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Sample records for alcohol-based hand sanitizers

  1. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness. PMID:22852289

  2. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited. PMID:21976190

  3. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  4. Impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer intervention on the spread of viruses in homes.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Akrum H; Carlino, Sheri; Edmonds, Sarah; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the movement of a virus throughout a household and the impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) on reducing the movement and exposure of the virus to household members. Bacterial virus MS-2 was used as the surrogate for human enteric and respiratory viruses. Seven households with families having at least two children in the age range of 2-18 living in the home were used in this study. The hands of one adult family member were contaminated with 1 × 10(8). MS-2 bacteriophage in each home. After 8 h, the hands of each family member (10 fingers) and 20 frequently touched fomites were sampled to determine baseline contamination without intervention. Within 8 h, MS-2 was detected on all of the family member's hands and most of the fomites. The intervention consisted of providing the families in all selected homes with bottles of an ABHS, which were placed in the kitchen, bathrooms, and nurseries. Smaller individual bottles were provided for each family member greater than 12 years old to place in purses, pockets, backpacks, etc. The families were instructed to use the ABHS one time or three times during the day. For one and three uses, a statistically significant reduction of virus on un-inoculated and inoculated hands of ~99% occurred within 8 h. Similar reductions occurred on fomites throughout the households (97-99%). These results demonstrate that the use of an ABHS can significantly reduce transfer of a virus to the hands, and to the commonly touched surfaces within the household. PMID:24728950

  5. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources. PMID:25943177

  6. Improved Inactivation of Nonenveloped Enteric Viruses and Their Surrogates by a Novel Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer

    PubMed Central

    Macinga, David R.; Sattar, Syed A.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log10 after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log10 and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log10 after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log10 reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log10 reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by ≥3.16 log10 and ≥4.32 log10, respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log10 in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  7. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Sattar, Syed A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W

    2008-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log(10) after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log(10) and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log(10) after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log(10) reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log(10) reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by > or =3.16 log(10) and > or =4.32 log(10), respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log(10) in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers.

  8. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Sattar, Syed A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W

    2008-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log(10) after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log(10) and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log(10) after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log(10) reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log(10) reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by > or =3.16 log(10) and > or =4.32 log(10), respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log(10) in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  9. Bacterial colonization on writing pens touched by healthcare professionals and hospitalized patients with and without cleaning the pen with alcohol-based hand sanitizing agent.

    PubMed

    Halton, K; Arora, V; Singh, V; Ghantoji, S S; Shah, D N; Garey, K W

    2011-06-01

    This prospective study examined bacterial colonization on writing pens touched by healthcare professionals and hospitalized patients with and without cleaning the pen with alcohol-based hand sanitizing agent after each patient visit. A significant reduction in potential healthcare-associated pathogens, especially Gram-positive cocci, was observed in the intervention group.

  10. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  11. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  12. Impact of the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer in the home on reduction in probability of infection by respiratory and enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, A H; Maxwell, S; Edmonds, S L; Gerba, C P

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the reduction in risk of infection by viruses with the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, used in addition to routine hand washing, in family members in households. A quantitative microbial risk model was used to determine the probability of infection from the concentration of virus on the hands. The model incorporated variation in hand size, frequency of touching orifices (nose, mouth, eyes), and percent transfer to the site of infection, as well as, dose-response for each virus. Data on the occurrence of virus on household members' hands from an intervention study using MS-2 coliphage was used to determine the reduction of viruses on the hands pre- and post-intervention. It was found that the risk of rhinovirus, rotavirus or norovirus infection after the intervention was reduced by 47-98% depending upon the initial concentration of virus on the hands. PMID:25825988

  13. Impact of the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer in the home on reduction in probability of infection by respiratory and enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, A H; Maxwell, S; Edmonds, S L; Gerba, C P

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the reduction in risk of infection by viruses with the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, used in addition to routine hand washing, in family members in households. A quantitative microbial risk model was used to determine the probability of infection from the concentration of virus on the hands. The model incorporated variation in hand size, frequency of touching orifices (nose, mouth, eyes), and percent transfer to the site of infection, as well as, dose-response for each virus. Data on the occurrence of virus on household members' hands from an intervention study using MS-2 coliphage was used to determine the reduction of viruses on the hands pre- and post-intervention. It was found that the risk of rhinovirus, rotavirus or norovirus infection after the intervention was reduced by 47-98% depending upon the initial concentration of virus on the hands.

  14. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity. PMID:23009803

  15. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity.

  16. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  17. Inspections of hand washing supplies and hand sanitizer in public schools.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mary M; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In November 2008, 90 schools (97%) reported their inspection results. Among 697 total bathrooms, 88.8% had soap and 91.7% had paper towels or hand dryers. Hand sanitizer was reported in 1.2% of bathrooms and 15.2% of cafeterias. No difference was observed between boys' and girls' bathrooms, or primary and secondary schools, in the prevalence of soap or paper towels/hand dryers. Hand washing supplies were generally available in public school bathrooms. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer in school bathrooms was reported occasionally and should be discouraged. Hand sanitizer in a supervised setting, the school cafeteria, was not often reported and should be promoted. PMID:20457946

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting. PMID:20131613

  19. Assessing most practical and effective protocols to sanitize hands of poultry catching crew members.

    PubMed

    Racicot, M; Kocher, A; Beauchamp, G; Letellier, A; Vaillancourt, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Catching crew members can heavily contaminate their hands with organic material. They can act as mechanical vector and spread diseases between farms. Hand hygiene is an important issue for the industry as a whole and for human health by reducing contamination risks. Many studies, in human medicine, tend to make hand rub a standard for hand hygiene. However, few studies have tested the effectiveness of hand hygiene products on visibly contaminated hands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practical hand sanitization protocols: water and soap, degreasing cream and hand wipes, all combined with alcohol-based hand gel. The use of alcohol-based gel alone was also evaluated. For the reduction of coliforms after washing, there was no statistically significant difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low to moderate. When hands were highly contaminated, the alcohol-based gel alone was less effective than the degreasing cream combined with the alcohol-based gel (p=0.002). As for the reduction in total aerobic bacteria counts, there was no difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low. The water, soap and alcohol-based gel protocol was more effective than the scrubbing wipes and alcohol-based gel protocol when hands were moderately (p=0.002) and highly contaminated (p=0.001). All protocols were effective in neutralizing Salmonella on hands. Reducing the level of bacterial contamination on hands before using an alcohol-based gel seems important to ensure effective hand sanitation for highly and moderately contaminated hands. This can be done by using a degreasing cream or water and soap. Based on the survey, catching crew members preferred using warm water and soap compared to a degreasing cream.

  20. Assessing most practical and effective protocols to sanitize hands of poultry catching crew members.

    PubMed

    Racicot, M; Kocher, A; Beauchamp, G; Letellier, A; Vaillancourt, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Catching crew members can heavily contaminate their hands with organic material. They can act as mechanical vector and spread diseases between farms. Hand hygiene is an important issue for the industry as a whole and for human health by reducing contamination risks. Many studies, in human medicine, tend to make hand rub a standard for hand hygiene. However, few studies have tested the effectiveness of hand hygiene products on visibly contaminated hands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practical hand sanitization protocols: water and soap, degreasing cream and hand wipes, all combined with alcohol-based hand gel. The use of alcohol-based gel alone was also evaluated. For the reduction of coliforms after washing, there was no statistically significant difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low to moderate. When hands were highly contaminated, the alcohol-based gel alone was less effective than the degreasing cream combined with the alcohol-based gel (p=0.002). As for the reduction in total aerobic bacteria counts, there was no difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low. The water, soap and alcohol-based gel protocol was more effective than the scrubbing wipes and alcohol-based gel protocol when hands were moderately (p=0.002) and highly contaminated (p=0.001). All protocols were effective in neutralizing Salmonella on hands. Reducing the level of bacterial contamination on hands before using an alcohol-based gel seems important to ensure effective hand sanitation for highly and moderately contaminated hands. This can be done by using a degreasing cream or water and soap. Based on the survey, catching crew members preferred using warm water and soap compared to a degreasing cream. PMID:23618466

  1. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care products... and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand sanitizers...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care products... and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand sanitizers...

  3. Use of a Hand Sanitizing Wipe for Reducing Risk of Viral Illness in the Home.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Akrum H; Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah L; Gerba, Charles P

    2015-12-01

    This study determined whether a hand sanitizing wipe can reduce virus transmission in households, and could reduce the probability of infection by rhinovirus and rotavirus. Bacteriophage MS-2 (a marker virus) was used to assess viral transmission in five households having at least two children of ages 2-18. Hands of one female adult were inoculated with ~10(8) PFU MS-2 bacteriophages in each home, and after 8 h, hands of all family members and select fomites were sampled to determine baseline contamination without intervention. This sequence was repeated with the intervention, where all family members were instructed to use a quaternary ammonium compound-based sanitizing wipe at least once per day. A significant reduction of virus after the intervention occurred on inoculated hands (95.3%; p = 0.0039), all fomites combined (74.5%; p < 0.005), and non-inoculated hands and fomites combined (73.5%; p < 0.005). However, viral reduction on non-inoculated hands was not significant, likely due to small sample size. Using rhinovirus and rotavirus as models it was estimated that infection risk was reduced by ~30 to 89% with the use of sanitizing wipes once per day depending on the starting concentration of these viruses on hands of susceptible individuals. Therefore, using a hand sanitizing wipe can significantly reduce viral transmission and risk of illness in homes. Previous studies have shown other hand hygiene interventions, such as alcohol-based hand sanitizers, are even more effective for reducing risk of illness in homes; however the sanitizing wipe used in this study is appropriate to use for microbial reduction. PMID:26063002

  4. Use of a Hand Sanitizing Wipe for Reducing Risk of Viral Illness in the Home.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Akrum H; Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah L; Gerba, Charles P

    2015-12-01

    This study determined whether a hand sanitizing wipe can reduce virus transmission in households, and could reduce the probability of infection by rhinovirus and rotavirus. Bacteriophage MS-2 (a marker virus) was used to assess viral transmission in five households having at least two children of ages 2-18. Hands of one female adult were inoculated with ~10(8) PFU MS-2 bacteriophages in each home, and after 8 h, hands of all family members and select fomites were sampled to determine baseline contamination without intervention. This sequence was repeated with the intervention, where all family members were instructed to use a quaternary ammonium compound-based sanitizing wipe at least once per day. A significant reduction of virus after the intervention occurred on inoculated hands (95.3%; p = 0.0039), all fomites combined (74.5%; p < 0.005), and non-inoculated hands and fomites combined (73.5%; p < 0.005). However, viral reduction on non-inoculated hands was not significant, likely due to small sample size. Using rhinovirus and rotavirus as models it was estimated that infection risk was reduced by ~30 to 89% with the use of sanitizing wipes once per day depending on the starting concentration of these viruses on hands of susceptible individuals. Therefore, using a hand sanitizing wipe can significantly reduce viral transmission and risk of illness in homes. Previous studies have shown other hand hygiene interventions, such as alcohol-based hand sanitizers, are even more effective for reducing risk of illness in homes; however the sanitizing wipe used in this study is appropriate to use for microbial reduction.

  5. Dermatological aspects of a successful introduction and continuation of alcohol-based hand rubs for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Löffler, H

    2003-09-01

    With the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guideline on hand hygiene, hospitals often introduce alcohol-based hand rubs for hand disinfection. Healthcare workers, however, may reject the new products because of skin irritation or other skin-related problems, which they experience after years of handwashing. In order to facilitate a successful introduction and continued use of alcohol-based hand rubs in hospitals, we have reviewed and summarized the major studies on the topic. Occupational hand dermatitis may occur in up to 30% of healthcare workers. It is mainly described as an irritant contact dermatitis caused by detergents. The diagnosis is usually clinical. Allergic reactions are very rare. After using an alcohol-based hand rub for the first time, healthcare workers may have a burning skin sensation that can be explained by pre-irritated skin. In this case the skin barrier has usually been impaired by frequent handwashing or occlusive gloves. This may result in a vicious circle whereby the healthcare worker increases the frequency of handwashing and reduces the frequency of hand disinfection. Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis is possible by selection of a low-irritating hand rub, which contains emollients, the correct use of the hand rub and a clear guideline when to disinfect and wash hands in the clinical setting. Common mistakes in the use of alcohol-based hand rubs are application to pre-irritated skin and washing hands before hand disinfection, which is, in general, not necessary, or after hand disinfection, which results in washing off the emollients. Clear preparation and guidance of healthcare workers before the introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs can help to enhance compliance in hand hygiene. The switch from handwash to alcohol-based hand rub will improve healthcare workers skin if mistakes are avoided and hand rinses are used correctly.

  6. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene. PMID:25366919

  7. Effectiveness of Liquid Soap and Hand Sanitizer against Norwalk Virus on Contaminated Hands▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of ≥160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log10 reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log10 reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log10 reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log10 compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses. PMID:19933337

  8. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers.

  9. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers. PMID:27296611

  10. Effectiveness of hand sanitizers with and without organic acids for removal of rhinovirus from hands.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ronald B; Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D

    2010-03-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined.

  11. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Guru, P K; Park, J G

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated. PMID:25684875

  12. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  13. Efficacy of novel alcohol-based hand rub products at typical in-use volumes.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Edmonds, Sarah L; Campbell, Esther; Shumaker, David J; Arbogast, James W

    2013-03-01

    In vivo efficacies of 2 alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) products (gel and foam) were evaluated at a volume of 1.1 mL. Both met US Food and Drug Administration log(10) reduction requirements after a single application and 10 consecutive applications. This is the first study to identify ABHR formulations capable of meeting efficacy requirements with a single-dispenser actuation. PMID:23388365

  14. Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection.

    PubMed

    Dyer, D L; Gerenraich, K B; Wadhams, P S

    1998-08-01

    Universal precautions require that perioperative health care personnel wash their hand before and after all patient contact. Time constraints, however, can make adhering to universal precautions, including proper hand washing, difficult. Some perioperative health care workers, therefore, routinely use rise-free hand sanitizers to supplement normal hand washing. This study evaluated immediate and persistent antimicrobial effectiveness of two alcohol--containing hand sanitizers and a novel surfactant, allantoin, benzalkonium chloride (SAB) hand sanitizer using a federally approved effectiveness protocol. Results indicate that all three products were equally effective after a single application. After repeated use, the alcohol-containing sanitizers did not meet federal performance standards, and the alcohol-free sanitizer did. These properties and others illustrated in this article indicate that the nonflammable, alcohol-free SAB hand sanitizer is the most favorable of the rise-free hand sanitizer formulas for normal hand washing. PMID:9706236

  15. Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection.

