, differences were noted depending upon the test period. Overall, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Purell 85 and Sterillium Gel did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Purell. However, over the (colder) first three test periods, Assanis Pro and Sterillium Gel caused more irritation and Purell 85 caused more dryness than Purell. Responses to the questionnaires on acceptability indicated that users preferred their customary hand rubs (Sterillium and Purell). As these field tests involving many participants did not identify any superior products, previous purchase orders were renewed.

  13. Determination of antiseptic efficacy of rubs on the forearm and consequences for surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Hübner, N-O; Kellner, N B; Partecke, L I; Koburger, T; Heidecke, C-D; Kohlmann, T; Kramer, A

    2011-05-01

    While hands are acknowledged to be the most important source of pathogens from the skin of the surgical team, the transmission of pathogens from the forearms may also be relevant. Preoperative hand disinfection is recommended, but evidence-based standards for the forearms are lacking. As neither the European standard EN 12791 nor the American guidelines ASTM 1115 are applicable to the forearms, a new test method based on the European standard EN 12791 and the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) method for testing for the efficacy of skin antiseptics was developed to address the forearms. The antiseptic efficacy of a commercially available alcohol-based hand rub [76.7% (w/w) ethanol] was assessed on the upper arm after 15s, 2.5 min, and 30 min, and on the lower arm after 2.5 min, 30 min, and 3 h. On the upper arm, application of the product followed the DGHM standard procedure. On the forearm, the product was applied by the participants themselves with the right hand over the left forearm and vice versa as performed during preoperative hand disinfection. Sampling and culture were performed according to the DGHM method for skin antisepsis on the upper arm. Twenty-two volunteers were investigated. The efficacy of the antiseptic treatment on the forearm was not significantly lower than on the upper arm for any of the areas tested (P > 0.05). Reduction factors for all tested areas and times were quite similar, with confidence intervals ranging between 1.43 and 2.31 log₁₀. We suggest that an application time of 10s may be sufficient for the treatment of the forearm as part of preoperative hand disinfection, provided that an appropriate product is used.

  14. Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

    2012-06-01

    A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P < 0.005) at 30 min after application. Skin moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy.

  15. Evaluation of Two Methods of Determining the Efficacies of Two Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs for Surgical Hand Antisepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Heeg, Peter; Paulson, Daryl

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial efficacies of preparations for surgical hand antisepsis can be determined according to a European standard (prEN 12791 [EN]) and a U.S. standard (tentative final monograph for health care antiseptic drug products [TFM]). The U.S. method differs in the product application mode (hands and lower forearms, versus hands only in EN), the number of applications (11 over 5 days, versus a single application in EN), the sampling times (0, 3, and 6 h after application, versus 0 and 3 h in EN), the sampling methods (glove juice versus fingertip sampling in EN), and the outcome requirements (absolute bacterial reduction factor [RF], versus noninferiority to reference treatment in EN). We have studied the efficacies of two hand rubs according to both methods. One hand rub was based on 80% ethanol and applied for 2 min, and the other one was based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol, and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate and applied for 1.5 min. The ethanol-based hand rub was equally effective as the 3-min reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.97 ± 0.89 versus 2.92 ± 1.03, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.20 ± 1.07 versus 2.47 ± 1.25, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.99 log10 (day 1), 3.00 log10 (day 2), and 3.43 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. The propanol-based hand rub was even more effective than the reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.35 ± 0.99 versus 1.86 ± 0.87, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.17 ± 1.00 versus 1.50 ± 1.26, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.82 log10 (day 1), 3.29 log10 (day 2), and 3.25 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. Some formulations have been reported to meet the efficacy requirements of one of the methods but not those of the other. That is why we conclude that, despite our results, meeting the efficacy

  16. Evaluation of two methods of determining the efficacies of two alcohol-based hand rubs for surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Heeg, Peter; Paulson, Daryl

    2006-06-01

    The antimicrobial efficacies of preparations for surgical hand antisepsis can be determined according to a European standard (prEN 12791 [EN]) and a U.S. standard (tentative final monograph for health care antiseptic drug products [TFM]). The U.S. method differs in the product application mode (hands and lower forearms, versus hands only in EN), the number of applications (11 over 5 days, versus a single application in EN), the sampling times (0, 3, and 6 h after application, versus 0 and 3 h in EN), the sampling methods (glove juice versus fingertip sampling in EN), and the outcome requirements (absolute bacterial reduction factor [RF], versus noninferiority to reference treatment in EN). We have studied the efficacies of two hand rubs according to both methods. One hand rub was based on 80% ethanol and applied for 2 min, and the other one was based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol, and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate and applied for 1.5 min. The ethanol-based hand rub was equally effective as the 3-min reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.97 +/- 0.89 versus 2.92 +/- 1.03, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.20 +/- 1.07 versus 2.47 +/- 1.25, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.99 log10 (day 1), 3.00 log10 (day 2), and 3.43 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. The propanol-based hand rub was even more effective than the reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.35 +/- 0.99 versus 1.86 +/- 0.87, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.17 +/- 1.00 versus 1.50 +/- 1.26, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.82 log10 (day 1), 3.29 log10 (day 2), and 3.25 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. Some formulations have been reported to meet the efficacy requirements of one of the methods but not those of the other. That is why we conclude that, despite our results, meeting the efficacy

  17. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting.

  18. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  19. Is compliance with hand disinfection in the intensive care unit related to work experience?

    PubMed

    Noritomi, Danilo Teixeira; Chierego, Marialuisa; Byl, Bauduin; Menestrina, Nicola; Carollo, Tiziana; Struelens, Marc; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    The performance of hand disinfection by staff in a 31-bed department of intensive care was monitored. During 32 hours of observation, 727 opportunities for hand disinfection were observed, and the compliance rate was 27.9%. The level of work experience was not correlated with hand disinfection compliance rates.

  20. An in-use microbiological comparison of two surgical hand disinfection techniques in cardiothoracic surgery: hand rubbing versus hand scrubbing.

    PubMed

    Carro, C; Camilleri, L; Traore, O; Badrikian, L; Legault, B; Azarnoush, K; Dualé, C; De Riberolles, C

    2007-09-01

    Surgical site infection after heart surgery increases morbidity and mortality. The method of presurgical hand disinfection could influence the infection risk. From February to April 2003, we compared the microbiological efficacy of hand-rubbing (R) and hand-scrubbing (S) procedures. The surgical team alternately used hand-scrubbing or hand-rubbing techniques every two weeks. Fingertip impressions were taken before and immediately after hand disinfection, every 2h and at the end of the operation. Acceptability of hand rubbing was assessed by a questionnaire. Mean durations of surgical procedures were 259+/-68 and 244+/-69min for groups S and R respectively (P=0.43). Bacterial counts immediately after hand disinfection were comparable with the two techniques, but significantly lower in group R at the end of surgery. No differences were observed between the percentages of negative samples taken after 2h, 4h and at the end of surgery between the two groups. Bacterial skin flora reduction immediately after hand disinfection, after 2h and 4h of operating time and at the end of surgery was better in group R, but the difference was not statistically significant. Before surgery, the hand-rubbing method with alcohol solution preceded by hand washing with mild neutral soap is as effective as hand scrubbing to reduce bacterial counts on hands. It decreased the bacterial counts both immediately after hand disinfection and at the end of long cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The acceptability of hand rubbing was excellent and it can be considered to be a valid alternative to the conventional hand-scrubbing protocol.

  1. Ozonated water is inferior to propanol-based hand rubs for disinfecting hands.

    PubMed

    Appelgrein, C; Hosgood, G; Dunn, A L; Schaaf, O

    2016-04-01

    Ozone is a strong oxidizing biocide that has broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of ozone to a propanol-based hand rub for hand disinfection. Twenty subjects were enrolled in an in-vivo cross-over trial (prEN 12791). Subjects treated their hands with the reference procedure (propan-1-ol 60%) or with ozone (4 ppm). Post-wash bacterial counts were determined from one hand (immediate effect), and from the other hand that had been gloved for 3h (delayed effect). The investigation indicated that ozone is inferior to propan-1-ol 60% hand rub for hand asepsis.

  2. Efficacy of disinfectants and hand sanitizers against avian respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Patnayak, Devi P; Prasad, A Minakshi; Malik, Yashpal S; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2008-06-01

    Disinfectants play a major role in the control of animal diseases by decontaminating the farm environment. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of nine commonly used disinfectants on a nonporous surface contaminated experimentally with avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), avian influenza virus, or Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Phenolic compounds and glutaraldehyde were found to be the most effective against all three viruses. Quaternary ammonium compounds were effective against aMPV but not against the other two viruses. In addition, efficacy of commercially available hand sanitizers was evaluated on human fingers contaminated with aMPV and NDV. All three hand sanitizers tested were found to be effective against both viruses within 1 min of application on fingers.

  3. Less and less–influence of volume on hand coverage and bactericidal efficacy in hand disinfection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some manufacturers recommend using 1.1 mL per application of alcohol-based handrubs for effective hand disinfection. However, whether this volume is sufficient to cover both hands, as recommended by the World Health Organization, and fulfills current efficacy standards is unknown. This study aimed to determine hand coverage for three handrubs (two gels based on 70% v/v and 85% w/w ethanol and a foam based on 70% v/v ethanol) applied at various volumes. Methods Products were tested at product volumes of 1.1 mL, 2 mL, 2.4 mL as well as 1 and 2 pump dispenser pushes; the foam product was tested in addition at foam volumes of 1.1 mL, 2 mL, and 2.4 mL. Products were supplemented with a fluorescent dye and 15 participants applied products using responsible application techniques without any specific steps but the aim of completely covering both hands. Coverage quality was determined under ultraviolet light by two blinded investigators. Efficacy of the three handrubs was determined according to ASTM E 1174-06 and ASTM E 2755-10. For each experiment, the hands of 12 participants were contaminated with Serratia marcescens and the products applied as recommended (1.1 mL for 70% v/v ethanol products; 2 mL for the 85% w/w ethanol product). Log10-reduction was calculated. Results Volumes < 2 mL yielded high rates of incomplete coverage (67%–87%) whereas volumes ≥ 2 mL gave lower rates (13%–53%). Differences in coverage were significant between the five volumes tested for all handrubs (p < 0.001; two-way ANOVA) but not between the three handrubs themselves (p = 0.796). Application of 1.1 mL of 70% v/v ethanol rubs reduced contamination by 1.85 log10 or 1.60 log10 (ASTM E 1174-06); this failed the US FDA efficacy requirement of at least 2 log10. Application of 2 mL of the 85% w/w ethanol rub reduced contamination by 2.06 log10 (ASTM E 1174-06), fulfilling the US FDA efficacy requirement. Similar results were obtained according to ASTM E 2755

  4. [Survival of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus cereus after hand washing using alcohol-based handrub].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Midori; Takada, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Masao; Yasuda, Etsuko; Watase, Mariko; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2006-12-01

    Hand washing is the most fundamental method for preventing infection. Currently, hand washing with an alcohol-based handrub is the international gold standard method. However, in our study we found many samples of ineffective hand washing using an alcohol-based handrub. The rates of ineffective samples were 10.4% (5/48) in 2004 and 34.3% (12/35) in 2005. We examined the morphology by Gram staining and biochemical properties of the bacteria which remained after hand washing in 2005. Their colonies were divided into 3 groups (round colonies, irregular-shaped and diffusive colonies). The round colonies were considered Staphylococcus spp., and the irregular-shaped colonies or diffusive colonies were considered Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria. In the 12 ineffective hand washing samples (more than the same number of bacteria colonies as before hand washing, or > or = 300), there were 3 samples considered to be the result of the survival of Staphylococcus spp., and 9 samples considered to be the result of the survival of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus cereus. Based on these results, we should take careful measures, such as wearing sterile gloves if necessary. We should never be overconfident regarding the effect of hand washing.

  5. Digital imaging for the education of proper surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Haidegger, Tamás; Nagy, Melinda; Lehotsky, Akos; Szilágyi, László

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are the undesirable result of a treatment in a hospital, or a health care service unit, not related to the patient's original condition. Despite the evolution of medicine, fundamental problems with hand hygiene remain existent, leading to the spread of nosocomial infections. Our group has been working on a generic solution to provide a method and apparatus to teach and verify proper hand disinfection. The general idea is to mark the skin surfaces that were sufficiently treated with alcoholic hand rub. Digital image processing is employed to determine the location of these areas and overlay it on the segmented hand, visualizing the results in an intuitive form. A non-disruptive ultraviolet marker is mixed to a commercially available hand rub, therefore leaving the original hand washing workflow intact. Digital images are taken in an enclosed device we developed for this purpose. First, robust hand contour segmentation is performed, then a histogram-based formulation of the fuzzy c-means algorithm is employed for the classification of clean versus dirty regions, minimizing the processing time of the images. The method and device have been tested in 3 hospitals in Hungary, Romania and Singapore, on surgeons, residents, medical students and nurses. A health care professional verified the results of the segmentation, since no gold standard is available for the recorded human cases. We were able to identify the hand boundaries correctly in 99.2% of the cases. The device can give objective feedback to medical students and staff to develop and maintain proper hand disinfection practice.

  6. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range) of 697 (559–840) per day. The median (interquartile range) number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7), 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1), and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3), respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns. PMID:23043639

  7. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  8. Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy and acceptability of an alcohol-based hand rinse with two alcohol-based hand gels during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Frédéric; Maury, Eric; Goldwirt, Laurianne; Boëlle, Piérre-Yves; Neyme, Denis; Aman, Rubina; Rossi, Beatrice; Offenstadt, Georges

    2007-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the antibacterial efficacy of handrubbing with an alcoholic rinse (AHRR) and two different alcoholic gels (AHRG) in reducing hand contamination under practical use conditions. We wanted to assess the acceptability of the three products and to determine the effect of each product on overall hand hygiene compliance. A prospective alternating time-series clinical trial was performed in a medical intensive care unit. The study was divided into three six-week periods (P1, P2, P3). Handrubbing was achieved with Sterillium rinse (AHRR) during P1, sterillium gel(AHRG-1) during P2 and Manugel Plus (AHRG-2) during P3. Pre- and post-rubbing hand contaminations were assessed immediately after a direct contact with a patient, using the glove juice technique. Health care workers (HCWs) evaluated the acceptability of the products through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Compliance of HCWs with hand hygiene was assessed during the three periods. We studied 242 handrubbing opportunities. The mean reduction factor (expressed as the Log(10) CFU/mL) of the AHRR, AHRG-1 and AHRG-2 were 1.28+/-0.95, 1.29+/-0.84 and 0.51+/-0.73, respectively (p<0.001). Assessment of the three products by HCWs indicated that AHRR and AHRG-1 were significantly better accepted than AHRG-2. The overall compliance of HCWs to hand hygiene was better when gel was available. Under practical use conditions, AHRG-1 and AHRR were more effective than AHRG-2, although all were claimed to pass the European standard EN1500. In vivo trials are essential to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of products for handrubbing.

  9. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  10. Hand hygiene--evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting.

    PubMed

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group.

  11. Hand Hygiene – Evaluation of Three Disinfectant Hand Sanitizers in a Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

  12. Investigations into the efficacy of different procedures for surgical hand disinfection between consecutive operations.

    PubMed

    Rehork, B; Rüden, H

    1991-10-01

    In order to examine whether thorough surgical hand disinfection (handwashing plus hand disinfection) between consecutive operations is necessary, tests were carried out simulating normal clinical conditions. The tests were performed according to the guidelines for the evaluation of disinfection procedures of the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology. Surgical hand disinfection was as follows: handwashing with soap without antimicrobial additives and subsequent 5-min disinfection with 60% n-propanol. This was followed by simulated operations of 30 or 120 min duration with a 30-min break between operations, during which half of the test group kept on the surgical gloves, while the other half removed them. The second surgical hand disinfection was done without prior handwashing by 50% of the test group. The disinfection time was reduced from 5 to 1 min by 50% of the test group. The results were evaluated by means of explorative data analysis and inductive statistical methods. Removing the surgical gloves during the interoperative break did not result in significantly higher numbers of colony forming units (cfu) compared with retaining the gloves. This was also the case after a subsequent handwashing. At the second surgical hand disinfection, after a simulated operation of 60 min duration (including break), there was no significant difference in the numbers of cfus between the test group who had washed their hands and those who had not. Reducing the disinfection time from 5 min to 1 min was not associated with a significant increase in the number of cfus. However, after a simulated operating time of 150 min (including the break), the second surgical hand disinfection with handwashing resulted in a significantly lower number of microorganisms than disinfection alone. In half the tests, the numbers of cfu were significantly lower when the test group disinfected their hands for 5 min rather than 1 min.

  13. Surgical hand disinfection with a propanol-based hand rub: equivalence of shorter application times.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Ostermeyer, C; Heeg, P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a propanol-based hand rub at application times shorter than 3 min. The bacterial pre-value was obtained from the finger tips (prEN 12791). Subjects treated their hands with the reference procedure (n-propanol, 60%) for 3 min or the product (crossover design). Sterillium was applied for 3, 2, 1.5 and 1 min. Four other preparations were tested for 1 min. Post-values (immediate effect) were taken from one hand, and the other hand was gloved for 3h. After the gloves were removed, the second post-value was taken (sustained effect). Sterillium was more effective than the reference procedure at 3, 2 and 1.5 min (immediate and sustained effect). The immediate effect after 1 min was significantly lower [mean log(10) reduction factor (RF): 1.91+/-0.90 vs. 2.52+/-0.95; P=0.001], whereas the sustained effect was not (mean RF: 1.81+/-1.06 vs. 2.05+/-1.14; P=0.204). All other preparations failed the efficacy requirement at 1 min for both the immediate and sustained effect. Using 2 x 3 mL Sterillium for a total of 1.5 min for surgical hand disinfection was at least as effective as the 3-min reference disinfection.

  14. [Evaluation of efficacy of selected antiseptics for hands disinfection before surgical procedures].

    PubMed

    Leksowski, K; Jasiński, A; Marszałek, A

    2001-08-01

    The most important in surgical hands washing and disinfections is long-term and effective reduction of bacteria number. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of some antiseptic fluids used for surgical hands disinfection's (AHD 2000, Biotensid, Manopronto and Medi-Scrub PVP Iodine). 62 doctors and surgical nurses were examined. The material for the bacteriological examination was collected before and after hands disinfection's. The bacterial flora reduction have been presented as a percent and a logarithmic reduction ratio. All estimated antiseptic fluids were very potent and provided prolonged efficiency when the operation team complied with orders of hands washing.

  15. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  16. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  17. Evaluation of the bactericidal effect of five products for surgical hand disinfection according to prEN 12054 and prEN 12791.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, M G; Kampf, G; Finzi, G; Salvatorelli, G

    2003-05-01

    Surgical hand disinfection (with an alcohol-based hand rub) and surgical handwash (with an antiseptic-based liquid soap) are accepted measures to reduce the risk for surgical site infections. The new European Standards allow a comparison of their antimicrobial efficacy. The bactericidal activity of surgical hand rubs [Sterillium and Softaman, (active ingredient=alcohols)] and handwashes [Derman plus (triclosan), Hibiscrub (chlorhexidine) and Betadine (PVP-iodine)] was tested according to the prEN 12054 suspension test using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae, and to prEN 12791 for the effect on resident skin flora in comparison with 1-propanol, 60% (v/v). All five products achieved a reduction of test bacteria within 3 min of >10(5)-fold so fulfilling prEN 12054. However, only Hibiscrub, Sterillium and Softa Man met the requirements of prEN 12791, giving a mean reduction of resident micro-organisms (immediate and sustained effect) which was not significantly lower than the reference alcohol (P>0.1; Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test). Sterillium was significantly more effective than the reference alcohol (immediate and sustained affect). Products for surgical hand disinfection may have equal antimicrobial activity in suspension tests but show large differences under practical conditions. Healthcare workers should not rely on results from suspension tests when deciding on a product for surgical hand disinfection.

  18. Bacterial colonization on writing pens touched by healthcare professionals and hospitalized patients with and without cleaning the pen with alcohol-based hand sanitizing agent.

    PubMed

    Halton, K; Arora, V; Singh, V; Ghantoji, S S; Shah, D N; Garey, K W

    2011-06-01

    This prospective study examined bacterial colonization on writing pens touched by healthcare professionals and hospitalized patients with and without cleaning the pen with alcohol-based hand sanitizing agent after each patient visit. A significant reduction in potential healthcare-associated pathogens, especially Gram-positive cocci, was observed in the intervention group.

  19. Influence of signal colored hand disinfectant dispensers on hand hygiene compliance at a medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Simone; Häfner, Helga; Schröder, Jörg; Nowicki, Katharina; Lemmen, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    To assess the influence of signal colors on hand disinfectant dispenser activities, health care workers (HCWs) at a medical intensive care unit were analyzed for a total of 20 weeks with 8 weeks before and 12 weeks after exchange to signal color. No significant increase in hand rubs (HRs) per patient day (PD) was observed (about 40 HRs/PD); however, HCW-adjusted compliance showed a 6% increase with signal colored devices. Therefore, colored devices may help to improve hand hygiene compliance.

  20. Impact of the amount of hand rub applied in hygienic hand disinfection on the reduction of microbial counts on hands.

    PubMed

    Goroncy-Bermes, P; Koburger, T; Meyer, B

    2010-03-01

    Two different hand rubs were tested in order to investigate the minimum volume required for microbicidal efficacy according to the European Norm EN 1500; we also sought to determine whether there is a correlation with hand size. Eight male volunteers with big hands (mean 184 cm(2)) and eight female volunteers with significantly smaller hands (mean 148 cm(2); P<0.001) participated in our study. Application of 2 mL of both products (P) provided mean log(10) reductions significantly smaller than those of the reference disinfectant (R) (product A: P=3.34, R=4.00, P=0.001; product B: P=3.37, R=3.75, P=0.022). Higher volumes (product A: 3 and 4 mL; product B: 2.5, 3 and 4 mL) ensured that the pass criteria of the European Norm (EN) 1500 were fulfilled. For both products log(10) reductions increased with increasing product volume until a plateau was reached. For the smaller female hands, this plateau level was reached after applying 3 mL of product A and 2.5 mL of product B. The plateau level on male hands was observed after treating the hands with > or =4 mL of product A and 3 mL of product B. The increase in product volume also correlated with the decrease in the number of volunteers considering the product volume applied as insufficient. In conclusion, the applied volume for hygienic hand rub should not fall below 3 mL in order to achieve maximum benefit.

  1. A 1-minute hand wash does not impair the efficacy of a propanol-based hand rub in two consecutive surgical hand disinfection procedures.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Ostermeyer, C

    2009-11-01

    We studied the effect of a 1-min hand wash on the bacterial hand flora in two consecutive surgical hand disinfection procedures. A propanol-based hand rub (PBHR; Sterillium) and n-propanol (60%, v/v) were tested in a Latin-square design according to EN 12791 in four variations. The reference alcohol was always applied for 3 min after a 1-min hand wash (variation 1). The PBHR was applied for 1.5 min (first application) or 0.5 min (second application). Variation 2 included a 1-min hand wash before both applications, variation 3 included the hand wash before application 1, in variation 4 hands were not washed at all before application. Pre- and post-values were obtained according to EN 12791. The reference disinfection reduced bacteria by 2.99 log(10) (immediate efficacy) and 2.22 log(10) after 3 h. The second reference disinfection reduced bacteria by 0.95 log(10) (immediate efficacy) and 0.68 log(10) after 3 h. The PBHR always yielded an equivalent reduction with and without a preceding hand wash (p > 0.05; Friedman test). A 1-min hand wash before application of the PBHR did not significantly change its efficacy for surgical hand disinfection in two consecutive surgical procedures of 3 h.

  2. Guidelines for reducing pathogens in veterinary hospitals: disinfectant selection, cleaning protocols, and hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Portner, Joshua A; Johnson, Justine A

    2010-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in the hospital setting. Organisms that cause hospital-acquired infections are generally highly resistant, requiring expensive antibiotics and further hospitalization. As a result, many owners of infected pets choose euthanasia. Appropriate hospital disinfection and staff hygiene practices can prevent such infections by reducing the pathogen load in a facility in accordance with the "nosocomial prevention triad"-appropriate antibiotic usage, staff and patient hygiene, and hospital maintenance and disinfection. This review outlines the development and implementation of hospital disinfection protocols and hand hygiene practices in small animal veterinary hospitals.

  3. Validity of the four European test strains of prEN 12054 for the determination of comprehensive bactericidal activity of an alcohol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Hollingsworth, A

    2003-11-01

    A comprehensive bactericidal activity of an alcohol-based hand rub is essential for prevention of cross-transmission by the hands of healthcare workers. In Europe, however, only four test organisms are used to determine bactericidal activity according to prEN 12054. The susceptibility of the various bacterial species against the commonly used alcohols is thought to be similar, but so far this has never been studied. We therefore evaluated the bactericidal activity of an alcohol-based hand rub (Sterillium) within 30 s in compliance with prEN 12054 and in a time kill test against 13 Gram-positive, 18 Gram-negative bacteria and 14 antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Each strain was evaluated in quadruplicate. Counts of the four test bacteria of prEN 12054 were reduced by factors exceeding 10(5) within 30 s. In the time kill test, all 13 Gram-positive and all 18 Gram-negative bacteria were reduced more than 10(5)-fold within 30 s, not only against the ATCC test strains but also against corresponding clinical isolates. Comparable reductions were also observed against all 14 emerging bacterial pathogens. The four European test bacteria were found to be sufficient to determine a comprehensive bactericidal activity of a propanol-based hand rub.

  4. Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Reichel, Mirja; Feil, Yvonne; Eggerstedt, Sven; Kaulfers, Paul-Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s). However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN) 1500 samples only the fingertips. Therefore, we investigated hand coverage using sixteen different application variations. The hand rub was supplemented with a fluorescent dye, and hands were assessed under UV light by a blind test, before and after application. Fifteen non-healthcare workers were used as subjects for each application variation apart from one test which was done with a group of twenty healthcare workers. All tests apart from the reference procedure were performed using 3 mL of hand rub. The EN 1500 reference procedure, which consists of 6 specific rub-in steps performed twice with an aliquot of 3 ml each time, served as a control. In one part of this study, each of the six steps was performed from one to five times before proceeding to the next step. In another part of the study, the entire sequence of six steps was performed from one to five times. Finally, all subjects were instructed to cover both hands completely, irrespective of any specific steps ("responsible application"). Each rub-in technique was evaluated for untreated skin areas. Results The reference procedure lasted on average 75 s and resulted in 53% of subjects with at least one untreated area on the hands. Five repetitions of the rub-in steps lasted on average 37 s with 67% of subjects having incompletely treated hands. One repetition lasted on average 17 s, and all subjects had at least one untreated area. Repeating the sequence of steps lasted longer, but did not yield a better result. "Responsible application" was quite fast, lasting 25 s among non-healthcare worker subjects and 28 s among healthcare workers. It was also effective, with 53% and 55% of hands being incompletely treated. New techniques were as fast and effective as "responsible application". Large untreated areas

  5. Effect of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel on microbial colonization of artificial fingernails worn by health care workers.

    PubMed

    McNeil, S A; Foster, C L; Hedderwick, S A; Kauffman, C A

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine differences in microflora on the nails of health care workers (HCWs) wearing artificial nails compared with control HCWs with native nails and to assess the effect on these microflora of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Cultures were obtained from 21 HCWs wearing artificial nails and 20 control HCWs before and after using antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Before cleansing with soap, 86% of HCWs with artificial nails had a pathogen (gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, or yeasts) isolated, compared with 35% of controls (P=.003); a similar difference was noted before hand cleansing with gel (68% vs. 28%; P=.03). Significantly more HCWs with artificial nails than controls had pathogens remaining after hand cleansing with soap or gel. Of HCWs with artificial nails, only 11% cleared pathogens with soap compared with 38% with gel. Of control HCWs, only 14% cleared with soap compared with 80% with gel. Artificial acrylic fingernails could contribute to the transmission of pathogens, and their use by HCWs should be discouraged.

  6. [Comparison of efficacy of 14 procedures for the hygienic disinfection of hands (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wewalka, G; Rotter, M; Koller, W; Stanek, G

    1977-10-01

    The efficacy of 14 procedures for the hygienic disinfection of hands mostly with commerical preparations was tested by a new experimental model developed at the Institute of Hygiene of the university Vienna (1,3). The disinfectant power was clearly dependent on the duration of treatment as well as on the kind of alcohol used in the preparation (n-Propanol better than iso-Propanol better than Ethanol). After one minute the efficacy of all preparations containing one of the three alcohols as active agent was well comparable to that of the standard procedure which according to our proposal (5) uses iso-Propanol 60% (ml/ml) for 1 minute. For preparations with n-Propanol as the main active agent (Satinazid and Sterillium) this was true even after treatment for a period as short as 0.5 min. In our opinion disinfecting detergents are out of place for hygienic disinfection of hands. One preparation representing this group (Versuchspräparat A) was far less effective than the standard procedure.

  7. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic bacteria on the hands of hospital patients before and after the introduction of patient hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Göran; Blomkvist, Annika; Janson, Marianne; Lindblom, Anders

    2012-10-01

    The leading cause of nosocomial infections and spread of multiresistant bacteria is considered to be the failure of healthcare workers to perform appropriate hand hygiene. The role of the hands of hospital patients in the spread of infection has received little attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of potentially pathogenic bacteria on the patients' hands. Quantitative cultures were repeatedly taken from the fingertips of patients at a rehabilitation clinic before and after an intervention in which patient hand disinfection was introduced and promoted. Before the intervention, the occurrence on the hands of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast was a common finding. The colony counts of S. aureus were often higher than the counts of other organisms. After the intervention, the level of hand contamination was lower. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) concerning Enterobacteriaceae, both when the patients were resting and at lunch time, for enterococci and total bacterial counts at lunch time, and for yeast when they were resting. Concerning S. aureus, the difference was not statistically significant, neither while resting nor at lunch time. The role of the patients in the spread of pathogenic bacteria merits more discussion.

  8. Does a preceding hand wash and drying time after surgical hand disinfection influence the efficacy of a propanol-based hand rub?

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Kampf, Günter; Kamp, Philipp; Kohlmann, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Background Recently, a propanol-based hand rub has been described to exceed the efficacy requirements of the European standard EN 12791 in only 1.5 min significantly. But the effect of a 1 min preceding hand wash and the effect of one additional minute for evaporation of the alcohol after its application on the efficacy after a 1.5 min application time has never been studied. Methods We have investigated a propanol-based hand rub (Sterillium®, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate) in three variations: with (A) and without (B) a 1 min hand wash before the disinfection of 1.5 min with immediate sampling after the disinfection; and (C) without a hand wash before the disinfection but with sampling 1 min after the disinfection. The efficacy of the three variations was compared to the reference treatment of EN 12791. All experiments were performed in a Latin-square design with 20 volunteers. Pre- and post-values (immediate and after 3 hr) were obtained according to EN 12791. Results The 3 min reference disinfection reduced resident hand bacteria on average by 1.8 log10 steps (immediate effect) and 1.4 log10-steps (sustained effect) respectively. Method A was equally effective as the reference (immediate efficacy: 1.5 log10-steps; sustained efficacy: 1.6 log10-steps). Method B seemed to be more effective (immediate efficacy: 2.3 log10-steps; sustained efficacy: 1.7 log10-steps). Method C revealed the best efficacy (immediate efficacy: 2.3 log10-steps; sustained efficacy: 2.0 log10-steps). A comparison of all three treatment variations and the reference treatment revealed a significant difference for the immediate efficacy (p = 0.026; Friedman test), but not for the sustained efficacy (p = 0.430). A post-hoc-test for the immediate efficacy indicated a significant difference between methods A and C (p < 0.05; Wilcoxon-Wilcox test). Hence, none of the treatment variations was significantly less effective than the reference treatment

  9. An investigation of the factors that affect surgical hand disinfection with polyvidone iodine.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, A; Caglayan, F; Cakmak, M; Apan, T Z; Gocmen, J S; Cakmak, A; Somuncu, S; Akman, H

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing the effectiveness of 7.5% polyvidone iodine as a surgical antiseptic. The study involved 100 operating staff (75 doctors and 25 nurses) from hospital surgical teams. Fingertips of both hands of the subjects were pressed on to agar culture before and after washing and after completion of surgery. Handwashing lasting for more than 3 min led to a significant decrease in the number of colonies compared with handwashing lasting for less than 3 min. Moreover, the number of colonies was significantly higher when surgery lasted for longer than 95 min. However, the handwashing style (with or without brushing) was not found to have a significant effect on the outcome of the disinfection procedure in terms of bacterial colonization. Subjects who had colonization of their hands after surgery were found to have significantly higher colony counts before handwashing compared with those who did not have any colonization on their hands after surgery. The results of this study revealed that in order to attain effective disinfection with polyvidone iodine, the duration of handwashing should be at least 3 min. The risk of recolonization increases when the duration of surgery exceeds 95 min.

  10. Disinfection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, J. P.; Haas, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater disinfection for 1978. This review covers areas such as: (1) mechanisms of inactivation of negative microorganisms by chlorine and ozone; and (2) the effects of various treatment on over-all water quality. A list of 61 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Daily disinfection of high-touch surfaces in isolation rooms to reduce contamination of healthcare workers' hands.

    PubMed

    Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sunkesula, Venkata; Jury, Lucy A; Sitzlar, Brett M; Donskey, Curtis J

    2012-10-01

    In a randomized nonblinded trial, we demonstrated that daily disinfection of high-touch surfaces in rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile infection and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization reduced acquisition of the pathogens on hands after contacting high-touch surfaces and reduced contamination of hands of healthcare workers caring for the patients.

  12. Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

    1993-01-01

    Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8390817

  13. Spectrum of antimicrobial activity and user acceptability of the hand disinfectant agent Sterillium Gel.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Rudolf, M; Labadie, J-C; Barrett, S P

    2002-10-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels has been shown to be significantly less than liquid hand rubs probably because of a lower concentration of alcohol. Sterillium Gel is the first hand gel with 85% ethanol. Its antimicrobial efficacy and user acceptability was studied. Bactericidal activity was tested according to prEN 12054 against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (suspension test) and EN 1500 (15 volunteers; four replicates), fungicidal activity according to EN 1275 against Candida albicans and spores of Aspergillus niger (suspension test) and tuberculocidal activity against Mycobacterium terrae using the DGHM suspension test. Virucidal activity was determined in suspension tests based on reduction of infectivity with and without interfering substances (10% fetal calf serum; 0.3% erythrocytes and 0.3% bovine serum albumin). Ninety-six healthcare workers in hospitals in France and the UK used the gel for four weeks and assessed it by filling out a questionnaire. The gel was bactericidal (a reduction factor of > 10(5)-fold), tuberculocidal (reduction factor > 10(5)) and fungicidal (reduction factor > 10(4)) in 30 s. Irrespective of interfering substances the gel inactivated orthopoxvirus and herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in 15 s, adenovirus in 2 min, poliovirus in 3 min and papovavirus in 15 min by a factor of > 10(4)-fold. Rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus were inactivated in 30 s (without interfering substances). Under practical use conditions it was as effective in 30 s as the reference alcohol in 60 s. Most users described the tackiness, aggregation, skin feeling after use and smell as positive or acceptable. A total of 65.6% assessed the new gel to be better than a comparator irrespective of its type (gel or liquid). Overall Sterillium Gel had a unique spectrum of antimicrobial activity. It is probably the first alcohol-based hand gel to pass EN 1500 in 30 s. Due to the

  14. Effect of music on surgical hand disinfection: a video-based intervention study.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, N; Marschall, J; Candinas, D; Banz, V M

    2017-04-01

    Surgical hand disinfection (SHD) is likely to be influenced by various factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of listening to music on the duration of SHD. In total, 236 SHD procedures were recorded on video. The duration of SHD exceeded 2min in both the intervention group and the control group, with background music unable to achieve an increase in the time spent scrubbing. However, listening to music reduced the proportion of very short scrub times (<90s) from 17% to 9% (P=0.07). The following four factors increased mean scrub time significantly: female sex; lower staff seniority; scrubbing hands in groups; and use of a stopwatch. Although the improvement observed did not reach significance, it is suggested that background music may be useful for the 10% of healthcare workers who perform very short scrubs.