    PubMed

    Dyer, D L; Gerenraich, K B; Wadhams, P S

    1998-08-01

    Universal precautions require that perioperative health care personnel wash their hand before and after all patient contact. Time constraints, however, can make adhering to universal precautions, including proper hand washing, difficult. Some perioperative health care workers, therefore, routinely use rise-free hand sanitizers to supplement normal hand washing. This study evaluated immediate and persistent antimicrobial effectiveness of two alcohol--containing hand sanitizers and a novel surfactant, allantoin, benzalkonium chloride (SAB) hand sanitizer using a federally approved effectiveness protocol. Results indicate that all three products were equally effective after a single application. After repeated use, the alcohol-containing sanitizers did not meet federal performance standards, and the alcohol-free sanitizer did. These properties and others illustrated in this article indicate that the nonflammable, alcohol-free SAB hand sanitizer is the most favorable of the rise-free hand sanitizer formulas for normal hand washing.

  16. Efficacy of disinfectants and hand sanitizers against avian respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Patnayak, Devi P; Prasad, A Minakshi; Malik, Yashpal S; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2008-06-01

    Disinfectants play a major role in the control of animal diseases by decontaminating the farm environment. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of nine commonly used disinfectants on a nonporous surface contaminated experimentally with avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), avian influenza virus, or Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Phenolic compounds and glutaraldehyde were found to be the most effective against all three viruses. Quaternary ammonium compounds were effective against aMPV but not against the other two viruses. In addition, efficacy of commercially available hand sanitizers was evaluated on human fingers contaminated with aMPV and NDV. All three hand sanitizers tested were found to be effective against both viruses within 1 min of application on fingers.

  17. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, Sterillium, and Septicidine on skin flora. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 20 volunteers. Subjects disinfected their hands with three test products. At first, subjects washed their hands with soap. Then pre-value sample was taken from the finger tips in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB).1 After that, the hands were disinfected with one of the surgical hand rubs with as much volume as necessary to keep the hands wet, at the recommended application time. Immediate post-value sample was taken from one hand and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After removing the surgical glove, 3 h post-value sample (sustained effect) was taken from the hand. Results: All products remarkably decreased the colony forming units (CFU) immediately (P < 0.0001) and 3 h (P < 0.0001) after disinfection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among immediate post-values (P < 0.005). Septicidine was significantly the least effective than the others, whereas 3 h effect of the three products was similar (P = 0.630, ANOVA). Conclusions: Our results confirm the effectiveness of the three alcohol-based hand rubs. Considering the short application time, less volume used, and more antibacterial effect, however, Sterillium seems to be a better choice. PMID:25878700

  18. Hand hygiene--evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting.

    PubMed

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group.

  19. Hand hygiene--evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting.

    PubMed

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

  20. A systematic approach for the location of hand sanitizer dispensers in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard; Tiong, Ewing

    2014-09-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene practices is directly affected by the accessibility and availability of cleaning agents. Nevertheless, the decision of where to locate these dispensers is often not explicitly or fully addressed in the literature. In this paper, we study the problem of selecting the locations to install alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers throughout a hospital unit as an indirect approach to maximize compliance with hand hygiene practices. We investigate the relevant criteria in selecting dispenser locations that promote hand hygiene compliance, propose metrics for the evaluation of various location configurations, and formulate a dispenser location optimization model that systematically incorporates such criteria. A complete methodology to collect data and obtain the model parameters is described. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a general care unit at a collaborating hospital. A cost analysis was performed to study the trade-offs between usability and cost. The proposed methodology can help in evaluating the current location configuration, determining the need for change, and establishing the best possible configuration. It can be adapted to incorporate alternative metrics, tailored to different institutions and updated as needed with new internal policies or safety regulation. PMID:24194381

  1. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  2. Closing the hand hygiene gap in the postanesthesia care unit: a body-worn alcohol-based dispenser.

    PubMed

    Petty, William Clayton

    2013-04-01

    Clinicians who work in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), operating room (OR), and intensive care unit (ICU) have a greater opportunity to cross-contaminate patients because of high workloads and frequent patient contact events. Much progress has been made to increase hand hygiene compliance with the introduction of alcohol-based wall, bedside, and pocket dispensers. The introduction of body-worn alcohol-based dispensers to anesthesia and ICU providers has been shown to decrease ICU hospital-acquired infections and ventilator-associated pneumonias, and decrease contamination of the anesthesia workplace. Body-worn alcohol-based dispensers are an improvement in ergonomics, especially for those working in high intensity areas. The unit worn on the belt or scrubs waist is readily accessible, can be activated with one hand, and can be a vital tool to close the gap for hand hygiene.

  3. Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

    2012-06-01

    A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P < 0.005) at 30 min after application. Skin moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy.

  4. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses.

  5. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

  6. Hospital antibiotic use and its relationship to age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub consumption.

    PubMed

    Aldeyab, M A; McElnay, J C; Scott, M G; Darwish Elhajji, F W; Kearney, M P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub on monthly hospital antibiotic usage, retrospectively. A multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was built to relate the monthly use of all antibiotics grouped together with age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub over a 5-year period (April 2005-March 2010). The results showed that monthly antibiotic use was positively related to the age-adjusted comorbidity index (concomitant effect, coefficient 1·103, P = 0·0002), and negatively related to the use of alcohol-based hand rub (2-month delay, coefficient -0·069, P = 0·0533). Alcohol-based hand rub is considered a modifiable factor and as such can be identified as a target for quality improvement programmes. Time-series analysis may provide a suitable methodology for identifying possible predictive variables that explain antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Future research should examine the relationship between infection control practices and antibiotic use, identify other infection control predictive factors for hospital antibiotic use, and evaluate the impact of enhancing different infection control practices on antibiotic use in a healthcare setting. PMID:23657218

  7. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  8. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  9. In vivo efficacy of an alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectant containing a synergistic combination of ethylhexylglycerin and preservatives.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, T A; Geraldo, I; Shintre, M; Modak, S M

    2006-08-01

    Alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants are widely available in healthcare settings. Some currently marketed alcohol-based products use active concentrations of antimicrobials to achieve the required efficacy, raising the risk for exposure to potentially irritating levels of antimicrobials. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of an alcohol-based surgical hand preparation containing 70% ethanol and preservative levels of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and benzalkonium chloride (BZK) in synergistic combination with ethylhexylglycerin (Surgicept) with a surgical hand disinfectant containing 61% ethanol and 1% CHG (Avagard). The in vivo efficacy of Surgicept and Avagard was evaluated in volunteers using the Tentative Final Monograph method of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and their prolonged effect against transient pathogens was compared using a pig skin model. Surgicept exceeded the FDA requirements for surgical hand antiseptic with mean log(10) reductions of 2.36, 3.3 and 3.54 in resident flora 1 min after initial application, and showed a persistent effect with mean log(10) reductions of 2.23, 2.73 and 3.3, 6h post application on days 1, 2 and 5, respectively. Surgicept showed a superior prolonged effect against transient bacteria compared with Avagard. Surgicept (70% alcohol and preservative levels of CHG and BZK) may provide similar in vivo efficacy as Avagard (61% ethanol and 1% CHG).

  10. Ethanol and Isopropanol in Concentrations Present in Hand Sanitizers Sharply Reduce Excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and Eliminate Oral Infectivity of Giardia Cysts in Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. PMID:26282413

  11. Ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers sharply reduce excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and eliminate oral infectivity of Giardia cysts in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin; Samuelson, John

    2015-11-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. PMID:26282413

  12. Ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers sharply reduce excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and eliminate oral infectivity of Giardia cysts in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin; Samuelson, John

    2015-11-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba.

  13. [Investigation of in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a novel alcohol based hand rub, MR06B7].

    PubMed

    Okunishi, Junji; Okamoto, Kazuki; Nishihara, Yutaka; Tsujitani, Kumiko; Miura, Tsuyoshi; Matsuse, Hitoshi; Yagi, Toshikazu; Wada, Yuji; Goto, Junko; Seto, Masahiko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol based hand rubs have been used for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Compared with hand scrubbing, using suitable alcohol based hand rub provides several advantages like usability in a ward with no tap, requiring less time and mildly-irritating. Alcohol provides immediate activity, but poor virucidal activity against certain viruses including norovirus. It is important to develop further improved alcohol based hand rubs which have characteristics of sufficient effectiveness, skin-safe and extended spectrum to non-enveloped viruses for infection control. In the study, in vitro microbicidal evaluations and in vivo efficacy evaluation study were investigated to clarify the characteristics of a novel hand antiseptic MR06B7 composed of additives with synergetic activities. MR06B7 showed bactericidal activity of more than 5 Log(10) reduction within 15 sec against 20 challenged strains. MR06B7 also demonstrated potent fungicidal activities at exposure time of 30 sec (more than 4 Log(10) reduction). Against all test viruses including non-enveloped viruses (adenovirus, feline calicivirus, murine norovirus and poliovirus), MR06B7 had excellent virucidal activity to reduce the titer of viability to the limit of detection within 30 sec exposure (more than 4 Log(10) reduction), whereas 83%(v/v) ethanol indicated the inadequate effectiveness. On the clinical study conducted in accordance with standard method for Healthcare Personnel Handwash of American Society for Testing and Materials, MR06B7 showed excellent immediate antimicrobial activity. The result surpassed the critical indices set forth in the FDA's Tentative Final Monograph. These findings suggest MR06B7 which satisfies most requirements of efficacy qualifications including potent virucidal activity against non-enveloped viruses may contribute to accomplish advanced infection control in clinical practice.

  14. The time burden of alcohol-based hand cleanser when using nonsterile gloves.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Joseph M; Valenzuela, Josephine E; Parmar, Siddharth; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Allen, Matthew B; Pallin, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    We quantified the time burden of alcohol-based handrub accompanying nonsterile-glove use among emergency physicians, through observation in controlled and clinical settings. We report gloving episodes per hour, gloving times with and without handrub, and handrub recommendations compliance. Handrub adds 46 seconds to each glove-use episode, and we provide national extrapolations. PMID:23221200

  15. Efficacy of an alcohol-based healthcare hand rub containing synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Shintre, Milind S; Gaonkar, Trupti A; Modak, Shanta M

    2006-09-01

    Healthcare workers are required to disinfect the hands several times a day using hand disinfectants, which leads to chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials contained in the disinfectants, which could compromise the skin integrity. This problem may be addressed by developing hand disinfectants containing synergistic combinations of small amounts of antimicrobials and other agents. The synergistic effect of farnesol and essential oils with several antimicrobials was studied in vitro to select an effective antimicrobial system in preservative concentration for use in healthcare hand rub. Farnesol and lemon oil showed synergistic activity against S. aureus, in combination with benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride, but not with other antimicrobials studied. All essential oils studied showed synergy with benzethonium chloride against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. An alcohol-based healthcare hand rub (ZBF hand rub) containing this unique synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride was then developed and its efficacy as a healthcare hand rub was evaluated in human volunteers according to the US FDA-TFM protocol using Serratia marcescens as a marker organism. The ZBF hand rub showed a 3.22 log(10) reduction in the microbial count after the first application and a 5.49 log(10) reduction after the tenth application in vivo and exceeds the US FDA-TFM criteria for healthcare hand rub. The ZBF hand rub did not irritate the hands when tested on human volunteers when applied 10 times everyday for five consecutive days. The ZBF hand rub exhibits more than 5.5 log(10) reduction in the microbial count within 15s and more than 2.8 log(10) reduction in the two types of viruses tested within 30s in vitro. When evaluated in an in vitro pig skin model, the ZBF hand rub shows better prolonged activity (20-35 min post-application) against transient bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) compared to other alcohol-based hand rubs. These

  16. Evaluation of aqueous and alcohol-based quaternary ammonium sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on peanut and pistachio shells.

    PubMed

    McEgan, Rachel; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous (aQUAT) and isopropyl alcohol-based quaternary ammonium (ipQUAT) sanitizers for reducing Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes populations on peanut and pistachio shell pieces. Inoculated nutshells were mixed with QUAT sanitizers, water, or 70% ethanol and enumerated immediately or after incubation at 30 °C for 48 h. None of the treatments had any immediate effect on Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 populations on the peanut or pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations declined immediately on the peanut and pistachio shells treated with aQUAT or ipQUAT. After incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut and pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations also increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut shells, but levels did not change on the water-treated pistachio shells and levels were just above the limit of detection on the aQUAT-treated pistachio shells. After treatment with ipQUAT and 48-h incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations decreased to or below the limit of detection on both shell types; L. monocytogenes populations remained at or below the limit of detection on both shell types.

  17. Effect of varying the number and location of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers on usage in a general inpatient medical unit.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin P; Homa, Karen; Kirkland, Kathryn B

    2013-09-01

    We sequentially increased the number of wall-mounted alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in a small medical unit to evaluate effects on hand hygiene performance. Above a certain point, addition of more dispensers did not increase hand hygiene frequency, which appeared to be influenced more by location than by total number of dispensers. PMID:23917917

  18. 7 CFR 3201.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... personal care use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care... substances and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... personal care use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care... substances and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... personal care use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care... substances and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand...

  1. Assessment of exposure to alcohol vapor from alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and H(2)SO(4). The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20-30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  2. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Internet. Examples of unproven claims found on product labels are kills over 99.9% of MRSA helps ... in distinguishing between reliable and questionable information on product labels and company websites. In general, wash hands often, ...

  3. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  4. Evaluation of two methods of determining the efficacies of two alcohol-based hand rubs for surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Heeg, Peter; Paulson, Daryl

    2006-06-01

    The antimicrobial efficacies of preparations for surgical hand antisepsis can be determined according to a European standard (prEN 12791 [EN]) and a U.S. standard (tentative final monograph for health care antiseptic drug products [TFM]). The U.S. method differs in the product application mode (hands and lower forearms, versus hands only in EN), the number of applications (11 over 5 days, versus a single application in EN), the sampling times (0, 3, and 6 h after application, versus 0 and 3 h in EN), the sampling methods (glove juice versus fingertip sampling in EN), and the outcome requirements (absolute bacterial reduction factor [RF], versus noninferiority to reference treatment in EN). We have studied the efficacies of two hand rubs according to both methods. One hand rub was based on 80% ethanol and applied for 2 min, and the other one was based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol, and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate and applied for 1.5 min. The ethanol-based hand rub was equally effective as the 3-min reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.97 +/- 0.89 versus 2.92 +/- 1.03, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.20 +/- 1.07 versus 2.47 +/- 1.25, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.99 log10 (day 1), 3.00 log10 (day 2), and 3.43 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. The propanol-based hand rub was even more effective than the reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.35 +/- 0.99 versus 1.86 +/- 0.87, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.17 +/- 1.00 versus 1.50 +/- 1.26, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.82 log10 (day 1), 3.29 log10 (day 2), and 3.25 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. Some formulations have been reported to meet the efficacy requirements of one of the methods but not those of the other. That is why we conclude that, despite our results, meeting the efficacy

  5. Clinical double-blind trial on the dermal tolerance and user acceptability of six alcohol-based hand disinfectants for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Bernig, T; Kampf, G

    2002-06-01

    Six commercially available alcohol-based hand rubs [AHD 2000, Desderman, Mucasept A, Manorapid (Poly-Alkohol, Spitacid, and Sterillium] were investigated in a clinical double-blind trial involving 10 participants who had no previous experience of using hand rubs (Group 1), and seven who had substantial professional experience of using hand rubs (Group 2; virology laboratory staff). Group 1 was studied for one week with 20 applications on day 1 and then five applications per day for six days. Transepidermal water loss, dermal water content and superficial sebum content of the skin were measured before and after the seven-day application of the products, as well as user acceptability (self-assessment of smell, speed of drying, emolliant effect, skin dryness). Group 2 used each preparation twice for two weeks in a random sequence, and carried out self assessment at the end of each fortnight. Transepidermal water loss (mean baseline: 18.7 g/m(2)h), dermal water content (mean baseline dorsum: 75.6) and superficial sebum content (mean baseline dorsum: 4.8 microg/cm(2)) did not change significantly. In both groups assessments of the smell and the speed of drying did not reveal any significant differences between the six products. Sterillium had the best emollient effect of all products (P<0.05; Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney-U test) and was significantly better than Desderman, AHD 2000, and Mucasept A, causing less skin dryness after seven days use in Group 1 (P<0.05; Mann-Whitney-U test). Manorapid caused significantly less dryness than Spitacid, AHD 2000, and Mucasept A in Group 2 after the first use, but no significant difference was observed after the second use. Thus alcohol-based hand rubs that contain emolliants, irrespective of the type of alcohol (n-propanol, iso-propanol or ethanol), are well tolerated and do not dry out or irritate the skin. Personal assessments showed significant differences for the emolliant effect and the extent of dryness. Both factors are

  6. Low Rates of Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Alcohol-Based Hand Hygiene Solution during Prolonged Use in a Large Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Graham, M.; Nixon, R.; Burrell, L. J.; Bolger, C.; Johnson, P. D. R.; Grayson, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed cutaneous adverse reactions (CARs) to alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) after the introduction of a hand hygiene culture change program at our institution. CARs were infrequent among exposed health care workers (HCWs) (13/2,750; 0.47%; 1 CAR per 72 years of HCW exposure) and were not influenced by the duration or intensity of ABHR use but were associated with the presence of irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:16189134

  7. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

    2001-10-01

    Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group. PMID:11885342

  8. Evaluation of an Alcohol-Based Sanitizer Spray's Bactericidal Effects on Salmonella Inoculated onto Stainless Steel and Shell Egg Processing Equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Safety regulations are being drafted for the shell egg industry. Sanitation standard operating procedures are an important precursor to HACCP regulations. Salmonella is the pathogen was most often associated with egg-borne outbreaks. Developing effective sanitation procedures that wil...

  9. Evaluation of an alcohol-based sanitizer spray's bactericidal effects on Salmonella inoculated onto stainless steel and shell egg processing equipment.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . Improved sanitation procedures may reduce the risk of food-borne illness . Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of an alcohol-quaternary ammonium sanitizer or water to reduce Salmonella inoculated onto stainless steel and shell egg processing equipment. A nalidixic acid-resistant Sa...

  10. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A

    2000-04-01

    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer. PMID:10772215

  11. Real-time feedback for improving compliance to hand sanitization among healthcare workers in an open layout ICU using radiofrequency identification.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Kedar; Waghmare, Abijeet; Ekstrand, Maria; Raj, Tony; Selvam, Sumithra; Sreerama, Sai Madhukar; Sampath, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to increase hand sanitizer usage among healthcare workers by developing and implementing a low-cost intervention using RFID and wireless mesh networks to provide real-time alarms for increasing hand hygiene compliance during opportune moments in an open layout Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A wireless, RFID based system was developed and implemented in the ICU. The ICU beds were divded into an intervention arm (n = 10) and a control arm (n = 14). Passive RFID tags were issued to the doctors, nurses and support staff of the ICU. Long range RFID readers were positioned strategically. Sensors were placed beneath the hand sanitizers to record sanitizer usage. The system would alert the HCWs by flashing a light if an opportune moment for hand sanitization was detected. A significant increase in hand sanitizer use was noted in the intervention arm. Usage was highest during the early part of the workday and decreased as the day progressed. Hand wash events per person hour was highest among the ancilliary staff followed by the doctors and nurses. Real-time feedback has potential to increase hand hygiene compliance among HCWs. The system demonstrates the possibility of automating compliance monitoring in an ICU with an open layout. PMID:25957165

  12. REAL-TIME FEEDBACK FOR IMPROVING COMPLIANCE TO HAND SANITIZATION AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN AN OPEN LAYOUT ICU USING RADIOFREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Waghmare, Abijeet; Ekstrand, Maria; Raj, Tony; Selvam, Sumithra; Sreerama, Sai Madhukar; Sampath, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Objective To increase hand sanitizer usage among healthcare workers by developing and implementing a low-cost intervention using RFID and wireless mesh networks to provide real-time alarms for increasing hand hygiene compliance during opportune moments in an open layout Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Method A wireless, RFID based system was developed and deployed in the ICU. The ICU beds were divded into an intervention arm (n=10) and a control arm (n=14). Passive RFID tags were issued to the doctors, nurses and support staff of the ICU. Long range RFID readers were positioned strategically. Sensors were placed beneath the hand sanitizers to record sanitizer usage. The system would alert the HCWs by flashing a light if an opportune moment for hand sanitization was detected. Results A significant increase in hand sanitizer use was noted in the intervention arm. Usage was highest during the early part of the workday and decreased as the day progressed. Hand wash events per person hour was highest among the ancilliary staff followed by the doctors and nurses. Conclusion Real-time feedback has potential to increase hand hygiene compliance among HCWs. The system demonstrates the possibility of automating compliance monitoring in an ICU with an open layout. PMID:25957165

  13. Real-time feedback for improving compliance to hand sanitization among healthcare workers in an open layout ICU using radiofrequency identification.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Kedar; Waghmare, Abijeet; Ekstrand, Maria; Raj, Tony; Selvam, Sumithra; Sreerama, Sai Madhukar; Sampath, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to increase hand sanitizer usage among healthcare workers by developing and implementing a low-cost intervention using RFID and wireless mesh networks to provide real-time alarms for increasing hand hygiene compliance during opportune moments in an open layout Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A wireless, RFID based system was developed and implemented in the ICU. The ICU beds were divded into an intervention arm (n = 10) and a control arm (n = 14). Passive RFID tags were issued to the doctors, nurses and support staff of the ICU. Long range RFID readers were positioned strategically. Sensors were placed beneath the hand sanitizers to record sanitizer usage. The system would alert the HCWs by flashing a light if an opportune moment for hand sanitization was detected. A significant increase in hand sanitizer use was noted in the intervention arm. Usage was highest during the early part of the workday and decreased as the day progressed. Hand wash events per person hour was highest among the ancilliary staff followed by the doctors and nurses. Real-time feedback has potential to increase hand hygiene compliance among HCWs. The system demonstrates the possibility of automating compliance monitoring in an ICU with an open layout.

  14. Simulated Microbe Removal around Finger Rings Using Different Hand Sanitation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Alur, Archana A; Rane, Madhavi J; Scheetz, James P; Lorenz, Douglas J; Gettleman, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Aim It is our opinion that the CDC and the WHO have underestimated cross-contamination under examination gloves in dental clinics while wearing jewelry, such as finger rings. These agencies only “recommend” removing jewelry, and only washing hands for 15 seconds with soap and warm water before donning gloves. This study examined several washing procedures and finger rings using simulated microbes. Methodology A gloved rubber hand manikin was made and fitted with a fresh disposable vinyl glove. Four fingers were fitted with rings or no ring, dusted with simulated microbes, and washed with a scrub brush for 5, 15, and 25 seconds under 20°C and 40°C water alone, or with liquid hand soap. Light levels (in lux) of fluorescent powder before and after washing were measured and delta scores calculated for changes in light levels, equivalent to effectiveness of hand washing procedures. A full-factorial, 3-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences among levels of the three study factors—time, temperature, and soap use. Tukey's post hoc honestly significant difference (HSD) test was applied to significant factors to examine pair-wise differences between factor levels. Results It was found that the longer the hands with rings were washed with a scrub brush under flowing water, the more simulated microbes were removed. By 25 seconds, all methods were essentially the same. Simulated microbes were more difficult to remove from the palm compared to the back of the hand. The liquid hand soap used in this study was more effective with warm water than cold. When given a choice of washing with cold water up to 15 seconds, it would be preferable not to use soap to remove simulated microbes. Qualitatively, the outer surface of finger rings were more effectively cleaned than the crevice below the ring, and the ring with a stone setting appeared to accumulate and retain simulated microbes more than other rings. Conclusion The most effective treatment was

  15. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Emily; Le Saux, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Background Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer interventions in the elementary school setting. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Absenteeism due to communicable illness was the primary outcome variable. Results Six eligible studies, two of which were randomized, were identified (5 published studies, 1 published abstract). The quality of reporting was low. Due to a large amount of heterogeneity and low quality of reporting, no pooled estimates were calculated. There was a significant difference reported in favor of the intervention in all 5 published studies. Conclusions The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school operating costs, healthcare costs and parental absenteeism, a well-designed and analyzed trial is needed to optimize this hand hygiene technique. PMID:15518593

  16. Delayed norovirus epidemic in the 2009-2010 season in Japan: potential relationship with intensive hand sanitizer use for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Inaida, S; Shobugawa, Y; Matsuno, S; Saito, R; Suzuki, H

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) epidemics normally peak in December in Japan; however, the peak in the 2009-2010 season was delayed until the fourth week of January 2010. We suspected intensive hand hygiene that was conducted for a previous pandemic influenza in 2009 as the cause of this delay. We analysed the NoV epidemic trend, based on national surveillance data, and its associations with monthly output data for hand hygiene products, including alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap. The delayed peak in the NoV incidence in the 2009-2010 season had the lowest number of recorded cases of the five seasons studied (2006-2007 to 2010-2011). GII.4 was the most commonly occurring genotype. The monthly relative risk of NoV and monthly output of both alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap were significantly and negatively correlated. Our findings suggest an association between hand hygiene using these products and prevention of NoV transmission. PMID:27301793

  17. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.

  18. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications. PMID:11759028

  19. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    PubMed

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study. PMID:11420346

  20. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    PubMed

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  1. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    PubMed Central

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  2. Impact of a School-Based Hygiene Promotion and Sanitation Intervention on Pupil Hand Contamination in Western Kenya: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Leslie E.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Akoko, Daniel; Saboori, Shadi; Moe, Christine; Rheingans, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Handwashing with soap effectively reduces exposure to diarrhea-causing pathogens. Interventions to improve hygiene and sanitation conditions in schools within low-income countries have gained increased attention; however, their impact on schoolchildren's exposure to fecal pathogens has not been established. Our trial examined whether a school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention reduced Escherichia coli contamination on pupils' hands in western Kenya. A hygiene promotion and water treatment intervention did not reduce risk of E. coli presence (relative risk [RR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54–1.56); the addition of new latrines to intervention schools significantly increased risk among girls (RR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.29–5.34), with a non-significant increase among boys (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.74–2.49). Efforts to increase usage of school latrines by constructing new facilities may pose a risk to children in the absence of sufficient hygiene behavior change, daily provision of soap and water, and anal cleansing materials. PMID:22802437

  3. Who Takes Precautionary Action in the Face of the New H1N1 Influenza? Prediction of Who Collects a Free Hand Sanitizer Using a Health Behavior Model

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Tabea; Renner, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to fight the spread of the novel H1N1 influenza, health authorities worldwide called for a change in hygiene behavior. Within a longitudinal study, we examined who collected a free bottle of hand sanitizer towards the end of the first swine flu pandemic wave in December 2009. Methods 629 participants took part in a longitudinal study assessing perceived likelihood and severity of an H1N1 infection, and H1N1 influenza related negative affect (i.e., feelings of threat, concern, and worry) at T1 (October 2009, week 43–44) and T2 (December 2009, week 51–52). Importantly, all participants received a voucher for a bottle of hand sanitizer at T2 which could be redeemed in a university office newly established for this occasion at T3 (ranging between 1–4 days after T2). Results Both a sequential longitudinal model (M2) as well as a change score model (M3) showed that greater perceived likelihood and severity at T1 (M2) or changes in perceived likelihood and severity between T1 and T2 (M3) did not directly drive protective behavior (T3), but showed a significant indirect impact on behavior through H1N1 influenza related negative affect. Specifically, increases in perceived likelihood (β = .12), severity (β = .24) and their interaction (β = .13) were associated with a more pronounced change in negative affect (M3). The more threatened, concerned and worried people felt (T2), the more likely they were to redeem the voucher at T3 (OR = 1.20). Conclusions Affective components need to be considered in health behavior models. Perceived likelihood and severity of an influenza infection represent necessary but not sufficient self-referential knowledge for paving the way for preventive behaviors. PMID:21789224

  4. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?-An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0-35 mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

  5. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?-An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0-35 mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis.

  6. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0–35 mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

  7. Efficacy of waterless hand hygiene compared with handwashing with soap: a field study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  8. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  9. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID

  10. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  11. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  12. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

  13. Self-reported hand hygiene perceptions and barriers among companion animal veterinary clinic personnel in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C; Weese, J Scott

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. PMID:26933265

  14. Self-reported hand hygiene perceptions and barriers among companion animal veterinary clinic personnel in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Maureen E.C.; Weese, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. PMID:26933265

  15. Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries. Methods: Data used in this paper were obtained from different information sources: international and national journal articles and reports, web-based statistics, and fact sheets. We used both online search and hand search methods to gather the information. Results: Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the economic cost associated with poor sanitation is substantial. At the global level, failure to meet the MDG water and sanitation target would have ramifications in the area of US$38 billion, and sanitation accounts for 92% of this amount. In developing countries, the spending required to provide new coverage to meet the MDG sanitation target (not including program costs) is US$142 billion (US$ year 2005). This translates to a per capita spending of US$28 for sanitation. Annually, this translates to roughly US$14 million. The evidence complied in this paper demonstrates that investing in sanitation is socially and economically worthwhile. For every US$1 invested, achieving the sanitation MDG target and universal sanitation access in the non-OECD countries would result in a global return of US$9.1 and US$11.2, respectively. Conclusion: Given the current state of knowledge, sanitation is

  16. Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... your family by following these steps Hygiene and Sanitation From the CDC Water-Related Emergencies and Outbreaks ...