  15. Assessment of the activity of antiperspirants added to surgical hand disinfectants: methodological aspects and first observations.

    PubMed

    Pitten, F A; Rudolph, P; Below, H; Kramer, A

    2001-08-01

    Due to the risk of sensitization caused by glove powder, the use of unpowdered latex gloves is increasing. These unpowdered gloves need a special inner-surface layer which makes it easier for the applicant to put the glove on the hand and to remove it again. However, many users report difficulties with removing the gloves because of sweat production within the glove. Therefore, a method has been developed to evaluate the efficacy of antiperspirants which may be added either to the inner-surface layer of the glove or to hand disinfectants or to skin-care products used before the gloves are put on. The paper describes various trials to optimize this method.

  16. [Can the DGHM test for the surgical hand disinfection be used to detect residual effects?].

    PubMed

    Gottardi, W

    1997-08-01

    It is investigated if the log reductions measured by the DGHM test for examination and evaluation of disinfecting procedures for the surgical hand wash, i.e. the short and long term values RFreference, 0h, RFreference, 3h, RFpreparation, 0h and RFpreparation, 3h can be used to detect residual effects (a remanent action) of the tested preparation. To do this the differences delta RF = RF0h-RF3h of reference and tested preparation have been formed which are a measure for the bacterial regeneration rate. A remanence index RI = magnitude of delta RFreference/magnitude of delta RFpreparation has been specified, which, in case RI > 1 indicates a residual effect of the test preparation in relation to the reference. The evaluation of 21 testing protocols is showing that the calculated remanence indexes are far away from any significance. This is attributed on the one hand to the great standard deviations of the log reductions and on the other hand to virtually only small residual effects of the tested preparations.

  17. [Hand hygiene--part of patient safety from Semmelweis to the present].

    PubMed

    Anttila, Veli-Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Hand disinfection is one of the most important part of patient safety. By adequate hand disinfection healthcare workers can prevent about 40 per cent of healthcare-associated infections and about 50 per cent of patients' MRSA contaminations in hospitals. Adherence to hand disinfection has been observed in an average of 40 per cent of patient contacts. One of the risk factors leading to poor adherence is the "doctor" status of a healthcare worker. Introduction of an alcohol-based hand rub close to the patient is one of the most significant factors for improved hand hygiene.

  18. Effects of disinfectants and detergents on skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Slotosch, Caroline M; Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the biological response of regular human skin to alcohol-based disinfectants and detergents in a repetitive test design. Using non-invasive diagnostic tools such as transepidermal water loss, laser-Doppler flowmetry and corneometry, we quantified the irritative effects of a propanol-based hand disinfectant (Sterillium), its propanol mixture (2-propanol 45% w/w and 1-propanol 30% w/w), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 0.5% and distilled water. The substances were applied in a 2-D patch test in a repetitive occlusive test design to the back. Additionally, we performed a wash test on the forearms that was supposed to mimic the skin affection in the normal daily routine of health care workers. In this controlled half-side test design, we included the single application of the hand rub, SLS 0.5% and water as well as a tandem application of the same substances. Patch test and wash test showed similar results. The alcohol-based test preparations showed minimal irritation rather comparable to the application of water. However, the detergent SLS produced stronger barrier disruption, erythema and dryness than the alcohol-based preparations. There was no additional irritation at the combined use of SLS and disinfectants. By contrary, there was even a decrease in barrier disruption and erythema induced by the tandem application of SLS followed by alcohol-based disinfection compared with the use of SLS alone. These findings show a less irritant effect of alcohol-based disinfectants on the skin than detergents. Our study shows that there is no summation of irritating effects of a common detergent and propanol and that the combination of washing and disinfection has a rather protective aspect compared with washing alone.

  19. Practice of skin protection and skin care among German surgeons and influence on the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection and surgical glove perforation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SP/SC products and one alcohol-based hand rub formulation did not show a negative interaction with surgical hand rub or surgical glove perforation. However, it is advisable to ascertain the compatibility of SP/SC products with the used hand disinfectant prior to purchase. PMID:24912541

  20. Efficacy of two distinct ethanol-based hand rubs for surgical hand disinfection – a controlled trial according to prEN 12791

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of two distinct ethanol-based hand rubs for surgical hand disinfection in a controlled cross-over trial according to prEN 12791. Methods 20 subjects were included. Hands were washed for 1 min with soap. The bacterial prevalue was obtained by rubbing finger tips in TSB for 1 min. Then, each subject treated the hands with the reference procedure (n-propanol, 60% v/v) or the product (Sterillium® Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Avagard, based on 61% ethanol and 1% chlorhexidine gluconate) which were all applied in 3 to 4 portions each of 3 ml for a total of 3 min. Bacterial postvalues (immediate effect) were taken from one hand, the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After gloves were taken off the second postvalue was taken for the assessment of a sustained effect. Results Bacterial pre-values were between 4.38 ± 0.66 and 4.46 ± 0.71. Sterillium® Rub achieved the required immediate (mean log10-reduction of 2.59 ± 1.19) and sustained effect (1.73 ± 1.08) compared with the reference treatment (immediate effect: 2.58 ± 1.16; sustained effect: 1.67 ± 0.96). Avagard, however, did not achieve the required immediate (1.82 ± 1.40) and sustained effect (1.41 ± 1.08) in comparison to the reference disinfection (immediate effect: 2.98 ± 0.90; sustained effect: 2.56 ± 1.17; p < 0.01; Wilcoxon test). Conclusion Based on our data, Sterillium® Rub can be regarded to be effective for surgical hand disinfection, but Avagard can not. The addition of 1% chlorhexidine gluconate to 61% ethanol (w/w) did not outweigh an ethanol concentration of 80% (w/w). PMID:15784148

  1. Efficacy of hand disinfectants against vancomycin-resistant enterococci in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Höfer, M; Wendt, C

    1999-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) may be spread within a hospital via the contaminated hands of the healthcare worker. Effective hand disinfectants are necessary to break chains of transmission. We determined the bactericidal activity of 1-propanol, chlorhexidine digluconate (0.5 and 4%). Sterillium (45% 2-propanol, 30% 1-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate), Skinsept F (70% 2-propanol, 0.5% chlorhexidine digluconate and 0.45% hydrogen peroxide) and Hibisol (70% 2-propanol and 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate) against 11 clonally distinct enterococcal isolates in a quantitative suspension test. Four isolates were vancomycin susceptible, four were vanA and the remainder vanB positive. Eight isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium, two as Enterococcus faecalis and one as Enterococcus gallinarum. The investigator was blinded to the species and the genotype. Four parallel experiments were carried out for each isolate, each preparation, each dilution and each reaction time. 1-Propanol (60%), Sterillium, Skinsept F and Hibisol were all highly bactericidal after 15 and 30 s against VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) with reduction factors (RF) > 6.4, even in dilution of 50% (v/v). No significant difference was observed between vanA isolates, vanB isolates and VSE. Chlorhexidine digluconate (0.5% and 4%) was found to be less bactericidal after 30, 60 and 300 sec (RF < or = 2.5). The vanB genotype isolates were found to be significantly more susceptible to chlorhexidine (0.5%) than the vanA isolates (60 sec; one-way ANOVA model; P = 0.05). After 300 sec the vanB genotype isolates were found to be significantly more susceptible to chlorhexidine (0.5%) than the other two genotype isolates (P = 0.016). The vanA isolates were found to be significantly more susceptible to chlorhexidine (4%) than the vanB isolates (300 s; P = 0.024). E. faecium was found to be less susceptible to chlorhexidine than E. faecalis at all concentrations and reaction

  2. Influence of job seniority, hand hygiene education, and patient-to-nurse ratio on hand disinfection compliance.

    PubMed

    Buffet-Bataillon, S; Leray, E; Poisson, M; Michelet, C; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Cormier, M

    2010-09-01

    Hand hygiene compliance was evaluated by direct observation in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, data on characteristics such as job seniority, hand hygiene education, and patient-to-nurse ratio during direct observations were collected. A hand hygiene promotional programme was performed between the two evaluations. Univariate and multivariate analysis identified factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance. Between 2006 and 2007, from 761 hand hygiene opportunities, overall and partial compliance improved from 44.9% to 58% (P<0.001) and from 73.5% to 88.4% (P<0.001), respectively. In 2007, improvements in hand hygiene overall or partial compliance were seen when senior healthcare workers (HCWs) were present in the clinical area under investigation (P=0.04 or P=0.08, respectively). Partial hand hygiene compliance was significantly better in 2007 after a hand hygiene educational programme had been presented (P<0.015). Similar rates of compliance were observed whatever the patient-to-nurse ratio during the observation. Multivariate analysis identified job seniority as an independent predictor of hand hygiene compliance. Our results suggest that hand hygiene compliance is influenced by education on hand hygiene and that a senior HCW could act as a role model for other HCWs. These data should be considered when developing future hygiene interventions.

  3. Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis among health care workers by using evidence-based hand hygiene practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is often found on the hands of healthcare workers and is generally caused by frequent hand washing, gloves, aggressive disinfectants or detergents. Alcohols have only a marginal irritation potential, although they may cause a burning sensation on pre-irritated skin. A burning sensation when using alcohols therefore, suggests that the skin barrier is already damaged. Two options for hand hygiene are generally available in clinical practice: (1) hand washing with some type of soap and water or (2) hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. Most clinical situations require the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination, which is especially useful for reducing the nosocomial transmission of various infectious agents. Washing one's hands should be the exception, to be performed only when they are visibly soiled or contaminated with proteinaceous material, or visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids. The overall compliance rate in hand hygiene is around 50%, which is far too low. In addition, healthcare workers quite often wash their hands with soap and water, when they should use an alcohol-based hand rub. This not only adds to the degree of skin irritation, but is also potentially dangerous for patients, due to the low efficacy of hand washing when compared to hand disinfection with alcohol rubs. Adhering to evidence-based hand hygiene protocols and following international guidelines on hand hygiene practices therefore, can help prevent irritant contact dermatitis among healthcare workers.

  4. Systematic patients' hand disinfection: impact on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection rates in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Gagné, D; Bédard, G; Maziade, P J

    2010-08-01

    The role of patients and their relatives as unidentified transient meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers and sources of dissemination in healthcare institutions has not been systematically addressed. Patients' and their relatives' hands may represent a substantial and 'unaccounted for' mode of transmission. This study aimed to verify this hypothesis in our 250-bed community hospital. The trial consisted of a systematic waterless washing and gel rinse disinfection of all patients' and visiting relatives' hands for a period of one year, along with retrospective comparison of the nosocomial infection rates. Under the supervision of infection control personnel, a team of four full-time and four part-time attendants was trained to meet all patients and visiting relatives and encourage them to clean their hands with an alcohol gel rinse twice a day on every weekday. Rates of MRSA infections per thousand admissions, cost-benefit analysis and staff hand hygiene compliance were audited throughout. From the comparative year, the rate of MRSA nosocomial infections per thousand admissions decreased by 51%. Assuming that the incidence of MRSA was maintained from comparative to study year, the intervention may have prevented 51 cases of MRSA infection and resulted in substantial savings. While focusing extensively on staff behaviour to prevent MRSA transmission, we may have overlooked hand hygiene practices by patients and their relatives as a potential mode of transmission. Systematic hand hygiene of patients and relatives appears to be an inexpensive and highly effective preventive measure against MRSA nosocomial transmission.

  5. World Health Organization-recommended hand-rub formulations do not meet European efficacy requirements for surgical hand disinfection in five minutes.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Ostermeyer, C

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended two hand-rub formulations for local production based on 80% ethanol or 75% isopropanol (both v/v). We have looked at their efficacy according to EN 12791. Twenty-six subjects treated their hands with the reference procedure (n-propanol, 60%) for 3 min or with one of the two formulations for 1.5, 3 or 5 min (Latin square design). Post-values (immediate effect) were taken from one hand, the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After the glove had been taken off, the second post-value was taken (3 h effect). The mean log(10) reduction of each hand rub at all three application times was compared to Hodges and Lehmann's reference procedure for non-inferiority. In the first block the reference procedure reduced bacterial load by 2.43 log(10) (immediate effect) and 2.22 log(10) (3 h effect). The efficacy of the ethanol-based formulation (e.g. immediate efficacy of 1.41 log(10) at 5 min) was inferior to the reference procedure at all application times [lower 95% confidence interval (CI): less than -0.75]. In the second block the reference procedure reduced bacterial load by 2.72 log(10) (immediate effect) and 2.26 log(10) (3 h effect). The efficacy of the isopropanol-based formulation (e.g. immediate efficacy of 2.05 log(10) at 5 min) was also inferior to the reference procedure at all application times (lower 95% CI: less than -0.75). Both WHO-recommended hand-rub formulations failed to meet the EN 12791 efficacy requirements for surgical hand disinfection within 5 min. A higher concentration of the active ingredients may improve the efficacy.

  6. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.

  7. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A.; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI) study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, p<0.44) or in the quality (t=-99, p<0.34). With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) and in the total score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751), the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video

  8. Preoperative Disinfection of Surgeons' Hands: Use of Alcoholic Solutions and Effects of Gloves on Skin Flora

    PubMed Central

    Lowbury, E. J. L.; Lilly, H. A.; Ayliffe, G. A. J.

    1974-01-01

    A single application of about 10 ml of 95% alcoholic chlorhexidine (0·5%) or tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol (0·1%) rubbed on to the hands until they were dry led to mean reduction in viable bacterial counts from standard handwashings of 97·9 ± 1·09% and 91·8 ± 4·63% respectively. After six of such treatments, three on each of two successive days, the mean reductions in relation to viable counts before the first treatment were 99·7 ± 0·09% for alcoholic chlorhexidine and 99·5 ± 0·17% for tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol. These reductions were greater than those obtained with 4% chlorhexidine detergent solution— 87·1 ± 3·5% and 98·2 ± 1·6%, and with 95% or 70% ethyl alcohol and with aqueous 0·5% chlorhexidine. Preoperative washing of the surgeon's hands with alcoholic chlorhexidine used without addition of water is more effective and less expensive than handwashing with antiseptic detergent preparations and running water. The viable counts of washings from hands treated with various antiseptics, including ethyl alcohol, were lower in relation to the pretreatment levels when gloves had been worn for three hours than when samples for counts were taken immediately after the antiseptic treatment. No such difference was found in samplings from hands washed with unmedicated soap. Tests for residual action of antiseptics on the skin showed a greater effect with alcoholic chlorhexidine than with tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol, though both showed greater residual activity than an Irgasan DP 300 detergent preparation. No residual action was shown after 70% ethyl alcohol. PMID:4609555

  9. Improving adherence to surgical hand preparation.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Hübner, N; Below, H; Heidecke, C-D; Assadian, O

    2008-10-01

    At present, no universal agreement on detailed practice for surgical hand preparation exists. In order to fill this gap, in 2002 a Franco-German recommendation for surgical hand preparation was published as a first step towards a generally accepted European recommendation. Based on an assessment of the actual literature, a protocol for surgical hand preparation is discussed with the aim to recommend evidence-based standard procedures including prerequisites, washing and disinfection phase, and its practical implementation. In contrast to hygienic hand disinfection, for surgical hand preparation compliance is not an issue, since it mostly is regarded as a ceremony which is carried out without exception. Nevertheless, the following factors influence acceptance and efficacy: skin tolerance, ease of use, duration of procedure, and recommended time), potential for impaired efficacy due to incorrect performance of the procedure, possibility of systemic risks and irritating potential by applied preparations, religious restrictions, ecological aspects, costs and safety. Here, we report our experience with the introduction of a new hand preparation regime in all surgical disciplines in our university hospital based on the above factors. The following statements were evaluated: 1) The immediate efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant is impaired by a preceding hand wash for up to 10 minutes. Therefore hands should not be routinely washed before the disinfection period unless there is a good reason for it such as visible soiling. 2) A shortened application time (1.5 minutes) is equal to 3 min in terms of efficacy. 3) Hands should be air dried before gloves are put on, otherwise the perforation rate of gloves will increase. 4) The efficacy of alcohol-based disinfectants is significantly higher when hands are allowed to dry for 1 minute after the washing phase and before the disinfection phase. To clarify the above questions before the establishment of the modified

  10. Hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    The toll of health care-associated infections on patients and the seeming ease of the procedure thought best able to prevent them have focused a spotlight onto hand hygiene performance. Poor performance of hand hygiene by health care workers inspires outrage in the general public. Much is understood regarding barriers to and motivators of hand hygiene performance. Guidelines encouraging use of alcohol-based hand hygiene agents have facilitated hand hygiene improvement efforts. These efforts and evidence that improved hand hygiene performance is associated with a reduction in health care-associated infections should encourage those in the hand hygiene campaigns.

  11. Update on hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2013-05-01

    Recent developments related to hand hygiene include new test methods for evaluating hand hygiene products, improvements in alcohol-based hand rubs, novel methods of hand antisepsis, and new strategies and technologies for monitoring hand hygiene practices among health care personnel.

  12. Frequency of interactions and hand disinfections among anesthesiologists while providing anesthesia care in the operating room: induction versus maintenance.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Riley, Bobbie; Banks, Shawn; Eber, Scott; Arheart, Kristopher; Lubarsky, David A; Birnbach, David J

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the behaviors of anesthesiologists during induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Contacts with surfaces occurred a mean (±standard error) of 154.8 ± 7.7 and 60 ± 3.1 times per hour during induction and maintenance, respectively (P < .0001). Hand hygiene events were 1.8 ± 0.27 per hour during induction versus 1.19 ± 0.27 during maintenance (P = .018).

  13. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of >or=160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log(10) reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log(10) reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log(10) reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log(10) compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses.

  14. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  15. [Specific antisepsis and environmental disinfection in preventing "Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea"].

    PubMed

    Agolini, G; Protano, C; Puro, V; Raitano, A; Ferraro, F; Vitali, M

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, Clostridium difficile acquired great interest for public health because of constant increase of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), especially in nosocomial field and as a consequences of its pathogenicity and virulence. Oro-faecal transmission and great environmental persistence of Clostridium difficile indicate hand hygiene of health care workers and environmental disinfection practices as key interventions for prevention and control of nosocomial CDAD. The current indications relative to the hand hygiene suggest the use of soap and water for hand washing and, to achieve a better compliance of health care workers to this treatment, the alternative use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate or alcohol-based solution or gel waterless. Regard to environmental disinfection, to avoid high concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (in the magnitude of 5.000-6.000 ppm), necessary to reduce microbic load of dirty environment, the most appropriate treatment should consist of 2 phases: preliminary cleaning with water and detergents or polyphenol, followed by treatment with solution containing 1.000 ppm available chlorine, obtained from sodium hypochlorite or sodium dichloroisocyanurate.

  16. Dermal tolerance of Sterillium, a propanol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Muscatiello, M

    2003-12-01

    Alcohol-based hand rubs have been used for hygienic hand disinfection in hospitals for decades. In order to achieve good compliance with hand hygiene practices in the healthcare setting, dermal tolerance of a hand rub product is crucial. Sterillium, which is used in many European countries for hygienic hand disinfection, is based on iso-propanol, n-propanol and mecetronium etilsulphate. The potential for dermal irritation and sensitization of commercially available propanol-based hand rubs containing emollients has not been studied systematically. We therefore studied the dermal tolerance of Sterillium in a repetitive occlusive patch test on 55 subjects. Sterillium was applied to one site on the back under an occlusive patch during an induction phase (total of nine applications over a three-week period) and two weeks later to a virgin site on the back during a challenge phase (one application). Twenty-four hours after removal of the patches (induction phase and challenge phase), and in addition, after 48 and 72 h (challenge phase), the sites were graded for skin reactions using a standardized scoring scale. In the induction phase, two of the 55 subjects had a barely perceptible minimal erythema at one of nine time points. The remaining 53 subjects had no skin reaction at any time. In the challenge phase, all 55 subjects had no skin reaction at all. The absence of significant reactions with respect to severity and frequency demonstrates the favourable dermal tolerance of the hand rub product. The lack of irritation or sensitization potential could enhance compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers.

  17. Effectiveness of Liquid Soap and Hand Sanitizer against Norwalk Virus on Contaminated Hands▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of ≥160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log10 reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log10 reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log10 reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log10 compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses. PMID:19933337

  18. Susceptibility of Vaccinia Virus to Chemical Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Tércia Moreira Ludolfo; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Coelho Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the cause of bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonotic disease that affects dairy cows and milkers. Some chemical disinfectants have been used on farms affected by BV to disinfect cow teats and milkers' hands. To date, there is no information about the efficacy of disinfectants against VACV. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the virucidal activity of some active disinfectants commonly used in the field. Sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium combined with chlorhexidine, and quaternary ammonium combined with glutaraldehyde were effective in inactivating the virus at all concentrations tested. Iodine and quaternary ammonium as the only active component were partially effective. The presence of bovine feces as organic matter and light decreased the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite. These results show that an appropriated disinfection and asepsis of teats and hands may be helpful in the control and prevention of BV and other infections with VACV. PMID:21734141

  19. Evaluation of two different hand hygiene procedures during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Eksi, F; Mehli, M; Akgun, S; Bayram, A; Balci, I; Aydin, N

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of hand washing (HW) and hand washing plus rubbing with an alcohol-based solution (HWR) on numbers of total and transient flora colonies on the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) during routine patient care was assessed. Samples were collected, using a standard bag broth technique, from the hands of 154 HCWs, before and immediately after carrying out a hand hygiene procedure. The numbers of total and transient flora colonies per plate were counted and transient pathogens were identified. A significant statistical difference between ward speciality was detected with respect to the isolation rate of transient flora. Transient hand flora were recovered from 25.3% of HCWs before carrying out the hand hygiene procedure. With respect to the disappearance and prevention of regrowth of transient flora after hand hygiene, the HWR technique was significantly more effective than HW. In conclusion, a disinfectant should be added to the hand washing process to achieve optimum protection against nosocomial infections in routine hospital practice.

  20. Effective reprocessing of reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues – the devil is in the details

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has recently been reported that reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues may be contaminated, especially with adapted Achromobacter species 3, when products based on surface-active ingredients are used. Fresh solution may quickly become recontaminated if dispensers are not processed adequately. Methods: We evaluated the abilities of six manual and three automatic processes for processing contaminated dispensers to prevent recolonisation of a freshly-prepared disinfectant solution (Mikrobac forte 0.5%). Dispensers were left at room temperature for 28 days. Samples of the disinfectant solution were taken every 7 days and assessed quantitatively for bacterial contamination. Results: All automatic procedures prevented recolonisation of the disinfectant solution when a temperature of 60–70°C was ensured for at least 5 min, with or without the addition of chemical cleaning agents. Manual procedures prevented recontamination of the disinfectant solution when rinsing with hot water or a thorough cleaning step was performed before treating all surfaces with an alcohol-based disinfectant or an oxygen-releaser. Other cleaning and disinfection procedures, including the use of an alcohol-based disinfectant, did not prevent recolonisation. Conclusions: These results indicate that not all processes are effective for processing reusable dispensers for surface-disinfectant tissues, and that a high temperature during the cleaning step or use of a biofilm-active cleaning agent are essential. PMID:24653973

  1. Surface disinfection: should we do it?

    PubMed

    Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2001-08-01

    The effective use of disinfectants constitutes an important factor in preventing hospital-acquired infections. Surfaces are considered non-critical items as they come in contact with intact skin. Use of non-critical items or contact with non-critical surfaces carries little risk of transmitting a pathogen to patients. Thus, the routine use of disinfectants to disinfect hospital floors and other non-critical items is controversial. However, surfaces may potentially contribute to cross-transmission by acquisition of transient hand carriage by health care personnel due to contact with a contaminated surface or by patient contact with contaminated surfaces or medical equipment. This paper reviews the epidemiological and microbiological data regarding the use of disinfectants on non-critical surfaces. It concludes that while non-critical surfaces are uncommonly associated with transmission of infections to patients, one should clean and disinfect surfaces on a regularly scheduled basis.

  2. An evaluation of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit: Are visitors a potential vector for pathogens?

    PubMed

    Birnbach, David J; Rosen, Lisa F; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Arheart, Kristopher L; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) are frequently immunocompromised and might be highly susceptible to infection. Visitors to an ICU who do not adequately clean their hands could carry pathogenic organisms, resulting in risk to a vulnerable patient population. This observational study identifies pathogens carried on the hands of visitors into an ICU and investigates the effect of hand hygiene. Two observers, one stationed outside and one inside the ICU, evaluated whether visitors performed hand hygiene at any of the wall-mounted alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers prior to reaching a patient's room. Upon reaching a patient's room, the dominant hand of all of the participants was cultured. Of the 55 participating visitors, 35 did not disinfect their hands. Among the cultures of those who failed to perform hand hygiene, eight cultures grew Gram-negative rods and one grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Of the cultures of the 20 individuals who performed hand hygiene, 14 (70%) had no growth on the cultures, and the remaining six (30%) showed only the usual skin flora. The visitors who do not perform hand hygiene might carry pathogens that pose a risk to ICU patients.

  3. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation.

  4. New formaldehyde base disinfectants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; Lindell, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    Preparations of formaldehyde in various organic liquids - ethylene glycol, glycerol, and propylene glycol - serve as effective disinfectants towards microbial vegetative cells and spores. This disinfection is a temperature-dependent process and is manifest when these formaldehyde base disinfectants are dissolved in water. The irritating vapors associated with formaldehyde disinfection are not present in either of these new formaldehyde base disinfectants or in aqueous solutions of them.

  5. Outcomes of an infection prevention project focusing on hand hygiene and isolation practices.

    PubMed

    Aragon, Daleen; Sole, Mary Lou; Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major health problem for hospitalized patients and their families. Since the 1800s, hand hygiene has been recognized as the single best method to prevent the spread of pathogens and nosocomial infections. Despite this fact, many healthcare workers do not adhere to hand hygiene policies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a guideline for hand hygiene practices in 2002. Multifaceted approaches to improve hand hygiene have been shown to increase compliance among healthcare workers and subsequently reduce infections. A performance improvement project was initiated to implement this guideline and other strategies to prevent nosocomial infection. This article summarizes the performance improvement processes and the preliminary outcomes on adherence to infection prevention policies related to hand hygiene and isolation practices. Clinically and statistically significant increases were noted for hand hygiene prior to patient care and in wearing masks when indicated. Nurses and patient care technicians had the greatest increases in compliance. Increases in hand hygiene after patient contact and wearing of gown and gloves were also noted, but results were not statistically significant. Nosocomial infection rates from antibiotic-resistant organisms decreased in the first surveillance, but rates increased during the 1-year surveillance. Consumption of alcohol-based foam disinfectant doubled from baseline. Findings are consistent with other published studies. The project will continue with further reinforcement and education over the second year.

  6. WATER DISINFECTION PRACTICE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The current review of canteen water disinfection proceeded along three general lines. A summary has been prepared of the information available from...the literature on canteen water disinfection. The current opinions of two outstanding investigators in the field of disinfection have been solicited in

  7. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene.

  8. Snake in the grass: A case report of transfusion reactions due to contaminated donor arm disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood components remains an on-going challenge. In the majority of cases, organisms contaminating the blood components are a part of normal skin flora. Here, we report a case of bacterial contamination of blood units through contaminated donor arm disinfectant. There was a series of reactions due to random donor platelet (RDP) transfusion. The patients had features of septic transfusion reactions. On root cause analysis, spirit swabs used for disinfection of donors’ arm were identified as the culprit and presence of Clostridium difficile was established. All the blood components prepared on the dates of implicated RDP units were removed from the stock and we replaced the existing 70% alcohol disinfectant with chlorhexidine-alcohol-based antiseptic rub. Further, no such transfusion reactions were reported. Implementation of good donor arm disinfection technique in addition to the use of blood bags with diversion pouch is proposed to be best preventive strategy for resource-poor settings. PMID:28316441

  9. [Spanish disinfectants for the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Herruzo Cabrera, R

    2000-01-01

    There are two chemical disinfectants patents from Spain that permit to obtain advantageous products on other disinfectants: Nduopropenide (two iodures of quaternary ammonium) and "Peroxidine" (hydrogen peroxide that active to lactic acid and a surfactant mixture). The first product is used as an antiseptic or disinfectant, but the second, only act as disinfectant. DISINFECTION: It is studied (by germ-carrier methods), the microbicide effect on different microorganisms (Gram positive cocci, Gram negative bacilli, fungus, Mycobacteria and B subtilis spores), comparing these two products with different disinfectants as 2% glutaraldehyde, 1/8 phenate-glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid compounds, 11% oxygen peroxide and 2% sodium hypoclorite. It is obtained that 1/4 Peroxidine in 5 minutes or 1/6 Peroxidine in 10 minutes, are the most effective disinfectant on all microorganisms used (includes the most resistant) since it produces destruction of 4 log-10 of spores and 5 log-10 of Mycobacteria. Moreover, it can destroy, completely, the inoculum of commercial spores, routinely used for sterilization process evaluation, in 20 minutes, when 2% glutaraldehyd needs 3-10 hours. ANTISEPSIE: It is studied the "hygienization" and surgical handwashing with Nduopropenide solution, in comparison with classical washing methods (neutral soap in routinely handwashing and 5% chlorhexidine or 10% iodine-povidone in surgical washing): 1) Nduopropenide and alcohol solution is more effective that routinely handwashing. 2) This product is more effective and persistent, after surgical washing that chlorhexidine or iodine-povidone. Moreover, it does not must be applied with brush. 3) The mixture Nduopropenide and chlorhexidine makes a synergy, then it can be used in hand or skin washing, on heath personnel or patient people, being advantageous on the other products.

  10. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N.; McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid/ Peroxide hydrogen and Alcohol based compound on Isolated Bacteria in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Bahrami, Nashmil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of chemical agents on the clinical isolates in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: The minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) of disinfectants including chlorhexidine (Fort), peracetic acid (Micro) and an alcohol based compound (Deconex) on selected bacteria at various dilutions were determined by the standard suspension technique. Results: MBC of Micro, Fort and Deconex were 2-128 mg/L, 2-64 mg/L and 4 - 32 mg/L, respectively. The Gram negative bacteria were more resistance to disinfectant relation to Gram positive bacteria. Conclusion: The results showed that these agents are able to eradicate the bacteria and they can be used lonely. PMID:24312771

  12. Hand to hand.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Susanna E; Graboys, Thomas B

    2002-08-01

    Examination of the hands has the potential to transform the encounter between physician and patient. Taking the hands conveys a sense of warmth and connectedness and is a means to communicate the physician's mindfulness. The hands can focus the examination on the individual patient as a complete human being, and not merely a disease or a collection of symptoms. The hands provide readily accessible information that may not be available through other evaluations, and they offer clues to a patient's physical and mental health. Commonplace observations, such as those revealed in the hands, can unravel medical mysteries and provide profound clinical insights.

  13. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  14. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  15. Role of disinfection in the Infection Prevention Multibarrier System.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Axel

    2007-09-13

    The role of disinfection in infection prevention has been analyzed over the past 50 years both in the form of benefit-risk evaluations as well as in an epidemiological sense. This has served as the basis for not only national and international guidelines and recommendations, but has also created the legal and normative framework for regulation of infection control (and hence of disinfection) in numerous and acts and ordinances. Likewise, today the efficacy of disinfection measures, user safety and environmental compatibility in line with the state of the art are assured. Compliance as regards the conductance of disinfection measures has increased accordingly. The user is able to select and correctly employ the disinfectant most suited to the intended disinfection procedure. The quality of the apparatus used has vastly improved since the coming into force of the German Medical Devices Act (MPG). And finally the preconditions for conductance of disinfection have become so matter of fact that it is easy to forget just what progress has been made here. This applies e.g. to the facilities now available for hand hygiene, for decontamination of instruments, laundry and bedpans with washer-disinfectors as well as for surface disinfection and drinking water disinfection. But it is the human being who continues to pose the greatest risk. Risk awareness does not always result in proper action being taken: it is hard to really grasp something that one cannot experience. As such, hand disinfection is often dispensed with, and without any sense of having done something wrong, the debate about the evidence of the usefulness of floor disinfection continues, and often medical practitioners fail to resort to exclusive automated decontamination of medical devices because of the costs incurred. Hospitals, nursing homes and rehabilitation establishments are obliged to set up a quality management system, and to continue developing this. This calls for a quality assurance system

  16. Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2005-10-01

    The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants.

  17. The effect of immersion disinfection procedures on dimensional stability of two elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Cassaro, Angelo; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of immersion disinfection procedures on the dimensional stability of two elastomeric impression materials. Impressions of a stainless steel die were made with polyether (PE) and with addition-polymerized silicone rubber (PVS). The test specimens underwent disinfection treatment by immersion in two commercially available solutions containing quaternary ammonium compounds (Sterigum Powder, SP) and glutaraldehyde plus an amino derivative (MD520, MD), respectively. The impressions were measured at 4 different time points: before any disinfection treatment (T0); after the first disinfection (T1); 6 hours after the first disinfection (T2); after the second disinfection, carried out 6 hours after the first one (T3). Impressions which were not disinfected served as controls. When both impression materials were disinfected with SP, significant differences were detected among all measurements (P < 0.0001), with the exception of T2 vs T3 (P > 0.05). On the other hand, when MD was used, significant differences were found when T0 measurement was compared to T1, T2 and T3 measurements (P = 0.0043 for PE, and P = 0.0014 for PVS). The dimensional change of all material/disinfectant combinations was always disinfection on the dimension of elastomers in SP or MD are not clinically relevant.