  17. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  18. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  19. Impact of a Comprehensive Workplace Hand Hygiene Program on Employer Health Care Insurance Claims and Costs, Absenteeism, and Employee Perceptions and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, James W.; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Jarvis, William R.; Harpster-Hagen, Amanda; Hughes, Jillian; Parker, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a multimodal hand hygiene intervention program in reducing health care insurance claims for hygiene preventable infections (eg, cold and influenza), absenteeism, and subjective impact on employees. Methods: A 13.5-month prospective, randomized cluster controlled trial was executed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer in strategic workplace locations and personal use (intervention group) and brief hand hygiene education (both groups). Four years of retrospective data were collected for all participants. Results: Hygiene-preventable health care claims were significantly reduced in the intervention group by over 20% (P < 0.05). Absenteeism was positively impacted overall for the intervention group. Employee survey data showed significant improvements in hand hygiene behavior and perception of company concern for employee well-being. Conclusion: Providing a comprehensive, targeted, yet simple to execute hand hygiene program significantly reduced the incidence of health care claims and increased employee workplace satisfaction. PMID:27281645

  20. 29 CFR 1915.88 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sanitation facilities. (2) The employer shall establish and implement a schedule for servicing, cleaning, and... water for other purposes such as firefighting and cleaning outdoor premises so long as it does not... washing their hands and face at the end of the workshift and prior to eating, drinking, or smoking....

  1. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  2. Environment sanitation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The environmental Sanitation handbook provides guidance in the implementation of the basic provisions of occupational medicine and environmental health programs to environmental sanitation. It presents methods and procedures useful for the control of those sanitation factors which could create discomfort and illness in man or do harm to his environment. The provisions of this handbook are applicable to all organizational elements of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC),NASA, and to its associated contractors located at KSC in accordance with the terms of their respective contracts.

  3. An evaluation of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit: Are visitors a potential vector for pathogens?

    PubMed

    Birnbach, David J; Rosen, Lisa F; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Arheart, Kristopher L; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) are frequently immunocompromised and might be highly susceptible to infection. Visitors to an ICU who do not adequately clean their hands could carry pathogenic organisms, resulting in risk to a vulnerable patient population. This observational study identifies pathogens carried on the hands of visitors into an ICU and investigates the effect of hand hygiene. Two observers, one stationed outside and one inside the ICU, evaluated whether visitors performed hand hygiene at any of the wall-mounted alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers prior to reaching a patient's room. Upon reaching a patient's room, the dominant hand of all of the participants was cultured. Of the 55 participating visitors, 35 did not disinfect their hands. Among the cultures of those who failed to perform hand hygiene, eight cultures grew Gram-negative rods and one grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Of the cultures of the 20 individuals who performed hand hygiene, 14 (70%) had no growth on the cultures, and the remaining six (30%) showed only the usual skin flora. The visitors who do not perform hand hygiene might carry pathogens that pose a risk to ICU patients.

  4. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  5. The sanitation ladder, what constitutes an improved form of sanitation?

    PubMed

    Exley, Josephine L R; Liseka, Bernard; Cumming, Oliver; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2015-01-20

    This study aimed to assess whether the MDG classifications and JMP sanitation ladder corresponded to hygienic proxies. Latrines were purposefully sampled in urban and rural Tanzania. Three hygienic proxies were measured: E. coli on points of hand contact, helminth at point of foot contact, and number of flies. Additionally, samples were collected from comparable surfaces in the household, and a questionnaire on management and use, combined with a visual inspection of the latrine's design was conducted. In total, 341 latrines were sampled. The MDG classifications "improved" vs "unimproved" did not describe the observed differences in E. coli concentrations. Disaggregating the data into the JMP sanitation ladder, on average "shared" facilities were the least contaminated: 9.2 vs 17.7 ("improved") and 137 E. coli/100 mL ("unimproved") (p = 0.04, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis suggests that both the presence of a slab and sharing a facility is protective against faecal-oral exposure (OR 0.18 95% CI 0.10, 0.34 and OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29, 0.92). The findings do not support the current assumption that shared facilities of an adequate technology should be classified for MDG purposes as "unimproved".

  6. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. PMID:27515139

  7. A comparison of hand washing techniques to remove Escherichia coli and caliciviruses under natural or artificial fingernails.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Min; Wu, Fone-Mao; Kim, Hoi-Kyung; Doyle, Michael P; Michael, Barry S; Williams, L Keoki

    2003-12-01

    Compared with other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. Artificial fingernails, which are usually long and polished, reportedly harbor higher microbial populations than natural nails. Hence, the efficacy of different hand washing methods for removing microbes from natural and artificial fingernails was evaluated. Strains of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli JM109 and feline calicivirus (FCV) strain F9 were used as bacterial and viral indicators, respectively. Volunteers with artificial or natural nails were artificially contaminated with ground beef containing E. coli JM109 or artificial feces containing FCV. Volunteers washed their hands with tap water, regular liquid soap, antibacterial liquid soap, alcohol-based hand sanitizer gel, regular liquid soap followed by alcohol gel, or regular liquid soap plus a nailbrush. The greatest reduction of inoculated microbial populations was obtained by washing with liquid soap plus a nailbrush, and the least reduction was obtained by rubbing hands with alcohol gel. Lower but not significantly different (P > 0.05) reductions of E. coli and FCV counts were obtained from beneath artificial than from natural fingernails. However, significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher E. coli and FCV counts were recovered from hands with artificial nails than from natural nails before and after hand washing. In addition, microbial cell numbers were correlated with fingernail length, with greater numbers beneath fingernails with longer nails. These results indicate that best practices for fingernail sanitation of food handlers are to maintain short fingernails and scrub fingernails with soap and a nailbrush when washing hands.

  8. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  9. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene.

  10. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  11. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  12. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  13. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  14. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... used for hatching purposes and should be collected in a separate container from the nest eggs....

  15. Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sanitizers and disinfectants can play an important role in protecting public health. They are designed to kill "pests," including infectious germs and other microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Unfortunately, sanitizers and disinfectants also contain chemicals that are "pesticides." Exposure to persistent toxic chemicals in…

  16. SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; Mann, James; McCormack, Robert R; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M; Arbogast, James W; Dolan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The risk of inadequate hand hygiene in food handling settings is exacerbated when water is limited or unavailable, thereby making washing with soap and water difficult. The SaniTwice method involves application of excess alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), hand "washing" for 15 s, and thorough cleaning with paper towels while hands are still wet, followed by a standard application of ABHS. This study investigated the effectiveness of the SaniTwice methodology as an alternative to hand washing for cleaning and removal of microorganisms. On hands moderately soiled with beef broth containing Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), washing with a nonantimicrobial hand washing product achieved a 2.86 (±0.64)-log reduction in microbial contamination compared with the baseline, whereas the SaniTwice method with 62 % ethanol (EtOH) gel, 62 % EtOH foam, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.64 ± 0.89, 3.64 ± 0.57, and 4.61 ± 0.33 log units, respectively. When hands were heavily soiled from handling raw hamburger containing E. coli, washing with nonantimicrobial hand washing product and antimicrobial hand washing product achieved reductions of 2.65 ± 0.33 and 2.69 ± 0.32 log units, respectively, whereas SaniTwice with 62 % EtOH foam, 70 % EtOH gel, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.87 ± 0.42, 2.99 ± 0.51, and 3.92 ± 0.65 log units, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the SaniTwice regimen with various ABHS is equivalent to or exceeds that of the standard hand washing approach as specified in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code. Implementation of the SaniTwice regimen in food handling settings with limited water availability should significantly reduce the risk of foodborne infections resulting from inadequate hand hygiene.

  17. SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; Mann, James; McCormack, Robert R; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M; Arbogast, James W; Dolan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The risk of inadequate hand hygiene in food handling settings is exacerbated when water is limited or unavailable, thereby making washing with soap and water difficult. The SaniTwice method involves application of excess alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), hand "washing" for 15 s, and thorough cleaning with paper towels while hands are still wet, followed by a standard application of ABHS. This study investigated the effectiveness of the SaniTwice methodology as an alternative to hand washing for cleaning and removal of microorganisms. On hands moderately soiled with beef broth containing Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), washing with a nonantimicrobial hand washing product achieved a 2.86 (±0.64)-log reduction in microbial contamination compared with the baseline, whereas the SaniTwice method with 62 % ethanol (EtOH) gel, 62 % EtOH foam, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.64 ± 0.89, 3.64 ± 0.57, and 4.61 ± 0.33 log units, respectively. When hands were heavily soiled from handling raw hamburger containing E. coli, washing with nonantimicrobial hand washing product and antimicrobial hand washing product achieved reductions of 2.65 ± 0.33 and 2.69 ± 0.32 log units, respectively, whereas SaniTwice with 62 % EtOH foam, 70 % EtOH gel, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.87 ± 0.42, 2.99 ± 0.51, and 3.92 ± 0.65 log units, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the SaniTwice regimen with various ABHS is equivalent to or exceeds that of the standard hand washing approach as specified in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code. Implementation of the SaniTwice regimen in food handling settings with limited water availability should significantly reduce the risk of foodborne infections resulting from inadequate hand hygiene. PMID:21219752

  18. [Evidence-based and promising interventions to prevent infectious diseases among youth as a result of poor hand hygiene in schools: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Hélène; Nugier, Angélique; Clément, Juliette; Lamboy, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a major cause of death among young people throughout the world. This paper reviews the current knowledge of empirically validated and promising interventions aimed at preventing infectious diseases among children caused by poor hand hygiene in schools. The study used a standard protocol to identify and review the literature and to classify the selected interventions. Approximately ten interventions were found to have a beneficial effect by promoting hand washing and hand hygiene in schools. The study also found that most of the interventions were implemented at elementary school. However, some interventions were also implemented at kindergarten or in child care centers, while others were aimed at university students. Most of the interventions were implemented by teachers, peers and/or external professionals. The study found that hand hygiene is effective regardless of the type of cleaning product used (i.e. antibacterial or plain soap, alcohol-based or alcohol-free hand sanitizer). This study aims to contribute to the understanding of empirically validated and promising interventions and to promote reflection on professional practice in France. PMID:23782636

  19. Cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogels for reconfigurable lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaramudu, T.; Ko, Hyun-U.; Gao, Xiaoyuan; Li, Yaguang; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-04-01

    Electroactive hydrogels are attractive for soft robotics and reconfigurable lens applications. Here we describe the design and fabrication of cellulose-poly vinyl alcohol based hydrogels. The fabricated hydrogels were confirmed by Fourier transformer spectroscopy, swelling studies, thermal analysis, surface morphology of fabricated hydrogel was study by using scanning electron microscopy. The effect of poly vinyl alcohol concentration on the optical and electrical behavior of hydrogels was studied.

  20. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  1. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  2. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27198209

  3. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  4. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs... Sanitation. (a) Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall... assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules,...

  5. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  7. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  8. Hygienic safety of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Katrin; Meyer, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Rödger, Hans-Joachim; Hintzpeter, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund: Ziel dieser Untersuchung war die Klärung der Fragestellung, inwiefern eine Kontamination alkoholbasierter Händedesinfektionsmittel und Antiseptika mit bakteriellen Sporen ein gesundheitliches Risiko darstellen kann. Dabei wurde insbesondere die Möglichkeit einer Kontamination mit bakteriellen Sporen im Zuge des Produktionsprozesses sowie der späteren Verwendung untersucht.Methode: Es wurden umfangreiche mikrobiologische Untersuchungen der Primärpackmittel durchgeführt, um den mikrobiologischen Status bewerten zu können. Des Weiteren wurde die Langzeitüberlebensfähigkeit bakterieller Sporen in Alkohol untersucht. Dabei wurde sporulierter B. subtilis ATCC 6633 als Standardtestorganismus verwendet. Die Untersuchung der mikrobiellen Kontamination während der Anwendung wurde über einen Zeitraum von 12 Monaten unter praktischen Bedingungen untersucht. Dabei wurden mikrobiologische und physiko-chemische Daten erhoben.Ergebnisse: Von insgesamt 625 untersuchten Primärverpackungen konnte bei 542 Verpackungen keinerlei mikrobielle Kontamination nachgewiesen werden. Der Median lag insgesamt bei 0,2 cfu/10 ml Verpackungsgefäß in Bezug auf aerobe sporenbildende Bakterien. Es wurden keine anaeroben sporenbildenden Bakterien gefunden. Die Untersuchung ergab weiterhin, dass aliphatische C2–C3 Alkohole die Lebensfähigkeit bakterieller Sporen beeinträchtigen. Dabei zeigte 1-Propanol die beste Wirksamkeit. 2-Propanol und Ethanol waren ebenfalls wirksam, jedoch in geringerem Umfang. Im Rahmen der Anwendungstests wurden keinerlei Veränderungen der physiko-chemischen Daten detektiert. Des Weiteren wurde keinerlei mikrobielle Kontamination über den gesamten Anwendungszeitraum nachgewiesen.Diskussion: Die Daten dieser Untersuchung zeigen, dass mit Hilfe moderner Produktionsprozesse hergestellte alkoholbasierte Händedesinfektionsmittel und Antiseptika als mikrobiologisch sicher betrachtet werden können. Die Untersuchung von Primärpackmitteln und wiederholter Anwendung zeigt, dass von diesen kein signifikantes Risiko im Hinblick auf eine Kontamination mit bakteriellen Sporen ausgeht. Basierend auf den Daten dieser Untersuchung wird ein mikrobiologischer Kontrollwert von <1 KBE/10 ml für Fertigwaren empfohlen, um eine hohe Produktsicherheit zu gewährleisten.

  9. Quantifying accessibility and use of improved sanitation: towards a comprehensive indicator of the need for sanitation interventions.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Clements, A C A; Gray, D J; Sadler, R; Laksono, B; Stewart, D E

    2016-01-01

    To prevent diseases associated with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene, people needing latrines and behavioural interventions must be identified. We compared two indicators that could be used to identify those people. Indicator 1 of household latrine coverage was a simple Yes/No response to the question "Does your household have a latrine?" Indicator 2 was more comprehensive, combining questions about defecation behaviour with observations of latrine conditions. Using a standardized procedure and questionnaire, trained research assistants collected data from 6,599 residents of 16 rural villages in Indonesia. Indicator 1 identified 30.3% as not having a household latrine, while Indicator 2 identified 56.0% as using unimproved sanitation. Indicator 2 thus identified an additional 1,710 people who were missed by Indicator 1. Those 1,710 people were of lower socioeconomic status (p < 0.001), and a smaller percentage practiced appropriate hand-washing (p < 0.02). These results show how a good indicator of need for sanitation and hygiene interventions can combine evidences of both access and use, from self-reports and objective observation. Such an indicator can inform decisions about sanitation-related interventions and about scaling deworming programmes up or down. Further, a comprehensive and locally relevant indicator allows improved targeting to those most in need of a hygiene-behaviour intervention. PMID:27452598

  10. Quantifying accessibility and use of improved sanitation: towards a comprehensive indicator of the need for sanitation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Park, M. J.; Clements, A. C. A.; Gray, D. J.; Sadler, R.; Laksono, B.; Stewart, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    To prevent diseases associated with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene, people needing latrines and behavioural interventions must be identified. We compared two indicators that could be used to identify those people. Indicator 1 of household latrine coverage was a simple Yes/No response to the question “Does your household have a latrine?” Indicator 2 was more comprehensive, combining questions about defecation behaviour with observations of latrine conditions. Using a standardized procedure and questionnaire, trained research assistants collected data from 6,599 residents of 16 rural villages in Indonesia. Indicator 1 identified 30.3% as not having a household latrine, while Indicator 2 identified 56.0% as using unimproved sanitation. Indicator 2 thus identified an additional 1,710 people who were missed by Indicator 1. Those 1,710 people were of lower socioeconomic status (p < 0.001), and a smaller percentage practiced appropriate hand-washing (p < 0.02). These results show how a good indicator of need for sanitation and hygiene interventions can combine evidences of both access and use, from self-reports and objective observation. Such an indicator can inform decisions about sanitation-related interventions and about scaling deworming programmes up or down. Further, a comprehensive and locally relevant indicator allows improved targeting to those most in need of a hygiene-behaviour intervention. PMID:27452598

  11. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  12. Restaurant Sanitation: A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Walter J.