  18. Alcohol-based solutions for bovine testicular tissue fixation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nelson C; Espinoza, Jorge R; Vargas-Jentzsch, Paul; Sandoval, Patricio; Ramos, Luis A; Aponte, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fixation, a central element in histotechnology, is currently performed with chemical compounds potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Therefore, alternative fixatives are being developed, including alcohol-based solutions. We evaluated several ethanol-based mixtures with additives to study fixative penetration rate, tissue volume changes, and morphologic effects in the bovine testis. Fixatives used were Bouin solution, 4% formaldehyde (F4), 70% ethanol (E70), E70 with 1.5% glycerol (E70G), E70 with 5% acetic acid (E70A), E70 with 1.5% glycerol and 5% acetic acid (E70AG), and E70 with 1.5% glycerol, 5% acetic acid, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; E70AGD). Five-millimeter bovine testicular tissue cubes could be completely penetrated by ethanol-based fixatives and Bouin solution in 2-3 h, whereas F4 required 21 h. Bouin solution produced general tissue shrinkage, whereas the other fixatives (alcohol-based and F4) caused tissue volume expansion. Although Bouin solution is an excellent fixative for testicular tissue, ethanol-based fixatives showed good penetration rates, low tissue shrinkage, and preserved sufficient morphology to allow identification of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, therefore representing a valid alternative for histotechnology laboratories. Common additives such as acetic acid, glycerol, and DMSO offered marginal benefits for the process of fixation; E70AG showed the best preservation of morphology with excellent nuclear detail, close to that of Bouin solution.

  19. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial genus Aeromonas is currently listed on the USEPA's Candidate Contaminant List (CCL). Resistance to chemical disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. This study was designed to determine the inactivation kinetics of Aeromo...

  20. Commercial Disinfectants During Disinfection Process Validation: More Failures than Success

    PubMed Central

    Chumber, Sushil Kumar; Khanduri, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Disinfection process validation is mandatory before introduction of a new disinfectant in hospital services. Commercial disinfection brands often question existing hospital policy claiming greater efficacy and lack of toxicity of their products. Inadvertent inadequate disinfection leads to morbidity, patient’s economic burden, and the risk of mortality. Aim To evaluate commercial disinfectants for high, intermediate and low-level disinfection so as to identify utility for our routine situations. Materials and Methods This laboratory based experiment was conducted at St Stephen Hospital, Delhi during July-September 2013. Twelve commercial disinfectants: Sanidex®, Sanocid®, Cidex®, SekuSept Aktiv®, BIB Forte®, Alprojet W®, Desnet®, Sanihygiene®, Incidin®, D125®, Lonzagard®, and Glutishield® were tested. Time-kill assay (suspension test) was performed against six indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhi, Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium fortuitum). Low and high inoculum (final concentrations 1.5X106 and 9X106 cfu/ml) of the first five bacteria while only low level of M. fortuitum was tested. Results Cidex® (2.4% Glutaraldehyde) performed best as high level disinfectant while newer quarternary ammonium compounds (QACs) (Incidin®, D125®, and Lonzagard®) were good at low level disinfection. Sanidex® (0.55% Ortho-pthalaldehyde) though mycobactericidal took 10 minutes for sporicidal activity. Older QAC containing BIB Forte® and Desnet® took 20 minutes to fully inhibit P. aeruginosa. All disinfectants effectively reduced S. Typhi to zero counts within 5 minutes. Conclusion Cidex® is a good high-level disinfectant while newer QACs (Incidin®, D125®, and Lonzagard®) were capable low-level disinfectants. PMID:27656441

  1. Hand Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  2. New Technologies to Improve Root Canal Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Cortese, Teresa; Grande, Nicola M; Leonardi, Denise P; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites to promote root canal disinfection and debris removal and improve successful endodontic treatment. This paper presents an overview of the currently available technologies to improve the cleaning of the endodontic space and their debridement efficacy. A PubMed electronic search was conducted with appropriate key words to identify the relevant literature on this topic. After retrieving the full-text articles, all the articles were reviewed and the most appropriate were included in this review. Several different systems of mechanical activation of irrigants to improve endodontic disinfection were analysed: manual agitation with gutta-percha cones, endodontic instruments or special brushes, vibrating systems activated by low-speed hand-pieces or by sonic or subsonic energy, use of ultrasonic or laser energy to mechanically activate the irrigants and apical negative pressure irrigation systems. Furthermore, this review aims to describe systems designed to improve the intracanal bacterial decontamination by a specific chemical action, such as ozone, direct laser action or light-activated disinfection. The ultrasonic activation of root canal irrigants and of sodium hypochlorite in particular still remains the gold standard to which all other systems of mechanical agitation analyzed in this article were compared. From this overview, it is evident that the use of different irrigation systems can provide several advantages in the clinical endodontic outcome and that integration of new technologies, coupled with enhanced techniques and materials, may help everyday clinical practice.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide vapor room disinfection and hand hygiene improvements reduce Clostridium difficile infection, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Horn, Kim; Otter, Jonathan A

    2015-12-01

    We report a statistically significant reduction in Clostridium difficile infection (from 1.38 to 0.90 cases per 1,000 patient days), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (from 0.21 to 0.01 cases per 1,000 patient days), and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteria (from 0.16 to 0.01 cases per 1,000 patient days) associated with the introduction of hydrogen peroxide vapor for terminal decontamination of patient rooms and improvements in hand hygiene compliance.

  4. Microbiological response of Japanese quail eggs to disinfection and location in the setter during incubation.

    PubMed

    Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Szablewski, Tomasz; Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Kontecka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol (75%) disinfection of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs and analysis of microbial contamination of eggs during incubation, depending on their location in the setter. Disinfected eggshells were found to have lower total bacteria (TBC) and fungi (TFC) count. Concerning the vertical location of eggs (top, middle, bottom), disinfected eggs were characterized by similar values of the TBC (x = 1.54 log CFU/shell surface). For eggs without disinfection, it was found that those from middle and bottom levels of the setter had similar and lower TBC (by about 1.22 log CFU/shell surface) as compared to eggs from the top level. No statistically significant differences between levels were found in the case of TFC. Hatch breakouts (dead-in-shell embryos) from non-disinfected eggs were characterized by higher TBC (on average 0.37 log CFU/g). Disinfected eggs, located at the middle and bottom levels of the incubator, had similar and lower TBC in comparison with eggs from the top level. There were no microscopic fungi inside disinfected eggs of hatch breakouts. On the other hand, the non-disinfected eggs, placed on trays from the middle level of the incubator, had greater TFC (by about 0.9 log CFU/g) than those from top and bottom levels. Regardless of whether the eggs were disinfected or not, the largest group of microscopic fungi included Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  5. Effect of mixing techniques on bacterial attachment and disinfection time of polyether impression material

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Umut; Budak, Yasemin; Ruh, Emrah; Ocal, Yesim; Canay, Senay; Akyon, Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was 2-fold. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of mixing technique (hand-mixing or auto-mixing) on bacterial attachment to polyether impression materials. The second aim was to determine whether bacterial attachment to these materials was affected by length of exposure to disinfection solutions. Materials and Methods: Polyether impression material samples (n = 144) were prepared by hand-mixing or auto-mixing. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used in testing. After incubation, the bacterial colonies were counted and then disinfectant solution was applied. The effect of disinfection solution was evaluated just after the polymerization of impression material and 30 min after polymerization. Differences in adherence of bacteria to the samples prepared by hand-mixing and to those prepared by auto-mixing were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For evaluating the efficiency of the disinfectant, Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test was used. Results: E. coli counts were higher in hand-mixed materials (P < 0.05); no other statistically significant differences were found between hand- and auto-mixed materials. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test, significant differences were found between the disinfection procedures (Z > 2.394). Conclusion: The methods used for mixing polyether impression material did not affect bacterial attachment to impression surfaces. In contrast, the disinfection procedure greatly affects decontamination of the impression surface. PMID:24966729

  6. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  7. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    PubMed

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study.

  8. [Surface disinfection in the context of infection prevention in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Kossow, A; Schaber, S; Kipp, F

    2013-03-01

    The highest proportion of nosocomial infections occurs on intensive care units (ICU) and infections with multiresistant pathogens are an ever increasing problem. Preventative measures should consist of a bundle of different measures including measures that address a specific problem and standard hygiene measures that are relevant in all areas. Specific measures in ICUs primarily aim at the prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia, blood vessel catheter associated infections and nosocomial urinary tract infections. Surface disinfection belongs to the standard hygiene measures and plays an inferior role compared to hand hygiene; however, surfaces come into focus in outbreak situations. The Commission on Hospital Hygiene (KRINKO) at the Robert Koch Institute (the German health protection agency) published recommendations regarding the cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. The frequency with which cleaning and/or disinfection is required varies according to defined areas of risk. The frequency and the disinfection agents used are documented in the disinfection plan.

  9. [A new device for the disinfection of handpieces and turbines].

    PubMed

    Simonetti D'Arca, A S; Petti, S; Tomassini, E; Polimeni, A

    1995-01-01

    Dental handpieces are often difficult to disinfect. This is one of the main reasons for the considerable risk of cross-infections in dental offices. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the disinfectant property of a recent, commercially available, automatic instrument, described as capable to clean, disinfect and lubricate dental handpieces. The following experimental evaluations were made: 1) antimicrobial activity of the disinfectant (glyoxalaldehyde) used. The method described by the European Committee for Standardization was followed. Test microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. 2) disinfection of dental handpieces (69 contra-angles and 97 turbines of different marks). They were naturally infected using them on patients for 30 minutes at least. 3) disinfection of dental handpieces infected with bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (beta-haemolyticus, group A), Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of the first experiment showed a strong bactericidal power of the disinfectant with both the tested strains, after a contact time of only 1 minute. A great proportion of the dental handpieces tested during the second experiment were found disinfected: from 84% through 89% out of the various models of turbine handpieces; from 89% through 100% out of the models of contra-angle handpieces. Even though bacterial contamination level was low (about 10(3) microorganisms per handpiece), a satisfactory disinfectant ability in natural conditions was found. The results of the third experiment were unclear. The tested instrument reduced 10(5)-10(8) times the original bacterial count when the gram positive microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes) were used. On the other hand, when Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were used, the results were different: the bacterial count was reduced 10(6)-10(7) times in some cases, and only 10(2) times in other cases

  10. Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sanitizers and disinfectants can play an important role in protecting public health. They are designed to kill "pests," including infectious germs and other microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Unfortunately, sanitizers and disinfectants also contain chemicals that are "pesticides." Exposure to persistent toxic…

  11. New Disinfection Agents for Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    with HTH being the better disinfectant. In similar experiments involving Entamoeba invadens and Giardia Lamblia Compound I was more effective than...different and dependent upon the nature of the organism. Keywords: Water disinfections; N-Chloramines; HTH; Bacteria; Viruses; Protozoa; Giardia lamblia ; Stability in water; 3-Chloro-4,4-dimethy1-2-oxazolidinone; Calcium hypochlorite.

  12. DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS: THE NEXT GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of drinking water is rightly hailed as a major public health triumph of the 20th Century. Before widespread disinfection of drinking water in the U.S. and Europe, millions of people died from infectious waterborne diseases, such as typhoid and cholera. The microbia...

  13. Are surgical scrubbing and pre-operative disinfection of the skin in orthopaedic surgery reliable?

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Chelo, C; Caputo, F; Conte, M; Fontana, C; Peddis, G; Velluti, C

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to establish the actual effectiveness of pre-surgical disinfection of the patient and surgeon's hands. We evaluated bacterial density and composition on the skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy and the left hand of two surgeons after standard disinfection with povidone-iodine. Three samples were taken after the first 6-min scrub in the first surgical operation from the periungual space of the 1 degrees finger, from the interdigital space between the 2 degrees and 3 degrees fingers and from the transverse palmar crest of the left hand of two surgeons for seven consecutive surgical sessions, for a total of 42 samples, and two samples from the pre-patellar skin and from the popliteal skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, for a total of 30 samples. Pre-surgical handwashing and disinfection procedures were identical in each case. Pre-surgical disinfection of the patient's skin with povidone-iodine was shown to be completely effective, with 100% of samples negative. Samples taken from the interdigital space and the palmar crest (100% of samples negative) demonstrated the efficacy of disinfection of the surgeon's hands with povidone-iodine, while the periungual space was contaminated in 50% of the samples. The bacterial strains isolated belong to the staphylococcus genus in 100% of the cases, with pathogenic strains in 29.6% of the cases. Standard pre-surgical disinfection of skin in areas easily accessible to the disinfectant is sufficient in itself to guarantee thorough sanitization. Standard scrubbing of the surgeon's hands is insufficient in eliminating bacterial contamination, including pathogenic germs, in the periungual space, where it is probably difficult for the disinfectant to come into contact with the skin.

  14. Claw hand

    MedlinePlus

    Ulnar nerve palsy - claw hand; Ulnar nerve dysfunction - claw hand; Ulnar claw ... Someone can be born with claw hand (congenital), or they can develop it because of certain disorders, such as nerve injury.

  15. Generation of ozone foam and its application for disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiragaki, Keisuke; Ishimaru, Tomiya; Nakanishi, Masaru; Muraki, Ryouji; Nieda, Masanori; Yamabe, Chobei

    2015-07-01

    Generated ozone foam was applied to the disinfection of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The effect of disinfection has been confirmed experimentally and new equipment for the disinfection of hands using this ozone foam has been put on the market for the practical use. The ozone foam was produced in the foam generator after mixing the water including surfactant (30 mL/min) and air including ozone (1000 ppm = 2.14 g/m3 ~ 1600 ppm = 3.4 g/m3, 300 mL/min). The liquid-to-gas ratio is 100 L/m3. The concentration of dissolved ozone in the thin liquid films of the bubbles was about 3 mg/L which was measured by the chemical method of the KI absorption and titration of sodium thiosulfate solution. The disinfection test samples were prepared using the PET disk on which Pseudomonas fluorescens of its number of more than 108 were attached. Test sample was inserted into ozone foam set on the glass plate for one to 6 min. The survival rate log (N/N0 decreased with time and its value of about-2.6 (i.e., ~1/400) was obtained at 6 min (2 min × 3 times repeated). It was also confirmed that the ozone foam was useful for the disinfection of hands. For more effective disinfection (in case of taking a long time for foam melting), the ozone foam was broken by force and changed into ozone water by which the survival rate decreased ×4 (i.e., N/N0 = 1/10 000) at 4 ~ 6 min. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  16. Hand transplantation.

    PubMed

    Amer, Hatem; Carlsen, Brian T; Dusso, Jennifer L; Edwards, Brooks S; Moran, Steven L

    2011-05-01

    The first successful hand transplant was performed in 1998, opening up a new possibility for patients who have suffered mutilating hand injuries. Since then, more than 60 such procedures have been performed throughout the world. This article describes the evolution of hand transplantation, outcomes of patients listed in the International Registry of Hand and Composite Tissue Transplantation, and ethical issues involved in hand transplantation. It also describes the hand transplantation program at Mayo Clinic, which was established in 2010.

  17. Pathways to clean hands: highlights of successful hand hygiene implementation strategies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Magiorakos, A P; Leens, E; Drouvot, V; May-Michelangeli, L; Reichardt, C; Gastmeier, P; Wilson, K; Tannahill, M; McFarlane, E; Simon, A

    2010-05-06

    Hand hygiene is the most effective way to stop the spread of microorganisms and to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The World Health Organization launched the First Global Patient Safety Challenge - Clean Care is Safer Care - in 2005 with the goal to prevent HAI globally. This year, on 5 May, the WHO s initiative SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands, which focuses on increasing awareness of and improving compliance with hand hygiene practices, celebrated its second global day. In this article, four Member States of the European Union describe strategies that were implemented as part of their national hand hygiene campaigns and were found to be noteworthy. The strategies were: governmental support, the use of indicators for hand hygiene benchmarking, developing national surveillance systems for auditing alcohol-based hand rub consumption, ensuring seamless coordination of processes between health regions in countries with regionalised healthcare systems, implementing the WHO's My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene, and auditing of hand hygiene compliance.

  18. Disinfection of pumice.

    PubMed

    Setz, J; Heeg, P

    1996-10-01

    Pumice is a potential source of infection for the dental technician and of cross-contamination between different dentures and patients. In this study, the number of microorganisms in two different combinations of pumice and disinfectant was compared with a conventional mixture of pumice and water. The results revealed that under practical conditions the mix of Steribim (pumice containing benzoic acid added by the manufacturer) with water reduced the number of bacteria by 99% compared with a mix of a conventional pumice and water. The addition of an antiseptic product that contained octenidine as active agent to conventional pumice reduced the number of microorganisms by 99.999%.

  19. Occurrence and exposures to disinfectants and disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, R.B.; Jolley, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Disinfection by-products are associated with all chemical disinfectants. The concentration and toxic nature of the disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is a direct function of the chemical nature of the disinfectant itself and/or of the chemical reactions of the disinfectant with reaction substrates in the water, especially organic constituents. A principal advantage of biological and physical water treatment processes, such as filtration, is the lack of chemical reactions producing disinfectant-related DBPs. The use of the highest quality source water available is important for minimization of DBP formation. In lieu of such high quality water, improvement of water quality by removal of DBP precursors through filtration or other means before application of chemical disinfectants is important. Most, if not all, water treatment experts are aware of these simplistic axioms. In view of the increasing knowledge being developed concerning DBPs including the identification of new'' DBPs, prudence dictates minimization of DBP formation. Wholesome drinking water is perhaps the biggest economic bargain available to consumers. The cost-effectiveness of water quality improvement should be evaluated with that in mind.

  20. Occurrence and exposures to disinfectants and disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, R.B.; Jolley, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    Disinfection by-products are associated with all chemical disinfectants. The concentration and toxic nature of the disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is a direct function of the chemical nature of the disinfectant itself and/or of the chemical reactions of the disinfectant with reaction substrates in the water, especially organic constituents. A principal advantage of biological and physical water treatment processes, such as filtration, is the lack of chemical reactions producing disinfectant-related DBPs. The use of the highest quality source water available is important for minimization of DBP formation. In lieu of such high quality water, improvement of water quality by removal of DBP precursors through filtration or other means before application of chemical disinfectants is important. Most, if not all, water treatment experts are aware of these simplistic axioms. In view of the increasing knowledge being developed concerning DBPs including the identification of ``new`` DBPs, prudence dictates minimization of DBP formation. Wholesome drinking water is perhaps the biggest economic bargain available to consumers. The cost-effectiveness of water quality improvement should be evaluated with that in mind.

  1. Solar water disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Collier, R.

    1996-11-01

    Non-potable drinking water is a major problem for much of the world`s population. It has been estimated that from 15 to 20 million children under the age of 5 die from diarrheal conditions brought on by infected drinking water every year. This is equivalent to a fully-loaded DC-10 crashing every ten minutes of every day, 365 days a year. Heat is one of the most effective methods of disinfecting drinking water. Using conventional means of heating water (heating on an open-flamed stove) results in an extremely energy-intensive process. The main obstacle is that for areas of the world where potable water is a problem, fuel supplies are either too expensive, not available, or the source of devastating environmental problems (deforestation). The apparatus described is a solar-powered water disinfection device that can overcome most if not all of the barriers that presently limit technological solutions to drinking water problems. It uses a parabolic trough solar concentrator with a receiver tube that is also a counterflow heat exchanger. The system is totally self-contained utilizing a photovoltaic-powered water pump, and a standard automotive thermostat for water flow control. The system is designed for simplicity, reliability and the incorporation of technology readily accessible in most areas of the world. Experiments at the Florida Solar Energy Center have demonstrated up to 2,500 liters of safe drinking water per day with 28 square meters of solar concentrator.

  2. Poorly processed reusable surface disinfection tissue dispensers may be a source of infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reusable surface disinfectant tissue dispensers are used in hospitals in many countries because they allow immediate access to pre-soaked tissues for targeted surface decontamination. On the other hand disinfectant solutions with some active ingredients may get contaminated and cause outbreaks. We determined the frequency of contaminated surface disinfectant solutions in reusable dispensers and the ability of isolates to multiply in different formulations. Methods Reusable tissue dispensers with different surface disinfectants were randomly collected from healthcare facilities. Solutions were investigated for bacterial contamination. The efficacy of two surface disinfectants was determined in suspension tests against two isolated species directly from a contaminated solution or after 5 passages without selection pressure in triplicate. Freshly prepared use solutions were contaminated to determine survival of isolates. Results 66 dispensers containing disinfectant solutions with surface-active ingredients were collected in 15 healthcare facilities. 28 dispensers from nine healthcare facilities were contaminated with approximately 107 cells per mL of Achromobacter species 3 (9 hospitals), Achromobacter xylosoxidans or Serratia marcescens (1 hospital each). In none of the hospitals dispenser processing had been adequately performed. Isolates regained susceptibility to the disinfectants after five passages without selection pressure but were still able to multiply in different formulations from different manufacturers at room temperature within 7 days. Conclusions Neglecting adequate processing of surface disinfectant dispensers has contributed to frequent and heavy contamination of use-solutions based on surface active ingredients. Tissue dispenser processing should be taken seriously in clinical practice. PMID:24447780

  3. Dental unit waterlines disinfection using hypochlorous acid-based disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Shajahan, Irfana Fathima; Kandaswamy, D; Srikanth, Padma; Narayana, L Lakshmi; Selvarajan, R

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a new disinfectant to disinfect the dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: New dental unit waterlines were installed in 13 dental chairs, and biofilm was allowed to grow for 10 days. Disinfection treatment procedure was carried out in the 12 units, and one unit was left untreated. The dental unit waterlines were removed and analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) (TESCAN VEGA3 SBU). Result: On examination, SEM images showed that there was no slime layer or bacterial cells seen in any of the 12 cut sections obtained from the treated dental waterlines which mean that there was no evident of biofilm formation. Untreated dental unit waterlines showed a microbial colonization with continuous filamentous organic matrix. There was significant biofilm formation in the control tube relative to the samples. Conclusion: The tested disinfectant was found to be effective in the removal of biofilm from the dental unit waterlines. PMID:27563184

  4. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water service has been interrupted – like a hurricane, flood, or water pipe breakage – local authorities may recommend ... disinfect and test the well water after the flood. Contact your state or local health department for ...

  5. Zinc pyrithione in alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis: persistence of antimicrobial effects.

    PubMed

    Guthery, Eugene; Seal, Lawton A; Anderson, Edward L

    2005-02-01

    Alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis have a long history of safety and efficacy in the United States and abroad. However, alcohol alone lacks the required antimicrobial persistence to provide for the sustained periods of skin antisepsis desired in the clinical environment. Therefore, alcohol-based products must have a preservative agent such as iodine/iodophor compounds, chlorhexidine gluconate, or zinc pyrithione, to extend its antimicrobial effects. Iodine, iodophors, and chlorhexidine gluconate are well-characterized antimicrobials and preservatives. The thrust of our effort was to examine the characteristics of the lesser-known zinc pyrithione and to evaluate its utility as a preservative in the formulation of alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis. This work includes a literature review of current zinc pyrithione applications in drugs and cosmetics, a safety and toxicity evaluation, consideration of the proposed mechanisms of antimicrobial action, in vitro and in vivo efficacy data, and a discussion of the mechanisms that confer the desired antimicrobial persistence. In addition, alcohol-based, zinc pyrithione-preserved, commercially available products of skin antisepsis are compared with other commercially available antimicrobials used for skin antisepsis and with additional alcohol-based products with different preservatives. The authors' conclusion is that zinc pyrithione is not only a safe and effective antimicrobial but that its use in certain alcohol-based formulations results in antimicrobial efficacy exceeding that of iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate.

  6. Hand Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thumb Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... Tunnel Ganglion Cysts Thumb Arthritis Trigger Finger Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  7. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  8. Chapped hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... wind Avoid washing hands with hot water Limit hand washing as much as possible while maintaining good hygiene Try to keep the air in your home humid Use mild soaps or non-soap cleansers Use ... on your hands regularly, especially if you live in a dry ...

  9. Hand antiseptics: rubs versus scrubs, alcoholic solutions versus alcoholic gels.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, H

    2001-08-01

    This report describes three different investigations undertaken to demonstrate the advantage of fluid alcoholic hand disinfectants. In the first study, the skin compatibility of Sterillium, a liquid alcoholic rub-in hand disinfectant was compared with that of Hibiscrub, a water-based handwashing antiseptic. Using various parameters such as image analysis of removed squames (D-squames), skin roughness or transepidermal water loss, Hibiscrub was found to be significantly inferior to Sterillium. Hibiscrub caused skin irritation in 15 volunteers who could not complete the test. In a second study, the microbicidal efficacy of Sterillium and Hibiscrub was tested in surgical hand disinfection. The microbial reduction by Sterillium was significantly greater than that of Hibiscrub, immediately after application as well as after the surgical procedure. In a third study, certain alcoholic gels were tested according to the EN 1500 'hygienic hand disinfection'. None of the gels tested passed the EN 1500 within 30s. However, Sterillium met the EN 1500 requirement within 30s. We conclude that Sterillium is superior to Hibiscrub in terms of skin tolerance and microbicidal efficacy in surgical hand disinfection. It is also superior to alcoholic gels.

  10. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  11. Disinfection, sterilization and operation theater guidelines for dermatosurgical practitioners in India.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Narendra; Kelkar, Uday

    2011-01-01

    Modern day dermatologists conduct different esthetic and surgical procedures, with risk of infective complications. Hence, infection control practices need to be established in dermatological practice to minimize the risk of exogenous infections. These practices include hand washing, cleaning, sterilization, disinfection, operation theater sterilization and specifications. Proper hand washing after examination of each patient and prior to any surgery with a formulation containing alcohol alone or as a combination with other agents reduces the chances of transferring infections to and from patients. Sterilization and disinfection constitute the most important aspect of infection control. Disinfectants and disinfecting procedures vary according to the environment and equipment. Proper knowledge of different processes/agents for sterilization and disinfection is essential. Disinfectants for use in hospitals should always be freshly prepared and should be of adequate strength. Sterilization is carried out most commonly using steam sterilizers or ethylene dioxide sterilizers. The waste generated during practice is a potential source of nosocomial infections and should be treated as per the proper protocol and guidelines. Trained staff to carry out these practices is essential.

  12. Health effects of drinking water disinfectants and disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Condie, L.W.; Bercz, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes toxicological studies conducted with drinking water disinfectants. Toxicological effects, which are associated with the disinfectants themselves as well as with the by-products formed when disinfectants react with organic material present in water, are considered. The health impact of chemical reactions occurring between residual disinfectants and nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract is also discussed. 40 references, 5 tables.

  13. [Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products.

  14. Colonic mucosal pseudolipomatosis: disinfectant colitis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Baek, Il Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Colonic pseudolipomatosis is rare and its pathogenesis is still unclear. A number of mechanisms, including mechanical injury during an endoscopic procedure or chemical injury by disinfectant, seem to contribute to its pathogenesis. In our endoscopy unit, pseudolipomatosis occurred in an epidemic pattern after changing the endoscopic disinfectant from 2% glutaraldehyde to peracetic acid compound to decrease the length of endoscope reprocessing time. We assumed that pseudolipomatosis could be a type of chemical colitis produced by the residual disinfectant solution that remained on the surface or in a channel of the endoscope after reprocessing. The aim of this report was to highlight a series of 12 cases of colonic pseudolipomatosis in order to describe the endoscopic and pathological features and discuss the harmful effect of disinfectants as a possible cause of pseudolipomatosis. To identify the cause of the lesions, we systematically reviewed each patient history and the endoscopic and histological features. From March 2004 to February 2005, 1276 colonoscopies were performed and 12 cases (0.94%) of colonic pseudolipomatosis were diagnosed at the Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital of Hallym University. The pathogenesis of colonic pseudolipomatosis is not well-known, but our experience indicates the endoscopic disinfectant as the probable cause of pseudolipomatosis rather than either mechanical traumatic injury or intraluminal air pressure-related injury.

  15. Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Robots are limited only by the dexterity of the hand. Dr. Salisbury, in conjunction with Stanford, Caltech and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed the Salisbury Hand which has three, three-jointed human-like fingers. The tips are covered with a resilient, high friction material for gripping. The robot hand can manipulate objects by finger motion, and adapts to different aims. Advanced software allows the hand to interpret information from fingertip sensors. Further development is expected. A company has been formed to reproduce the device; copies have been delivered to several laboratories.

  16. Disinfection of Human Teeth for Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, William H.; White, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and several other disinfectants for disinfecting teeth to be used for teaching and research, as an alternative to autoclaving for teeth with amalgam restorations. Results indicate that formalin was the only disinfectant that penetrated tooth pulp chambers in effective antimicrobial…

  17. [Drinking water decontamination with isolative sorbent disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Krasnov, M S

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water can be decontaminated with the use of isolative sorbent disinfectants. Consideration of the effectiveness of water disinfectants and the sorptive power of porous materials against bacteria and viruses attested to the favour of iodine and silver-containing disinfectants and their compositions on porous aggressive carriers to be employed in extreme conditions such as on board crewed space vehicles.

  18. Review of water disinfection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Gerald V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Throughout the history of manned space flight the supply of potable water to the astronauts has presented unique problems. Of particular concern has been the microbiological quality of the potable water. This has required the development of both preflight water system servicing procedures to disinfect the systems and inflight disinfectant addition and monitoring devices to ensure continuing microbiological control. The disinfectants successfully used to date have been aqueous chlorine or iodine. Because of special system limitations the use of iodine has been the most successful for inflight use and promises to be the agent most likely to be used in the future. Future spacecraft potable, hygiene, and experiment water systems will utilize recycled water. This will present special problems for water quality control. NASA is currently conducting research and development to solve these problems.

  19. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  20. Point-of-care hand hygiene: preventing infection behind the curtain.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Anson; Landers, Timothy; Kirk, Jane; Young, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Best practices for hand hygiene provide indications for performance of hand hygiene at specific points in time during patient care. For hand hygiene to prevent infections, hand hygiene resources must be readily available to health care workers whenever required. This article reviews practices and recommendations intended to facilitate hand hygiene behavior at the point of care (POC) within the health care setting. Key aspects of POC hand hygiene include the provision of alcohol-based hand rub products, integration of dispensing solutions within the patient zone, consideration of patient care workflow, and dispenser designs that optimize acceptance and usage.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a review of the epidemiologic evidence for human health effects that may be associated with the disinfection of drinking water. An epidemiologic study attempts to link human health effects with exposure to a specific agent (e.g., DBCM), agents (e.g., THMs or...

  2. Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge Jet for Skin Disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creyghton, Yves; Meijer, Rogier; Verweij, Paul; van der Zanden, Frank; Leenders, Paul

    A consortium consisting of the research institute TNO, the medical ­university and hospital St Radboud and two industrial enterprises is working on a non-thermal plasma treatment method for hand disinfection. The group is seeking for cooperation, in particular in the field of validation methods and potential ­standardization for plasma based disinfection procedures. The present paper describes technical progress in plasma source development together with initial microbiological data. Particular properties of the sheet shaped plasma volume are the possibility of treating large irregular surfaces in a short period of time, effective plasma produced species transfer to the surface together with high controllability of the nature of plasma species by means of temperature conditioning.

  3. A membrane filter technique for testing disinfectants.

    PubMed Central

    Prince, J; Deverill, C E; Ayliffe, G A

    1975-01-01

    A membrane filter was used for assessing the surface disinfecting activity of phenolic disinfectants and a chloroxylenol disinfectant. The influence of the type of organism, inoculum size, and hardness of water was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was chosen for the standardized test. Disinfectant solutions were prepared in water of 300 ppm hardness and applied for two and a half minutes and eight minutes to the bacteria deposited from filtration of 1 ml of a suspension containing 10-6 bacteria. The membrane filter test has certain advantages over many tests, eg, all organisms surviving after treatment can be counted and residual disinfectant is easily removed. PMID:804497

  4. A membrane filter technique for testing disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Prince, J; Deverill, C E; Ayliffe, G A

    1975-01-01

    A membrane filter was used for assessing the surface disinfecting activity of phenolic disinfectants and a chloroxylenol disinfectant. The influence of the type of organism, inoculum size, and hardness of water was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was chosen for the standardized test. Disinfectant solutions were prepared in water of 300 ppm hardness and applied for two and a half minutes and eight minutes to the bacteria deposited from filtration of 1 ml of a suspension containing 10-6 bacteria. The membrane filter test has certain advantages over many tests, eg, all organisms surviving after treatment can be counted and residual disinfectant is easily removed.

  5. Virus Sensitivity Index of UV disinfection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Walter Z; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-01-01

    scenarios such as under sunlight and different virus aggregates. The correlation analysis shows that viruses will be about 40% more sensitive to sunlight than to UV254. On the other hand, virus size of 500 nm will reduce their VSI by 10%. This is the first attempt to use VSI to predict the required fluence at any given Log I. The equation can be used to quantitatively evaluate other parameters influencing UV disinfection. These factors include environmental species, antibiotic-resistant bacteria or genes, photo and dark repair, water quality such as suspended solids, and UV transmittance.

  6. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  7. [Electrochemical disinfection using the gas diffusion electrode system].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Li, Ping; Dong, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Study on the electrochemical disinfection with the H2O2 produced at the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) prepared from active carbon/ poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was performed in the non-membrane cell. The effects of PTFE mass fraction W(PTFE) and content of the pore-forming agent in GDE m(NH4CO3), operating conditions such as pH value and oxygen flow rate Q(o2)) on disinfection were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that H2 O2 reached peak production at W(PTFE) of 0.5 in GDE. Addition of the pore-forming agent in the appropriate amount improved the disinfection, and this phenomenon was more obvious at neutral pH than at acidic pH. BET specific area analysis indicated that the average pore size in the membrane electrode first decreased significantly with the increasing amount of pore-forming agent, and then increased moderately. This helped the mass transfer of oxygen at the GDE. Adsorption made little or no progress to kill the bacteria during the electrolysis. Drop of pH value resulted in a rapid rise of the germicidal efficacy. This system had a broad pH coverage: when total bacterial count in raw water was 10(6) CFU x mL(-1), pH 3-10,the germicidal efficacy was greater than 80% after 30 min electrolysis using the GDE with W(Pt) of 3 per thousand as cathode. Increase of the oxygen flow rate Q(o2) within limits had little influence on the production of H2 O2 and the succeeding disinfection. On one hand, resistance of the solution and energy consumption on the disinfection increased at high oxygen flow rate, which gave rise to an increase in the operating cost of disinfection with the GDE system; on the other hand, treatment time could be reduced reasonably at high oxygen flow rate, which leads to reduction of equipment investment. Killing mechanism study showed that the direct oxidation and formation of the free radicals at the anode played a greater role in the beginning, and then the oxidative indirect effect of the generated H2 O2 at

  8. [Hygiene and methods of decontamination, disinfection and sterilization in dental offices in Yaounde].

    PubMed

    Onana, J; Ngongang, A

    2002-03-01

    Hygiene and asepsis of the dental office depend on medical ethics and legal obligation. The survey done with the participation of 33 practitioners over the 42 practicing in Yaounde allows apprehending the reality of the daily hygiene. The ways of cleaning, decontamination, disinfection or of sterilization of the premises, the dental equipment and instruments, hand-washing, disposable materials and the vaccination protection of the practitioners were analyzed. The cleaning of the floor and door mats is daily (100%); disinfection is done daily in 83% of the departments in all of the centers. The cleaning and disinfection of the dental chair is daily and is done using soap (23%) and/or bleaching-water (56%). Cleaning or disinfection of the suction machine is done with soap (24%) or with bleaching-water (47%). The hand-pieces and the turbines are cleaned and/or disinfected after each usage in (94%) with alcohol (17%) or with bleaching-water (32%) and sterilized with a heat sterilizer (45%), an autoclave(40%) or cold disinfected(15%). The frequency of the treatment of the instruments is well-respected (83%). Nevertheless the products used are very varied and are not always used in the prescribed order. Hand-washing is systematic after each patient; 50% of the practitioners use soap bars or powered soap and 50% use an antiseptic or a disinfectant solutions. With the regard to the vaccination, only 3 practitioners were properly vaccinated against hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria, poliomyelitis and tuberculosis. With regard to the protection of the practitioners, 72% do not wear caps, 56% do not wear eyeglasses, 40% do not wear masks, 95% do not use rubber dams, 56% do not disinfect the radiographic films and 37% do not disinfect the impressions; the habitual attire consists of a smock worn over street clothes (78%) and street shoes (90%). The debris is burnt in 35% of the centers. Better knowledge of the different stages (cleaning, decontamination, disinfection or

  9. Tracking sources of Staphylococcus aureus hand contamination in food handlers by spa typing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeffery; Boost, Maureen V; O'Donoghue, Margaret M

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to identify the source of Staphylococcus aureus contaminating hands of food handlers. Nasal samples and direct fingertip imprints were collected on 2 occasions from food handlers and characterized to determine likely sources of hand contamination. Most hand contamination was attributable to nasal isolates of persistently colonized coworkers who had presumably contaminated the environment. Regular handwashing should be supplemented by effective environmental disinfection.

  10. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Who ... hands clean: Use warm water (not cold or hot). Use whatever soap you like. Antibacterial soaps are ...

  11. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  12. Recycled Water Poses Disinfectant Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible health hazards resulting from released nucleic acid of inactivated viruses, chlorinated nonliving organic molecules, and overestimated reliability of waste treatment standards. Suggests the recycle system use a dual disinfectant such as chlorine and ozone in water treatment. (CC)

  13. Postoutbreak disinfection of mobile equipment.

    PubMed

    Alphin, R L; Ciaverelli, C D; Hougentogler, D P; Johnson, K J; Rankin, M K; Benson, E R

    2010-03-01

    Current control strategies for avian influenza virus, exotic Newcastle disease, and other highly contagious poultry diseases include surveillance, quarantine, depopulation, disposal, and decontamination. Skid steer loaders and other mobile equipment are extensively used during depopulation and disposal. Movement of contaminated equipment has been implicated in the spread of disease in previous outbreaks. One approach to equipment decontamination is to power wash the equipment, treat with a liquid disinfectant, change any removable filters, and let it sit idle for several days. In this project, multiple disinfectant strategies were individually evaluated for their effectiveness at inactivating Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on mechanical equipment seeded with the virus. A small gasoline engine was used to simulate typical mechanical equipment. A high titer of LaSota strain, NDV was applied and dried onto a series of metal coupons. The coupons were then placed on both interior and exterior surfaces of the engine. Liquid disinfectants that had been effective in the laboratory were not as effective at disinfecting the engine under field conditions. Indirect thermal fog showed a decrease in overall virus titer or strength. Direct thermal fog was more effective than liquid spray application or indirect thermal fog application.

  14. Current GI endoscope disinfection and QA practices.

    PubMed

    Moses, Frank M; Lee, Jennifer S

    2004-01-01

    High-level disinfection (HLD) of GI endoscopes is readily achieved when published guidelines are observed. Contamination is linked to breakdowns in accepted procedure. However, there is no recognized method of verifying adequacy of endoscope reprocessing in routine practice and no data regarding current quality assurance (QA) practice. Prior reports have demonstrated a wide variation in routine clinical practice of GI endoscopy HLD. The goal of this study was to determine current practice at regional endoscopy centers with regard to endoscope cleaning and HLD, maintenance, and QA practice. An anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire was mailed to 367 SGNA members in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, Maryland, and District of Columbia and completed by 230 (63%). The majority of responders were hospital-based and 59% of the units performed over 3000 procedures per year. After use the endoscope was hand-carried or transported in a dry container (97%) to a separate cleaning room (85%) for HLD by technicians (40%). Wide variations existed in manual step procedures including use of disposable (50%) brushes and number of times channel brushed: once (21%), twice (35%), or three to five times (37%). Soaking duration in disinfectant (70% gluteraldehyde) was for <10 min (8%), 10-20 min (35%), 20-30 min (38%), 30-40 min (7%), and >40 min (3%). Sixty-seven percent had an active unit infection control (IC) service and 98% had a QA program. Monitoring of cleaning effectiveness was by visual inspection (50%) and culturing endoscopes (17%). Culture was done weekly (1%) and

  15. Surgical hand rubbing compared with surgical hand scrubbing: comparison of efficacy and costs.

    PubMed

    Tavolacci, M P; Pitrou, I; Merle, V; Haghighat, S; Thillard, D; Czernichow, P

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of surgical hand rubbing (SHR) with the efficacy of surgical hand scrubbing (SHS), and to determine the costs of both techniques for surgical hand disinfection. A review of studies reported in the literature that compared the efficacy of SHS and SHR was performed using MEDLINE. The costs of SHR and SHS were estimated based on standard hospital costs. The literature showed that SHR had immediate efficacy that was similar to that of SHS, but SHR had a more lasting effect. SHR reduced costs by 67%. In conclusion, SHR is a cost-effective alternative to SHS.

  16. Shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin after application of cavity disinfectants – SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivek; Rampal, Poonam; Kumar, Sukesh

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on dentin bond strengths of composite resin applied with two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred mandibular molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal surface to expose dentin in the midcoronal one-third. The dentinal surfaces were polished with waterproof-polishing papers. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups of 40 teeth each as follows: group 1(control) -- specimens were not treated with any cavity disinfectants. Groups 2--5 (experimental groups) -- dentin surfaces were treated with the following cavity disinfectants, respectively; 2% chlorhexidine solution, 0.1% benzalkonium chloride-based disinfectant, 1% chlorhexidine gel, and an iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectant. The specimens were then randomly divided into two subgroups including 20 teeth each to evaluate the effect of different bonding systems. Dentin bonding systems were applied to the dentin surfaces and the composite buildups were done. After the specimens were stored in an incubator for 24 hours, the shear bond strength was measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The specimens were then statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: One way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD tests were used. Results: There was no significant difference between chlorhexidine gel and control groups regardless of the type of the bonding agent used (P>0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions had a negative effect on the shear bond strength of self-etching bonding systems. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that when benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions are used as a cavity disinfectant, an etch-and-rinse bonding system should be preferred. PMID:22090756

  17. Hand reanimation.

    PubMed

    Dafydd, Hywel; Lin, Chih-Hung

    2014-03-01

    Brachial plexus disruption, major traumatic amputations, and Volkmann's contracture are all devastating injuries that present difficult reconstructive challenges. Advances in our understanding of nerve injury, regeneration, and refinement of microsurgical techniques have given rise to a number of therapeutic avenues over the last 4 decades. Hand reanimation aims to provide strength, stability, and mobility to a sensate hand. How this is achieved depends on a thorough understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, which in turn dictates what surgical modalities are suitable. Common to all reanimation procedures is the need to ensure full passive range of motion of the target joints prior to definitive surgery. Hand therapy is essential to prevent deleterious sequelae of injury, and to maximize rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction. Options for reanimation include nerve repair, nerve grafting, nerve transfer, tendon transfer, and free functioning muscle transfer.

  18. Comparison of disinfection byproduct formation from chlorine and alternative disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guanghui; Reckhow, David A

    2007-04-01

    Seven diverse natural waters were collected and treated in the laboratory under five oxidation scenarios (chlorine, chloramine, both with and without preozonation, and chlorine dioxide). The impact of these disinfectants on the formation of disinfection byproducts was investigated. Results showed that preozonation decreased the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogen (TOX) for most waters during postchlorination. A net increase in THMs, HAAs and TOX was observed for a water of low humic content. Either decreases or increases were observed in dihaloacetic acids and unknown TOX (UTOX) as a result of preozonation when used with chloramination. Chloramines and chlorine dioxide produced a higher percentage of UTOX than free chlorine. They also formed more iodoform and total organic iodine (TOI) than free chlorine in the presence of iodide. Free chlorine produced a much higher level of total organic chlorine (TOCl) and bromine (TOBr) than chloramines and chlorine dioxide in the presence of bromide.

  19. Inspections of hand washing supplies and hand sanitizer in public schools.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mary M; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In November 2008, 90 schools (97%) reported their inspection results. Among 697 total bathrooms, 88.8% had soap and 91.7% had paper towels or hand dryers. Hand sanitizer was reported in 1.2% of bathrooms and 15.2% of cafeterias. No difference was observed between boys' and girls' bathrooms, or primary and secondary schools, in the prevalence of soap or paper towels/hand dryers. Hand washing supplies were generally available in public school bathrooms. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer in school bathrooms was reported occasionally and should be discouraged. Hand sanitizer in a supervised setting, the school cafeteria, was not often reported and should be promoted.

  20. [Hand infections].

    PubMed

    Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients.

  1. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

  2. Alcohol hand gel--a potential fire hazard.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Fionnuala M; Price, Gareth J

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol hand gel and wipes are the common method of disinfecting the hands of healthcare workers and working surfaces in clinical settings. We present a case of a 40-year-old health care support worker who was referred acutely to our burns unit following flame burns in association with alcohol gel use. Fortunately she was able to extinguish the flames without sustaining a significant thermal injury however this case highlights the potential danger associated with alcohol gel use, especially with smokers. With the ever increasing use of alcohol hand gel, not only in healthcare settings but also in the general population there needs to be clearer warnings regarding the potential for ignition after use. Alcohol hand gel and wipes are the common method of disinfecting the hands of healthcare workers and working surfaces in clinical settings. Most trusts have strict policies regarding mandatory sanitisation of hands before and after patient contact. This is most easily achieved by the use of alcohol gel due to its ease of use and quick drying properties. As a result alcohol hand disinfectant is available is a variety of formats including foam, gel and wipes. It is also now widely available for use to the general public.

  3. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

  4. Disinfecting Filters For Recirculated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilichi, Carmine A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple treatment disinfects air filters by killing bacteria, algae, fungi, mycobacteria, viruses, spores, and any other micro-organisms filters might harbor. Concept applied to reusable stainless-steel wire mesh filters and disposable air filters. Treatment used on filters in air-circulation systems in spacecraft, airplanes, other vehicles, and buildings to help prevent spread of colds, sore throats, and more-serious illnesses.

  5. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  6. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  7. Antiviral efficacy of disinfectant solution MRI-1.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Billstrom, M; Randall, S; Buchan, A; Davies, J; Ahmad, A

    1998-01-01

    Disinfectant MRI-1 was prepared by dissolution of non-ionic and ionic detergent in ethanol. The disinfectant inactivated extracellular and intracellular enveloped and non-enveloped viruses including herpes viruses, influenza A and human immunodeficiency disease virus in suspension or on surfaces by pre-exposure or post-exposure to the disinfectant; in addition, cells were disabled as potential hosts for viral infection using concentrations of MRI-1 which were 50-fold less than the operative concentration for disinfection. There was no evidence of in vitro mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium or sensitization or other adverse effect in a guinea pig model or in human subjects.

  8. [Survey of methods of cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization in dental health services in tropical areas].

    PubMed

    Clapeau, G; Decroix, B; Bakayoko-Ly, R; Varenne, B; Dosso-Hien, D; Decroix, M O

    1997-01-01

    The International Aid for Ontology (IAO) carried out this survey of hygiene in the dental health services of 5 French-speaking African countries in 1994, in association with the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences of Paris. This study received support from the World Health Organization (WHO), the French Ministry for Cooperation and the European Community and the Ivory Coast Oral and Dental Hygiene and Health Committee (CIHSBD). Twenty-nine dental services from Benin (3), Burkina Faso (6), Ivory Coast (12), Mali (5), Niger (3) participated in this survey which gives an insight into the daily hygiene routines of these services. The cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization procedures for premises, dental equipment, instruments, hands and disposable items were investigated. No individual protocols are reported. Bench tops were cleaned or disinfected daily in 73% of centers and floors were cleaned or disinfected daily in 59% of centers. Walls were cleaned once per week in 44% of the centers. Hands were always washed between patients, with 68% of dental surgeons using only solid or liquid cleansing soaps and the others using antiseptic or disinfectant solutions. The dentist's chair was cleaned or disinfected daily in 68% of centers, mostly with soap (43%) or diluted bleach (23%). Vacuum equipment was cleaned with soap (50%) or diluted bleach (57%), with some surgeries using a combination of the two. Hand pieces and turbines were cleaned and disinfected after each use with alcohol (35%) or diluted bleach (26%) and were sterilized in 9% of centers. Instruments were sterilized with a Poupinel (63%), unspecified sterilizer (26%), autoclave (7%) or low temperature disinfection procedure (4%). Instruments were regularly sterilized in all centers. Single-use disposable items were often reused: 88% of centers reused gloves, 64% anesthetic cartridges and 32% disposable needles. This survey demonstrates that dentists do attempt to achieve appropriate

  9. Comparison of Riboflavin and Toluidine Blue O as Photosensitizers for Photoactivated Disinfection on Endodontic and Periodontal Pathogens In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik Krarup; Garcia, Javier; Væth, Michael; Schlafer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivated disinfection has a strong local antimicrobial effect. In the field of dentistry it is an emerging adjunct to mechanical debridement during endodontic and periodontal treatment. In the present study, we investigate the effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and blue LED light for activation, and compare it to photoactivated disinfection with the widely used combination of toluidine blue O and red light. Riboflavin is highly biocompatible and can be activated with LED lamps at hand in the dental office. To date, no reports are available on the antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin/blue light on oral microorganisms. Planktonic cultures of eight organisms frequently isolated from periodontal and/or endodontic lesions (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherischia coli, Lactobacillus paracasei, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Propionibacterium acnes) were subjected to photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light and toluidine blue O/red light, and survival rates were determined by CFU counts. Within the limited irradiation time of one minute, photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light only resulted in minor reductions in CFU counts, whereas full kills were achieved for all organisms when using toluidine blue O/red light. The black pigmented anaerobes P. gingivalis and P. intermedia were eradicated completely by riboflavin/blue light, but also by blue light treatment alone, suggesting that endogenous chromophores acted as photosensitizers in these bacteria. On the basis of our results, riboflavin cannot be recommended as a photosensitizer used for photoactivated disinfection of periodontal or endodontic infections.

  10. 9 CFR 166.14 - Cleaning and disinfecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., fencing, troughs, chutes, floors, walls, and all other parts of the facilities, with a disinfectant..., including all doors, endgates, portable chutes, and similar equipment with a disinfectant prescribed...

  11. 9 CFR 166.14 - Cleaning and disinfecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., fencing, troughs, chutes, floors, walls, and all other parts of the facilities, with a disinfectant..., including all doors, endgates, portable chutes, and similar equipment with a disinfectant prescribed...

  12. [Hand hygiene: basic, but not trivial].

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, S; Schwanz, T; Lemmen, S

    2011-07-01

    Hand hygiene is considered as the pillar of infection control and prevention. Healthcare-associated infections have a great impact on morbidity, length of hospital stay, and treatment costs. Hand disinfection is considered to be the single most effective tool to prevent healthcare-associated infections and cross-transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria. The WHO defined "5 moments" for hand hygiene and highlighted the need for new strategies to improve everyday hand hygiene practices on the basis of the current low compliance. Reasons for non-compliance are multifaceted and behavioural, religious, and sociocultural aspects have to be considered when designing intervention programs. Despite all these barriers it is worth the effort to aim at quality of care improvement.

  13. An evaluation, using computerized image analysis, of antimicrobial efficacy of an automatic hand washing machine with ultrasonic wave spraying.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, S; Namura, S; Mitsuya, K; Asada, Y

    1993-10-01

    We studied the antimicrobial efficacy of hand washing with a quick-dry hand washing machine [TE-KIREIKI] employing ultrasonic wave spraying and its incidental alcohol-based product [AROKULIN-E]. The subjects of this study were 10 males who had been instructed not to use any antimicrobial agent for the previous 2 weeks or any hand soap for the previous 5 hours. They pressed their palms on agar before and after washing their hands. After 48-hour incubation at 37 degrees C, the bacterial colonies grown on the agar were counted using the [ASPECT] image processing system. The colony count was expressed as the post-stamp versus pre-stamp percent (%) reduction. Two patterns of hand washing were examined in this study: [A] a 3-second hand wash using an alcohol-based product [AROKULIN-E] and [B] a 30-second hand wash using a nonmedicated detergent soap with running water in addition to hand washing by [A]. The percent (%) reduction after hand washing patterns [A] and [B] were 49.1% and 51.3%. These reduction rates indicated that these patterns did not eradicate bacteria from the hand surface. Therefore, we concluded that this quick-dry hand washing machine employing an ultrasonic wave spraying method combined with an alcohol-based product needs improvement.

  14. Facile access to unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on cis-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ye; Wang, Ping-An; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2015-02-11

    Well-defined unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on a cis-2,5-disubstitued pyrrolidine backbone were synthesized from commercially available starting materials meso-diethyl-2,5-dibromoadipate, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine, and phenylalaninol. The structures of these unnatural dipeptide-alcohols are supported by HRMS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. These unnatural dipeptide-alcohols can act as building blocks for peptidomimetics.

  15. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  16. Designing plasmas for chronic wound disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, T.; Shimizu, T.; Morfill, G. E.

    2009-11-01

    Irradiation with low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma provides a promising method for chronic wound disinfection. To be efficient for this purpose, plasma should meet the following criteria: it should significantly reduce bacterial density in the wounded area, cause a long-term post-irradiation inhibition of bacterial growth, yet without causing any negative effect on human cells. In order to design plasmas that would satisfy these requirements, we assessed the relative contribution of different components with respect to bactericidal properties due to irradiation with argon plasma. We demonstrate that plasma-generated UV radiation is the main short-term sterilizing factor of argon plasma. On the other hand, plasma-generated reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a long-term 'after-irradiation' inhibition of bacterial growth and, therefore, are important for preventing wound recolonization with bacteria between two treatments. We also demonstrate that at certain concentrations plasma-generated RNS and ROS cause significant reduction of bacterial density, but have no adverse effect on human skin cells. Possible mechanisms of the different effects of plasma-generated reactive species on bacteria and human cells are discussed. The results of this study suggest that argon plasma for therapeutic purposes should be optimized in the direction of reducing the intensity of plasma-generated UV radiation and increasing the density of non-UV plasma products.

  17. [Products for hand hygiene and antisepsis: use by health professionals and relationship with hand eczema].

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; García-Doval, I; de la Torre, C

    2012-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important measure for the prevention of nosocomial infection. We describe the different products available for hygiene and antisepsis of the hands and the use of these products in daily practice. Hand hygiene products such as soaps and detergents are a cause of irritant dermatitis in health professionals. This irritation is one of the principal factors affecting their use in clinical practice. Alcohol-based products are better tolerated and less irritant than soap and water; irritation should not therefore be a limiting factor in the use of these products and they are to be recommended in place of soap and water. Informative and continued education programs could increase their use.

  18. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity.

  19. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  20. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system...) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (b)(6), cannot be...

  1. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system...) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (b)(6), cannot be...

  2. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system...) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (b)(6), cannot be...

  3. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system...) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (b)(6), cannot be...

  4. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 71.10 Permitted disinfectants. (a) Disinfectants permitted for use on cars, boats, and other vehicles... least 4 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (2) Liquefied phenol (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in the proportion of at least 6 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (3) Chlorinated lime (U.S.P....

  5. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 71.10 Permitted disinfectants. (a) Disinfectants permitted for use on cars, boats, and other vehicles... least 4 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (2) Liquefied phenol (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in the proportion of at least 6 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (3) Chlorinated lime (U.S.P....

  6. Silver disinfection in water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestry Rodriguez, Nadia

    Silver was evaluated as disinfectant to maintain water quality in water distribution system. It was used to inhibit growth of two opportunistic bacteria in planktonik form and in biofilm formation in Robbins devices with stainless steel and PVC surfaces. The results of this work show that silver is a potential secondary disinfectant to be used in water distribution systems.

  7. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.72 Disinfection. A public water system that uses a surface water source and does not provide filtration treatment must provide the... determines that filtration is required in writing pursuant to § 1412 (b)(7)(C)(iii). A public water...

  8. ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION STUDIES WITH CCL LISTED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resistance to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. The U.S. drinking water industry is interested in including UV light treatment as an amendment to conventional treatment for disinfecting water supplies. UV disi...

  9. MUTAGENICITY OF DRINKING WATER FOLLOWING DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water utilities in the USA are considering alternatives to chlorine for disinfection in order to comply with federal regulations regarding disinfection by-products. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfecta...

  10. Evaluation of disinfective potential of reactivated free chlorine in pooled tap water by electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Norihito; Nakano, Takashi; Harada, Fumiue; Taniguchi, Hiromasa; Yokoyama, Isao; Hirose, Jun; Daikoku, Eriko; Sano, Kouichi

    2004-05-01

    Tap water is one of the causative factors of hospital infections. We examined the disinfective potential of electrolysis and mechanism of disinfection, and clarified the disinfective effect of electrolysis on tap water contaminated with bacteria, and discussed its clinical applications. Tap waters artificially contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Legionella pneumophila, and Staphylococcus aureus could be sterilized by electrolysis at 20-30 mA for 5 min. A high-density suspension (10(6) CFU/ml) of a spore forming bacterium, Bacillus subtilis was not completely sterilized by electrolysis at 50 mA up to 30 min, but a low-density suspension (10(5) CFU/ml) was totally sterilized by electrolysis at 50 mA for 5 min. Electrolyzed P. aeruginosa changed morphologically, that is, there was bleb formation on the cell wall and irregular aggregation of cytoplasmic small granules. Moreover, cytoplasmic enzyme, nitrate reductase, was inactivated by the electrolysis. On the other hand, genomic DNA of the electrolyzed bacteria was not degenerated, therefore, their DNA polymerase activity was not completely inactivated. Consequently, the major agent in electrolysis for bactericidal action was considered to be free chlorine, and the possible bactericidal mechanism was by destruction of bacterial membranes, followed by the aggregation of peripheral cytoplasmic proteins. Electrolysis of tap water for both disinfecting contaminating bacteria and increasing the disinfectant capacity was considered effective with some limitations, particularly against high-density contamination by spore-forming bacteria. In clinical settings, electrolysis of tap water is considered effective to disinfect water for hand washing in operation theatres, and bathing water for immunocompromised hosts.

  11. The influence of mixing methods and disinfectant on the physical properties of alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Karoline; Kellens, Annelies; Wevers, Martine; Thilakarathne, Pushpike J; Willems, Guy

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this in vitro study were to quantify the effect of manual versus automatic mixing and of using a disinfectant on mechanical properties of three different alginate impression materials. Two of the three alginates tested were especially developed for orthodontic use: Orthotrace® and Orthofine® while the third was a conventional alginate CA37FS®. Alginates were mixed by hand or automatically using a Cavex alginate mixer II®. Mixing was performed at room temperature using tap water. The material was allowed to set in a water bath at 35°C (±1°C), simulating intra-oral setting conditions, and half of the samples were disinfected before testing. For each tested material, 10 standardized samples were used. The disinfectant used was the CavexImpreSafe® that has a bactericide, virucide, and fungicide function. The specimens were exposed for 3 minutes in a 3% solution and were then tested according to the ISO 1563: 1990 (E) standard specifications. Descriptive statistics and three-way analysis of variance were performed, and a 5% significance level was used for statistical analysis. Evaluation of tensile strength and elastic recovery of different alginate samples, hand versus automatical mixing or disinfected versus not disinfected, resulted in significant differences for all materials except for Orthofine®. Considering detail reproduction, all three alginates evaluated reproduced the 50-μm line successfully without interruption. The mixing method can significantly affect the elastic recovery and tensile strength of the alginates tested while the effect of using a disinfectant is less explicit.

  12. Hazards with disinfecting agents in renal units!

    PubMed

    Stragier, A

    1992-02-01

    As already described in the April 1991 issue of EDTNA/ERCA Journal (Volume XVII, No. 2), the specific characteristics of various disinfecting agents delineate their respective application areas. Obviously, in a renal unit one needs a large range of disinfecting agents as they are being used for cleaning and disinfection of: water treatment devices; water tanks and distribution systems; single patient units; patient vascular access sites; dialysis connection procedure; dialyser reuse; instruments; floors, etc.... We have been taught never to mix different disinfecting agents as this might reduce their efficiency. However, it had never been hitherto reported that this might be dangerous or even cause an explosion! In this paper, we describe in detail how we were confronted with such an explosion. We further report that similar hazards occurred in other units and present an overview of possible hazards with the most common disinfecting agents. Finally, we emphasize some preventive guidelines to be put forth in renal units.

  13. Sepsis, parenteral vaccination and skin disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ian F.

    2016-01-01

    ASBSTRACT Disinfection should be required for all skin penetrative procedures including parenteral administration of vaccines. This review analyses medically attended infectious events following parenteral vaccination in terms of their microbiological aetiology and pathogenesis. Like ‘clean’ surgical site infections, the major pathogens responsible for these events were Staphylococcal species, implicating endogenous con-tamination as a significant source of infection. As 70% isopropyl alcohol swabbing has been shown to effectively disinfect the skin, it would be medico-legally difficult to defend a case of sepsis with the omission of skin disinfection unless the very low risk of this event was adequately explained to the patient and documented prior to vaccination. There was a significant cost-benefit for skin disinfection and cellulitis. Skin disinfection in the context of parenteral vaccination represents a new paradigm of medical practice; the use of a low cost intervention to prevent an event of very low prevalence but of significant cost. PMID:27295449

  14. [Preventive effect of postoperative disinfection of endoscope on bacterial adhesion to endoscope].

    PubMed

    Uwagawa, T; Okabe, N; Matsumoto, T; Kurihara, H; Miyamoto, S; Tujihara, Y; Takahashi, T; Sakurai, I; Matsumoto, F; Yamazaki, Y

    1999-10-01

    We took culture of throat swab from 77 subjects who were negative for infection of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infection before and after endoscopy. Moreover, the existence of bacterium including Helicobacter pylori at overcoat of endoscopic instrument was investigated right after examination and after disinfection of endoscope. Povidoneiodine, 70% alcohol and 1% benzalkonium chloride was used as a disinfectant for endoscope, and it took less than 10 minutes to wash by hand to disinfection. alpha-haemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus epidermids, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA were cultured in throat swab. The rate of adhesion of bacterium especially such as Candida, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermids to endoscope was considerably high. 23 of 77 subjects had H. pylori infection, and the adhesion of H. pylori to endoscope was found to be 65.2% of the subjects. On the contrast, no bacterium was detected from the endoscopic instrument after careful disinfection. These findings stress the importance of postoperative disinfection of the endoscope to prevent the chance to acquire bacterial infection.

  15. A bundle strategy including patient hand hygiene to decrease clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Marian; Feigel, Jody; Douglas, Barbara; Grossberger, Susan; Hensler, Amelia; Hensler, Amelia; Weber, David

    2014-01-01

    Prevention strategies for Clostridium difficile infection traditionally have addressed barrier precautions, environmental disinfection, and health care worker hand hygiene. When applied as a bundle, this approach has been used widely as an evidence-based strategy to prevent hospital-acquired C. difficile infection. Expanding the bundle to include patient hand hygiene is a nurse-driven approach to prevent C. difficile transmission.

  16. The evolution: Handwashing to hand hygiene guidance.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, Nancy B

    2004-01-01

    Handwashing is a fundamental principle and practice in the prevention, control, and reduction of healthcare-acquired infection. Advocated by Semmelweiss (Nursing, The Finest Art: An Illustrated History. St Louis: Mosby; 1985:204) from the 1800s to resolve an obstetric morbidity and mortality occurrence, the simple act of hand cleansing portrays the intuitive benefits to basic hygiene, health continuum, and, most important, disease prevention. According to recently published guidance (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. October 25, 2002;51:32-34), the term handwashing is replaced by the new term hand hygiene, which includes hand cleansing, hand disinfecting, and surgical hand scrub. This article focuses on the published guidance, blending the salient aspects of hand hygiene practices from noted champions, reinforcing the aesthetics of meticulous cleansing, to guidance on its practice in healthcare settings. In healthcare, the principle of "clean hands are healing hands" bears value and demands compliance in order to prevent and control infectious processes while protecting the person from acquiring infectious diseases.

  17. 40 CFR 141.172 - Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate, through the entire treatment plant. This system must begin this monitoring not later than April 1...) The temperature of the disinfected water must be measured once per day at each residual disinfectant... disinfected water must be measured once per day at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration...

  18. 40 CFR 141.172 - Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate, through the entire treatment plant. This system must begin this monitoring not later than April 1...) The temperature of the disinfected water must be measured once per day at each residual disinfectant... disinfected water must be measured once per day at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration...

  19. 40 CFR 141.172 - Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate, through the entire treatment plant. This system must begin this monitoring not later than April 1...) The temperature of the disinfected water must be measured once per day at each residual disinfectant... disinfected water must be measured once per day at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration...

  20. 40 CFR 141.172 - Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate, through the entire treatment plant. This system must begin this monitoring not later than April 1...) The temperature of the disinfected water must be measured once per day at each residual disinfectant... disinfected water must be measured once per day at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration...

  1. 40 CFR 141.172 - Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appropriate, through the entire treatment plant. This system must begin this monitoring not later than April 1...) The temperature of the disinfected water must be measured once per day at each residual disinfectant... disinfected water must be measured once per day at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration...

  2. Microbial resistance to disinfectants: mechanisms and significance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, J.C.; Akin, E.W.

    1986-11-01

    Drinking water disinfection provides the final barrier to transmission of a wide variety of potentially waterborne infectious agents including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These agents differ greatly in their innate resistance to inactivation by disinfectants, ranging from extremely sensitive bacteria to highly resistant protozoan cysts. The close similarity between microorganism inactivation rates and the kinetics of chemical reactions has long been recognized. Ideally, under carefully controlled conditions, microorganism inactivation rates simulate first-order chemical reaction rates, making it possible to predict the effectiveness of disinfection under specific conditions. In practice, changes in relative resistance and deviations from first-order kinetics are caused by a number of factors, including microbial growth conditions, aggregation, and association with particulate materials. The net effect of all these factors is a reduction in the effectiveness and predictability of disinfection processes. To ensure effective pathogen control, disinfectant concentrations and contact times greater than experimentally determined values may be required. Of the factors causing enhanced disinfection resistance, protection by association with particulate matter is the most significant. Therefore, removal of particulate matter is an important step in increasing the effectiveness of disinfection processes.

  3. Cleanliness of portable medical equipment disinfected by nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Havill, Nancy L; Havill, Heather L; Mangione, Elise; Dumigan, Diane G; Boyce, John M

    2011-09-01

    Increased attention has been focused on disinfection by housekeepers, but few data are available on disinfection of equipment by nurses. We used adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assays and aerobic cultures to assess the cleanliness of portable medical equipment disinfected by nurses between each patient use. We found that the equipment was not being disinfected as per protocol and that education and feedback to nursing are warranted to improve disinfection of medical equipment.

  4. Influence of applied volume on efficacy of 3-minute surgical reference disinfection method prEN 12791.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2004-12-01

    For assessment of the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection, European reference method prEN 12791 prescribes that the hands must be kept wet with the reference alcohol for 3 min regardless of the applied volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether the applied volume of the reference disinfectant n-propanol (60%, vol/vol) influences the effect on the resident hand flora. Ten experiments with 200 reference disinfections were analyzed. Hands were washed for 1 min with soap. The bacterial prevalue was obtained by rubbing fingertips in tryptic soy broth for 1 min. After this, each subject treated the hands with n-propanol (60%, vol/vol) by using as many portions as necessary to keep hands wet for a total of 3 min. Bacterial postvalues (immediate effect) were obtained for one hand, and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After the gloves were taken off, a second postvalue was obtained (sustained effect). Most surgical reference disinfections (73%) were achieved with 9 ml of the reference alcohol, followed by 12 ml (24%) and 6 ml (3%). There was no significant difference between the mean log10 reduction values for the three treatment groups, both in terms of the immediate effect (P = 0.333, as determined by analysis of variance) and in terms of the sustained effect (P = 0.442). A higher number of portions did not correlate with a higher reduction factor (for immediate effect, Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.028 [P = 0.689]; for sustained effect, Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.059 [P = 0.404]). If the hands were kept wet with the reference alcohol for the total application time, the applied volume could vary, but this did not alter the efficacy.

  5. Hand hygiene among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ameet; Shubangi, A M; Saini, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  6. Performance of UV disinfection and the microbial quality of greywater effluent along a reuse system for toilet flushing.

    PubMed

    Friedler, Eran; Gilboa, Yael

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the microbial quality of treated RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor) and MBR (Membrane Bioreactor) light greywater along a continuous pilot-scale reuse system for toilet flushing, quantifies the efficiency of UV disinfection unit, and evaluates the regrowth potential of selected microorganisms along the system. The UV disinfection unit was found to be very efficient in reducing faecal coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, its efficiency of inactivation of HPC (Heterotrophic Plate Count) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was lower. Some regrowth occurred in the reuse system as a result of HPC regrowth which included opportunistic pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. Although the membrane (UF) of the MBR system removed all bacteria from the greywater, bacteria were observed in the reuse system due to "hopping phenomenon." The microbial quality of the disinfected greywater was found to be equal or even better than the microbial quality of "clean" water in toilet bowls flushed with potable water (and used for excretion). Thus, the added health risk associated with reusing the UV-disinfected greywater for toilet flushing (regarding P. aeruginosa and S. aureus), was found to be insignificant. The UV disinfection unit totally removed (100%) the viral indicator (F-RNA phage, host: E. coli F(amp)(+)) injected to the treatment systems simulating transient viral contamination. To conclude, this work contributes to better design of UV disinfection reactors and provides an insight into the long-term behavior of selected microorganisms along on-site greywater reuse systems for toilet flushing.

  7. [Disinfection by-products reduction of combined disinfection by chlorine and monochloramines in distribution system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Jian

    2009-09-15

    Halogen disinfection by-products of four chlorined disinfection processes with long contact time in distribution system was compared in the work. These four disinfection processes are free chlorine, monochloramines, free chlorine disinfection in clearwelles while chloramines in distribution system, sequential chlorination disinfection with short-term free chlorine plus chloramines. According to the research, free chlorine generates most trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) both in clearwells and distribution system, while monochloramines barely yield halogen DBPs. Free chlorine disinfection in clearwelles while chloramines in distribution system could reduce 9.6% of THMs and 42% of HAAs in 24 h contact time of distribution system compared with free chlorine. But free chlorine has contacted with water for 2 h in this process, halogen DBPs have been yielded substantially. Process of sequential chlorination disinfection could control DBPs more effectively due to keeping a short contact time of free chlorine and water. 48% of THMs and 72% of HAAs are reduced in 24h compared with free chlorine. In conclusion, sequential chlorination disinfection is a more effective disinfection process for controlling DBPs and water safety.