    1974-01-01

    The new approach taken by the New York City Health Department to the problems of surveillance and maintenance of high sanitation standards in food service establishments is explained. Results of a pilot study are presented followed by the new procedures and evaluation. Future plans are then indicated. (LS)

  13. Sanitation Practices for Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    Specifically designed to assist child care food service personnel in providing wholesome food in a safe and sanitary manner, this sanitation guide interprets and expands on Chapter HSS 55 of the Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services' code for licensing activities. Following a brief introduction, chapters 2 through 7 focus on…

  14. Replace hand washing with use of a waterless alcohol hand rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2000-07-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the basic components of any infection control program and is frequently considered synonymous with hand washing. However, health care workers frequently do not wash their hands, and compliance rarely exceeds 40%. Hand rubbing with a waterless, alcohol-based rub-in cleanser is commonly used in many European countries instead of hand washing. Scientific evidence and ease of use support employment of a hand rub for routine hand hygiene. It is microbiologically more effective in vitro and in vivo, it saves time, and preliminary data demonstrate better compliance than with hand washing. Therefore, a task force comprising experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and from professional societies is designing guidelines for the use of a hand rub in the United States. Today, most countries of Northern Europe recommend a hand rub for hand hygiene unless the hands are visibly soiled. Side effects are rare and are mainly related to dryness of the skin. This review evaluates the scientific and clinical evidence that support the use of alcohol-based hand rubs in health care facilities as a new option for hand hygiene.

  15. State-of-the-art hand hygiene in community medicine.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter

    2003-10-01

    Hand hygiene becomes more important in community medicine not only since antibiotic resistant bacteria such as MRSA spread within the community. Hands may be colonized with transient microorganism in up to 75%. Among those transient pathogens S. aureus, C. difficile or the hepatitis C virus may be found. During patient care the number of microorganisms on the hands steadily increases. In addition hands may be contaminated with different kinds of germs even if only "clean" activities are carried out. Gloves may be worn but do not provide complete protection from contamination due to leaks. Therefore hands should always be treated after gloves are taken off. State-of-the-art treatment of hands is the hygienic hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. They are more effective, quicker to carry out, better tolerated by the skin, with a positive effect on compliance, and cost effective in comparison to antiseptic soaps based on chlorhexidine or triclosan and in comparison to normal non-medicated soaps. Healthy skin easily tolerates alcohol-based products from the beginning on. Only health care workers with an underlying irritative contact dermatitis which is often caused by bar or liquid antiseptic soaps may have difficulties to use alcohol-based products initially. In such a case treatment of the underlying skin condition is the way to go and not staying with a preparation which has caused the dermatitis. All this knowledge is now reflected in current guidelines on hand hygiene. Beside liquids alcohol-based gels can be used if they have an antimicrobial activity equal to alcohol-based liquid preparations. Hand hygiene remains the single most important tool to avoid cross transmission of microorganisms between patients. This state-of-the-art hand hygiene should also be emphasized more in community medicine. This review may help to go the first step into this direction. PMID:14626894

  16. Occupational safety and health status of sanitation workers in urban areas: a pilot study from Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanhong; Yu, Jincong; Zhang, Xiaochang; Liang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Sanitation workers' workload increases quickly with rapid urbanization, but there is almost no evidence or policy recommendations for their management in developing countries. This study describes the health status and occupational protection of sanitation workers; it also explores risk factors related to their health status in Wuhan City, China. Three hundred and eighty-five sanitation workers from 54 streets of Wuhan were surveyed. Their prevalence of 2-week illness and arthritis was relatively higher than in the general population in China. Findings related to occupational protection showed that both sanitation workers (users) and their managers (providers) neglected the role of low-cost protection measures, especially masks, soap/hand sanitizer and prejob training (use rate of 7.27%, 26.75% and 43.64%, respectively). High-intensity workload was an important risk factor for 2-week illness, and prejob training was an important protective factor against arthritis.

  17. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  18. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.12 Development of Sanitation SOP's. (a) The Sanitation SOP's shall describe all... direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) The Sanitation SOP's shall be signed and dated...

  19. Impact of ring wearing on hand contamination and comparison of hand hygiene agents in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Trick, William E; Vernon, Michael O; Hayes, Robert A; Nathan, Catherine; Rice, Thomas W; Peterson, Brian J; Segreti, John; Welbel, Sharon F; Solomon, Steven L; Weinstein, Robert A

    2003-06-01

    We determined risk factors for hand contamination and compared the efficacy of 3 randomly allocated hand hygiene agents in a group of surgical intensive care unit nurses. We cultured samples of one of the subjects' hands before and samples of the other hand after hand hygiene was performed. Ring wearing was associated with 10-fold higher median skin organism counts; contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacilli, or Candida species; and a stepwise increased risk of contamination with any transient organism as the number of rings worn increased (odds ratio [OR] for 1 ring worn, 2.6; OR for >1 ring worn, 4.6). Compared with use of plain soap and water, hand contamination with any transient organism was significantly less likely after use of an alcohol-based hand rub (OR, 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.8) but not after use of a medicated hand wipe (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5-1.6). Ring wearing increased the frequency of hand contamination with potential nosocomial pathogens. Use of an alcohol-based hand rub resulted in significantly less frequent hand contamination.

  20. Household demand for improved sanitation services in Kumasi, Ghana: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Dale; Lauria, Donald T.; Wright, Albert M.; Choe, Kyeongae; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Swarna, Venkateswarlu

    1993-06-01

    A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying for their existing sanitation system (mostly public and bucket latrines), but in absolute terms the potential revenues from households are not large, of the order of US$1.40 per household per month (about 1-2% of household income). The results of the study confirm the conventional wisdom that conventional sewerage is not affordable to the vast majority of households without massive government subsidies. On the other hand, it appears that only modest subsidies are required to achieve relatively high levels of coverage with on-site sanitation (improved ventilated pit latrines). This is because improved ventilated pit latrines are much cheaper than conventional sewerage and because most households are willing to pay about as much for a ventilated pit latrine as for a water closet connected to a sewer. Several tests were conducted to check the accuracy of respondents' answers to contingent valuation questions. The findings indicate that contingent valuation surveys can be successfully carried out in cities in developing countries for public services such as sanitation and that reasonably reliable information can be obtained on household demand for different sanitation technologies.

  1. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence sustainability. Regional sustainability indicator results showed there was a statistically significant decline in access to water. The presence of sanitation facilities had not changed since the beginning of the project; however, maintenance and use of latrines declined but continued to meet the goal of 75% use after 7 years. The hygiene indicator, hand washing, initially declined and then increased. Declines in water access were due to operational problems related to storm events and population changes. Sanitation facilities were still present and sometimes used even though they reached or surpassed their original design life. Changes in hygiene practices appeared related to ongoing hygiene promotion from outside organizations. These results provide useful input for making WASH programs more sustainable and informing future, more in-depth research into factors influencing sustainability. PMID:26413262

  2. Photodynamic treatment for surface sanitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, Lubov; Romanova, Nadya A.; Leslie, Christina; Ollivier, Helene; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2005-09-01

    The bactericidal effect of visible light illumination on bacteria treated with non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) has been shown previously, its effectiveness depended on both cell type and nature of photosensitizer used. The photosensitizer (PS)-mediated bactericidal effect of light against different types of microorganisms including vegetative bacteria (both in planktonic form and in biofilms), bacterial spores, yeasts, viruses was investigated for both cells in liquid media, and on surface. Bactericidal effect was monitored for different photosensitizer such as TBO and derivatives of rosamine at different concentrations. The possibility of using photodynamic treatment for surface sanitation was investigated.

  3. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  4. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  5. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  6. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  8. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  9. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  10. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  11. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  12. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  13. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  14. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  15. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  16. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  17. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  18. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  19. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  20. Global challenges in water, sanitation and health.

    PubMed

    Moe, Christine L; Rheingans, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    The year 2005 marks the beginning of the "International Decade for Action: Water for Life" and renewed effort to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) to reduce by half the proportion of the world's population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. Currently, UNICEF and WHO estimate that 1.1 billion people lack access to improved water supplies and 2.6 billion people lack adequate sanitation. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the MDGs will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. We review five major challenges to providing safe water and sanitation on a global basis: (1) contamination of water in distribution systems, (2) growing water scarcity and the potential for water reuse and conservation, (3) implementing innovative low-cost sanitation systems, (4) providing sustainable water supplies and sanitation for megacities, and (5) reducing global and regional disparities in access to water and sanitation and developing financially sustainable water and sanitation services.

  1. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Katmai National Park and Preserve Brooks Camp Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the...

  2. Assessment of a Foodservice Management Sanitation Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charlotte C.; Casey, Ralph

    1979-01-01

    This study determined the extent to which a course in foodservice sanitation using National Institute for the Foodservice Industry materials affected the postcourse sanitation inspection scores in selected establishments. Both experimental and control establishments had significantly higher inspection scores after the course than they had prior to…

  3. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  4. From conventional to advanced environmental sanitation.

    PubMed

    Schertenleib, R

    2005-01-01

    The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems goes back more than 100 years and became in the last century the conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas. Over the years, these sewage disposal systems had to be successively upgraded by additional sewage treatment plants increasing investment, operating and maintenance costs. Although these conventional sanitation systems could improve significantly the public health situation in those countries who could afford to install and operate them, it is highly questionable, if they are economically and ecologically sustainable. The large number of people in the developing world who still do not have access to adequate sanitation is a clear indication that the conventional approach to sanitation is not adapted to the socio-economic condition prevailing in most countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Advanced environmental sanitation is aiming not only to protect public health and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems but also to conserve precious freshwater and non-renewable resources. The Bellagio Principles and the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach (HCES) are suggested as guiding principles and a new approach for planing and designing advanced (sustainable) environmental sanitation systems. PMID:16104400

  5. From conventional to advanced environmental sanitation.

    PubMed

    Schertenleib, R

    2005-01-01

    The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems goes back more than 100 years and became in the last century the conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas. Over the years, these sewage disposal systems had to be successively upgraded by additional sewage treatment plants increasing investment, operating and maintenance costs. Although these conventional sanitation systems could improve significantly the public health situation in those countries who could afford to install and operate them, it is highly questionable, if they are economically and ecologically sustainable. The large number of people in the developing world who still do not have access to adequate sanitation is a clear indication that the conventional approach to sanitation is not adapted to the socio-economic condition prevailing in most countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Advanced environmental sanitation is aiming not only to protect public health and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems but also to conserve precious freshwater and non-renewable resources. The Bellagio Principles and the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach (HCES) are suggested as guiding principles and a new approach for planing and designing advanced (sustainable) environmental sanitation systems.

  6. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  7. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.14 Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing...

  8. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  9. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.14 Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing...

  10. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.14 Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing...

  11. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  12. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy.

  13. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  14. Chapped hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... mild soaps or non-soap cleansers Use moisturizing lotions on your hands regularly, especially if you live ... To soothe chapped and sore hands: Apply skin lotion frequently (if this does not work, try creams ...

  15. Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella recovered from non-sanitized and sanitized broiler hatching eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitizing hatching eggs may reduce the chances that a flock will become colonized with Salmonella and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae, that can depress hatchability. An experiment was conducted to determine if a quaternary-biguanide sanitizer applied as foam ...

  16. The virucidal effect against murine norovirus and feline calicivirus as surrogates for human norovirus by ethanol-based sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Onda, Yuko; Akasaka, Tempei; Yagyu, Fumihiro; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Tohya, Yukinobu; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the virucidal effects of five types of alcohol-based sanitizers including malic acid and sodium malate, or monoethanolamin, in 58 vol % ethanol (pH 4.0, pH 7.1, pH 11.8), 65 vol % ethanol (pH 4.2), and 75 vol % ethanol (pH 4.4) against murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). The virus titer of MNV was reduced in an ethanol dose-dependent manner under the same pH (about 4.0) condition. Virucidal effect against MNV was correlated with pH when the concentration of ethanol was constant (58 vol %). All the ethanol-based sanitizers provided sufficient virucidal effects against FCV. In conclusion, the virucidal effect of the ethanol-based sanitizer at low concentration of ethanol against norovirus (NoV) is increased when the pH is adjusted to a neutral state. PMID:23135829

  17. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  18. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby.

  19. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  20. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  1. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  2. Water and Sanitation Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Ersel, Murat

    2015-10-01

    The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH - (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion) programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security. PMID:27437529

  3. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section...

  4. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  5. Defining alternative rules in water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Robert, J

    1995-11-01

    While the conventional water and sanitation package remains most prominent, alternatives exist to conventional waterworks and sanitation practices. Some alternate courses of action are considered. Promising an unprecedented availability of piped water, water development projects foster a pump-and-dump mentality even before they are completed. Often simply announcing the impending implementation of such projects encourages the intention among future beneficiaries to waste water resources. Alternatives to the domestic waste of water must be sought and implemented. Disestablishing water development, styles of alternative water technologies, decision-making and decision-makers, water policy scale, regenerating community access to sources, and water pricing are discussed. PMID:12293526

  6. Sanitation characteristics of some food processing industries.

    PubMed

    El-Tawila, M M; Ashour, M; Awad, O; Al Morshedy, H; Hassan, M

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sanitary conditions surrounding the food throughout the production stages in some food plants. Observation of the sanitary measures of the studied plants revealed that only 3 out of the 7 plants (42.9%) have acceptable sanitation that complies with the sanitary requirements specified by WHO. Personal hygiene and storage conditions were the most critical problems found in the studied plants. Laboratory examination of nasal and throat swabs and stool samples of workers was carried out to uncover the chronic carriers. Among the food handlers examined 46.3% were positive for intestinal parasites. Bacteriological examination of stool specimens revealed that 4.3% of carriers of Salmonella paratyphi and none were carriers of Vibreo species. Nasal swabs were also positive for Staph. aureus in 29.8% of all the examined swabs. Analysis of the main products of the studied plants revealed generally that the bacterial load of the products of plants having acceptable sanitary conditions was lower than that of the products of the other plants. The frozen vegetable products had a total aerobic mesophilic plate count ranging from 8.1 x 10(4) cfu/g in okra and 3.7 x 10(5) cfu/g in mixed vegetables. The total aerobic plate count of the ice cream (1 x 10(3) cfu/g) complies with specified Egyptian standards. However, the coliform count (9 x 10(1) MPN) was higher than the recommended limit. Lead and cadmium levels were also investigated in all products. The maximum detected level of lead was that of cream wafer (0.94 ppm) followed by banana wafer (0.82 ppm). The two detected levels were higher than Egyptian standards. The lead level in ice cream (0.19 ppm) was also higher than the specified standards. The relatively high levels of lead in cream wafer and ice cream may be attributed to more than one factor; the added color and the old machinery used in some production steps are the most accursed factors. On the other hand, the

  7. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective. PMID:25252644

  8. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  9. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  10. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  11. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  12. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  13. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  14. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  15. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  16. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  17. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  18. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  19. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  20. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  1. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section...

  2. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section...

  3. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  5. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section...

  6. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  7. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Holly Ann; Gaines, Joanna; Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Fitter, David; Handzel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The international response to Haiti’s ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population’s response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs): 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males); one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change. PMID:26562658

  8. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012.

    PubMed

    Williams, Holly Ann; Gaines, Joanna; Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Fitter, David; Handzel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The international response to Haiti's ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population's response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs): 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males); one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change.

  9. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section 147.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... should be burned or otherwise properly disposed of, and the containers used to remove such...

  10. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section 147.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... should be burned or otherwise properly disposed of, and the containers used to remove such...

  11. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea...) Primary enclosures for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sanitized by washing them with hot water (180...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.141 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls § 1910.141 Sanitation. (a) General—(1...'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (40 CFR 141). Toilet facility, means a...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.141 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls § 1910.141 Sanitation. (a) General—(1... Water Standards, published in 42 CFR part 72, or water which is approved for drinking purposes by...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.141 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls § 1910.141 Sanitation. (a) General—(1... Water Standards, published in 42 CFR part 72, or water which is approved for drinking purposes by...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.141 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls § 1910.141 Sanitation. (a) General—(1...'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (40 CFR 141). Toilet facility, means a...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.141 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls § 1910.141 Sanitation. (a) General—(1...'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (40 CFR 141). Toilet facility, means a...

  17. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.56 Section 3.56 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... them with hot water (180 °F.) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing...

  18. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL....) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with...

  19. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.56 Section 3.56 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... them with hot water (180 °F.) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing...

  20. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.56 Section 3.56 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... them with hot water (180 °F.) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing...

  1. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL....) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with...

  2. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.56 Section 3.56 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... them with hot water (180 °F.) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing...

  3. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL....) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with...

  4. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... rodents, birds, insects, and other vermin (other than laboratory animals). Trash and organic waste...

  5. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... rodents, birds, insects, and other vermin (other than laboratory animals). Trash and organic waste...

  6. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  7. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation. On developed recreation sites and areas, no person shall, unless otherwise authorized: (a) Clean fish, game, other food, clothing or household articles at any outdoor hydrant, pump, faucet or fountain, or...

  8. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation. On developed recreation sites and areas, no person shall, unless otherwise authorized: (a) Clean fish, game, other food, clothing or household articles at any outdoor hydrant, pump, faucet or fountain, or...

  9. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation. On developed recreation sites and areas, no person shall, unless otherwise authorized: (a) Clean fish, game, other food, clothing or household articles at any outdoor hydrant, pump, faucet or fountain, or...

  10. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  11. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  12. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

  13. The internal social sustainability of sanitation infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A; Javernick-Will, Amy N

    2014-09-01

    While the construction of sanitation infrastructure is one of humankind's greatest public health and environmental engineering achievements, its benefits are not yet enjoyed by all. In addition to the billions of people not yet reached by sanitation infrastructure, at least half of systems constructed in developing contexts are abandoned in the years following initial construction. In this research, we target the problem of postconstruction onsite sanitation infrastructure abandonment in rural Guatemala using legitimacy and status theory. Legitimacy and status are established theoretical concepts from organizational theory that reflect cultural alignment and normative support. Crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA), which uses Boolean algebra to discover combinations of theoretical conditions that produce an outcome of interest, allowed us to describe the various pathways that have caused socially sustainable uptake. We find that three combinations of legitimacy and status theory explain 85% of household cases at a consistency of 0.97. The most practically useful pathway covers 50% of household cases and shows that the combination of consequential legitimacy (a moral understanding of outcomes) and comprehensibility legitimacy (a cognitive model connecting outcomes to processes) is a powerful way to achieve socially sustainable sanitation infrastructure.

  14. 9 CFR 3.107 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.107 Section 3.107 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... daily, and more often when necessary, in order to provide a clean environment and minimize health...

  15. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  16. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... than the water spigot near the food cache in the Brooks Campground or other designated areas...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... than the water spigot near the food cache in the Brooks Campground or other designated areas...

  19. Effect of different sanitizers against Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Frisón, Laura N; Chiericatti, Carolina A; Aríngoli, Elena E; Basílico, Juan C; Basílico, María Z

    2015-07-01

    Microbial contamination is a problem in food industry. The effects produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts are diverse. If they are found in high numbers it might affect the organoleptic quality of the product. Zygosaccharomyces is the most frequent contaminant genus in sweetened juices that are not properly processed and stored. The aim of this work was to compare the action of five commercial sanitizers against isolates of Z. rouxii and to determine appropriate concentrations and time of action for the inactivation. Peracetic acid, monochloramine, iodophor and quaternary ammonium compounds were evaluated on different surfaces (stainless steel, plastic and glass) at room temperature for 30 and 60 s. It was possible to achieve a 99.99 of death Efficiency corresponding to 4 log10 of reduction for a contact time of 60 s for 0.5% (v/v) of peracetic acid, monochloramines and 0.5% (w/v) of iodophors, 1% for compound with a base of 8% (v/v) of benzyl chloride and 7.5% (v/v) of glutaraldehyde and 5% for sodium hypochlorite (55 g/L active compound). Stainless steel was successfully sanitized with all the compounds tested, and then it would be the most appropriate for the food industry because this material is also highly resistant to abrasion, to impact and to different chemical treatments. In view of the great variety of sanitizing products, the selection of the best sanitizer will depend on efficiency, safety and cost. PMID:26139934

  20. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities §...

  1. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS... or waste liquid generated on the WCA shall be removed from the area or deposited in...

  2. 36 CFR 327.9 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation. 327.9 Section 327.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... waste liquid generated on the project and incidental to authorized recreational activities shall...

  3. 36 CFR 327.9 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation. 327.9 Section 327.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... waste liquid generated on the project and incidental to authorized recreational activities shall...

  4. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS... or waste liquid generated on the WCA shall be removed from the area or deposited in...

  5. 36 CFR 327.9 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 327.9 Section 327.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... waste liquid generated on the project and incidental to authorized recreational activities shall...

  6. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS... or waste liquid generated on the WCA shall be removed from the area or deposited in...

  7. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces. PMID:27030693

  8. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized. PMID:21572832

  9. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION CRISIS CANNOT BE DENIED: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world's population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized. PMID:21572832

  10. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... often transmitted by the fecal-oral route, so hand washing and hygiene are important to prevent infection. Soap and water are better because alcohol-based hand sanitizers may not kill viruses. Medications such as ...

  11. The Effect of Antibacterial Formula Hand Cleaners on the Elimination of Microbes on Hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    : The purpose of this project is to find out which one of the antibacterial hand cleanser (antibacterial bar soap, antibacterial liquid hand soap, and liquid hand sanitizer) is more effective in eliminating microbes. If antibacterial- formula liquid hand soap is used on soiled hands, then it will be more effective in eliminating microbes. Germs are microorganisms that cause disease and can spread from person-to-person. Bacteria are a kind of microbe, an example of which is Transient Flora that is often found on hands. Hand washing prevents germs from spreading to others. During the procedure, swabs were used to take samples before and after the soiled hands had been washed with one of the antibacterial hand cleansers. Nutrient Easygel was poured into petri dishes to harden for 1 day, and then samples were swabbed on the gel. The Petri dishes were placed in an incubator for 24 hours, and then data was recorded accordingly. The antibacterial liquid hand soap was sufficient in eliminating the majority of bacteria. The hands had 65% of the bacteria on them, and after the liquid hand soap was used only 37% of the bacteria remained.

  12. Hand hygiene practices among health care workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care facility in Pune

    PubMed Central

    Anargh, V.; Singh, Harpreet; Kulkarni, Aniket; Kotwal, Atul; Mahen, Ajoy

    2012-01-01

    Background Improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers (HCWs) is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections resulting in prolonged illnesses, hospital stays, long-term disability and unexpected high costs on patients and their families, and also lead to a massive additional financial burden on the health-care system. Objective To assess knowledge and practices regarding hand hygiene among HCWs of a tertiary health care facility. Methods A cross sectional, questionnaire and observation based study was carried out in a tertiary care health care facility in Pune. Based on sample size calculations, 100 HCWs working in medical and surgical wards were studied. Results The proportion knowledgeable about hand hygiene practices was 85% and 73% HCWs were of the belief that unclean hands are an important route of cross transmission. WHO guidelines regarding procedure were being followed by 90% for hand washing with soap and water and 64% for alcohol based rubs. Majority preferred hand washing with soap and water over hand rubbing with alcohol based solutions. 21% of HCWs were missing hand hygiene opportunities 1 in 5 times. Heavy workload (38%), non availability (52%) and inaccessibility (9%) of hand hygiene facilities were the common reasons for non-compliance. Availability of ‘one time use paper towels’ was low (12%). Conclusion Inadequate compliance despite knowledge and false sense of security by alcohol based rubs was seen. A multi disciplinary, multifaceted approach is required to tackle issues of non-compliance. PMID:24532935

  13. The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness among College Students Living in Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…

  14. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  15. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  16. Improving adherence to surgical hand preparation.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Hübner, N; Below, H; Heidecke, C-D; Assadian, O

    2008-10-01

    At present, no universal agreement on detailed practice for surgical hand preparation exists. In order to fill this gap, in 2002 a Franco-German recommendation for surgical hand preparation was published as a first step towards a generally accepted European recommendation. Based on an assessment of the actual literature, a protocol for surgical hand preparation is discussed with the aim to recommend evidence-based standard procedures including prerequisites, washing and disinfection phase, and its practical implementation. In contrast to hygienic hand disinfection, for surgical hand preparation compliance is not an issue, since it mostly is regarded as a ceremony which is carried out without exception. Nevertheless, the following factors influence acceptance and efficacy: skin tolerance, ease of use, duration of procedure, and recommended time), potential for impaired efficacy due to incorrect performance of the procedure, possibility of systemic risks and irritating potential by applied preparations, religious restrictions, ecological aspects, costs and safety. Here, we report our experience with the introduction of a new hand preparation regime in all surgical disciplines in our university hospital based on the above factors. The following statements were evaluated: 1) The immediate efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant is impaired by a preceding hand wash for up to 10 minutes. Therefore hands should not be routinely washed before the disinfection period unless there is a good reason for it such as visible soiling. 2) A shortened application time (1.5 minutes) is equal to 3 min in terms of efficacy. 3) Hands should be air dried before gloves are put on, otherwise the perforation rate of gloves will increase. 4) The efficacy of alcohol-based disinfectants is significantly higher when hands are allowed to dry for 1 minute after the washing phase and before the disinfection phase. To clarify the above questions before the establishment of the modified

  17. Improving compliance with hand hygiene in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pittet, D

    2000-06-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but compliance with recommended instructions often is poor among healthcare workers. Although some previous interventions to improve compliance have been successful, none has achieved lasting improvement. This article reviews reported barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and factors associated with poor compliance. Easy access to hand hygiene in a timely fashion and the availability of skin-care lotion both appear to be necessary prerequisites for appropriate hand-hygiene behavior. In particular, in high-demand situations, hand rub with an alcohol-based solution appears to be the only alternative that allows a decent compliance. The hand-hygiene compliance level does not rely on individual factors alone, and the same can be said for its promotion. Because of the complexity of the process of change, it is not surprising that solo interventions often fail, and multimodal, multidisciplinary strategies are necessary. A framework that includes parameters to be considered for hand-hygiene promotion is proposed, based on epidemiologically driven evidence and review of the current knowledge. Strategies for promotion in hospitals should include reasons for noncompliance with recommendations at individual, group, and institutional levels. Potential tools for change should address each of these elements and consider their interactivity.

  18. Prevention of contamination by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus: susceptibility to alcohol-based disinfectants and environmental stability.

    PubMed

    Palesch, David; Khalid, Mohammad; Stürzel, Christina M; Münch, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) represents a novel γ-retrovirus that is capable of infecting human cells and has been classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) organism. Hence, XMRV represents a potential risk for personnel in laboratories worldwide. Here, we measured the stability of XMRV and its susceptibility to alcohol-based disinfectants. To this end, we exposed an infectious XMRV reporter virus encoding a secretable luciferase to different temperatures, pH values, and disinfectants and infected XMRV-permissive Raji B cells to measure residual viral infectivity. We found that 1 min treatment of XMRV particles at 60°C is sufficient to reduce infectivity by 99.9%. XMRV infectivity was maximal at a neutral pH but was reduced by 86% at pH 4 and 99.9% at pH 10. The common hand and surface disinfectants ethanol and isopropanol as well as the cell fixation reagent paraformaldehyde abrogated XMRV infectivity entirely, as indicated by a reduction of infectivity exceeding 99.99%. Our findings provide evidence of specific means to inactivate XMRV. Their application will help to prevent unintended XMRV contamination of cell cultures in laboratories and minimize the risk for laboratory personnel and health care workers to become infected with this biosafety level 2 organism.