  8. [Virucidal activity of disinfectants. Influence of the serum protein upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Matsuda, S; Kobayashi, M

    2000-08-01

    Five disinfectants were tested for virucidal activity on three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses in the presence or absence of serum protein. Disinfectants of the aldehyde and halogen groups had a virucidal activity on human herpes virus, bovine rhabdo virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human adeno virus, porcine parvo virus, and polio virus. Disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups, and biganide group had a destructive effect on RNA and DNA viruses possessing an envelope. The presence of serum protein exerted great influence upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups.

  9. Disinfection efficacy of organic chloramines.

    PubMed

    Donnermair, Martina M; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2003-04-01

    The disinfection efficacies of model organic chloramines were investigated. Twenty amino acids and two nucleic acid bases were chlorinated separately with sodium hypochlorite at a Cl:N molar ratio of 0.4:1, and were then used to treat an E. coli suspension for 60 min. DPD/FAS titration was carried out to obtain the concentration of the chlorinated nitrogenous organic compounds as a function of time. In addition, membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) was used to quantify inorganic chloramines (mono-, di-, and trichloramine). The results of these experiments showed that the organic chloramines examined in this research had little or no effect on the viability of E. coli. MIMS analyses demonstrated that there was no quantifiable formation of inorganic chloramines when the organic nitrogen compounds were chlorinated.

  10. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS..., Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 135 et seq.), with tuberculocidal claims, as disinfectants...

  11. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  12. A simple device for disinfecting endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Wagenvoort, J H; van Blankenstein, M; Kooyman-Op de Hoek, G; Boks, A L; van Oudenaarde, P H

    1986-01-01

    A method for disinfecting fibreoptic endoscopes with povidone-iodine and a simple cleaning device, consisting of a curved glass pipe and a peristaltic pump is described. If properly employed the system produces satisfactory results.

  13. Disinfection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in potable water.

    PubMed

    Howard, Kay; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2005-03-01

    The effect of chlorine, monochloramine and UV disinfection on the water-borne pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei was assessed. Persistence of B. pseudomallei was verified by MPN involving a one-step recovery procedure. Chlorine proved the most effective disinfectant with a 99.99% reduction of a 10(6) CFU/mL pure bacterial culture followed by 99.9% reduction by monochloramine and 99% reduction by UV. Co-culture of B. pseudomallei with Acanthamoeba astronyxis was found to greatly enhance survival of B. pseudomallei in the presence of all disinfecting agents tested. For example, when amoebae were present 100 times more monochloramine was required to maintain the disinfectant efficacy. Given the results obtained from these co-culture experiments, more research is needed to investigate the role of amoeba and biofilms in survival of B. pseudomallei in potable water.

  14. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  15. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  16. Environmental Cleaning and Disinfecting for MRSA

    MedlinePlus

    ... difference between cleaners, sanitizers, and disinfectants? Cleaners or detergents are products that are used to remove soil, ... germs (like bacteria, viruses, and fungi). Cleaners or detergents work by washing the surface to lift dirt ...

  17. Effectiveness of Halogen-Based Disinfectants Against Acinetobacter Baumannii: Wound Care and Environmental Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    contaminated hands. Although all agents were found to be effective, 70% ethyl alcohol and 10% povidone - iodine removed significantly more bacteria from... compared the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of five commercially available U.S. halogen- based disinfectants against A. baumannii, along with...a standard E. coli comparator , in a novel bacterial culture system that incorporated a three log range of organic growth media concentrations. We

  18. New developments in disinfection and sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Craig A

    2016-05-02

    A review of regulatory clearances for selected new sterilization and disinfection products for the period January 2012-June 2015 indicates continued leverage of established technologies for steam and low-temperature sterilization, and high-level disinfection. New products in these areas were typically modified and improved versions of existing products, with the exception of a new combination hydrogen peroxide/ozone sterilizer. Development of new low-temperature sterilization technologies to address continued evolution of complex medical devices is expected to continue.

  19. [Elimination of microscopic filamentous fungi with disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Laciaková, A; Laciak, V

    1994-01-01

    The antifungal effectivity of three single-component (Persteril, Septonex, Glutaraldehyd) and of three combined (Persteril+Septonex, Pesteril+Glutaraldehyd, Glutaraldehyd+Septonex) commercially available disinfectants was monitored by the diffuse method on five fen of the microscopic filamentous fungi Aspergillus alternata, Aspergillus niger, Mucor fragillis, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium glabrum. The highest antifungal activity was observed in 2% Persteril while 2% Persteril + 1% Septonex were the most effective among the combined disinfectants. M. fragilis was the most resistant strain.

  20. [The effectiveness of ozonated water for hand washing before surgery].

    PubMed

    Isosu, T; Kan, K; Hayashi, T; Fujii, M

    2001-06-01

    Using an ozonated water-dispensing machine for sterilization of hands (Mediaqua MA-III; Core Medical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), we investigated the effectiveness of ozonated water as a disinfectant for hand washing before surgery. The effectiveness of this new hand-washing method, using 4 ppm of ozonated water, which is expected to have a short-term bactericidal effect, and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride/83% ethanol solution (Welpas), which is expected to have a long-term bactericidal effect, was compared with that of the conventional hand-washing method (Fürbringer's method using a scrubbing agent containing povidone-iodine). The results showed no significant differences in the numbers of live bacteria and exponential reduction rates in live bacteria. Thus, this new method for hand washing using ozonated water is an effective method for sterilization of the hands before surgery.

  1. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, B.D.; Barlett, P.; Basaran, A.; Colling, K.; Osis, I.; Smith, M.K.

    1986-11-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. In this laboratory, the authors have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

  2. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  3. [Comparison of the quality and toxicity of wastewater after chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-sha; Zhang, Tong; Hu, Hong-ying

    2005-11-01

    The effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections on quality and toxicity of wastewater were compared. The experiment results showed that chlorine disinfection had no obvious effect on wastewater color, while chlorine dioxide disinfection decreased wastewater color observably. The DOC of wastewater did not change much after chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections. Chlorine disinfection significantly increased UV230 of wastewater and chlorine dioxide disinfection slightly decreased UV230 of wastewater. When the disinfectants dosage was 30 mg/L, UV230 increased about 0.7 cm(-1) after chlorine disinfection and decreased about 0.05 cm(-1) after chlorine dioxide disinfection. The acute toxicity of wastewater increased with increasing disinfectants dosage for both chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections and the acute toxicity after chlorine disinfection is much stronger than that after chlorine dioxide disinfection. The genotoxicity of wastewater increased slightly after chlorine disinfection and decreased slightly after chlorine dioxide disinfection.

  4. The History And Future Directions Of Biosolids Disinfection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the history of disinfection practices, emphasizing their application to human fecal material and the residuals from wastewater treatment. It discusses development of the current US sewage sludge disinfection regulations and their associated practices; discusse...

  5. The History And Future Directions Of Biosolids Disinfection (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the history of disinfection practices, emphasizing their application to human fecal material and the residuals from wastewater treatment. It discusses development of the current US sewage sludge disinfection regulations and their associated practices; discusse...

  6. Formation and Occurrence of Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, or chloramines react with naturally occurring organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants, bromide, and iodide during the production of drinking water. There is concern about D...

  7. Basic Information about Chloramines and Drinking Water Disinfection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  8. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, which uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. Unconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low reso...

  9. DISINFECTION PROCESSES AND STABILITY REFINEMENTS TO BIOSOLIDS TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the current US sewage sludge disinfection regulations and their associated practices; discusses the limitations of the practices; discusses the criteria employed in evaluating a new (innovative or alternative) disinfection process and both notes some processes ...

  10. PARTICLE ASSOCIATION EFFECTS ON MICROBIAL INDICATOR CONCENTRATIONS AND CSO DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) and wastewater disinfection effectiveness are evaluated by measuring microbial indicator concentrations before and after disinfection. The standard techniques for quantifying indicators are membrane filtration and multiple-tube fermentation/most pro...

  11. Disinfection of laryngoscopes: A survey of practice

    PubMed Central

    Chaskar, Vaishali Prabhakar; Dave, Nandini Malay; Dias, Raylene; Karnik, Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The laryngoscope is a common piece of equipment used by anaesthesiologists. It has been identified as a potential source of cross infection. Although guidelines exist regarding appropriate disinfection practices, recent reviews suggest ineffectiveness of current methods of disinfection and poor compliance with the established protocols. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey to study the current disinfection practices being followed by a cross section of anaesthesiologists. Methods: A simple questionnaire containing 13 questions was distributed amongst anaesthesiologists in an anaesthesia conference. Data were analysed with percentage analysis. Results: Out of 250 delegates who attended the conference, 150 submitted the completed questionnaires. Residents constituted 41% and 46% were consultants. Eighteen (12%) used only tap water for cleaning and 132 (88%) used a chemical agent after rinsing with water. Out of 132, 76 (51%) used detergent/soap solution, 29 (19%) would wash and then soak in disinfectant or germicidal agents (glutaraldehyde, povidone iodine and chlorhexidine) and 18 (12%) would wipe the blade with an alcohol swab. With respect to disinfection of laryngoscope handles, 70% respondents said they used an alcohol swab, 18% did not use any method, 9% were not aware of the method being used, while 3% did not respond. Conclusion: Our results indicate wide variation in methods of decontamination of laryngoscopes. Awareness regarding laryngoscope as a potential source of infection was high. We need to standardise and implement guidelines on a national level and make available resources which will help to improve patient safety.

  12. Antimicriobial resistance patterns of colonizing flora on nurses' hands in the neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Heather A.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of an alcohol-based handrub for health care worker hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of hand hygiene product and skin condition on the antimicrobial resistance patterns of colonizing hand flora among nurses. Methods Colonizing hand flora of 119 nurses working in 2 neonatal intensive care units was compared during a 22-month crossover study using alcohol handrub or antiseptic soap. Results Altogether, 1442 isolates from 834 hand cultures (mean, 7 cultures/nurse) were obtained. In 3 of 9 regression analyses modeling for resistant staphylococcal flora, the use of antiseptic soap was a significant predictor of resistance, and nurses with damaged skin were 2.79 times more likely to carry Staphylococcus warneri isolates resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion Hand hygiene product and skin condition may influence resistance patterns of hand flora of care providers. PMID:17482994

  13. Epidemiologic Background of Hand Hygiene and Evaluation of the Most Important Agents for Scrubs and Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking the antimicrobial efficacy and the mechanical removal together, they are still less effective than the alcohols. Plain soap and water has the lowest efficacy of all. In the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs containing various emollients instead of irritating soaps and detergents is one strategy to reduce skin damage, dryness, and irritation. Irritant contact dermatitis is highest with preparations containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, less frequent with nonantimicrobial soaps and preparations containing lower concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, and lowest with well-formulated alcohol-based hand rubs containing emollients and other skin conditioners. Too few published data

  14. Clean and Green: Saving Water in the Operating Theatre

    PubMed Central

    Jehle, Karlheinz; Jarrett, Nick; Matthews, Shaun

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is a growing trend to use alcohol-based hand disinfectants in clinical practice. In addition to their antibacterial efficacy, these disinfectants offer an alternative to traditional surgical hand disinfection agents that can save water in the operating theatre. MATERIALS AND METHODS The amounts of water and soap used during traditional surgical hand disinfection with antiseptic soap preparations were measured and water usage over a 1-year period was estimated. Costs of traditional disinfection agents were compared with alcohol-based agents. RESULTS One surgical hand disinfection episode with traditional agents used 18.5 l of water. During 15,500 procedures performed at our institution over a 1-year period, 931,938 l of water were used which could have been saved had alcohol-based agents been used. Cost per episode of hand disinfection depends on the amounts used and is not higher compared to traditional agents. CONCLUSIONS The benefits of using an alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectant may include significant water savings, in addition to previously published advantages of improved efficacy. When deciding on the method of surgical hand disinfection, careful thought should be given to the use of water as a resource. Surgeons should be aware of the environmental impact of their profession. PMID:18201493

  15. Mutagenicity and disinfection by-products in surface drinking water disinfected with peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Monarca, Silvano; Richardson, Susan D; Feretti, Donatella; Grottolo, Mario; Thruston, Alfred D; Zani, Claudia; Navazio, Giancarlo; Ragazzo, Patrizia; Zerbini, Ilaria; Alberti, Adriana

    2002-02-01

    The aims of this research were to study the influence of peracetic acid (PAA) on the formation of mutagens in surface waters used for human consumption and to assess its potential application for the disinfection of drinking water. The results obtained using PAA were compared to those found with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2). The Ames test, root anaphase aberration assay, and root/micronuclei assay in Allium cepa and Tradescantia/micronuclei test were used to evaluate the mutagenicity of disinfected samples. Microbiological tests were also performed, and disinfection by-products (DBPs) were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A slight bacterial mutagenicity was found in raw lake and river water, and similar activity was detected in disinfected samples. A plant test revealed genotoxicity in raw river water, and microbiological analysis showed that PAA has bactericidal activity but lower than that of the other disinfectants. The DBPs produced by PAA were mainly carboxylic acids, which are not recognized as mutagenic, whereas the waters treated with the other disinfectants showed the presence of mutagenic/carcinogenic halogenated DBPs. However, additional experiments should be performed with higher concentrations of PAA and using water with higher organic carbon content to better evaluate this disinfectant.

  16. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.].

  17. DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS ADENOVIRUS IN TERTIARY TREATED AND UV DISINFECTED WASTEWATER DURING A UV DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An infectious enteric adenovirus was isolated from urban wastewater receiving tertiary treatment and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of UV disinfection (low pressure, high intensity radiation) of total and fecal coliform bac...

  18. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Disinfection of Drinking Waters by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination Treatment Scenarios

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes disinfection of the same source water by two commonly used disinfection treatment scenarios for purposes of subsequent concentration, chemical analysis, and toxicological evaluation. Accompanying articles in this issue of the Journal of Toxicology and Envir...

  19. Proteomic adaptations to starvation prepare Escherichia coli for disinfection tolerance.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhe; Nandakumar, Renu; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Li, Xu

    2015-02-01

    Despite the low nutrient level and constant presence of secondary disinfectants, bacterial re-growth still occurs in drinking water distribution systems. The molecular mechanisms that starved bacteria use to survive low-level chlorine-based disinfectants are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate these molecular mechanisms at the protein level that prepare starved cells for disinfection tolerance. Two commonly used secondary disinfectants chlorine and monochloramine, both at 1 mg/L, were used in this study. The proteomes of normal and starved Escherichia coli (K12 MG1655) cells were studied using quantitative proteomics. Over 60-min disinfection, starved cells showed significantly higher disinfection tolerance than normal cells based on the inactivation curves for both chlorine and monochloramine. Proteomic analyses suggest that starvation may prepare cells for the oxidative stress that chlorine-based disinfection will cause by affecting glutathione metabolism. In addition, proteins involved in stress regulation and stress responses were among the ones up-regulated under both starvation and chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. By comparing the fold changes under different conditions, it is suggested that starvation prepares E. coli for disinfection tolerance by increasing the expression of enzymes that can help cells survive chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. Protein co-expression analyses show that proteins in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway that were up-regulated under starvation are also involved in disinfection tolerance. Finally, the production and detoxification of methylglyoxal may be involved in the chlorine-based disinfection and cell defense mechanisms.

  20. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  1. Survival of Viral Biowarfare Agents in Disinfected Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    disinfection at small systems AWWA water quality division disinfection systems committee,” Journal of the American Water Works Association, vol. 92...no. 5, pp. 24–31, 2000. [2] G. F. Connell, J. C. Routt, B. Macler et al., “Committee report: disinfection at large and medium-size systems AWWA water

  2. Proteomic Adaptations to Starvation Prepare Escherichia coli for Disinfection Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhe; Nandakumar, Renu; Nickerson, Kenneth; Li, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Despite the low nutrient level and constant presence of secondary disinfectants, bacterial re-growth still occurs in drinking water distribution systems. The molecular mechanisms that starved bacteria use to survive low-level chlorine-based disinfectants are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate these molecular mechanisms at the protein level that prepare starved cells for disinfection tolerance. Two commonly used secondary disinfectants chlorine and monochloramine, both at 1 mg/L, were used in this study. The proteomes of normal and starved Escherichia coli (K12 MG1655) cells were studied using quantitative proteomics. Over 60-min disinfection, starved cells showed significantly higher disinfection tolerance than normal cells based on the inactivation curves for both chlorine and monochloramine. Proteomic analyses suggest that starvation may prepare cells for the oxidative stress that chlorine-based disinfection will cause by affecting glutathione metabolism. In addition, proteins involved in stress regulation and stress responses were among the ones up-regulated under both starvation and chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. By comparing the fold changes under different conditions, it is suggested that starvation prepares E. coli for disinfection tolerance by increasing the expression of enzymes that can help cells survive chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. Protein co-expression analyses show that proteins in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway that were up-regulated under starvation are also involved in disinfection tolerance. Finally, the production and detoxification of methylglyoxal may be involved in the chlorine-based disinfection and cell defense mechanisms. PMID:25463932

  3. OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF BOOSTER DISINFECTION IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster disinfection is the addition of disinfectant at locations distributed throughout a water distribution system. Such a strategy can reduce the mass of disinfectant required to maintain a detectable residual at points of consumption in the distribution system, which may lea...

  4. The effect of a surface disinfectant on a dental cast.

    PubMed

    Bass, R A; Plummer, K D; Anderson, E F

    1992-05-01

    This study determined the effect of a disinfectant solution on dental casts. Stone samples were immersed in a disinfectant solution and in control solutions. The results indicate that a saturated calcium sulfate (clear slurry) solution with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite was an effective disinfectant and acted without damage to the dental cast.

  5. Evaluation of a new hydrogen peroxide wipe disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Havill, Nancy L

    2013-05-01

    A new activated hydrogen peroxide wipe disinfectant was used to disinfect 10 high-touch surfaces in 72 patient rooms. After cleaning, 99% of surfaces yielded less than 2.5 colony-forming units/cm(2), 75% yielded no growth, and 70% yielded adenosine triphosphate counts of less than 250 relative light units. The new disinfectant was highly effective.

  6. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  7. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  8. THE TOXICOLOGY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical disinfection of water is a major public health advance that has decreased dramatically water-borne disease. Chemical disinfectants react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water to produce a wide variety of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). DBP num...

  9. A Toxicological Perspective on Disinfection ByProducts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of water is essential for reduction of microbes harmful to human health and chemical disinfection is considered one of the major public health triumphs of the 20th Century. An unintended consequence of disinfection with oxidizing chemicals is formation of disinfectio...

  10. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used...

  11. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used...

  12. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used...

  13. [Procedures for hand hygiene in German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Rotter, M

    1996-12-01

    According to the field of application, strategies for the prevention of the transfer of microbial skin flora from the hands must consider the various categories of flora: transient, resident or stemming from infected lesions on the hands (infection flora). Depending on the species and virulence of the microorganism and of the susceptibility of the infection target, transient flora may or may not be of pathogenic importance. In contrast, resident skin flora is usually regarded as pathogenic only under certain circumstances such as in surgery, especially with transplantation of foreign bodies and in highly susceptible hosts. Microorganisms stemming from infected lesions are of proven pathogenicity. In the non-surgical field, only the transient and infection flora from the hands play a role. Such lesions are an absolute contraindication for patient-care, preparation of pharmaceuticals or foodstuff. In some procedures, the transmission of transient flora can be prevented by use of the non-touch technique ("instruments instead of fingers") or by the intelligent use of protective gloves. Hands already contaminated may be rendered safe by procedures for the elimination of transients such as handwashing, hygienic handwash and hygienic hand rub (in the order of increasing efficacy). Among all useable chemicals, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol (in the order of increasing efficacy) are the strongest and fastest agents. Furthermore, the duration of treatment (between 30 and 60 s) significantly influences the achievable reduction of microbial release. According to the new European standards (CEN) for testing chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, products for hygienic handwash must be significantly more efficacious than unmedicated soap, on artificially contaminated hands. In contrast, products for the hygienic hand rub must not be significantly less efficacious than a reference disinfection including isopropanol 60% vol rubbed onto the hands of the same volunteers during

  14. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection. PMID:27909341

  15. Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Gerald; Russell, A. Denver

    1999-01-01

    Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. A wide variety of active chemical agents (biocides) are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years, including alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine. Most of these active agents demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; however, little is known about the mode of action of these agents in comparison to antibiotics. This review considers what is known about the mode of action and spectrum of activity of antiseptics and disinfectants. The widespread use of these products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular whether antibiotic resistance is induced by antiseptics or disinfectants. Known mechanisms of microbial resistance (both intrinsic and acquired) to biocides are reviewed, with emphasis on the clinical implications of these reports. PMID:9880479

  16. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-12-02

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection.

  17. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection.

  18. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Carlton, B D; Barlett, P; Basaran, A; Colling, K; Osis, I; Smith, M K

    1986-11-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. Limited data are available on the health effects, in particular reproductive toxicity effects, of these compounds. In our laboratory, we have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement (micron/sec), percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

  19. Bidirectional Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transfer between bare/glove hands and green bell pepper and its interruption.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Maribel; Siller, Jorge H; Valdez, Jose B; Carrillo, Armando; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transferred from volunteers' hands (bare or gloved) to green bell peppers and vice versa; and to assess the effectiveness of hand hygiene techniques. The highest and lowest percentages of bacterial transfer were achieve from green bell peppers to gloved hands (46.56%) and from bare hands to green bell peppers (0.21%), respectively. The highest and lowest Log10 reductions of S. Typhimurium were achieved by the combination of hand washing and alcohol-based gel (4.38 Log10) and iodine solution (2.08 Log10), respectively. This study provides important information concerning the transfer's efficiency of S. Typhimurium from hands to fresh produce and from fresh produce to hands. The study also showed that gloved hands, could be a mean of transfer of S. Typhimurium between green peppers and hands, and the best hand hygiene technique was the combination of hand washing and alcohol-based gel.

  20. A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and daily disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato

    2012-06-01

    Daily cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in daily practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were irradiated with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of irradiation, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in daily disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short irradiation, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden.

  1. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  2. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin ... A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ...

  3. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  4. Hands in Systemic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin ... A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ...

  5. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  6. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Tumors and Wrist Tumors Email to a friend * ... are seen commonly. CAUSES Common Types of Wrist Hand Tumors Ganglion Cysts (Figure 1): This is the ...

  7. Modeling of secondary treated wastewater disinfection by UV irradiation: effects of suspended solids content.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Mounaouer; Belhadi, Noureddine Hamed; Hamdi, Helmi; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study UV-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to propose a formulation of the kinetics of secondary treated wastewater disinfection and to underline the influence of suspended solids on the inactivation kinetics of these strains. Some investigations were carried out for the validation of some simulation models, from the simplest, the kinetics model of Chick-Watson reduced to first order, to rather complex models such as multi-kinetic and Collins-Selleck models. Results revealed that the involved processes of UV irradiation were too complex to be approached by a simplified formulation, even in the case of specific strains of microorganisms and the use of nearly constant UV radiation intensity. In fact, the application of Chick-Watson model in its original form is not representative of the kinetics of UV disinfection. Modification, taking into account the speed change during the disinfection process, has not significantly improved results. On the other hand, the application of Collins-Selleck model demonstrates that it was necessary to exceed a least dose of critical radiation to start the process of inactivation. To better explain the process of inactivation, we have assumed that the action of disinfectant on the survival of lonely microorganisms is faster than its action on suspended solids protected or agglomerated to each others. We can assume in this case the existence of two inactivation kinetics during the processes (parallel and independent) of the first-order. For this reason, the application of a new kinetic model by introducing a third factor reflecting the influence of suspended solids in water on disinfection kinetics appeared to be determinant for modeling UV inactivation of P. aeruginosa in secondary treated wastewater.

  8. Innovative Plasma Disinfection Technique with the Reduced-pH Method and the Plasma-Treated Water (PTW) -Safety and Powerful Disinfection with Cryopreserved PTW-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko

    2015-09-01

    Among the applications of the plasma disinfection to human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition and the half-lives of its activity depend on temperature. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. These physicochemical properties were in accordance with Arrhenius equation both in liquid and solid states. From the experimental results of ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) measurement of O2-in liquid against PTW with spin trapping method, half-lives of PTW were also in accordance with Arrhenius equation. It suggests that high concentration PTW as integrated value can be achieved by cooling of plasma apparatus. Pure PTW has disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis). This corresponds to 65% H2O2, 14% hypochlorous acid and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. On the other hand, PTW is deactivated soon at body temperature. This indicates that toxicity to human body seems to be low. PTW, which is a sort of indirect plasma exposure, with pH and temperature controls could be applied for safety and powerful disinfection. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  9. Disinfection of wastewater by hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid: development of procedures for measurement of residual disinfectant and application to a physicochemically treated municipal effluent.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Monika; Brumelis, Daina; Gehr, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The Montreal Urban Community Wastewater Treatment Plant (MUCWTP) located in Montreal. Quebec, Canada, uses physicochemical treatment processes prior to discharging wastewater into the St. Lawrence River via an outfall tunnel of 2 hours retention time. Although chlorination facilities exist, they are not being used, and the MUCWTP is seeking alternative methods for disinfection to achieve a 2- to 3-log fecal coliform reduction. Liquid chemical disinfectants were attractive options because of their low capital costs. This led to an investigation of the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid. A method for measuring peroxycompounds (hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide) was developed using the peroxidase-based oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfuric acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide. The validity of the method was confirmed using effluent from the MUCWTP. Recovery was higher than 90% for peracetic acid levels as low as 1.0 mg/L. Quenching of hydrogen peroxide was achieved with 50-mg/L catalase; quenching of peracetic acid was achieved with 100 mg/L of sodium thiosulfate, followed by 50 mg/L of catalase. Batch disinfection tests were conducted on MUCWTP effluent. Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in wastewater over time could be modeled as a second-order decay, with the decay "constant" being a function of the initial concentration of peroxycompounds. This function was the same for both hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, possibly indicating similar decomposition pathways in wastewater matrices. Disinfection was modeled using a modified Hom equation. Required doses of hydrogen peroxide to reach the target fecal coliform levels ranged from 106 to 285 mg/L, with the higher doses occurring when ferric chloride instead of alum was used as the coagulant. Hence, hydrogen peroxide was infeasible as a disinfectant for this application. On the other hand, the peracetic acid dose needed to

  10. Efficacy of disinfectants and heat against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Oie, S; Kamiya, A; Tomita, M; Katayama, A; Iwasaki, A; Miyamura, S

    1999-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of disinfectants and hot water against ten Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, which were isolated from faeces of patients with enterohaemorrhagic E. coli infection, were evaluated and showed different DNA patterns. After exposure to 0.1% benzalkonium chloride, 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate containing a nonionic surfactant, and 80% (v/v) ethanol, 99.99% of viable bacterial cells were killed at 20 degrees C within 15 s irrespective of the presence or absence of 0.1% albumin. On the other hand, after exposure to hot water, 99.99% of the bacterial cells were killed within 15 s at 70 degrees C. These results suggest that benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate containing a nonionic surfactant, ethanol, and hot water at 70 degrees C or more are effective for disinfection of E. coli O157:H7 in hospitals.

  11. Hand washing and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Susan

    2010-05-01

    Hand hygiene has always been an important element of perioperative practice and is a topic that has gained even more importance in recent years for healthcare workers. In the mid 19th century Semmelweis first noted the link between hospital acquired diseases and hand hygiene (Semmelweis 1847, NATN 2000). More recently, it has been established that continuous effective hand hygiene can significantly decrease the transmission of microorganisms, thus reducing cross infection rates of many hospital acquired infections (Pratt et al 2007).

  12. Disinfecting efficacy of three chemical disinfectants on contaminated diagnostic instruments: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Ganavadiya, Rahul; Chandra Shekar, B.R.; Saxena, Vrinda; Tomar, Poonam; Gupta, Ruchika; Khandelwal, Garima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cross infection remains one of the major challenges in the dental profession, especially in field settings. Transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus have raised a major concern for patients and dental staff. These risks can be eliminated by effective sterilization and disinfection techniques. Aim: The aim was to compare the disinfecting efficacy of three chemical disinfectants on contaminated diagnostic instruments. Settings and Design: This was a randomized, cross over trial conducted among three participants selected from a research laboratory, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study participants were examined 4 times on different days. Each time, the coded mouth mirrors of different make were used, and the disinfection was accomplished using coded disinfectants. The reduction in total viable count was compared between the three groups (2% glutaraldehyde, 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 99.9% ethyl alcohol) with distilled water as negative control and autoclaving as a positive control. Furthermore, the predisinfection count was compared between the instruments of different make. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test and One-way ANOVA. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: Autoclaved instruments resulted in complete elimination of viable micro-organisms. Maximum reduction in microbial load was observed after disinfection with H2O2 followed by glutaraldehyde, ethyl alcohol and distilled water in descending order. Furthermore, maximum microbial contamination was recorded on locally manufactured mirrors, while standard plain mirrors showed least contamination. Conclusions: Although, a significant reduction in total viable count was observed with all the disinfectants evaluated in the present study, none of the disinfectants was successful in completely eliminating the viable micro-organisms. PMID:25316989

  13. New technology for sterilization and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Nyström, B

    1991-09-16

    Sterilization with low temperature steam and formaldehyde is a well-known process in many European countries, but little known in the United States. It sterilizes reliably and reproducibly at temperatures greater than or equal to 65 degrees C. With a well-designed cycle, it leaves residues of formaldehyde on sterilized items below 5 micrograms/cm2, measured on a standard filter paper. Formaldehyde levels in air near the autoclave are well below official exposure limits, if at all measurable. Occurrence of late growers in bioindicators, and penetration of the sterilizing media into long narrow lumina, should be validated for new processes. Automated cleaning and disinfection in closed washer-disinfectors and flushing disinfectors are likewise processes relatively little known in the United States. Disinfection is achieved by a final rinse with hot water or steam. Washer-disinfectors are used for surgical instruments, nondisposable anesthesia and other equipment, flushing disinfectors for nondisposable bedpans, wash-bowls, urinals, and similar equipment. They clean well, washer-disinfectors excellently so, and disinfect reliably. With the use of such equipment in wards, surgical departments, and other areas, reliance on chemical germicides can be dramatically reduced and disposables can be replaced by disinfectable nondisposables.

  14. Microbial contamination and disinfection methods of pacifiers

    PubMed Central

    NELSON, Paulo; LOUVAIN, Márcia Costa; MACARI, Soraia; LUCISANO, Marília Pacífico; da SILVA, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de QUEIROZ, Alexandra Mussolino; GATON-HERNÁNDEZ, Patrícia; da SILVA, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the microbial contamination of pacifiers by Mutans Streptococci (MS) and the efficacy of different methods for their disinfection. Methods Twenty-eight children were assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a 1-week interval. In each stage, children received a new pacifier and the parents were instructed to maintain their normal habits for 1 week. After this time, the pacifiers were subjected to the following 4 disinfection methods: spraying with 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, Brushtox® or sterile tap water, and immersion in boiling tap water for 15 minutes. Microbiological culture for MS and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were performed. The results were analyzed statistically by Friedman’s non-parametric test (a=0.05). Results The 0.12% chlorhexidine spray was statistically similar to the boiling water (p>0.05) and more effective than the Brushtox® spray and control (p<0.05). The analysis of SEM showed the formation of a cariogenic biofilm in all groups with positive culture. Conclusions Pacifiers become contaminated by MS after their use by children and should be disinfected routinely. Spraying with a 0.12% chlorhexidine solution and immersion in boiling water promoted better disinfection of the pacifiers compared with a commercial antiseptic toothbrush cleanser (Brushtox®). PMID:26537723

  15. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Wastewater Disinfection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    sodium metabisulfite, and sodium bisulfite are used for dechlorinating chlorinated effluents, but sulfur dioxide is the favored candidate for...metabisulfite and sodium bisulfite are safe substitutes for sulfur dioxide and are used in most small facilities. These solid dechlorination materials are...induced toxicity to aquatic life? (TRC limits. ChlorinatedNO compounds) No Yes Evalue alternate disinfection , technologies: Dechlorination techniques

  16. Effective household disinfection methods of kitchen sponges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several household disinfecting treatments to kill bacteria, yeasts and molds on kitchen sponges were evaluated. Sponges were soaked in 10 percent bleach for 3 min, lemon juice (pH 2.9) or deionized water for 1 min; placed in a microwave oven for 1 min; or placed in a dishwasher operating with a dryi...

  17. Synthesis of magnetic and multiferroic materials from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes results on the synthesis of the magnetic materials including modified nickel ferrite (Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ), yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12), lanthanum-containing manganites (MxLa1-xMnO3 (M=Pb, Ba or Sr; x=0.3-0.35)), and multiferroics (BiFeO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3) from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels. It is shown that the ammonium nitrate accelerates destruction of organic components of xerogels and thus Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ and BiFeO3 can be prepared at record low temperatures (100 and 250 °C, respectively) which are 200-300 °C lower compared to the process where air is used as an oxidizing agent. As for the synthesis of Y3Fe5O12, MxLa1-xMnO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, the presence of NH4NO3 favors formation of foreign phases, which ultimately complicate reaction mechanisms and lead to the higher temperature to synthesize target products. Developed methods provide nanoscale magnetic and multiferroic materials with an average particle size of ∼20-50 nm.

  18. Bioactivities of alcohol based extracts of Phyllanthus emblica branches: antioxidation, antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Junlatat, Jintana

    2014-07-01

    Phyllanthus emblica is an euphorbiaceous plant that has long been used in traditional medicines for health promotion, anti-aging and also for treatment of wide ranges of symptoms and diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological activity of the plant branch. Alcohol based extracts of P. emblica branch were prepared in 50 % ethanolic extract by maceration (EPE) and methanolic extract by Soxhlet apparatus (MPE). EPE and MPE contained high total phenolic content and strong antioxidative activity. By HPLC analysis, gallic acid and vanillic acid are the major phenolic compounds of these extracts. Both EPE and MPE inhibited tyrosinase activity stronger than the ethanolic extract of P. emblica fruit (IC50 of 247.37 ± 18.57 and 193.75 ± 44.90 versus 4346.95 ± 166.23 μg/ml). EPE significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of tyrosinase, and tyrosinase related proteins (TRP-1 and TRP-2) in B16 murine melanoma cells and suppressed the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory genes (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-16 and IL-6) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner. These extracts significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated.

  20. Skin care: an essential component of hand hygiene and infection control.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Linda

    Skin care is an important component of hand hygiene and also infection prevention education programmes relating to hand hygiene (Bissett, 2007a,b). Hand hygiene is the term commonly used to describe hand washing using plain soap or antiseptic soaps and hand rubbing using waterless antiseptic products or alcohol-based products. The importance of effective hand hygiene is well documented (Larson, 1997; Boyce et al, 2002; Horton and Parker, 2002) and can be achieved by following the six-step technique used for hand washing as illustrated by the Royal College of Nursing (2000). During hand washing, hand soaps not only remove soils, but also the natural oils that protect the skin. This can vary depending on the frequency of hand washing, the temperature of the water and the ability of the soap to be rinsed from the surface of the hands (Starobin, 2007). This article aims to examine the evidence available to enable healthcare staff to make an informed decision on the importance of following a skin care regime to reduce the risk of bacterial loading on the hands caused by damaged skin. This would consequently lead to an improvement in hand hygiene efficacy.