  19. Hygiene and Sanitation in Biogas Plants.

    PubMed

    Fröschle, Bianca; Heiermann, Monika; Lebuhn, Michael; Messelhäusser, Ute; Plöchl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of agricultural biogas plants and higher amounts of digestate spread on agricultural land arouse a considerable interest in the hygiene situation of digested products. This chapter reviews the current knowledge on sanitation during anaerobic digestion and the hygienic status of digestate concerning a multitude of pathogens potentially compromising the health of humans, animals and plants. Physical, chemical and biological parameters influencing the efficiency of sanitation in anaerobic digestion are considered. The degree of germ reduction depends particularly on the resistance of the pathogen of concern, the processing conditions, the feedstock composition and the diligence of the operation management. Most scientific studies facing sanitation in biogas plants have provided data ascertaining reduction of pathogens by the biogas process. Some pathogens, however, are able to persist virtually unaffected due to the ability to build resistant permanent forms. As compared to the feedstock, the sanitary status of the digestate is thus improved or in the worst case, the sanitary quality remains almost unchanged. According to this, the spreading of digestate on agricultural area in accordance to current rules and best practice recommendations is considered to impose no additional risk for the health of humans, animals and plants.

  20. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water.

  1. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. Methods We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. Results There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Conclusion Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing. PMID:26587098

  2. Facile access to unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on cis-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ye; Wang, Ping-An; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Well-defined unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on a cis-2,5-disubstitued pyrrolidine backbone were synthesized from commercially available starting materials meso-diethyl-2,5-dibromoadipate, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine, and phenylalaninol. The structures of these unnatural dipeptide-alcohols are supported by HRMS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. These unnatural dipeptide-alcohols can act as building blocks for peptidomimetics. PMID:25679051

  3. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  4. Women, water supply and sanitation: INSTRAW's training initiatives.

    PubMed

    Tavares, J

    1997-01-01

    The International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) has worked on women, water supply and sanitation since 1986. The program aims to establish the relationship between women, water supply and sanitation and the promotion of the needs of women and their participation in Water Supply and Sanitation projects. Using a multimedia and modular approach, the training package on Women, Water Supply and Sanitation aims to provide an overview for the different government agencies, engineers, trainers and managers involved in water supply and sanitation projects. The six modules contained in this package include: 1) The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade and beyond; 2) The Participation of Women in planning, Choice of Technology and Implementation of Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation Projects; 3) Role of Women in Hygiene Education and Training Activities for Water Supply and Sanitation Projects; 4) Involvement of Women in Management of Water resources, Water Supply and Waste Disposal; 5) Women and Waste Management; and 6) Evaluation and Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation Programs, Projects and the Role of Women. In addition, each module comprises five components including objective description, detailed bibliography, feedback tools for each modular unit, lesson plan and guides for trainers and users, and audiovisual aids. In the face of water scarcity, INSTRAW highlights the importance of women¿s participation in the sustainable use of water supply.

  5. Hand hygiene is crucial to combat Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    Patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can contaminate the environment with spores that are able to survive for months. A previous room occupant with CDI is a significant risk factor for developing the infection. Room cleaning with commonly used disinfectants will not kill spores. Sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide are effective but correct concentration and contact time are important. Hand hygiene is a crucial element in preventing infection. In the UK, there is a clear recommendation for handwashing, rather than alcohol-based hand rub, when caring for patients with CDI. PMID:25258234

  6. Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals. PMID:24981423

  7. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

  8. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  9. Sanitation in the time of cholera.

    PubMed

    Misch, A

    1991-01-01

    Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. Water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae is used for washing food and/or drinking thereby transmitting the disease. PAHO estimates 6 million people in South America may get cholera within the next 3 years. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. In fact, in Lima, Peru, 40% of the people do not have potable, piped water available. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. In addition, 40% do not have access to a sewage system. Further, 80% of sick people in developing countries have a water related illness, be it transmitted by contaminated water or by insects and snails that reproduce in the water. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions. Indeed every year 10-20 million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet 940 million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1.7 billion do not have a sanitary means of disposing of human wastes, despite the fact that the UN decreed the 1980s the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Nevertheless UNICEF efforts did bring communal taps, odorless latrines, and/or pour flush toilets to 1.2 billion people. These types of sanitation costs $20-25/person whereas conventional sewers cost $350/person. Low technology supplied water averages $30/person compared to $200/person for piped water. Peru has spent $43 million on emergency medical care for cholera victims which could have provided low cost clean water and sanitation for almost 800,000 poor.

  10. Effect of Sanitation on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Bos, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces) on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010). Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility), or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs) of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR  =  0.46 to 0.58). Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–1.02), 0.63 (95% CI 0.37–1.05), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60–1.00) were determined for T. trichiura

  11. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  12. Hand hygiene compliance in Penang, Malaysia: Human audits versus product usage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yew Fong; Merican, Hassan; Nallusamy, Revathy; Ong, Loke Meng; Mohamed Nazir, Paa; Hamzah, Hafizah Binti; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2016-06-01

    Hand hygiene auditing is mandatory for all Malaysian public hospitals; nonetheless, the burden of auditing is impacting the support and sustainability of the program. We report an alternative method to routinely measure hand hygiene compliance with the aim to test whether alcohol-based handrub purchase data could be used as a proxy for usage because human auditing has decreased validity and reliability inherent in the methodology.

  13. Hand hygiene compliance in Penang, Malaysia: Human audits versus product usage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yew Fong; Merican, Hassan; Nallusamy, Revathy; Ong, Loke Meng; Mohamed Nazir, Paa; Hamzah, Hafizah Binti; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2016-06-01

    Hand hygiene auditing is mandatory for all Malaysian public hospitals; nonetheless, the burden of auditing is impacting the support and sustainability of the program. We report an alternative method to routinely measure hand hygiene compliance with the aim to test whether alcohol-based handrub purchase data could be used as a proxy for usage because human auditing has decreased validity and reliability inherent in the methodology. PMID:26897697

  14. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic compounds; (7) Control of employee... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor...

  15. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control... chemical, physical, and biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic...

  16. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control... chemical, physical, and biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic...

  17. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic compounds; (7) Control of employee... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor...

  18. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control... chemical, physical, and biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic...

  19. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control... chemical, physical, and biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic...

  20. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control... chemical, physical, and biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic...

  1. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic compounds; (7) Control of employee... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor...

  2. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic compounds; (7) Control of employee... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor...

  3. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic compounds; (7) Control of employee... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor...

  4. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  5. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  6. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  7. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged...

  8. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot...

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  10. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  11. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot...

  12. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  13. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  14. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  15. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14... RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other refuse facilities...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  19. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the tanks... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section...

  20. Planning environmental sanitation programmes in emergencies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Peter A; Reed, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    Environmental sanitation programmes are vital for tackling environmental-related disease and ensuring human dignity in emergency situations. If they are to have maximum impact they must be planned in a rapid but systematic manner. An appropriate planning process comprises five key stages: rapid assessment and priority setting; outline programme design; immediate action; detailed programme design; and implementation. The assessment should be based on carefully selected data, which are analysed via comparison with suitable minimum objectives. How the intervention should be prioritised is determined through objective ranking of different environmental sanitation sector needs. Next, a programme design outline is produced to identify immediate and longer-term intervention activities and to guarantee that apposite resources are made available. Immediate action is taken to meet acute emergency needs while the detailed programme design takes shape. This entails in-depth consultation with the affected community and comprehensive planning of activities and resource requirements. Implementation can then begin, which should involve pertinent management and monitoring strategies. PMID:15910646

  1. Water and sanitation hygiene knowledge, attitude, and practices among household members living in rural setting of India

    PubMed Central

    Kuberan, Anjana; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Kasav, Jyoti Bala; Prasad, Satish; Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Upadhyay, Vandana; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rural population in developing countries face water, sanitation, and hygiene-related health issues. To objectively highlight these issues, we studied the knowledge, attitude, and practices-related to drinking water and sanitation facilities among the rural population of Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed involving individuals over 18 years of age living in Thandalam village, Chennai, India. Basic information about sociodemographic profile and existing drinking water and sanitation related knowledge, attitude, and practices was collected using a modified version of previously validated questionnaire and analyzed. Results: Forty-five percent of the participants were not following any methods of water treatment and among them half of the participants felt that water available to them was clean and did not require any additional treatment. Twenty-five percent of the participants surveyed did not have access to toilets inside their household. Conclusion: There is a need for intervention to educate individuals about drinking water treatment methods, sanitation, and hand washing practices. PMID:26604623

  2. Effect of an alcohol-based caries detector on the surface tension of sodium hypochlorite preparations.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Guastalli, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an alcohol-based caries detector (Kurakay) on the surface tension of a conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) preparation, and a product containing a surface-active agent (Chlor-XTRA). The surface tensions of the following solutions were tested: NaOCl, a mixture of NaOCl and Kurakay 9:1 w/w, Chlor-XTRA, a mixture of Chlor-XTRA and Kurakay 9:1 w/w. Ten measurements per test solution were made at 20°C, using an optical method called the "Pendant drop method", with a commercially available apparatus. The addition of Kurakay reduced the surface tension for NaOCl (p<0.05) whilst no significant difference was detected for Chlor-XTRA (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences between the NaOCl and Chlor-XTRA groups were found (p<0.05). The addition of an alcohol-based caries detector resulted in a reduction of the original surface tension values for NaOCl only. Taking into account the fact that mixtures of NaOCl and Kurakay have been used to assess the penetration of root canal irrigants in vitro, the related changes in surface tension are a possible source of bias.

  3. Proper hand washing (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ...

  4. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Guiteras, Raymond; Levinsohn, James; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq

    2015-05-22

    Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, P = 0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, P = 0.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, P < 0.001) and their unsubsidized neighbors (+8.5 percentage points, P = 0.001), which suggests that investment decisions are interlinked across neighbors. Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (P < 0.001).

  5. Contamination of healthcare workers' hands with bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Ae, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Michiyo; Kimura, Yumiko; Yonekawa, Chikara; Hayashi, Shunji; Morisawa, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium species and Bacillus spp. are spore-forming bacteria that cause hospital infections. The spores from these bacteria are transmitted from patient to patient via healthcare workers' hands. Although alcohol-based hand rubbing is an important hand hygiene practice, it is ineffective against bacterial spores. Therefore, healthcare workers should wash their hands with soap when they are contaminated with spores. However, the extent of health care worker hand contamination remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the level of bacterial spore contamination on healthcare workers' hands. The hands of 71 healthcare workers were evaluated for bacterial spore contamination. Spores attached to subject's hands were quantitatively examined after 9 working hours. The relationship between bacterial spore contamination and hand hygiene behaviors was also analyzed. Bacterial spores were detected on the hands of 54 subjects (76.1%). The mean number of spores detected was 468.3 CFU/hand (maximum: 3300 CFU/hand). Thirty-seven (52.1%) and 36 (50.7%) subjects were contaminated with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Nineteen subjects (26.8%) were contaminated with both Bacillus species. Clostridium difficile was detected on only one subject's hands. There was a significant negative correlation between the hand contamination level and the frequency of handwashing (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation between the hand contamination level and the elapsed time since last handwashing (r = 0.34, P < 0.01). Healthcare workers' hands may be frequently contaminated with bacterial spores due to insufficient handwashing during daily patient care.

  6. Contamination of healthcare workers' hands with bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Ae, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Michiyo; Kimura, Yumiko; Yonekawa, Chikara; Hayashi, Shunji; Morisawa, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium species and Bacillus spp. are spore-forming bacteria that cause hospital infections. The spores from these bacteria are transmitted from patient to patient via healthcare workers' hands. Although alcohol-based hand rubbing is an important hand hygiene practice, it is ineffective against bacterial spores. Therefore, healthcare workers should wash their hands with soap when they are contaminated with spores. However, the extent of health care worker hand contamination remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the level of bacterial spore contamination on healthcare workers' hands. The hands of 71 healthcare workers were evaluated for bacterial spore contamination. Spores attached to subject's hands were quantitatively examined after 9 working hours. The relationship between bacterial spore contamination and hand hygiene behaviors was also analyzed. Bacterial spores were detected on the hands of 54 subjects (76.1%). The mean number of spores detected was 468.3 CFU/hand (maximum: 3300 CFU/hand). Thirty-seven (52.1%) and 36 (50.7%) subjects were contaminated with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Nineteen subjects (26.8%) were contaminated with both Bacillus species. Clostridium difficile was detected on only one subject's hands. There was a significant negative correlation between the hand contamination level and the frequency of handwashing (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation between the hand contamination level and the elapsed time since last handwashing (r = 0.34, P < 0.01). Healthcare workers' hands may be frequently contaminated with bacterial spores due to insufficient handwashing during daily patient care. PMID:27236515

  7. 9 CFR 147.26 - Procedures for establishing isolation and maintaining sanitation and good management practices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and maintaining sanitation and good management practices for the control of Salmonella and Mycoplasma... Sanitation Procedures § 147.26 Procedures for establishing isolation and maintaining sanitation and good... are required for participation under the U.S. Sanitation Monitored, U.S. M. Gallisepticum Clean,...

  8. [Study of the bacterial reduction effects of dry hand rubbing without disinfectant].