  1. Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, M; Turolla, A; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

    2013-01-01

    The paper is a review of previous research on secondary effluent disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) integrated with new data about the effect of a preliminary flash-mixing step. The process was studied at bench and pilot scale to assess its performance for discharge in surface water and agricultural reuse (target microorganisms: Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria). The purposes of the research were: (1) determining PAA decay and disinfection kinetics as a function of operating parameters, (2) evaluating PAA suitability as a disinfectant, (3) assessing long-term disinfection efficiency, (4) investigating disinfected effluent biological toxicity on some aquatic indicator organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum), (5) comparing PAA with conventional disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, UV irradiation). PAA disinfection was capable of complying with Italian regulations on reuse (10 CFU/100 mL for E. coli) and was competitive with benchmarks. No regrowth phenomena were observed, as long as needed for agricultural reuse (29 h after disinfection), even at negligible concentrations of residual disinfectant. The toxic effect of PAA on the aquatic environment was due to the residual disinfectant in the water, rather than to chemical modification of the effluent.

  2. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers.

  3. Hand contamination before and after different hand hygiene techniques: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lucet, J-C; Rigaud, M-P; Mentre, F; Kassis, N; Deblangy, C; Andremont, A; Bouvet, E

    2002-04-01

    The efficacy of alcohol-based handrubs (ABH) for hand hygiene (HH) compared with handwashing (HW) remains to be established in the clinical setting. Factors associated with severe hand contamination before HH techniques were medical ward, physician and not wearing gloves. Forty-three healthcare workers [HCW, 26 nurses (N), nine nurse assistants (NA) and eight physicians (P)] each performed six HH techniques in random order, immediately after a patient care activity: HW with non-antiseptic soap for 10 (US10) and 30 (US30) s; HW with antiseptic (polyvidone iodine- or chlorhexidine-based) soap for 10 (AS10), 30 (AS30) or 60 (AS60) s; and ABH (Sterillium, Bode Chemie, Germany). The fingertips of the dominant hand were pressed on to agar for culture before and after each HH technique. Five hundred and sixteen specimens were obtained. Log(10)-transformed bacterial count reductions after HH were 0.74, 0.51, 1.13, 1.14, 1.21 and 1.40 for US10, US30, AS10, AS30, AS60 and ABH, respectively; both AS and ABH were significantly better than US. Qualitative assessment showed that 11 of the 256 pre-HH specimens (4.3%) had pathogenic bacteria, and that two of these 11 remained positive after HH (US in both instances).

  4. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  5. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  6. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training

  7. Evaluation and Comparison of High-Level Microwave Oven Disinfection with Chemical Disinfection of Dental Gypsum Casts

    PubMed Central

    Meghashri, K; Kumar, Prasanna; Prasad, D Krishna; Hegde, Rakshit

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microwave disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 casts were prepared from a silicone mold using Type III dental stone. Of the 120 casts, 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Staphylococcus aureus and 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Then, the casts were disinfected with microwave irradiation and chemical disinfection using the microwave oven and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Bacteriologic procedures were performed; the cfu/ml for each cast was calculated as a weighted mean. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The untreated casts showed Brain heart infusion broth counts of 106 log cfu/ml compared to irradiated and chemically disinfected casts, in which 105 log reduction of cfu/ml was seen. These results satisfied the requirements of current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory. The results obtained for chemical disinfection were in equivalence with microwave disinfection. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it was found that microwave disinfection of casts for 5 min at 900 W gives high-level disinfection that complies with the current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory and microwave disinfection method is an effective and validated method as chemical disinfection. How to cite the article: Meghashri K, Kumar P, Prasad DK, Hegde R. Evaluation and comparison of high-level microwave oven disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):56-60 . PMID:25083033

  8. Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus--hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently.

    PubMed

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Korpela, Terttu; Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena; Amiryousefi, Ali; Ziegler, Thedi; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

    2012-03-01

    Ethanol-containing hand rubs are used frequently as a substitute for hand washing with water and soap. However, not all viruses are inactivated by a short term rubbing with alcohol. The capacity of a single round of instructed and controlled hand cleaning with water and soap or ethanol-containing hand rub, respectively, was tested for removal of human rhinovirus administered onto the skin of healthy volunteers on the back of the hands. Hand washing with soap and water appeared to be much more efficient for removing rhinoviruses from skin than rubbing hands with an ethanol-containing disinfectant. After washing with soap and water the virus was detected in 3/9 (33.3%) test persons from the left hand and 1/9 (11.1%) cases from the right hand, whereas the virus was detected invariably by real-time RT-PCR from both hands after cleaning with alcohol hand rub (P-value <0.01). Both substances evaluated clinically were also tested in vitro for virucidal efficacy against Human rhinovirus2 (HRV2) using a standardized assay. Both tested substances were poor within the contact time used in the hand-cleaning test. In conclusion, thorough and conventional hand washing with water and soap can clean efficiently hands contaminated with the virus responsible for an extensive share of common cold episodes.

  9. Hand fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of Hand Fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  10. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

  11. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  12. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Wash Your Hands Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... facilities and hospitals . When should you wash your hands? You can help yourself and others stay healthy ...

  13. Stiffness in the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  14. About Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  15. Find a Hand Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  16. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  17. Suppression of Eimeria tenella sporulation by disinfectants.

    PubMed

    You, Myung-Jo

    2014-08-01

    The disinfectant effects (DEs) of 10 types of chemicals, defined by their ability to destroy or inhibit oocysts and consequently prevent sporulation of Eimeria tenella field isolate, were evaluated in vitro. Correct species assignments and sample purities were confirmed by the singular internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR analysis. A total of 18 treatments were performed, and the disinfection suppression levels were 75.9% for 39% benzene + 22% xylene (1:10 dilution), 85.5% for 30% cresol soup (1:1 dilution), and 91.7% for 99.9% acetic acid (1:2 dilution) group. The results indicate that acetic acid, cresol soup, and benzene+xylene are good candidates for suppression of E. tenella oocyst sporulation.

  18. Lighting the way to improved disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-07-01

    Ultraviolet light has a proven track record of killing bacteria and viruses found in municipal wastewater. In addition, environmental concerns over the use of chemical disinfectants, coupled with improvements in ultraviolet-lighting technology, have led to the development of UV systems that treat spent metalworking fluids in the industrialized world; disinfect drinking water in developing countries; and clean aquaculture water, ballast water, and hospital air everywhere. A large-scale pilot plant capable of treating less than 1 million gallons per day was built on-site by Los Angeles-based Montgomery Watson and CCCSD in 1992. It demonstrated that UV was just as effective as chlorination in killing bacteria and slightly more effective in destroying viruses found in the Martinez plant`s wastewater. It also showed the lamps would need to be cleaned of fouling every two to four weeks. The paper discusses this plant and the use of UV light in the above-mentioned water treatment processes.

  19. Disinfection of nitrous oxide inhalation equipment.

    PubMed

    Yagiela, J A; Hunt, L M; Hunt, D E

    1979-02-01

    Cross-infection by contaminated equipment is a potential hazard associated with conscious sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen . Nosocomial infections have occasionally been linked wih the use of unsterile inhalation devices; microbial contamination of sterile nasal hoods routinely occurs during administration of nitrous oxide; and in vitro experiments indicate that subsequent use of contaminated nasal masks may lead to aspiration of microorganisms. Although the incidence of respiratory disease after such contamination is unknown, it is clear that disinfection of the nitrous oxide apparatus between patients is desirable. A simple cleaning method involving alkaline glutaraldehyde is described that provides adequate disinfection of the rubber goods used in the administration of gas. Superiority of this technique over previously recommended cleaning methods is shown.

  20. Disinfectants for spacecraft applications - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, David W.; Mallary, Laura L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    The review of disinfectants for use on manned missions emphasizes the need for contamination control to prevent the detrimental effects of bacteria growth on crew health. Microbial control is possible by means of biocides, but the selected product has to meet stringent toxicity requirements for the small environments in spacecraft. The testing and evaluation is described of four biocide candidates: hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, iodine, and glutaraldehyde. The effectiveness of the disinfectants are analyzed in terms of the ability to treat typical microbial counts from Skylab missions in a closed environment. It is shown that many biocide candidates are not compatible with the ECLSS, water-recovery management, and air-revitalization subsystems of the Space Station Freedom. The use of hydrogen peroxide is proposed with a secondary stronger agent for microbial spills from biological experiments.

  1. Hand-Strength Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Elliot, Joe

    1987-01-01

    Special grip-strength meter designed for accurate, reproducible measurement of hand rehabilitation. Four strain gauges connected in Wheatstone bridge to measure deflection caused by gripping hand. Compressive force exerted by hand transmitted to measuring beams. Beams therefore deflected or strained, and mechanical strain sensed by strain gauges and converted into electrical signal. After amplification and conditioning, signal displayed on LED as measure of gripping strength of hand.

  2. THE UPTAKE OF WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS INTO FOODS DURING HOME PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of organic compounds in tap water are produced as a result of disinfection process. Use of chlorine-containing chemicals for disinfection produces many disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and haloacetic acid. Ozonation with secon...

  3. Research Issues Underlying the Four-Lab Study: Integrated Disinfection Byproducts Mixtures Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical disinfection of drinking water is a major public health triumph of the 20th century, resulting in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality from waterborne diseases. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are chemicals formed by the reaction of oxidizing disinfectants wi...

  4. 40 CFR 141.709 - Developing the disinfection profile and benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... water must be measured at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly... disinfected water must be measured at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point...

  5. 40 CFR 141.709 - Developing the disinfection profile and benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... water must be measured at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly... disinfected water must be measured at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point...

  6. 40 CFR 141.709 - Developing the disinfection profile and benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... water must be measured at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly... disinfected water must be measured at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point...

  7. 40 CFR 141.709 - Developing the disinfection profile and benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... water must be measured at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly... disinfected water must be measured at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point...

  8. 40 CFR 141.709 - Developing the disinfection profile and benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... water must be measured at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly... disinfected water must be measured at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point...

  9. Silver-based Antibacterial Surfaces for Drinking Water Disinfection - An overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risks associated with current disinfection techniques, including the formation of disinfection by-products and multi-drug resistant bacterial species, have prompted the exploration of advanced disinfection methods. One such technique employs silver nanoparticles incorporation on ...

  10. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  11. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  12. Small Scale Water Disinfection for Military Purposes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AD-A268 654 Small scale water disinfection for military purposes. Gary Thomson DSTO DoGC Materials Research Laboratory ELECTE P.O. Box 147 m...Scottsdale AUG 2 4 •9 3 1. SUMTasmania 7260 E When a military force is in the field, it is impossible to apply at all times the normal practices of water ...purification such as coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination used for a municipal water supply. For personnel who are

  13. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  14. Iodine Disinfection in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    affect the triiodide’s disinfection capability of viruses. Heavy organic matter loading could reduce the disinfection capability of an iodine resin...reference 20). However, a 10-fold reduction in organic matter (0.6 mg/ml or 600 mg/L) did not TIP #31-005-0306 9 appear to affect the triiodide...Provide additional contact time and/or increase iodine dose in more turbid waters. Affects disinfection capability. Heavy organic matter loading

  15. [The effectiveness of hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization of health care workers by using CHROMagar MRSA].

    PubMed

    Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Irmak, Hasan; Bulut, Cemal; Cesur, Salih; Kınıklı, Sami; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were; to investigate the hand hygiene compliance of the health care workers (HCWs) during their routine patient care, to determine the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hand colonization of the HCWs, to investigate the effect of different hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization and to evaluate the effectiveness of chromogenic agar for detecting MRSA. HCWs were investigated during their routine patient care and hand cultures were taken before and after hand wash/hygiene. Two different techniques were used to obtain the hand cultures: fingertip method (CHROMagar MRSA containing HygiSlide); and direct swab method and then inoculation to CHROMagar MRSA media. MRSA strains grown on those cultures were confirmed with conventional methods. A total of 100 HCWs (of them 61 were female; mean age: 32.7 ± 5.2 years; age range: 25-51 years) involving physicians (n= 33), nurses (n= 38) and health care assistants (n= 29), were included in the study. MRSA was detected in 39% and 11% before hand hygiene and in 13% and 6% after hand hygiene, with HygiSlide CHROMagar media and with CHROMagar in plate media, respectively. No difference were found regarding clinics, occupations, or the type of patient handling in those HCWs who were positive (n= 13) for MRSA colonization following hand hygiene, and those who were negative (n= 26). However, the type of the hand hygiene product used exhibited a statistical difference. None of the seven HCWs who used alcohol based hand rub revealed growth in the second culture while 10 of 19 (53%) HCWs who used soap and three of 13 (23%) HCWs who used chlorhexidine were still colonized with MRSA. In terms of reduction in the MRSA counts, the most effective one was the alcohol based hand rub while the soap was the least, since seven of 19 (37%) HCWs who used soap showed no reduction at all in the MRSA counts. A high ratio of hand colonization with MRSA was detected in our hospital staff (39%). It was shown that

  16. Influence of ultrasound enhancement on chlorine dioxide consumption and disinfection by-products formation for secondary effluents disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Junyuan; Li, Zifu; Lan, Juanru; Li, Yajie; Yang, Xin; Wang, Dongling

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been promoted as an alternative disinfectant because of its high disinfection efficiency and less formation of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, particle-associated microorganisms could be protected during the disinfection process, which decreases the disinfection efficiency or increases the required dosage. Besides, the formation of inorganic disinfection by-products is a significant concern in environment health. Ultrasound (US)-combined disinfection methods are becoming increasingly attractive because they are efficient and environmentally friendly. In this study, US was introduced as an enhancement method to identify its influence on ClO2 demand reduction and to minimize the production of potential DBPs for secondary effluents disinfection. Fecal coliform was used as an indicator, and DBPs, including trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), chlorite (ClO2(-)), and chlorate (ClO3(-)), were analyzed to observe the potential DBPs formation. Results show that US pretreatment could reduce half of ClO2 dosage compared with ClO2 disinfection alone for the same disinfection efficiency, and that an input power density of 2.64 kJ/L pretreatment with the 1.5mg/L ClO2 was enough to meet the discharge requirement in China (i.e., fecal coliform below 1000 CFU/L for Class 1A) for secondary effluent disinfection, and the ClO2(-) concentration in the disinfection effluent was only 1.37 mg/L at the same time. Furthermore, the different effects of US on the two processes (US as pretreatment and simultaneous US/ClO2 disinfection) were also analyzed, including deagglomerating, cell damage, and synergistic disinfection as well as degasing/sonolysis. It was proved that the production of TCM, DCAA, and TCAA was insignificantly influenced with the introduction of US, but US pretreatment did reduce the production of ClO2(-) and ClO3(-) effectually. In general, US pretreatment could be a better option for

  17. [Principles of antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Navarrete, María-Jesús; Celorrio-Pascual, José-Miguel; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Solano Bernad, Victor-Manuel

    2014-12-01

    This article aims to provide a brief review of the main concepts on which the prevention and control of infection are based. Antisepsis comprises a set of techniques aimed at the total sterilization, or at most, disinfection, removing germs that contaminate an environment. Both procedures must be preceded by an environmental cleanup in the location in which they intend to be applied. The disinfection is carried out using biocides or germicides. Antimicrobial chemicals, that have mechanisms of action and resistances very similar to antibiotics, are generating concern due to the possibility of crossing genetic information that aggravates the problem of bacterial resistance. Most biocides can act as antiseptics, and applied to skin tissue, or disinfectants on inanimate materials. The spectrum of action of germicides depends on the product itself and external controllable factors: temperature, concentration, exposure time, etc. Sterilization techniques are primarily physical, by exposing the material to steam, or sterilizing gas, using autoclaves. Major advances are the use of low temperatures with shorter exposure times, in parallel with technological advances in instrumentation in order to avoid high temperatures and high use rotations due to workload.

  18. Effects of disinfectants in renal dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, E.

    1986-11-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has let to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe/sup 2 +/ in hemoglobin to Fe/sup 3 +/ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O/sub 2/ or CO/sub 2/. Chloramine can form not only methemoglobin, but can also denature proteins within the red cell, thus forming aggregates (Heinz bodies). Chloramines also inhibit hexose monophosphate shunt activity, a mechanism that makes the red cell even more susceptible to oxidant damage.

  19. Hydrogen Peroxide as an Effective Disinfectant for Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Won-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infections vary widely, from local infections resulting from animal bites and scratches to general infections. As of yet, no vaccine against P. multocida has been developed, and the most effective way to prevent pathogenic transmission is to clean the host environment using disinfectants. In this study, we identified which disinfectants most effectively inhibited environmental isolates of P. multocida. Three readily available disinfectants were compared: 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP), 70% isopropyl alcohol, and synthetic phenol. In suspension tests and zone inhibition tests, 3% HP was the most promising disinfectant against P. multocida. PMID:24954350

  20. Resistance to chemical disinfection under conditions of microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchin, George L.

    1998-01-01

    In unit gravity, bacteria and disinfecting resin beads co-sediment to the septum in a fluid processing apparatus (FPA) resulting in effective chemical disinfection. In microgravity bacteria in suspension have access to a larger volume of the FPA because of a lack of sedimentation. Further, when disinfecting resin beads are added to the FPA they also remain in suspension reducing their effective concentration. Typically, therefore, disinfection experiments in microgravity return larger numbers of viable bacteria than ground-based controls. Preliminary experiments aboard the MIR Space Station with Pseudomonas aeruginosa additionally suggest that the longer bacteria are retained in microgravity the more resistant they become to chemical disinfection. This phenomenon is probably due to additional time to develop resistant biofilms on the interior of the FPA. To partially solve these problems we have developed additional disinfecting materials to use in conjunction with polyiodide containing resin beads. One of these materials carbon beads coated with 3-trimethoxy silylpropyl dimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Dow-Corning 5700®), acts synergistically with polyiodide resin disinfectants. Carbon beads so treated are still able to remove aqueous iodine from the water stream while providing an additional level of chemical disinfection. This additional capability prevents contamination of the carbon beads with heterotrophic bacteria and insures that bacteria surviving iodine disinfection are efficiently devitalized.

  1. Production of various disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Jun, Myung-Jin; Lee, Man-Ho; Lee, Min-Hwan; Eom, Seog-Won; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the concentrations of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform), haloacetic acids (HAAs; dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid), haloacetonitriles (HANs; dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, and dibromoacetonitrile), and chloral hydrate (CH) were measured in 86 indoor swimming pools in Seoul, Korea, treated using different disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone and chlorine, and a technique that uses electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMOs). The correlations between DBPs and other environmental factors such as with total organic carbon (TOC), KMnO(4) consumption, free residual chlorine, pH, and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the pools were examined. The geometric mean concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pool waters were 183.1±2.5μg/L, 32.6±2.1μg/L, and 139.9±2.4μg/L in pools disinfected with chlorine, ozone/chlorine, and EGMO, respectively. The mean concentrations of total THMs (TTHMs), total HAAs (THAAs), total HANs (THANs), and CH differed significantly depending on the disinfection method used (P<0.01). Interestingly, THAAs concentrations were the highest, followed by TTHMs, CH, and THANs in all swimming pools regardless of disinfection method. TOC showed a good correlation with the concentrations of DBPs in all swimming pools (chlorine; r=0.82, P<0.01; ozone/chlorine; r=0.52, P<0.01, EGMO; r=0.39, P<0.05). In addition, nitrate was positively correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pools disinfected with chlorine and ozone/chlorine (chlorine; r=0.58; ozone/chlorine; r=0.60, P<0.01), whereas was negative correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs (r=-0.53, P<0.01) in the EGMO-treated pools.

  2. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  3. A physiological perspective for utility or futility of alcohol-based hand rub gel against nausea-vomiting: is it P-6 acupoint or transnasal aroma?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Mazumdar, Ashish; Stellini, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Nausea-vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon with numerous underlying mechanisms and pathways that are not always well elucidated. In clinical practice, refractory nausea-vomiting is encountered in several settings. Antiemetic medications may reduce these symptoms but are not always effective in all patients. In the absence of a well-defined optimal strategy for management of nausea-vomiting, the search for better approaches to treat this distressing symptom continues. One of the alternative treatment approaches is a compounded formulation called ABHR gel that is comprised of multiple antiemetic medications and has been shown to be useful for symptomatic relief in some patients with refractory nausea-vomiting. It has been suggested that alternative mechanisms should be explored to explain the perceived efficacy of ABHR gel, because transdermal absorption leading to nil-to-minimal or subtherapeutic blood concentrations of active ingredients does not explain the role of ABHR gel in the treatment of nausea-vomiting. In the current paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain ABHR transdermal gel's efficacy. Compounded ABHR transdermal gel formulation's efficacy in antagonizing nausea-vomiting that has been recently questioned may be explained by alternative mechanisms mediated through the P-6 acupoint stimulation and facial-nasal, cooling-related counterstimulation.

  4. An evaluation of drinking water samples treated with alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.S.; Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Garner, L.M.

    1995-10-01

    Due to concern over potential human health risks associated with the use of chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) for disinfection of drinking water, many utilities are considering alternative disinfectants. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfectants relative to those posed by Cl{sub 2}. At a pilot-scale drinking water plant in Jefferson Parish, LA., two studies were conducted in which clarified and sand filtered Mississippi River water was treated with either ozone (O{sub 3}), monochloramine (NH{sub 2}Cl), Cl{sub 2} or was not disinfected. Ozonated water was also post-disinfected with either NH{sub 2}Cl or Cl{sub 2}, to provide a disinfectant residual. For each treatment stream total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halide (TOX) and microbiological contaminants were determined. XAD resin concentrates were also prepared for mutagenicity testing in the Ames Salmonella assay. Water samples disinfected with O{sub 3} alone had low levels of mutagenic activity, the same as the non-disinfected water. The level of mutagenicity observed following chlorination was approximately twice that observed following treatment with NH{sub 2}Cl. Disinfection with O{sub 3} prior to treatment with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl resulted in a significantly lower level of mutagenicity than when either disinfectant was used alone. The concentrations of TOX present in the water samples showed a pattern similar to that of the mutagenicity data. The levels of TOC, by contrast, were similar for all the treatment streams. No significant baterial contamination was observed in water samples treated with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl alone or in combination with O{sub 3}, as determined by heterotrophic plate counts. However, O{sub 3} alone did not insure an acceptable level of disinfection at the end of the treatment stream.

  5. The six golden rules to improve compliance in hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G

    2004-04-01

    Improvement of compliance in hand hygiene is probably the most effective step in reducing the incidence of nosocomial infections (NI). But improvement of compliance is known to be complex. Six possibilities for improving compliance are available although some of them may be difficult to carry out. Rule 1: Select an alcohol-based hand rub which has a good skin tolerance and is acceptable to health care workers to use. This has been shown to improve compliance. Rule 2: The hand rub shall be easily available. Wall dispensers near the patient and pocket bottles may well help. Other possibilities should be assessed locally. Rule 3: Implement teaching and promotion of hand hygiene, which has been shown to be very effective. This is may be the most effective tool but will cost time and money. If money is a problem, rule 4 may be the solution. Rule 4: Create a hospital budget which covers all costs involved with preventable nosocomial infection. Combine it with the budget for hand hygiene products. Even a small number of prevented NI largely outweighs the cost of effective hand hygiene products. Rule 5: Get senior staff to set a good example in order to motivate junior staff, because negligence in hand hygiene appears to correlate with the number of professional years. Rule 6: Have the patient-staff ratio well balanced. It has been shown that staff shortage decreases hand hygiene compliance. Other factors may be important as well, but implementation of these 6 golden rules could be an effective step into the right direction.

  6. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfectant; specifications. 71.11 Section 71.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... than the equivalent of 0.5 percent of sodium hydroxide, and not less than 21 percent of soap exclusive... glyceride, fat acid, or resin acid may be used in preparing the soap, but not all are suitable nor are...

  7. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disinfectant; specifications. 71.11 Section 71.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... than the equivalent of 0.5 percent of sodium hydroxide, and not less than 21 percent of soap exclusive... glyceride, fat acid, or resin acid may be used in preparing the soap, but not all are suitable nor are...

  8. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disinfectant; specifications. 71.11 Section 71.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... than the equivalent of 0.5 percent of sodium hydroxide, and not less than 21 percent of soap exclusive... glyceride, fat acid, or resin acid may be used in preparing the soap, but not all are suitable nor are...

  9. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disinfectant; specifications. 71.11 Section 71.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... than the equivalent of 0.5 percent of sodium hydroxide, and not less than 21 percent of soap exclusive... glyceride, fat acid, or resin acid may be used in preparing the soap, but not all are suitable nor are...

  10. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disinfectant; specifications. 71.11 Section 71.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... than the equivalent of 0.5 percent of sodium hydroxide, and not less than 21 percent of soap exclusive... glyceride, fat acid, or resin acid may be used in preparing the soap, but not all are suitable nor are...

  11. A method to evaluate the cleaning and disinfectant action of surface disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Walder, M; Myrbäck, K E; Nilsson, B

    1989-02-01

    Surface disinfection tests, used to evaluate new disinfectants, do not take into account the effects of detergents or of the mechanical cleaning process. We describe methods which evaluate both the disinfection and cleaning effect of disinfectants on organic matter. When testing alcohols at high concentrations (greater than or equal to 70%) on blood spots contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, we found that the organisms were trapped and fixed to the test surface, probably due to denaturation of the blood. This gave a low inactivating factor (IF), as well as a poor subjective cleaning effect (SC). If serum was used instead of blood, we observed less pronounced trapping, resulting in a high IF although the SC was still poor. When broth was used, both IF and SC were satisfactory. With alcohols at a concentration of 42%, trapping was markedly reduced which improved the SC in blood contamination, with serum or broth contamination trapping did not occur. However, 42% ethanol lost its killing effect (i.e. low IF), whereas 42% isopropanol still demonstrated a high IF.

  12. TRIBROMOPYRROLE, BROMINATED ACIDS, AND OTHER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS PRODUCED BY DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER RICH IN BROMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  13. Comparing irradiation parameters on disinfecting enterrecoccus faecalis in root canal disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarp, Ayşe. S.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Although conventional method carries all the debris, studies on persisting infections in root canals show bacteria and their toxins spread from the root canal and contaminate the apical region. Thus developes apical periodontitis or symptoms, and loss of tooth. Even if the treatment has adequate success, anatomy of root canal system can be very complexwith accessory canals. The disinfecting effect of laser radiation has only recently been used in dentistry. Laser irradiation has a bactericidal effect. Each wavelength has its own advantages and limitations according to their different absorption characteristics, depending on their 'absorption coefficient'. The sterilizing efficiency of two types of wavelengths, a new fiber laser 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser and an 2940 nm Er:YAG Laser were compared in this study. Irradiation with a power of 0.50 W with 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser disinfected 95,15% of bacteria, however irradiation with same laser power with Er:YAG Laser caused a reduction of 96,48 %. But there was no significant difference in the disinfection effect of two different laser groups ( p < 0.05, Mann- U-Whitney Test). In addition to this, Er :YAG Laser caused three times more reduction from its own positive control group where 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser caused 2,5 times effective disinfection.

  14. MUTAGENICITY AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN SURFACE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTED WITH PERACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aims of this research were to study the influence of peracetic acid (PAA) on the formation of mutagens in surface waters used for human consumption and to assess its potential application for the disinfection of drinking water. The results obtained using PAA were compared to ...

  15. The alien hand syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Panikkath, Deepa; Mojumder, Deb; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with the complaint of observing her left hand moving without her knowledge while watching television. Her left hand stroked her face and hair as if somebody was controlling it. These movements lasted only half an hour but on recovery, she had left hemiparesis. Alien hand syndrome as the presentation of cardioembolic stroke is extremely rare but can be terrifying to patients. PMID:24982566

  16. Hand and Power Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Hand and Power Tools U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3080 1998 (Revised) Report Documentation Page Report...Date 00001998 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Hand and Power Tools Contract Number Grant Number Program...basic safety procedures and safeguards associated with hand and portable power tools . Material in this booklet is based on the standards of the

  17. [Genotoxicity of drinking water during chlorine and chloramine disinfection and the influence of disinfection conditions using the umu-test].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Nie, Xue-Biao; Zhang, Su-Xia; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of disinfectant dosage, reaction time and the ratio of Cl2 to N of disinfectant on genotoxicity of effluent of ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) during chlorine or chloramine disinfection were investigated using umu-test. It was found that, the genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC before disinfection ranged from 20-70 ng/L, and it increased after disinfection by chlorine or chloramines. With the same reaction time(24 h), genotoxicity after chlorination (40-95 ng/L) was higher than that after chloramination (20-40 ng/L) under same initial dosage. For chlorination, with initial dosage increasing from 0 mg/L to 10 mg/L, genotoxicity increased firstly, and got the maximum value at about 0.5-1 mg/L dosage, then decreased and got the minimum value at about 3-5 mg/L dosage, and finally increased again. For chloramination, genotoxicity didn't change that much. With the dosage of 3 mg/L and reaction time increasing from 0 h to 72 h, no matter for chlorine or chloramines disinfection, genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC both increased firstly, and got the maximum value at about 2 h, then decreased and got the minimum value at about 18 h, and finally increased again, and genotoxicity after chlorine disinfection (83-120 ng/L) was higher than that after chloramines disinfection (20-62 ng/L) under same reaction time. Further more, effects of the different ratios of Cl2 to N of disinfectant on genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC were also studied. Results of this study demonstrate that under test conditions, chloramine disinfection is safer than chlorine disinfection in the aspect of genotoxicity for drinking water, and the changes of genotoxicity are different from those of total HAAs.

  18. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW (NEW ORLEANS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this state-of-the-art review is to examine the performance and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection for combined sewer overflow (CSO) applications. Topics presented include the use of UV light as a disinfecting agent, its practical applications, d...

  19. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31 Disinfecting... brucellosis, must be properly cleaned and disinfected in accordance with recommendations of the APHIS or State... the Veterinarian in Charge determines that an extension will not adversely affect the...

  20. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Lykins, B W; Koffskey, W

    1986-11-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics.

  1. Peracetic Acid as a Green Disinfectant for Combined Sewer Overflows

    EPA Science Inventory

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effectiven...

  2. Genotoxicity of Disinfection By-products: Comparison to Carcinogenicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be formed when water is disinfected by various agents such as chlorine, ozone, or chloramines. Among the >600 DBPs identified in drinking water, 11 are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and another ~70 DBPs that occur at s...

  3. Disinfection of water in recirculating aquaculture systems with peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) has become a favoured alternative to chlorination in the disinfection of municipal waste water in recent years. It is also commonly used in the food industry as a disinfectant. Based on PAA concentration, the disulfide linkage in enzymes and proteins of microorganisms can be bro...

  4. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant.

    PubMed Central

    Lykins, B W; Koffskey, W

    1986-01-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics. PMID:3816717

  5. Inactivation of lymphadenopathy associated virus by chemical disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Spire, B; Barré-Sinoussi, F; Montagnier, L; Chermann, J C

    1984-10-20

    Reverse transcriptase activity of lymphadenopathy associated virus was assayed after exposure to various standard chemical disinfectants. 25% ethanol or 1% glutaraldehyde should prove sufficient to disinfect medical instruments, and 0.2% sodium hypochlorite for cleaning floors and benches. 0.1% formalin is too slow to be recommended.

  6. The alternative methods for disinfection of E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetim, Tuba; Görmez, Arzu; Gürkök, Sümeyra

    2016-04-01

    Recently, advanced oxidation processes have gained significant interest for bacterial inactivation. In the present study, the efficacy of sonolysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis was evaluated for disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain. Sonophotocatalysis proved to be the most effective disinfection methods by generating greater amount of •OHradical.

  7. PERFORMANCE OF OZONE AS A DISINFECTANT FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) minimizes the amount of disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens) released into receiving waters. Currently, the primary disinfecting agent used in the US for wastewater treatment is chlorine (Cl2); however, Cl2 produces problems in ...

  8. The Next Generation of Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended health ...

  9. The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

  10. Guidelines for ultraviolet disinfection of drinking water: considerations for Ontario.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ron; Andrews, Bob; Lachmaniuk, Pat

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment is actively investigating protocols for approving the installation of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems for drinking water disinfection. This paper discusses issues that may be considered for selecting the appropriate UV dose, validating UV reactor performance, and monitoring the performance of the reactor once installed.

  11. Drowning in Disinfection Byproducts? Swimming Pool Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection is mandatory for swimming pools, because transmission of disease by bacteria, virus and protozoa is the most significant health issue. However another issue arises, and care should be taken to minimize the risks from disinfection by-products (DBPs). Public pools are ...

  12. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    PubMed

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made.

  13. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... representative. Cleaning and disinfecting must be completed within 15 days from the date the animals were...

  14. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... representative. Cleaning and disinfecting must be completed within 15 days from the date the animals were...

  15. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

  16. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Koffskey, W.

    1986-11-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics.

  17. NEW SLUDGE DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LITERATURE AND PEC APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since it's creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC), has been reviewing novel sludge disinfection technologies and their abilities to protect human health and the environment. In the past several years many new disinfection technologies have surfaced not only in...

  18. Zero-G Condensing Heat Exchanger with Integral Disinfection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system that operates in a zero gravity environment and has an integral ozone generating capability is disclosed. The system contributes to the control of metabolic water vapors in the air, and also provided disinfection of any resulting condensate within the system, as well as disinfection of the air stream that flows throughout the disclosed system.

  19. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  20. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray. This report represents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant spr...

  1. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Editor); Iberall, Thea (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  2. Self-reported hand hygiene perceptions and barriers among companion animal veterinary clinic personnel in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Maureen E.C.; Weese, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. PMID:26933265

  3. Self-reported hand hygiene perceptions and barriers among companion animal veterinary clinic personnel in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C; Weese, J Scott

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers.

  4. Mutagenic activity of disinfection by-products.

    PubMed Central

    Cognet, L; Courtois, Y; Mallevialle, J

    1986-01-01

    Data on raw water quality, disinfection treatment practices, and the resulting mutagenic properties of the treated water were compiled from pilot- and full-scale treatment experiments to evaluate that parameter which might produce variability in the results of a mutagenic study. Analysis of the data and comparison of treatment practices indicated that the measured mutagenic activity is strongly related to the characteristics of the organic matter in the raw water, the methodology used to sample and detect mutagens, the scale of the study both in terms of treatment flow and period of study, and the point at which and the conditions under which oxidants are added during treatment. Conclusions regarding disinfection systems in full-scale water treatment plants include the following: When raw water is pretreated and high concentrations of organics are present in the raw water, both ozonation and chlorination increased mutagenic activity. However, no significant difference in mutagenicity was found between the two oxidants. Both in the case of a nitrified groundwater and a clarified surface water, the mutagenic activity of the water after ozonation was related to its mutagenic activity before ozonation. With ozonation, mutagenic activity decreased after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Thus, when GAC filtration follows ozone disinfection, early addition of oxidants may not be deleterious to the finished water quality. When chlorine or chlorine dioxide is added after GAC filtration, chlorine dioxide was found to produce a less mutagenic water than chlorine. Although these conclusions suggest means of controlling mutagenic activity during treatment, it must be stressed that the measurement of mutagenicity is a presumptive index of contamination level. PMID:3816721

  5. Mutagenic activity of disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cognet, L.; Courtois, Y.; Mallevialle, J.

    1986-11-01

    Data on raw water quality, disinfection treatment practices, and the resulting mutagenic properties of the treated water were compiled from pilot- and full-scale treatment experiments to evaluate that parameter which might produce variability in the results of a mutagenic study. Analysis of the data and comparison of treatment practices indicated that the measured mutagenic activity is strongly related to the characteristics of the organic matter in the raw water, the methodology used to sample and detect mutagens, the scale of the study both in terms of treatment flow and period of study, and the point at which and the conditions under which oxidants are added during treatment. Conclusions regarding disinfection systems in full-scale water treatment plants include the following: When raw water is pretreated and high concentrations of organics are present in the raw water, both ozonation and chlorination increased mutagenic activity. However, no significant difference in mutagenicity was found between the two oxidants. Both in the case of a nitrified groundwater and a clarified surface water, the mutagenic activity of the water after ozonation was related to its mutagenic activity before ozonation. With ozonation, mutagenic activity decreased after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Thus, when GAC filtration follows ozone disinfection, early addition of oxidants may not be deleterious to the finished water quality. When chlorine or chlorine dioxide is added after GAC filtration, chlorine dioxide was found to produce a less mutagenic water than chlorine. Although these conclusions suggest means of controlling mutagenic activity during treatment, it must be stressed that the measurement of mutagenicity is a presumptive index of contamination level.

  6. Effectiveness of Four Disinfectants against Ebola Virus on Different Materials.

    PubMed

    Smither, Sophie; Phelps, Amanda; Eastaugh, Lin; Ngugi, Sarah; O'Brien, Lyn; Dutch, Andrew; Lever, Mark Stephen

    2016-07-07

    The West Africa Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak has highlighted the need for effective disinfectants capable of reducing viral load in a range of sample types, equipment and settings. Although chlorine-based products are widely used, they can also be damaging to equipment or apparatus that needs continuous use such as aircraft use for transportation of infected people. Two aircraft cleaning solutions were assessed alongside two common laboratory disinfectants in a contact kill assay with EBOV on two aircraft relevant materials representative of a porous and non-porous surface. A decimal log reduction of viral titre of 4 is required for a disinfectant to be deemed effective and two of the disinfectants fulfilled this criteria under the conditions tested. One product, Ardrox 6092, was found to perform similarly to sodium hypochlorite, but as it does not have the corrosive properties of sodium hypochlorite, it could be an alternative disinfectant solution to be used for decontamination of EBOV on sensitive apparatus.

  7. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination.

  8. Antimicrobial nanomaterials as water disinfectant: applications, limitations and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Fahim; Perales-Perez, Oscar J; Hwang, Sangchul; Román, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology and its application is one of the rapidly developing sciences. As demand of fresh drinking water is increasing, nanotechnology can contribute noticeable development and improvement to water treatment process. Disinfection process is the last and most important step in water and wastewater treatment process. Some nanomaterials can be used as disinfectants due to their antimicrobial properties and reduce the possibility of harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation during traditional disinfection process. A significant number of research efforts is done or going on to understand the mechanisms and enhance the efficiency of nanomaterials as antimicrobial agents, although it will take more time to understand the full potential of nanomaterials in this field. This review paper focuses on inactivation pathways of benign nanomaterials, their possible and probable application and limitations as disinfectants and future opportunities for their application in water cleaning processes.

  9. Disinfection of contaminated water by using solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Caslake, Laurie F; Connolly, Daniel J; Menon, Vilas; Duncanson, Catriona M; Rojas, Ricardo; Tavakoli, Javad

    2004-02-01

    Contaminated water causes an estimated 6 to 60 billion cases of gastrointestinal illness annually. The majority of these cases occur in rural areas of developing nations where the water supply remains polluted and adequate sanitation is unavailable. A portable, low-cost, and low-maintenance solar unit to disinfect unpotable water has been designed and tested. The solar disinfection unit was tested with both river water and partially processed water from two wastewater treatment plants. In less than 30 min in midday sunlight, the unit eradicated more than 4 log10 U (99.99%) of bacteria contained in highly contaminated water samples. The solar disinfection unit has been field tested by Centro Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente in Lima, Peru. At moderate light intensity, the solar disinfection unit was capable of reducing the bacterial load in a controlled contaminated water sample by 4 log10 U and disinfected approximately 1 liter of water in 30 min.

  10. Effectiveness of Four Disinfectants against Ebola Virus on Different Materials

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie; Phelps, Amanda; Eastaugh, Lin; Ngugi, Sarah; O’Brien, Lyn; Dutch, Andrew; Lever, Mark Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak has highlighted the need for effective disinfectants capable of reducing viral load in a range of sample types, equipment and settings. Although chlorine-based products are widely used, they can also be damaging to equipment or apparatus that needs continuous use such as aircraft use for transportation of infected people. Two aircraft cleaning solutions were assessed alongside two common laboratory disinfectants in a contact kill assay with EBOV on two aircraft relevant materials representative of a porous and non-porous surface. A decimal log reduction of viral titre of 4 is required for a disinfectant to be deemed effective and two of the disinfectants fulfilled this criteria under the conditions tested. One product, Ardrox 6092, was found to perform similarly to sodium hypochlorite, but as it does not have the corrosive properties of sodium hypochlorite, it could be an alternative disinfectant solution to be used for decontamination of EBOV on sensitive apparatus. PMID:27399759

  11. Cleaning and disinfection practice in the meat industries of Europe.

    PubMed

    Salvat, G; Colin, P

    1995-06-01

    The application and efficacy of cleaning and disinfection methods are reviewed, together with the relevant European and French legislation. European Commission Hygiene Directive 93/43/EEC of 14 June 1993 proposes the adoption of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) for the meat industry, and this includes cleaning and disinfection. It is necessary to organise a team for washing, cleaning, rinsing, disinfection and final rinsing; three different types of organisation are compared. Application of HACCP and its contribution to the shelf life of products and their contamination with Listeria monocytogenes is discussed in the light of practical experience with poultry meat and cured pork products. Various means of verifying the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection (turbidimetry, adenosine triphosphate assay and macroscopic observation) are compared with the techniques of conventional microbiology. The authors conclude that cleaning and disinfection are essential for application of HACCP to the meat industry.

  12. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  13. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  14. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality

  15. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R.; Hrubec, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually. PMID:25483128

  16. A Review of Current Disinfectants for Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sanghoon; Koo, Ja Seol; Park, Jeong Bae; Lim, Yun Jeong; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is gaining popularity for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, concerns over endoscope-related nosocomial infections are increasing, together with interest by the general public in safe and efficient endoscopy. For this reason, reprocessing the gastrointestinal endoscope is an important step for effective performance of endoscopy. Disinfectants are essential to the endoscope reprocessing procedure. Before selecting an appropriate disinfectant, their characteristics, limitations and means of use must be fully understood. Herein, we review the characteristics of several currently available disinfectants, including their uses, potency, advantages, and disadvantages. Most disinfectants can be used to reprocess gastrointestinal endoscopes if the manufacturer's guidelines are followed. The selection and use of a suitable disinfectant depends on the individual circumstances of each endoscopy suite. PMID:23964330

  17. Disinfection of Viruses in Water by Ozone.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    A0-A092 252 HEBREW UNIV JERUSALEM (ISRAEL) ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH LAB F/6 6/5 DISINFECTION OF VIRUSES IN WATER BY OZONE.(U) DEC 79 H I SHUVAL, E... resulted in the inactivation of only 50-90% of the viruses. No clear dose response relationship was found. C. Mass Transfer and Reaction Kinetics in...one minute for an ozone dose of less than 0.4 mg/liter. E. Mechanism of Virus Inactivation by Ozone Results have shown that only those amino acids

  18. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend its useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle was manually controlled in demonstration, readily automated to start and stop according to signals and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is that regeneration bed provides highly concentrated biocide source (200 mg/L) when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  19. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, Jürgen; Exner, Martin; French, Gary; Chartier, Yves; Christiansen, Bärbel; Gemein, Stefanie; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Hartemann, Philippe; Heudorf, Ursel; Kramer, Axel; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Oltmanns, Peter; Rotter, Manfred; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper. Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges. Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects. Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection. PMID:23967396

  20. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Pittet, Didier

    2002-10-25

    The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission ofpathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report reviews studies published since the 1985 CDC guideline (Garner JS, Favero MS. CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. Infect Control 1986;7:231-43) and the 1995 APIC guideline (Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251-69) were issued and provides an in-depth review of hand-hygiene practices of HCWs, levels of adherence of personnel to recommended handwashing practices, and factors adversely affecting adherence. New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized. Recommendations concerning related issues (e.g., the use of surgical hand antiseptics, hand lotions or creams, and wearing of artificial fingernails) are also included.

  1. Hand contamination during routine care in medical wards: the role of hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Monistrol, Olga; López, M Liboria; Riera, Montserrat; Font, Roser; Nicolás, Carme; Escobar, Miguel Angel; Freixas, Núria; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther

    2013-04-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are the most common vehicle for the transmission of micro-organisms from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multimodal campaign on the type and amount of resident and transient flora and the presence of potential risk factors for hand contamination during routine care. A before-after (PRE and POST periods) interventional study was carried out in medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Eighty-nine samples were analysed. Samples were cultured immediately before patient contact using a glove-juice method. Data collected included socio-demographic and risk factors for hand contamination. Flora was measured as log10 c.f.u. ml(-1) and evaluated by comparing median values in the PRE and POST periods. Transient flora was isolated from the hands of 67.4 and 46.1 % of HCWs in the PRE and POST periods, respectively (P<0.001). Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant contaminants. Resident flora was isolated from 92.1 % of HCWs in the PRE period and from 70.8 % in the POST period (P<0.001). The meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci log10 c.f.u. count ml(-1) decreased from 1.96 ± 1.2 to 0.89 ± 1.2 (mean ± s d; P<0.001), and the global flora count decreased from 2.77 ± 1.1 to 1.56 ± 1.4 (P<0.001). In the POST period, the wearing of fewer rings (P<0.001), shorter fingernail length (P = 0.008), a shorter time since recent hand hygiene (HH) (P = 0.007) and an increased use of alcohol-based hand rub instead of soap (P<0.001) were documented. The HH multimodal strategy reduced the number of risk factors and the level of HCW hand contamination.

  2. Quantitative detection and biological propagation of scrapie seeding activity in vitro facilitate use of prions as model pathogens for disinfection.

    PubMed

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Wagenführ, Katja; Daus, Martin L; Boerner, Susann; Lemmer, Karin; Thomzig, Achim; Mielke, Martin; Beekes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Prions are pathogens with an unusually high tolerance to inactivation and constitute a complex challenge to the re-processing of surgical instruments. On the other hand, however, they provide an informative paradigm which has been exploited successfully for the development of novel broad-range disinfectants simultaneously active also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Here we report on the development of a methodological platform that further facilitates the use of scrapie prions as model pathogens for disinfection. We used specifically adapted serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) for the quantitative detection, on steel wires providing model carriers for decontamination, of 263K scrapie seeding activity converting normal protease-sensitive into abnormal protease-resistant prion protein. Reference steel wires carrying defined amounts of scrapie infectivity were used for assay calibration, while scrapie-contaminated test steel wires were subjected to fifteen different procedures for disinfection that yielded scrapie titre reductions of ≤10(1)- to ≥10(5.5)-fold. As confirmed by titration in hamsters the residual scrapie infectivity on test wires could be reliably deduced for all examined disinfection procedures, from our quantitative seeding activity assay. Furthermore, we found that scrapie seeding activity present in 263K hamster brain homogenate or multiplied by PMCA of scrapie-contaminated steel wires both triggered accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein and was further propagated in a novel cell assay for 263K scrapie prions, i.e., cerebral glial cell cultures from hamsters. The findings from our PMCA- and glial cell culture assays revealed scrapie seeding activity as a biochemically and biologically replicative principle in vitro, with the former being quantitatively linked to prion infectivity detected on steel wires in vivo. When combined, our in vitro assays provide an alternative to titrations of biological scrapie

  3. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  4. [Passover hand injuries].

    PubMed

    Ashur, H; Mushayov, R

    1994-04-01

    Almost every year just before Passover there is increased exposure to hand trauma in matzah bakeries. In the past 5 years we treated 11 cases of hand trauma incurred during matzah baking. The typical injuries were amputations at different levels, crush injuries and burns. We present a case seen last Passover and suggest preventive methods to eliminate these accidents in the future.

  5. Treating the Rheumatoid Hand

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, D. E.; Welsh, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Deformities in the rheumatoid hand will vary according to whether the joints or the tendons are involved. Frequently both will be involved and several different deformities will be present in the same hand. However, a logical approach to examination and treatment, as outlined in this article, will simplify decision making and ensure prompt, appropriate treatment. PMID:21304805

  6. Alcohol based fixatives provide excellent tissue morphology, protein immunoreactivity and RNA integrity in paraffin embedded tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Milcheva, Rositsa; Janega, Pavol; Celec, Peter; Russev, Russy; Babál, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Fixation techniques preserving morphological fidelity, protein antigenicity and integrity of nucleic acids can have a high impact on both basic and applied biomedical sciences and diagnostic pathology. Different types of mouse tissues were fixed with neutral buffered formalin, ethanol supplemented with acetic acid and modified methacarn (methanol-Carnoy) fixative. The alcohol-fixed samples were processed in an Autotechnicon tissue processor or in an incubator. The preservation of tissue morphology was assessed in all specimens and the immunoreactivity was evaluated with antibodies specific for proteins with nuclear, membrane or cytoplasmic localization. RNA was extracted from all groups of fixed hind limb skeletal muscle specimens and was assessed versus unfixed tissue for preservation of its quantity and quality by amplification of gene-specific fragments of different lengths. Both alcohol-based fixatives preserved the tissue architecture and the specificity of immunoreactivity in excellent quality; the trimming approach did not result in detectable differences. Oligonucleotide fragments of length between 108 and 577 base pairs were amplified from all groups of alcohol-fixed skeletal muscle specimens in amounts comparative to the unfixed muscle tissue. We conclude that both alcohol-based fixatives are an excellent tool for storage of tissue samples designed for immunohistochemical and mRNA expression studies when the access to fresh samples is limited.

  7. American Association for Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Annual Meeting Calendar of Events International Courses HAND Accepted to Medline! The Sage publishing office was ... Rehab for Wrist Injuries: A Brief Literature Update HAND Journal HAND , the official Journal of AAHS HAND ...

  8. Corrosion control and disinfection studies in spacecraft water systems. [considering Saturn 5 orbital workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    Disinfection and corrosion control in the water systems of the Saturn 5 Orbital Workshop Program are considered. Within this framework, the problem areas of concern are classified into four general areas: disinfection; corrosion; membrane-associated problems of disinfectant uptake and diffusion; and taste and odor problems arising from membrane-disinfectant interaction.

  9. Application of automated thermal disinfection instead of sterilisation procedures for treatment of rotating dental instruments: efficacy against viruses?

    PubMed

    Rabenau, H F; Nentwig, G H; Doerr, H W

    1997-08-01

    In dentistry it is of primary importance to take into consideration microbial transfer due to the nature of the construction of rotating dental instruments. This aspect was the starting point for our research with the question whether or not sterilisation is fundamentally necessary for slow and high speed hand pieces to make them "safe" out of a virological point of view, or whether a thermal disinfection could also possibly be adequate for this purpose. In this context, we tested the efficiency of the cleaning and disinfection capacity of an automated steam disinfection and sterilisation unit (Sirona Hygiene Center, Siemens, AG, Bensheim) intended to the hygienic treatment of dental instruments with respect to viruses. In model tests the corresponding instruments were experimentally infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) and simian vacuoling virus (SV40). As indicator systems we used for both cell cultures (measurement of the degree of infectiosity) and (for HSV) polymerase chain reactions (PCR; determination of viral nucleic acids). In the tests for (residual) infectiosity after thermal disinfection (as an isolated step of the Hygienic Centre) and also for a combination of cleaning and subsequent thermal disinfection (also after protein application), no infectious virus could be found in the interior of the slow handpieces and turbines tested. In opposite to this, infectious HSV and SV40 could be found after completion of every isolated cleaning program in the turbine (in all three ducts) and in the slow handpiece (only in the gearbox duct in the case of HSV, and in the case of SV40 also in the water and air ducts in very small amounts). The PCR analyses showed that no nucleic acids could be found in both instruments (in the air and water ducts) following a practice-relevant combination of cleaning and disinfection, but that PCR-positive signals were obtained for the larger-volume gearbox and drive and return air ducts in 1 or 2 of 3 test samples. The

  10. Translational science in disinfection for regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Diogenes, Anibal R; Ruparel, Nikita B; Teixeira, Fabricio B; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2014-04-01

    The endodontic management of permanent immature teeth is fraught with challenges. Although treatment modalities for vital pulp therapy in these teeth provide long-term favorable outcome, the outcomes from the treatment of pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis are significantly less predictable. Immature teeth diagnosed with pulp necrosis have been traditionally treated with apexification or apexogenesis approaches. Unfortunately, these treatments provide little to no benefit in promoting continued root development. Regenerative endodontic procedures have emerged as an important alternative in treating teeth with otherwise questionable long-term prognosis because of thin, fragile dentinal walls and a lack of immunocompetency. These procedures rely heavily on root canal chemical disinfection of the root canal system. Traditionally, irrigants and medicaments have been chosen for their maximum antimicrobial effect without consideration for their effects on stem cells and the dentinal microenvironment. Translational research has been crucial to provide evidence for treatment modifications that aim to increase favorable outcome while steering away from common pitfalls in the currently used protocols. In this review, recent advances learned from translational research related to disinfection in regenerative endodontics are presented and discussed.

  11. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray. This report represents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant sprays. This case study is organized around the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which structures available information pertaining to the product life cycle, environmental transport and fate, exposure-dose in receptors (i.e., humans, ecological populations, and the environment), and potential impacts in these receptors. The document does not draw conclusions about potential risks. Instead, it is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and unknown about nano-Ag in a selected application. In turn, the external review draft of the document provided a starting point to identify and prioritize possible research directions to support future assessments of nanomaterials. The information presented in the case study and the questions raised in this document are a foundation for a process to determine priorities among various research topics and directions. After that process has been completed, a final chapter will be added to this document to summarize highlights from preceding chapters and the major research issues that have emerged.

  12. Characterization of ozone disinfection of murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mi Young; Kim, Ju-Mi; Lee, Jung Eun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2010-02-01

    Despite the importance of human noroviruses (NoVs) in public health, little information concerning the effectiveness of ozone against NoVs is available. We determined the efficacy of ozone disinfection using murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate of human NoV. MNV in ozone demand-free buffer was exposed to a predetermined dose of ozone at two different pHs and temperatures. The virus remaining in the solution was analyzed by plaque assay, real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) (short template), and long-template conventional RT-PCR. Under all conditions, more than 99% of the MNV was inactivated by ozone at 1 mg/liter within 2 min. Both RT-PCR assays significantly underestimated the inactivation of MNV, compared with that measured by plaque assay. Our results indicate that NoV may be more resistant to ozone than has been previously reported. Nevertheless, proper ozone disinfection practices can be used to easily control its transmission in water.

  13. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: byproducts formation.

    PubMed

    Silva, G H R; Daniel, L A; Bruning, H; Rulkens, W H

    2010-09-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 min. The wastewater used in this research was generated by the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), University of São Paulo - Brazil. The total coliform inactivation range was 2.00-4.06 log(10), and the inactivation range for Escherichia coli was 2.41-4.65 log(10). Mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were 37.6%, 48.8% and 42.4% for doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1), respectively. Aldehyde formation varied with dosage only when the ozone dose was increased from 5.0 to 8.0mg O(3)L(-1) for acetaldehyde and from 5.0 to 8.0 and from 8.0 to 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for glyoxal.

  14. Toxicology of household cleaning products and disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Kore, A M; Kiesche-Nesselrodt, A

    1990-03-01

    Hundreds of different household cleaning products are available in homes, presenting potential hazards to pets. These products are complex mixtures of chemicals that vary widely in their toxic potential. Prevention of toxicoses in companion animals follows the same guidelines as those recommended for children: Keep cleaning products out of the reach of pets, do not leave open containers or solutions of cleaning products unattended where animals may get into them, make sure containers of cleaning products are tightly sealed and properly labeled, and dispose of any cleaning solutions promptly after use. If a companion animal has ingested or spilled a cleaning product or disinfectant on itself, it is very important to assess the potential hazard to the animal promptly. Many products contain warnings regarding the corrosive or irritation potential of the product and instructions on the label for preliminary action in the case of accidental oral, dermal, or ocular exposures in humans. These instructions can generally be followed initially until further information on the product can be obtained, although the recommendations on some product labels may be outdated. In general, the clinical management for toxicoses caused by cleaning products and disinfectants involves the prevention of further contact with the concentrated product through either dilution or bathing; emergency stabilization of the patient if clinical signs are present; instituting specific therapies, if available; and use of general supportive care.

  15. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, A. R.; Karuna, Y. M.; Yavagal, C.; Deepak, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry. PMID:25821369

  16. Effects of different disinfectants on decontamination of laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Tekin, I; Arican, I; Akcali, S; Sanlidag, T; Ozbakkaloglu, B

    2003-10-01

    Guidelines for controlling possible contamination of laryngoscopes should be formulated with the benefit of relevant experimental data. In this study, the effects of five different disinfectants commonly used for the disinfection of laryngoscopes are evaluated. We formed 14 groups, with 10 blades in each. The first 7 groups were contaminated with hospital related meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and the remaining 7 groups with hospital related multiple resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). For the first group of blades, no disinfection procedure was carried out and, were assumed as a control group. Blades in remaining groups were rested for 10 minutes in containers containing 70% alcohol (II), 1/100 dilution of cetrimide (III), 1/100 dilution of chlorhexidine (IV), 1/10 dilution of chlorhexidine (V), 1/10 dilution of povidone iodine (VI), and 1/100 dilution of ammonium chloride (VII). Disinfectant used in a group was considered effective when growth was seen in 5 or less than 5 plates representing that group. All disenfectants tested were found effective on decontamination of laryngoscopes. Five different moderate level disinfectants, which are commonly used for the disinfection of laryngoscopes, have been found effective even on resistant hospital microorganisms like MRSA and P. aeruginosa. They may be the choices of the disinfectants, especially 1/10 dilution of chlorhexidine gluconate and 1/100 dilution of ammonium chloride.

  17. Theoretical and experimental aspects of microbicidal activities of hard surface disinfectants: are their label claims based on testing under field conditions?

    PubMed

    Omidbakhsh, Navid

    2010-01-01

    High-touch environmental surfaces are important in the spread of many nosocomial pathogens. Although such surfaces are routinely disinfected, the testing and label claims of many common disinfectants do not reflect the realities of field use. A study was conducted to determine the influence of several crucial factors on the action of disinfectants in general, and to assess the killing efficiency of selected chemistries against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, related to their drying times (i.e., after one application) and label-specified contact times using a quantitative carrier test. The products were also tested for their ability to wet a hydrophobic (epoxy resin) surface. The hard-surface disinfectants (in-use concentration in ppm) tested were: (a) chlorine bleach (500); (b) quaternary ammonium compounds (quat; 600) alone; (c) quat (3000) with 17% isopropanol (v/v); (d) quat (3000) with 60% ethanol (v/v); (e) phenolic (800) alone; (f) quat (2000), phenolic (3000) with 70% ethanol (v/v); and (g) accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP; 5000 of H2O2). The arbitrarily set criterion of bactericidal activity was > or = 6 log10 reduction in the viability of both species tested. All surfaces tested with all products dried in < 5 min, with alcohol-based surfaces drying significantly faster. Even though the alcohol-free quat and phenolic claim a contact time of 10 min, they dried in < 4 min after a single application and failed to meet the performance criterion. Bleach (500 ppm) dried in about 3 min and was effective. AHP also dried in about 3 min and met its label claim even at 1 min of contact. Quat (3000) with 17% isopropanol dried at 1 min and was effective. Quat (3000) with 60% ethanol and quat (2000), phenolic (3000) with 70% ethanol dried in < 1 min, and were ineffective. AHP, alcohol-containing quats, and quat-phenolic-alcohol gave acceptable wettability, while quat and phenolic alone, as well as bleach, covered the treated surface unevenly. The

  18. Hand transplant surgery.

    PubMed

    Nassimizadeh, M; Nassimizadeh, A K; Power, D

    2014-11-01

    In September 1998 the world's first hand transplant was performed in Lyon, France. A new era in reconstructive surgery had begun. This case highlighted the potential for composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA). While CTA is not a new technique, it unifies the principles of reconstructive microsurgery and transplant surgery, achieving the goals of absolute correction of a defect with anatomically and physiologically identical tissue with none of the issues of donor site morbidity associated with autologous tissue transfer. The adoption of this technique for non-life threatening conditions to improve quality of life has generated a number of new ethical considerations. Additionally, the prominence of transplanted hands has led to much discussion around the issue of body identity and psychological assessment of potential recipients. This is fundamental to any hand transplantation programme. With the advent of hand transplantation dawning in the UK, we review the many ethical considerations that contribute to this new frontier.

  19. A Myoelectric Hand Splint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Frances; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Development of a myoelectrically controlled hand splint permitting ambulating mobility of the user is discussed. The role of occupational therapy in the research and design of the device and the training of the patient are emphasized. (Authors)

  20. Hand transplant surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nassimizadeh, AK; Power, D

    2014-01-01

    In September 1998 the world’s first hand transplant was performed in Lyon, France. A new era in reconstructive surgery had begun. This case highlighted the potential for composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA). While CTA is not a new technique, it unifies the principles of reconstructive microsurgery and transplant surgery, achieving the goals of absolute correction of a defect with anatomically and physiologically identical tissue with none of the issues of donor site morbidity associated with autologous tissue transfer. The adoption of this technique for non-life threatening conditions to improve quality of life has generated a number of new ethical considerations. Additionally, the prominence of transplanted hands has led to much discussion around the issue of body identity and psychological assessment of potential recipients. This is fundamental to any hand transplantation programme. With the advent of hand transplantation dawning in the UK, we review the many ethical considerations that contribute to this new frontier. PMID:25350176

  1. Marketing hand hygiene in hospitals--a case study.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Jeanes, A; Osman, M; Aylott, C; Green, J

    2002-01-01

    Hand hygiene of healthcare workers is frequently poor despite the efforts of infection control teams to promote hand decontamination as the most important method to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In this case study, we describe how principles of societal marketing were applied to improve hand hygiene. Pre-marketing analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to implementation; attention to product, price, promotion and placement; and post-marketing 'customer' surveys were the essential components of the marketing strategy and its implementation. Placement of an alcohol-based gel decontaminant (Spirigel) at the bedside of every patient was widely welcomed in the hospital, and has played a major role in improving hand hygiene of healthcare workers. In the twelve months following the implementation, the decontaminant was used at least 440,000 times. The cost of purchasing the decontaminant was approximately 5000 pounds sterling. Following the introduction of Spirigel, there was a consistent reduction in the proportion of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in each of the quarters of 2000-2001 compared with 1999-2000. In the period 1999-2000, nearly 50% of the MRSA were hospital acquired compared with 39% in 2000-2001. Similarly, the average incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) decreased in each of the quarters in 2000-2001 following the introduction of Spirigel. During this period, there was an average incidence of 9.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions compared with 11.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions in 1999-2000. This represents a 17.4% reduction in the incidence of CDAD. However, this reduction was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Our case study demonstrates that principles of societal marketing methods can be used effectively to promote and sustain hand hygiene in hospitals. Improvement in hand hygiene will lead to considerable reduction in hospital

  2. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  3. A pilot observational study of hydrogen peroxide and alcohol for disinfection of privacy curtains contaminated by MRSA, VRE and Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Kerri; Dam, Lisa; Zenilman, Jonathan; Riedel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Privacy curtains, frequently used in hospitals to separate patient care areas may have an important role in the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. In this pilot study, we inoculated curtain swatches with suspensions of clinical specimens of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), and Clostridium difficile before using a gloved hand to touch the inoculated curtain swatch and transfer to clean agar plates. Three different commonly used disinfectants were then sprayed onto these swatches before using a clean gloved hand to touch the swatch and transfer onto new agar plates. All plates were incubated at 35°C for 24 and 72 h. Bacterial growth before and after disinfection was assessed and compared. 3.1% hydrogen peroxide effectively eliminated transfer of C. difficile, MRSA and VRE from inoculated curtains.

  4. Treatment of disinfection by-product precursors.

    PubMed

    Bond, T; Goslan, E H; Parsons, S A; Jefferson, B

    2011-01-01

    Formation of harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs), of which trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the major groups, can be controlled by removal of natural organic matter (NOM) before disinfection. In the literature, removal of precursors is variable, even with the same treatment. The treatment of DBP precursors and NOM was examined with the intention of outlining precursor removal strategies for various water types. Freundlich adsorption parameters and hydroxyl rate constants were collated from the literature to link treatability by activated carbon and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), respectively, to physico-chemical properties. Whereas hydroxyl rate constants did not correlate meaningfully with any property, a moderate correlation was found between Freundlich parameters and log K(ow), indicating activated carbon will preferentially adsorb hydrophobic NOM. Humic components of NOM are effectively removed by coagulation, and, where they are the principal precursor source, coagulation may be sufficient to control DBPs. Where humic species remaining post-coagulation retain significant DBP formation potential (DBPFP), activated carbon is deemed a suitable process selection. Anion exchange is an effective treatment for transphilic species, known for high carboxylic acid functionality, and consequently is recommended for carboxylic acid precursors. Amino acids have been linked to HAA formation and are important constituents of algal organic matter. Amino acids are predicted to be effectively removed by biotreatment and nanofiltration. Carbohydrates have been found to reach 50% of NOM in river waters. If the carbohydrates were to pose a barrier to successful DBP control, additional treatment stages such as nanofiltration are likely to be required to reduce their occurrence.

  5. Uncertainty in prediction of disinfection performance.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Marc B; von Gunten, Urs; Gujer, Willi

    2007-06-01

    Predicting the disinfection performance of a full-scale reactor in drinking water treatment is associated with considerable uncertainty. In view of quantitative risk analysis, this study assesses the uncertainty involved in predicting inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for an ozone reactor treating lake water. A micromodel is suggested which quantifies inactivation by stochastic sampling from density distributions of ozone exposure and lethal ozone dose. The ozone exposure distribution is computed with a tank in series model that is derived from tracer data and measurements of flow, ozone concentration and ozone decay. The distribution of lethal ozone doses is computed with a delayed Chick-Watson model which was calibrated by Sivaganesan and Marinas [2005. Development of a Ct equation taking into consideration the effect of Lot variability on the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with ozone. Water Res. 39(11), 2429-2437] utilizing a large number of inactivation studies. Parameter uncertainty is propagated with Monte Carlo simulation and the probability of attaining given inactivation levels is assessed. Regional sensitivity analysis based on variance decomposition ranks the influence of parameters in determining the variance of the model result. The lethal dose model turns out to be responsible for over 90% of the output variance. The entire analysis is re-run for three exemplary scenarios to assess the robustness of the results in view of changing inputs, differing operational parameters or revised assumptions about the appropriate model. We argue that the suggested micromodel is a versatile approach for characterization of disinfection reactors. The scheme developed for uncertainty assessment is optimal for model diagnostics and effectively supports the management of uncertainty.

  6. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  7. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm(2). All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm(2). Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm(2) were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services.

  8. Disinfection methods for spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, B. anthracis, Clostridium tetani, C. botulinum and C. difficile.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shigeharu; Obayashi, Akiko; Yamasaki, Hirofumi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Motohide; Kawamoto, Keiko; Makino, Sou-ichi

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate disinfection methods for environments contaminated with bioterrorism-associated microorganism (Bacillus anthracis), we performed the following experiments. First, the sporicidal effects of sodium hypochlorite on spores of five bacterial species were evaluated. Bacillus atrophaeus was the most resistant to hypochlorite, followed in order by B. anthracis, Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium difficile. Subsequently, using B. atrophaeus spores that were the most resistant to hypochlorite, the sporicidal effects of hypochlorite at lower pH by adding vinegar were evaluated. Hypochlorite containing vinegar had far more marked sporicidal effects than hypochlorite alone. Cleaning with 0.5% (5000 ppm) hypochlorite containing vinegar inactivated B. atrophaeus spores attached to vinyl chloride and plywood plates within 15 s, while that not containing vinegar did not inactivate spores attached to cement or plywood plates even after 1 h. Therefore, the surfaces of cement or plywood plates were covered with gauze soaked in 0.5% hypochlorite containing vinegar, and the sporicidal effects were evaluated. B. atrophaeus spores attached to plywood plates were not inactivated even after 6 h, but those attached to cement plates were inactivated within 5 min. On the other hand, covering the surfaces of plywood plates with gauze soaked in 0.3% peracetic acid and gauze soaked in 2% glutaral inactivated B. atrophaeus spores within 5 min and 6 h, respectively. These results suggest that hypochlorite containing vinegar is effective for disinfecting vinyl chloride, tile, and cement plates contaminated with B. anthracis, and peracetic acid is effective for disinfecting plywood plates contaminated with such microorganism.

  9. Evaluation and clinical validation of an alcohol-based transport medium for preservation and inactivation of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Luinstra, Kathy; Petrich, Astrid; Castriciano, Santina; Ackerman, Mona; Chong, Sylvia; Carruthers, Susan; Ammons, Brenna; Mahony, James B; Smieja, Marek

    2011-06-01

    The clinical and public health importance of influenza and other respiratory viruses has accelerated the development of highly sensitive molecular diagnostics, but data are limited regarding preanalytical stages of diagnostic testing. We evaluated CyMol, an alcohol-based transport medium, for its ability to maintain specimen integrity for up to 21 days of storage at various temperatures; for its ability to inactivate virus; and for its compatibility with antigen- or nucleic acid-based diagnostics for respiratory viruses in clinical samples. In mock-infected samples, both universal transport medium (UTM-RT) and CyMol maintained equivalent viral quantities for at least 14 days at room temperature or colder, whereas a dry swab collection maintained viral quantities only if refrigerated or frozen. CyMol inactivated influenza virus within 5 min of sample immersion. UTM-RT- and CyMol-collected nasal swab specimens from 73 symptomatic students attending a campus health clinic were positive for a respiratory virus in 56.2% of subjects by multiplex PCR testing, including influenza A and B viruses, rhinovirus/enteroviruses, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, metapneumovirus, and adenovirus. Detection by PCR was equivalent in UTM-RT- and CyMol-collected specimens and in self- and staff-collected swabs. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) testing was substantially less sensitive (23.3%) than multiplex PCR, and DFA testing from UTM-RT-collected swabs was more sensitive than that from CyMol-collected swabs. These data indicate that an alcohol-based transport medium such as CyMol preserves respiratory virus integrity, rapidly inactivates viruses, and is compatible with PCR-based respiratory diagnostics.

  10. US EPA Research on Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on utility surveys, 30 to 63% of utilities practicing chloramination for secondary disinfection experience nitrification episodes (American Water Works Association 2006). Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is undesirable and may result in water quality deg...

  11. USEPA Research on Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas Europaea

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on utility surveys, 30 to 63% of utilities practicing chloramination for secondary disinfection experience nitrification episodes (American Water Works Association 2006). Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is undesirable and may result in water quality deg...

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

  14. U.S. EPA's Ultraviolet Disinfection Technologies Demonstration Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will give a background on USEPA's Disinfection Technologies Demonstration Study. This will include regulatory background, science background, goals of the project, and ultimate expected outcome of the project. This presentation will preceed a panel discussion ...

  15. [Research development on disinfection technology for viruses in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Dai, Ruihua; Liu, Xiang

    2010-09-01

    With the deterioration of water source pollution, the quality requirements for drinking water of countries will become stricter and stricter, and the microbe index has been one of the important aspects. The introduction of the virus index and the development of disinfection technology focusing on virus have significant importance for the improvement of the drinking water standards and for the protection of people health in every country. To be familiar with the domestic and abroad research development of the disinfection control technology focusing on virus provides certain theory guidance and technological support for continuously improving drinking water standard in our country and for establishing safer drinking water processing technologies. So, this article will comprehensively describes 4 aspects: resistance comparison of virus over every disinfection technology, influential factors of disinfection, research development of new technology, and the mechanisms.

  16. Use of buffered hypochlorite solution for disinfecting fibrescopes.

    PubMed

    Coates, D; Death, J E

    1982-03-01

    The possible use of sodium hypochlorite solution buffered to pH 7.6 and containing 100 ppm available chlorine (avCl) for disinfecting fibrescopes was investigated. A flexible fibrescope experimentally contaminated with Pseudomonas putida, Mycobacterium fortuitum, or Bacillus subtilis spores was effectively disinfected within 10 m in repeatedly and without any observable adverse effect on the instrument. The corrosive nature of buffered hypochlorite was investigated by immersing various fibrescope components and metal wires in solutions of different strength for long periods and examining them for damage. Stainless steel, platinum, glass, Teflon, polythene and epoxy resin were apparently unaffected whereas polyurethane, rubber and other metals tested were damaged to different extents. Buffered hypochlorite solutions may have many applications pertaining to the disinfection of items which are either thermolabile or require rapid effective disinfection.

  17. Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blatchley, E. R.; Gong, W.-L.; Alleman, J.E.; Rose, J.B.; Huffman, D.E.; Otaki, M.; Lisle, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In most circumstances, the efficacy of a wastewater disinfection process is regulated and monitored based on measurements of the responses of indicator bacteria. However, inactivation of indicator bacteria does not guarantee an acceptable degree of inactivation among other waterborne microorganisms (e.g., microbial pathogens). Undisinfected effluent samples from several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale chlorination and dechlorination and UV irradiation under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. In general, (viable) bacterial populations showed an immediate decline as a result of disinfectant exposure; however, incubation of disinfected samples under conditions that were designed to mimic the conditions in a receiving stream resulted in substantial recovery of the total bacterial community. The bacterial groups that are commonly used as indicators do not provide an accurate representation of the response of the bacterial community to disinfectant exposure and subsequent recovery in the environment. UV irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination both accomplished measurable inactivation of indigenous phage; however, the extent of inactivation was fairly modest under the conditions of disinfection used in this study. UV irradiation was consistently more effective as a virucide than chlorination/dechlorination under the conditions of application, based on measurements of virus (phage

  18. In-office microwave disinfection of soft contact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.G.; Rechberger, J.; Grant, T.; Holden, B.A. )

    1990-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an in-office microwave disinfection procedure which allowed for the disinfection of up to 40 soft contact lenses at one time. Ciba AOSept cases filled with sterile unpreserved saline were contaminated with one of six FDA test challenge microorganisms at a concentration of approximately 10(3) colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml). Twenty cases were placed on the rotating plate of a standard 2450 MHz 650 W microwave oven in a 10-cm diameter circle. The cases were exposed to high intensity microwave irradiation for periods of 0 to 15 min. None of the 6 microorganisms evaluated survived 2 min or longer of microwave exposure. Our findings indicated that microwave irradiation can be a convenient, rapid, and effective method of disinfecting a number of soft contact lenses at one time and thus adaptable as an in-office soft contact lens disinfection procedure.

  19. Physical examination of the hand.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Raymond J; Hammert, Warren C

    2014-11-01

    Examination of the hand is an essential piece of a hand surgeon's skill set. This current concepts review presents a systematic process of performing a comprehensive physical examination of the hand including vascular, sensory, and motor assessments. Evaluations focused on specific hand diseases and injuries are also discussed. This information can be useful for any health care provider treating patients with hand conditions.

  20. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A

    2000-04-01

    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer.

  1. Equivalency testing of ultraviolet disinfection for wastewater reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, J.A.; Jacangelo, J.G.; Laine, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    UV light disinfection was shown to continuously provide microbial inactivation equivalent to chlorine while reducing the formation of known carcinogenic disinfection by-products and the formation of chronic whole effluent toxicity. This was the first study to demonstrate UV`s performance relative to chlorination over an extended timeframe at a full-scale facility treating to meet the most stringent California reclamation standards.

  2. Importance of disinfection as a means of prevention in our changing world hygiene and the home.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Sally F

    2007-09-13

    Contrary to expectation, the risks of infection are growing rather than declining, even in everyday life. After all, who is able to make a distinction between cleanliness and hygiene? This situation is further compounded by the growing number of persons who are susceptible to infections. If one wants to combat infectious diseases in an economically feasible and consistent manner, public support must be sought. In turn, the public have a right to be informed in a proper and responsible manner. The difference between "dirt" and "contamination" must be highlighted once again.To create a forum for everyday hygiene, an international expert working group was set up (http://www.ifh-homehygiene.org). The hallmark of this group is its holistic view of hygiene in the family setting, something that is not true in the case of most public health sectors. Based on the latest study results, the International Forum for Hygiene (IFH) has coined a new motto "Selective Hygiene", and evaluates the causes of infection so as to be able to react in an appropriate manner. The aim cannot be routine, daily repetitive decontamination of all potentially dangerous microbes that are found in a normal household, but rather selective reaction to important transmission processes, i.e. hands and foodstuffs, kitchen, bathroom and toilet. The motto can be summarized as follows: "Do the right thing at the right time". This, however, calls for an understanding of the risks and of effective procedures for microbial reduction. Depending on the respective circumstances, hands can be washed with running water or by using a hand disinfectant. Even experts must learn that hygiene in the home must be evaluated differently from that of the hospital setting. The comparatively lower risk is offset by markedly less awareness of the risks involved. These risks can be significantly increased by any members of the household who are ill. Hence in some cases it is advisable to use disinfectants in the home too - even

  3. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  4. Characterization of the microbial flora in disinfecting footbaths with hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Langsrud, Solveig; Seifert, Linn; Møretrø, Trond

    2006-09-01

    Change or disinfection of footwear are measures to prevent cross contamination between areas with low and high hygienic levels in the food industry. The efficacy of disinfecting footwear is not well documented. Samples of used disinfectant and from swabbing of corners after draining were taken from disinfecting footbaths containing chlorine in four Norwegian cheese factories. Bacteria were present in 9 of 12 footbaths and more positive samples were found from swab samples than from used disinfectant. The microbial flora in footbaths varied between the dairies. In two dairies, the flora was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., respectively. In the third dairy, both Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were present and in the fourth dairy, the flora was diverse (Acinetobacter sp., Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacillus sp.). The strains were not resistant to the recommended user concentration of chlorine in bactericidal suspension or surface tests. The degree of attachment to plastic varied between strains and species and bacteria attached to surfaces were in general more resistant than suspended bacteria. The results of the survey indicated that disinfecting footbaths containing chlorine may act as contamination sources in food factories and should not be used without regular hygienic monitoring.

  5. Disinfectants in health care: finding an alternative to chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Keward, Josephine

    Cleanliness of the clinical environment has a direct impact on healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence and there is increasing evidence of its importance with regard to infection prevention and control. While traditional high-level disinfectants have excellent antimicrobial properties, these are typically offset against issues such as corrosiveness, toxicity, cost and user acceptance. Recent years have seen several user-friendly sporicidal disinfectants emerge onto the market. Antimicrobial profile and user acceptance determine the clinical success of any disinfectant. Therefore, product adoption is often a two-stage process with a tabletop evaluation of the appropriate technical data, including efficacy claims, followed by an in-use product evaluation. The first part of this article demonstrates the importance of the clinical environment with respect to HCAI and examines some of the issues around disinfectants used in health care and considerations when selecting a new disinfectant for use. The second part reports the experiences of the Infection Prevention and Control team at Alder Hey Children's Hospital in their assessment and subsequent adoption of a new user-friendly sporicidal disinfectant into clinical practice.

  6. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moureau, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Needleless connectors (NC) are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction). Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection. PMID:26075093

  7. Nanosilver as a disinfectant in dental unit waterlines ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dental unit water lines (DUWL) are susceptible to biofilm development and bacterial growth leading to water contamination, causing health and ecological effects. This study monitors the interactions between a commonly used nanosilver disinfectant (ASAP-AGX-32, an antimicrobial cleaner for dental units, 0.0032% Ag) and biofilm development in DUWL. To simulate the disinfection scenario, an in-house DUWL model was assembled and biofilm accumulation was allowed. Subsequent to biofilm development, the disinfection process was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The pristine nanosilver particles in the cleaner measured between 3 and 5 nm in diameter and were surrounded by a stabilizing polymer. However, the polymeric stabilizing agent diminished over the disinfection process, initiating partial AgNPs aggregation. Furthermore, surface speciation of the pristine AgNPs were identified as primarily AgO, and after the disinfection process, transformations to AgCl were observed. The physicochemical characteristics of AgNPs are known to govern their fate, and transport and environmental implications. Hence, knowledge of the AgNPs characteristics after the disinfection process (usage scenario) is of significance. This study demonstrates the adsorption of AgNPs onto biofilm surfaces and, therefore, will assist in illustration of the toxicity mechanisms of AgNPs to bacteria and biofilms. This work can be an initial step in better understanding how

  8. Stability and effectiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, V P; Snead, M C; Krusé, C W; Kawata, K

    1986-11-01

    A test system for water distribution was used to evaluate the stability and effectiveness of three residual disinfectants--free chlorine, combined chlorine, and chlorine dioxide--when challenged with a sewage contaminant. The test distribution system consisted of the street main and internal plumbing for two barracks at Fort George G. Meade, MD. To the existing pipe network, 152 m (500 ft) of 13-mm (0.5 in.) copper pipe were added for sampling, and 60 m (200 ft) of 2.54-cm (1.0 in.) plastic pipe were added for circulation. The levels of residual disinfectants tested were 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L as available chlorine. In the absence of a disinfectant residual, microorganisms in the sewage contaminant were consistently recovered at high levels. The presence of any disinfectant residual reduced the microorganism level and frequency of occurrence at the consumer's tap. Free chlorine was the most effective residual disinfectant and may serve as a marker or flag in the distribution network. Free chlorine and chlorine dioxide were the least stable in the pipe network. The loss of disinfectant in the pipe network followed first-order kinetics. The half-life determined in static tests for free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and combined chlorine was 140, 93, and 1680 min.

  9. Stability and effectiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Olivieri, V.P.; Snead, M.C.; Kruse, C.W.; Kawata, K.

    1986-11-01

    A test system for water distribution was used to evaluate the stability and effectiveness of three residual disinfectants - free chlorine, combined chlorine, and chlorine dioxide - when challenged with a sewage contaminant. The test distribution system consisted of the street main and internal plumbing for two barracks at Fort George G. Meade, MD. To the existing pipe network, 152 m (500 ft) of 13-mm (0.5 in.) copper pipe were added for sampling, and 60 m (200 ft) of 2.54-cm (1.0 in.) plastic pipe were added for circulation. The levels of residual disinfectants tested were 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L as available chlorine. In the absence of a disinfectant residual, microorganisms in the sewage contaminant were consistently recovered at high levels. The presence of any disinfectant residual reduced the microorganism level and frequency of occurrence at the consumer's tap. Free chlorine was the most effective residual disinfectant and may serve as a marker or flag in the distribution network. Free chlorine and chlorine dioxide were the least stable in the pipe network. The loss of disinfectant in the pipe network followed first-order kinetics. The half-life determined in static tests for free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and combined chlorine was 140, 93, and 1680 min.

  10. Effect of well disinfection on arsenic in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotkowitz, M.; Ellickson, K.; Clary, A.; Bowman, G.; Standridge, J.; Sonzogni, W.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic water wells are routinely subjected to in situ chemical disinfection treatments to control nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. Most treatments are chlorine based and presumably cause strongly oxidizing conditions in the wellbore. Water resource managers in Wisconsin were concerned that such treatments might facilitate release of arsenic from sulfide minerals disseminated within a confined sandstone aquifer. To test this hypothesis, a well was subjected to four disinfection treatments over 9 months time. The first treatment consisted of routine pumping of the well without chemical disinfection; three subsequent treatments included chlorine disinfection and pumping. Pretreatment arsenic concentrations in well water ranged from 7.4 to 18 ??g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations up to 57 ??g/L in the chemical treatment solutions purged from the well are attributed to the disintegration or dissolution of biofilms or scale. Following each of the four treatments, arsenic concentrations decreased to less than 10 ??g/L during a period of pumping. Arsenic concentrations generally returned to pretreatment levels under stagnant, nonpumping conditions imposed following each treatment. Populations of iron-oxidizing, heterotrophic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria decreased following chemical treatments but were never fully eradicated from the well. Strongly oxidizing conditions were induced by the chlorine-based disinfections, but the treatments did not result in sustained increases in well water arsenic. Results suggest that disruption of biofilm and mineral deposits in the well and the water distribution system in tandem with chlorine disinfection can improve water quality in this setting. ?? 2008 The Author(s).

  11. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely.

  12. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  13. Hands-on Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduori, Susan

    Science education in the 21st Century necessitates an introduction to the current and emerging tools and techniques of modern scientific research. We have recently launched a pilot, researchbased astronomy and astrophysics curriculum into Kenya High in Nairobi, Kenya as a vehicle to introducing the methodologies of scientific research into secondary education. Our program leverages global, web-accessible science education resources and connects to the online, international, science education community via the Global Hands-On Universe network. I describe the status and future plans of Hands-On Universe Africa.'

  14. The higher disinfectant resistance of nosocomial isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca: how reliable are indicator organisms in disinfectant testing?

    PubMed

    Gebel, J; Sonntag, H-G; Werner, H-P; Vacata, V; Exner, M; Kistemann, T

    2002-04-01

    The Children's Clinic in Giessen, Germany recently reported several severe infections with Klebsiella oxytoca resulting in deaths of two neonates. The putative source of the infections was a contaminated infusion solution. The resistance to disinfectant of the K. oxytoca isolates was investigated in three independent laboratories and was indeed found to be significantly increased. Comparative tests with standard strains of K. oxytoca and other recommended bacterial surrogates showed the disinfection procedures used were fully effective. The higher resistance of the nosocomial isolates may have developed due to improper handling and storage of the cleaning utensils. This report describes the events and draws conclusions concerning the use of disinfectants, the treatment of cleaning utensils, the reliability of procedures for testing disinfectants, and suggests additional measures.

  15. Conventional and advanced oxidation processes used in disinfection of treated urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Chueca, J; Ormad, M P; Mosteo, R; Sarasa, J; Ovelleiro, J L

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the inactivation of Escherichia coli in wastewater effluents using conventional treatments (chlorination) and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/solar irradiation, and photo-Fenton processes. In addition, an analysis of the operational costs of each treatment is carried out taking into account the optimal dosages of chemicals used. Total inactivation of bacteria (7.5 log) was achieved by means of chlorination and UV irradiation. However, bacterial regrowth was observed 6 hours after the completion of UV treatment, obtaining a disinfection value around 3 to 4 log. On the other hand, the combination H2O2/solar irradiation achieved a maximum inactivation of E. coli of 3.30 ± 0.35 log. The photo-Fenton reaction achieved a level of inactivation of 4.87 ± 0.10 log. The order of disinfection, taking into account the reagent/cost ratio of each treatment, is as follows: chlorination > UV irradiation > photo-Fenton > H2O2/sunlight irradiation.

  16. Preparation of melamine sponge decorated with silver nanoparticles-modified graphene for water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Can-Hui; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Song, Biao; Liu, Hong-Yu

    2017-02-15

    This paper reports the fabrication of melamine sponge decorated with silver nanoparticles-modified graphene (G/AgNPs-MS) for water disinfection. The G/AgNPs-MS composites with the high porosity and elasticity were used in an antibacterial process in which the composite was first immersed in bacterial suspension, and subsequently squeezed via hand compression. G/AgNPs-MS exhibited more excellent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria compared with melamine sponge (MS), melamine sponge decorated with graphene (G-MS), and melamine sponge decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-MS). The superior antibacterial effect was possibly ascribed to the coordination of graphene oxide (GO) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Compared to AgNPs-MS, G/AgNPs-MS displayed better stability with fewer Ag(+) release. G/AgNPs-MS composites were highly reusable with no significant differences in the loss of bacterial viability over 12 operational cycles. The possible antibacterial mechanism of G/AgNPs-MS was also investigated. It was found that the destruction of bacterial membrane by G/AgNPs-MS played an important role in the bactericidal activity. The generation of intercellular ROS and scavenging assays confirmed the involvement of Ag(+) and ROS in the antibacterial process of G/AgNPs-MS. All the results demonstrated that the prepared G/AgNPs-MS composites, as innovative antibacterial materials, showed a great potential for water disinfection.

  17. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin ... A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ...

  18. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  19. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub.

  20. A MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DESIGN APPROACH TO THE EVALUATION OF RISKS FROM COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection has effectively eliminated much of the morbidity and mortality associated with waterborne infectious diseases in the United States. Various disinfection processes, however, produce certain types and amounts of disinfection by-products (DBPs), including...

  1. Disinfection for prevention and control of infections on the threshold of the 21 century for the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Franz X

    2007-09-13

    In infectious diseases we can discern a cause and effect chain, which in particular offers the practicable perspectives of prophylaxis and treatment. However, to date we have not been able to control them. Apart from new epidemics, such as those caused by HIV and SARS, long-forgotten scourges like TB are enjoying a comeback. Furthermore, the advances made in clinical medicine mean that induced immunosuppression, for instance as a result of major surgery or organ transplantation, has become a serious problem in intensive care units. The body's natural barriers are breached through medical interventions while, on the other hand, immunocompromising therapeutic agents such as cytostacis and glucocorticoids ensure that invading microorganisms will be able to multiply. Drugs administered as stress ulcus prophylaxis give rise to a shift in the bacterial flora of the throat, thus laying the foundation for a lower respiratory tract infection. With regard to bacterial resistance, antibiotic therapy, especially when used as prophylaxis, results in the bacteria becoming less sensitive to the drugs, while reinforcing selective pressures. The hands of personnel as well as the therapeutic devices ranging from the respirator to the catheter are the chief sources of infection in intensive care units. Disinfection, antibiotic therapy and, possibly, extracorporeal elimination methods can be contemplated to selectively prevent the establishment and multiplication of microorganisms. However, only disinfectants are able to unleash their full destructive might against microbes, especially when used for medical devices that are not amenable to sterilization, even if their subsequent removal and, possibly, the issue of staff hand protection, can be a problem. While it is not easy to furnish proof of a direct link between efficient control and prevention methods and the incidence of infection, there is by now a consensus on the role of hand hygiene and of disinfection of the human body and

  2. Current trends in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalliainen, Loree K

    2012-06-01

    Hand surgery became an established subspecialty between World Wars I and II. Prior to this time, hand injuries were cared for by various specialists-neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and general surgeons-each of whom would focus on their particular tissue within the hand. With the nearly 90,000 hand injuries sustained during World War II, military hospitals were created to deal solely with hand injuries, and hand specialists began to treat the hand as a single functional organ. This article briefly reviews the origin of the field and discusses current trends in hand surgery.

  3. In vitro study on the disinfectability of two split-septum needle-free connection devices using different disinfection procedures

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Steffen; Exner, Martin; Simon, Arne

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the external disinfection of two needle-free connection devices (NFC) using Octeniderm® (spraying and wiping technique) vs. Descoderm® pads (wiping technique). The split-septum membrane of the NFC was contaminated with >105 CFU K. pneumoniae or S. epidermidis. The efficacy of the disinfection at 30 sec. exposure time was controlled by taking a swab sample and by flushing the NFC with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1 g, 1-Propanol 30.0 g, and 2-Propanol 45.0 g in 100 g solution was highly effective (CFU reduction ≥4 log) against both microorganisms, whereas the use of 63.1 g 2-Propanol in 100 ml solution led to residual contamination with S. epidermidis. Our investigation underlines that (i) in clinical practice disinfection of NFCs before use is mandatory, and that (ii) details of disinfection technique are of utmost importance regarding their efficacy. Our investigation revealed no significant differences between both split-septum NFC types. Clinical studies are needed to confirm a possible superiority of disinfectants with long-lasting residual antimicrobial activity. PMID:26693394

  4. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  5. Learning "Hands On."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Janice T.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a computer teacher's incorporation of hand-held computer technology into her third- and fifth-grade students' study of acid rain. The project successfully brought two grade levels together for cross-grade research, provided an opportunity for classroom teachers and technology specialists to work collaboratively, and enhanced students'…

  6. Hands-Only CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific, especially if you’re calling from a mobile phone as that is not associated with a fixed address. Answering the dispatcher’s questions will not delay the arrival of ... save lives with Hands-Only CPR. Check out the Mobile Tour page to see if we're coming ...

  7. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  8. Hands across the Border.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Hands across the Border Cultural Exchange Program between the communities of Palominas, Arizona, and Arizpe, Sonora, Mexico. An Arizona fifth/sixth grader studies Mexico prior to hosting a visitor from Mexico and enjoying a reciprocal visit to the Arizpe student's home. Highlights the program's unique features and benefits. (DMM)

  9. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  10. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Arnie

    2003-01-01

    Describes steps schools can take to provide cleaner and safer washrooms. Emphasizes hand-washing to battle germs and asserts that creating a comfortable and user-friendly washroom is a critical and often overlooked aspect for encouraging better hygiene habits. (EV)

  11. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  12. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  13. Hand-Eye Coordinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, G. N.

    1985-01-01

    The article describes ways in which visual-tactual integration develops in young children and explains reasons for some children's failure. Procedures for teaching basic writing skills such as hand position, grouping of letters, and finally the writing of words are discussed. (CL)

  14. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  15. Arthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... If arthritis is due to damaged ligaments, the support structures of the joint may be unstable or “loose.” ... dominant hand is affected • Your personal goals, home support structure, and ability to understand the treatment and comply ...

  16. Hands-On Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  17. Fluorescence Assay for Evaluating Microbicidal Activity of Hand Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gigosos, Rosa M.; Mariscal-Lopez, Eloisa; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    We developed a fluorescent β-d-glucuronidase activity (BGA)-based assay for detecting and quantifying Escherichia coli in samples to assess the biocide efficacy of hand antiseptics. The fluorescence level is proportional to the number of viable E. coli organisms present. We compared our assay results to those of the E. coli plate count method specified by the European standard for testing hygienic hand rub disinfectant products (EN1500). The plate count method requires excessive handling and materials and is not valid if the number of organisms per plate is too low or high for counting in many of the samples. We optimized the fluorescent assay based on the cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide by adding 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucuronide, a nonfluorogenic BGA substrate, to induce glucuronidase activity and reduce assay time. Furthermore, our method can be automated and eliminates the need for multiple dilutions. Fluorescence was temporally monitored, and the time required to reach a specific value of fluorescence was correlated with the initial number of viable E. coli organisms on the samples. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.82) between the E. coli counts by plate count and fluorescence methods. Reported effects in fluorescent BGA were compared to the EN1500 plate count method with five hand disinfectants. We found our method more advantageous, because it was as sensitive as the EN1500 method, requires less time to complete, and is less expensive and less laborious than conventional plating techniques. PMID:26276114

  18. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  19. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  20. Effect of peracetic acid, ultraviolet radiation, nanofiltration-chlorine in the disinfection of a non conventional source of water (Tula Valley).

    PubMed

    Trujillo, J; Barrios, J A; Jimenez, B

    2008-01-01

    Water supply for human consumption requires certain quality that reduces health risks to consumers. In this sense, the process of disinfection plays an important role in the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms. Even though chlorination is the most applied process based on its effectiveness and cost, its application is being questioned considering the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Therefore, alternative disinfectants are being evaluated and some treatment processes have been proposed to remove DBPs precursors (organic matter. This paper reports the results of disinfection of a non conventional source of water (aquifer recharged unintentionally with raw wastewater) with peracetic acid (PAA) and ultraviolet radiation (UV) as well as nanofiltration (NF) followed by chlorination to produce safe drinking water. The results showed that a dose of 2 mg/L PAA was needed to eliminate total and faecal coliforms. For UV light, a dose of 12.40 mWs/cm2 reduced total and faecal coliforms below the detection limit. On the other hand, chlorine demand of water before NF was 1.1-1.3 mg/L with a trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of 118.62 microg/L, in contrast with chlorination after NF where the demand was 0.5 mg/L and THMFP of 17.64 microg/L. The recommended scheme is nanofiltration + chlorination.

  1. The Effects of Surgical Hand Scrubbing Protocols on Skin Integrity and Surgical Site Infection Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang Qin; Mehigan, Sinead

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review aimed to critically appraise and synthesize updated evidence regarding the effect of surgical-scrub techniques on skin integrity and the incidence of surgical site infections. Databases searched include the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central. Our review was limited to eight peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials and two nonrandomized controlled trials published in English from 1990 to 2015. Comparison models included traditional hand scrubbing with chlorhexidine gluconate or povidone-iodine against alcohol-based hand rubbing, scrubbing with a brush versus without a brush, and detergent-based antiseptics alone versus antiseptics incorporating alcohol solutions. Evidence showed that hand rubbing techniques are as effective as traditional scrubbing and seem to be better tolerated. Hand rubbing appears to cause less skin damage than traditional scrub protocols, and scrub personnel tolerated brushless techniques better than scrubbing using a brush.

  2. Water disinfection through photoactive modified titania.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Diptipriya; Pal, Ajoy; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Pandey, Sony; Dash, Tapan; Das, Trupti; Kumar, Rohit

    2014-01-05

    TiO(2), N-TiO(2) and S-TiO(2) samples have been prepared by various chemical methods. These samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Laser Raman spectrometer, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). X-ray powder diffraction study reveals that all three samples are single anatase phase of titania and the crystallinity of titania decreases with sulphur doping whereas nitrogen doping does not affect it. UV-Visible (diffuse) reflectance spectra shows that doping of titania with nitrogen and sulphur shift the absorption edge of titania from ultraviolet to visible region. XPS study confirms that both nitrogen and sulphur are well doped in the titania lattice. It is observed that nitrogen occupies at both substitutional and interstitial position in the lattice of titania. FE-SEM and TEM studies demonstrate that the particles are below 50nm range. It is found that S and N doping of titania increased its water disinfection property in the order TiO(2)

  3. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft document presents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant sprays. This case study is organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which combines a product life-cycle perspective with the risk assessment paradigm. The document does not draw conclusions about potential risks. Instead, it is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and unknown about nano-Ag in a selected application and can be used as a starting point to identify and prioritize possible research directions to support future assessments of nanomaterials. The information presented in the case study and the questions raised in this document are a foundation for a process to determine priorities among various research topics and directions. After that process has been completed, a final chapter will be added to this document to summarize highlights from preceding chapters and the major research issues that have emerged.

  4. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okpara, TC; Ezeala-Adikaibe, BA; Omire, O; Nwonye, E; Maluze, J

    2015-01-01

    Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence. A diagnosis of TDHS in a patient with hyperosmolar state was made. She was managed accordingly and subsequently underwent aggressive debridement and desloughing. Two fingers were amputated and the wound was allowed to heal by secondary intention. PMID:27057390

  5. The HAND Nanosatellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, M.; Moses, R.

    The HAND (Human Activated Nanosatellite Demonstration) satellite was developed with the objective of producing a satellite within the time and budgetary constraints associated with Master level undergraduate research projects. HAND was designed as a passively stabilised nanosatellite with a mass of about 6.5 kilograms and over 1.2 m tall when deployed. It was intended to be carried into orbit in a mid-deck locker in the Space Shuttle. It would then be deployed by an astronaut during an EVA simply by pushing it away. It was hoped the spacecraft would prove the engineering and operational aspects of the nanosatellite platform, which could then be the basis of a series of low cost education satellites from universities and even secondary schools.

  6. Paroxysmal alien hand syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Leiguarda, R; Starkstein, S; Nogués, M; Berthier, M; Arbelaiz, R

    1993-01-01

    Four patients are described who presented with a paroxysmal form of the alien hand syndrome. Two patients with damage to one frontomedial cortex had brief episodes of abnormal motor behaviour of the contralateral arm that featured groping, grasping, and apparently purposeful but perseverative movements, which both patients interpreted as alien or foreign. The other two patients, with posterior parietal damage, reported a paroxysmal feeling of unawareness of the location of the contralateral arm, lack of recognition of the arm as their own, purposeless movements, and personification of the arm. These cases represent a new form of the alien hand syndrome manifested by brief, paroxysmal episodes, which may be due to ictal mechanisms. Images PMID:8331355

  7. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS.

  8. Hand tools: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A selection of new hand tools, modifications of existing tools, and techniques developed in the course of NASA research and development projects are presented. The items are presented in two sections: tools for cable and connector applications, and tools for welding applications. Safety is emphasized, together with ease of operation and use in restricted areas or hazardous environments. The discussions are directed primarily toward the technician engaged in assembly or maintenance of mechanical or electrical equipment.

  9. Polydactyly of the hand.

    PubMed

    Faust, Katherine C; Kimbrough, Tara; Oakes, Jean Evans; Edmunds, J Ollie; Faust, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    Polydactyly is considered either the most or second most (after syndactyly) common congenital hand abnormality. Polydactyly is not simply a duplication; the anatomy is abnormal with hypoplastic structures, abnormally contoured joints, and anomalous tendon and ligament insertions. There are many ways to classify polydactyly, and surgical options range from simple excision to complicated bone, ligament, and tendon realignments. The prevalence of polydactyly makes it important for orthopedic surgeons to understand the basic tenets of the abnormality.

  10. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  11. Pediatric Hand Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nellans, Kate W.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pediatric hand fractures are common childhood injuries. Identification of the fractures in the emergency room setting can be challenging owing to the physes and incomplete ossification of the carpus that are not revealed in the xrays. Most simple fractures can be treated with appropriate immobilization through buddy taping, finger splints, or casting. If correctly diagnosed, reduced and immobilized, these fractures usually result in excellent clinical outcomes. However, fractures may require operative stabilization if they have substantial angulation or rotation, extend into the joint, or cannot be held in a reduced position with splinting alone. Most fractures can be treated operatively with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning if addressed within the first week following the injury. In children, the thick, vascular-rich periosteum and bony remodeling potential make anatomic reductions and internal fixation rarely necessary. Most fractures complete bony healing in 3-4 weeks, with the scaphoid being a notable exception. Following immobilization, children rarely develop hand stiffness and formal occupational therapy is usually not necessary. Despite the high potential for excellent outcomes in pediatric hand fractures, some fractures remain difficult to diagnose and treat. PMID:24209954

  12. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  13. Disinfection of aircraft : Appropriate disinfectants and standard operating procedures for highly infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Joachim; Gnirs, Peter; Hölterhoff, Sabine; Wirtz, Angela; Jeglitza, Matthias; Gaber, Walter; Gottschalk, Rene

    2016-12-01

    For infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases. Although, basic advice on hygiene and sanitation on board an aircraft is given by the World Health Organization, these guidelines lack details on available and effective substances as well as standardized operating procedures (SOP). The purpose of this paper is to give guidance on the choice of substances that were tested by a laboratory of Lufthansa Technik and found compatible with aircraft components, as well as to describe procedures which ensure a safe and efficient disinfection of civil aircrafts. This guidance and the additional SOPs are made public and are available as mentioned in this paper.

  14. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    EPA Science Inventory

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  15. [Hand hygiene during mobile X-ray imaging in the emergency room].

    PubMed

    Aso, Mayumi; Kato, Kyoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuyoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Say, Syogo; Fujimura, Kazumasa; Kuroki, Kazunori; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    A hand hygiene behavior questionnaire and environmental survey were conducted regarding the mobile X-ray system used in the emergency room. As a result, among a total of 22 radiological technologists at this hospital who replied to the questionnaire, 18 wore disposable gloves when performing X-ray imaging using the mobile system. Among those 18, 11 were found to touch computed radiology (CR) consoles and HIS/RIS terminals while still wearing the gloves, thus creating the potential for spreading pathogens to other medical equipment and systems. According to the results of an environmental survey of the emergency imaging preparation room, the highest levels of bacteria were detected on CR consoles and HIS/RIS terminals. A possible reason for this is that these locations are not wiped down and cleaned as a part of routine cleaning and disinfection protocols, thus demonstrating the importance of cleaning and disinfection. Hand hygiene by medical personnel and appropriate cleaning and disinfecting of the working environment are important for preventing the spread of nosocomial infections. Radiological technologists are also required to take effective measures against infections in consideration of the high frequency of contact with both infected patients and patients susceptible to infections.

  16. The Occurrence and Comparative Toxicity of Haloacetaldehyde Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of drinking water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases. However, the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in the source water can lead to an unintended consequence, which is the formation of drinking water disinfe...

  17. 40 CFR 141.708 - Requirements when making a significant change in disinfection practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calculate disinfection benchmarks for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in § 141.709. Prior to... disinfection benchmark for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in § 141.709. (2) A description of...

  18. 40 CFR 141.708 - Requirements when making a significant change in disinfection practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calculate disinfection benchmarks for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in § 141.709. Prior to... disinfection benchmark for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in § 141.709. (2) A description of...

  19. 40 CFR 141.708 - Requirements when making a significant change in disinfection practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calculate disinfection benchmarks for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in § 141.709. Prior to... disinfection benchmark for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in § 141.709. (2) A description of...

  20. 40 CFR 141.708 - Requirements when making a significant change in disinfection practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... calculate disinfection benchmarks for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in § 141.709. Prior to... disinfection benchmark for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in § 141.709. (2) A description of...