    PubMed

    Hira, Daichi; Ogawa, Midori; Ishii, Tatsuya; Gono, Kaishi; Sakamoto, Takuro; Yamamura, Sohei; Masumoto, Naoya; Yasutomi, Masamichi; You, Chunlin; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2014-03-01

    Handwashing is the most basic method of preventing infection. Hand rubbing with an alcohol-based handrub, is the most efficient and popular method. We found in several case studies that 3 minutes of dry hand rubbing without any disinfectant decreases the number of hand bacteria. In this study of 54 samples taken from 47 test subjects, we tried to determine how effectively this method decreases hand bacterial numbers. Except for 12 samples that were indeterminate, the number of hand bacteria in 36 (85.7%) out of 42 samples decreased. The average rate of decrease was 49.4% and the maximum rate was 98.3%. Although the most effective duration of dry hand rubbing varied among individuals, we estimated that 2 minutes is optimal. As dry hand rubbing without disinfectants decreases hand bacteria, we suggest that it can be an effective alternate method in emergency situations when water, soap or disinfectants are unavailable. PMID:24633181

  9. Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries

    PubMed Central

    Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie; Clasen, Thomas; Colford, John M; Cumming, Oliver; Curtis, Valerie; Bonjour, Sophie; Dangour, Alan D; De France, Jennifer; Fewtrell, Lorna; Freeman, Matthew C; Gordon, Bruce; Hunter, Paul R; Johnston, Richard B; Mathers, Colin; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Medlicott, Kate; Neira, Maria; Stocks, Meredith; Wolf, Jennyfer; Cairncross, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases from exposure to inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene in low- and middle-income settings and provide an overview of the impact on other diseases. Methods For estimating the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on diarrhoea, we selected exposure levels with both sufficient global exposure data and a matching exposure-risk relationship. Global exposure data were estimated for the year 2012, and risk estimates were taken from the most recent systematic analyses. We estimated attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by country, age and sex for inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene separately, and as a cluster of risk factors. Uncertainty estimates were computed on the basis of uncertainty surrounding exposure estimates and relative risks. Results In 2012, 502 000 diarrhoea deaths were estimated to be caused by inadequate drinking water and 280 000 deaths by inadequate sanitation. The most likely estimate of disease burden from inadequate hand hygiene amounts to 297 000 deaths. In total, 842 000 diarrhoea deaths are estimated to be caused by this cluster of risk factors, which amounts to 1.5% of the total disease burden and 58% of diarrhoeal diseases. In children under 5 years old, 361 000 deaths could be prevented, representing 5.5% of deaths in that age group. Conclusions This estimate confirms the importance of improving water and sanitation in low- and middle-income settings for the prevention of diarrhoeal disease burden. It also underscores the need for better data on exposure and risk reductions that can be achieved with provision of reliable piped water, community sewage with treatment and hand hygiene. PMID:24779548

  10. Risk assessment of hand washing efficacy using literature and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Chen, Yuhuan; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-03-01

    This study simulated factors that influence the levels of bacteria on foodservice workers' hands. Relevant data were collected from the scientific literature and from laboratory experiments. Literature information collected included: initial bacterial counts on hands and water faucet spigots, bacterial population changes during hand washing as effected by soap type, sanitizing agent, drying method, and the presence of rings. Experimental data were also collected using Enterobacter aerogenes as a surrogate for transient bacteria. Both literature and experimental data were translated into appropriate discrete or probability distribution functions. The appropriate statistical distribution for each phase of the hand washing process was determined. These distributions were: initial count on hands, beta (2.82, 2.32, 7.5); washing reduction using regular soap, beta (3.01, 1.91, -3.00, 0.60); washing reduction using antimicrobial soap, beta (4.19, 2.99, -4.50, 1.50); washing reduction using chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), triangular (-4.75, -1.00, 0); reductions from hot air drying, beta (3.52, 1.92, -0.20, 1.00); reduction from paper towel drying, triangular (-2.25, -0.75, 0); reduction due to alcohol sanitizer, gamma (-1.23, 4.42) -5.8; reduction due to alcohol-free sanitizer, gamma (2.22, 5.38) -5.00; and the effect of rings, beta (8.55, 23.35, 0.10, 0.45). Experimental data were fit to normal distributions (expressed as log percentage transfer rate): hand-to-spigot transfer, normal (-0.80, 1.09); spigot to hand, normal (0.36, 0.90). Soap with an antimicrobial agent (in particular, CHG) was observed to be more effective than regular soap. Hot air drying had the capacity to increase the amount of bacterial contamination on hands, while paper towel drying caused a slight decrease in contamination. There was little difference in the efficacy of alcohol and alcohol-free sanitizers. Ring wearing caused a slight decrease in the efficacy of hand washing. The experimental data

  11. Microbiological test for sanitation of equipment in the food factory.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Microbiological sampling of utensils, tableware, and kitchen ware, in addition to equipment, permits objective evaluation of sanitation practices and procedures used for these items from food service operations. PMID:15156040

  12. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine...

  13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  14. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

  15. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule. PMID:27557353

  16. Evaluation of spray application of postmilking teat sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Pankey, J W; Watts, J L

    1983-02-01

    Application of postmilking teat sanitizer by spraying was evaluated in two experimental challenge trials with Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 27956) (McDonald 44). A .5% quaternary ammonium teat sanitizer was used in both studies. By direct comparison, teat spraying and dipping did not differ in effectiveness. Efficacy for the .5% quaternary ammonium compound was 58.6%, similar to results on the product applied as a dip (13). PMID:6339578

  17. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.].

  18. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  19. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  20. Disassembly and Sanitization of Classified Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stockham, Dwight J.; Saad, Max P.

    2008-01-15

    The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) process was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition by using recycling and waste minimization measures. This process was initiated by treaty agreements and reconfigurations within both the DOD and DOE Complexes. The DOE is faced with disassembling and disposing of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, weapon maintenance equipment, and associated material. In addition, regulations have caused a dramatic increase in the need for information required to support the handling and disposition of these parts and materials. In the past, huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and at many other locations throughout the DoE Complex. These materials are placed in onsite storage unit due to classification issues and they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components. Since no disposal options exist for this material, the only choice was long-term storage. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic, requiring a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing, and presenting the potential for loss or theft of the material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made of high quality materials and once this material has been sanitized, the demand for the component metals for recycling efforts is very high. The DSO process for NGPF, classified components established the credibility of this technique for addressing the long-term storage requirements of the classified weapons component inventory. The success of this application has generated interest from other Sandia organizations and other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are requesting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these requests by expanding its scope to include Work-for- Other projects. For example

  1. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  2. Antimicriobial resistance patterns of colonizing flora on nurses' hands in the neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Heather A.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of an alcohol-based handrub for health care worker hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of hand hygiene product and skin condition on the antimicrobial resistance patterns of colonizing hand flora among nurses. Methods Colonizing hand flora of 119 nurses working in 2 neonatal intensive care units was compared during a 22-month crossover study using alcohol handrub or antiseptic soap. Results Altogether, 1442 isolates from 834 hand cultures (mean, 7 cultures/nurse) were obtained. In 3 of 9 regression analyses modeling for resistant staphylococcal flora, the use of antiseptic soap was a significant predictor of resistance, and nurses with damaged skin were 2.79 times more likely to carry Staphylococcus warneri isolates resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion Hand hygiene product and skin condition may influence resistance patterns of hand flora of care providers. PMID:17482994

  3. Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation. In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys. Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success. Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%. Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low. PMID:27211881

  4. Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Jonny; Geremew, Abiyot; Atalie, Fisseha; Yetie, Messele; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-06-21

    Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation. In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys. Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success. Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%. Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low.

  5. Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Jonny; Geremew, Abiyot; Atalie, Fisseha; Yetie, Messele; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-06-21

    Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation. In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys. Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success. Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%. Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low. PMID:27211881

  6. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  7. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  8. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  9. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  10. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands. PMID:24185855

  11. [Food Sanitation Act and Minamata Disease].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Immediately after the official recognition of Minamata disease (1956.5.l) a study group at Kumamoto University suggested that Minamata disease was caused by food poisoning. The next year, this suggestion was accepted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW). Prior to the decision to apply the Food Sanitation Act (FSA), the local government asked MHW for the application of FSA. Soon after, the chief of the Public Health Bureau replied to the local government that the application of FSA to the Minamata area was impossible. Epidemiological investigations of residents and polluted areas, therefore, were not carried out. Data essential for the screening for exposed residents were unavailable. The criteria for the screening were presented. The Environmental Agency (EA) presented the criteria in the form of notice in 1971, which were revised in 1977. Notwithstanding the clear difference between the original and revised criteria, EA insisted that these two sets of criteria were quite similar. This insistence by EA and the absence of epidemiological data on residents and polluted area resulted in the present confusion about Minamata disease. The application of FSA was stopped by bureaucrats who had no interest in the environmental problems and by several scientists patronized by stakeholders (Chisso, Japanese Association of Chemical Industries, MHW and EA). Stakeholders suppressed science.

  12. [Food Sanitation Act and Minamata Disease].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Immediately after the official recognition of Minamata disease (1956.5.l) a study group at Kumamoto University suggested that Minamata disease was caused by food poisoning. The next year, this suggestion was accepted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW). Prior to the decision to apply the Food Sanitation Act (FSA), the local government asked MHW for the application of FSA. Soon after, the chief of the Public Health Bureau replied to the local government that the application of FSA to the Minamata area was impossible. Epidemiological investigations of residents and polluted areas, therefore, were not carried out. Data essential for the screening for exposed residents were unavailable. The criteria for the screening were presented. The Environmental Agency (EA) presented the criteria in the form of notice in 1971, which were revised in 1977. Notwithstanding the clear difference between the original and revised criteria, EA insisted that these two sets of criteria were quite similar. This insistence by EA and the absence of epidemiological data on residents and polluted area resulted in the present confusion about Minamata disease. The application of FSA was stopped by bureaucrats who had no interest in the environmental problems and by several scientists patronized by stakeholders (Chisso, Japanese Association of Chemical Industries, MHW and EA). Stakeholders suppressed science. PMID:26832624

  13. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter. PMID:26837829

  14. Rethinking sanitation: panacea or Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Esrey, S A

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, sanitation solutions were designed and built on the premises that human excreta was a waste suitable only for disposal and that the environment was capable of assimilating the waste. The prevailing view last century was that vapors from smells caused disease, and the best way to deal with excreta was to convey it to rivers and streams where it could be diluted and cleansed. Times have changed, the premises are outdated, and current solutions contribute, either directly or indirectly, to many of the problems faced by society today: water pollution, scarcity of fresh water, food insecurity, destruction and loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming. A common denominator of all these problems is how society deals with its wastes, specifically how it deals with human excrement. We have to rethink past premises, design and build new systems, and contribute to the solving of society's most pressing problems. The panacea of the 19th century is turning out to be the pandora's box of the 21st century.

  15. Bidirectional Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transfer between bare/glove hands and green bell pepper and its interruption.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Maribel; Siller, Jorge H; Valdez, Jose B; Carrillo, Armando; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transferred from volunteers' hands (bare or gloved) to green bell peppers and vice versa; and to assess the effectiveness of hand hygiene techniques. The highest and lowest percentages of bacterial transfer were achieve from green bell peppers to gloved hands (46.56%) and from bare hands to green bell peppers (0.21%), respectively. The highest and lowest Log10 reductions of S. Typhimurium were achieved by the combination of hand washing and alcohol-based gel (4.38 Log10) and iodine solution (2.08 Log10), respectively. This study provides important information concerning the transfer's efficiency of S. Typhimurium from hands to fresh produce and from fresh produce to hands. The study also showed that gloved hands, could be a mean of transfer of S. Typhimurium between green peppers and hands, and the best hand hygiene technique was the combination of hand washing and alcohol-based gel.

  16. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  17. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Gonzalez Perez, Maria Eliette; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  18. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-11-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  19. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts. PMID:26160343

  20. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  1. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... do if you don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the ... specific questions. More Information CDC's Handwashing Work Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Water-related Hygiene Hand Hygiene to Help Prevent Flu ...

  2. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated.

  3. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  4. Inactivation of dairy bacteriophages by commercial sanitizers and disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Céline; Villion, Manuela; Labrie, Simon J; Duchaine, Caroline; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-02-01

    Many commercial sanitizers and disinfectants have been used over the years to control microbial contamination but their efficacy on phages is often unknown. Here, 23 commercial chemical products, including 21 food-grade sanitizers were tested against virulent dairy phages. These food-grade chemicals included oxidizing agents, halogenated agents, alcohols, quaternary ammonium compounds, anionic acids, iodine-based acids, and an amphoteric chemical. Phage P008 was first exposed to each sanitizer for 2 and 15min at room temperature and at two different concentrations, namely the lowest and highest no-rinse sanitizing concentrations. Organic matter (whey or milk) was also added to the testing solutions. At the end of the exposure period, the test solution was neutralized and the number of infectious phages was determined by plaque assays. The five most efficient sanitizers against phage P008 (<4 log of inactivation) were then tested against virulent lactococcal phages P008, CB13, AF6, P1532 of the 936 group, P001 (c2), Q54, and 1358 as well as Lactobacillus plantarum phage B1 and Streptococcus thermophilus phage 2972 using the same protocol. The oxidizing agents and the quaternary ammonium compounds were the most efficient against all phages although phages CB13 and P1532 were less sensitive to these chemicals than the other phages. This study may help in the selection of appropriate chemicals for controlling phage contamination in industrial factories and research laboratories.

  5. Video observation of hand hygiene practices at a petting zoo and the impact of hand hygiene interventions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M E C; Weese, J S

    2012-01-01

    Petting zoos are popular attractions, but can also be associated with zoonotic disease outbreaks. Hand hygiene is critical to reducing disease risks; however, compliance can be poor. Video observation of petting zoo visitors was used to assess animal and environmental contact and hand hygiene compliance. Compliance was also compared over five hand hygiene intervention periods. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used for analysis. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 58% (340/583). Two interventions had a significant positive association with hand hygiene compliance [improved signage with offering hand sanitizer, odds ratio (OR) 3·38, P<0·001; verbal hand hygiene reminders, OR 1·73, P=0·037]. There is clearly a need to improve hand hygiene compliance at this and other animal exhibits. This preliminary study was the first to demonstrate a positive impact of a hand hygiene intervention at a petting zoo. The findings suggest that active, rather than passive, interventions are more effective for increasing compliance. PMID:21371366

  6. Pediatric Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew A; Cogan, Charles J; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric hand injuries are extremely common. Although many hand injuries are adequately managed in the emergency department, some may need evaluation and treatment by a pediatric hand surgeon to ensure a good functional outcome. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric hand maladies: fingertip injuries/amputation, tendon injuries, and phalangeal and metacarpal fractures. The plastic surgery nurse should be familiar with hand injuries that require intervention to facilitate efficient management and optimal postoperative care. PMID:27606586

  7. Synthesis of magnetic and multiferroic materials from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes results on the synthesis of the magnetic materials including modified nickel ferrite (Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ), yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12), lanthanum-containing manganites (MxLa1-xMnO3 (M=Pb, Ba or Sr; x=0.3-0.35)), and multiferroics (BiFeO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3) from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels. It is shown that the ammonium nitrate accelerates destruction of organic components of xerogels and thus Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ and BiFeO3 can be prepared at record low temperatures (100 and 250 °C, respectively) which are 200-300 °C lower compared to the process where air is used as an oxidizing agent. As for the synthesis of Y3Fe5O12, MxLa1-xMnO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, the presence of NH4NO3 favors formation of foreign phases, which ultimately complicate reaction mechanisms and lead to the higher temperature to synthesize target products. Developed methods provide nanoscale magnetic and multiferroic materials with an average particle size of ∼20-50 nm.

  8. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Sanitary facilities and accommodations shall be furnished by every inspected plant. Of these the following..., stored or handled. (b) Modern hand-washing basins, including running hot and cold water, soap and towels... products, and all other parts of the inspected plant, shall be kept clean. There shall be no handling...

  9. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Sanitary facilities and accommodations shall be furnished by every inspected plant. Of these the following..., stored or handled. (b) Modern hand-washing basins, including running hot and cold water, soap and towels... products, and all other parts of the inspected plant, shall be kept clean. There shall be no handling...

  10. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Sanitary facilities and accommodations shall be furnished by every inspected plant. Of these the following..., stored or handled. (b) Modern hand-washing basins, including running hot and cold water, soap and towels... products, and all other parts of the inspected plant, shall be kept clean. There shall be no handling...

  11. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Sanitary facilities and accommodations shall be furnished by every inspected plant. Of these the following..., stored or handled. (b) Modern hand-washing basins, including running hot and cold water, soap and towels... products, and all other parts of the inspected plant, shall be kept clean. There shall be no handling...

  12. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Sanitary facilities and accommodations shall be furnished by every inspected plant. Of these the following..., stored or handled. (b) Modern hand-washing basins, including running hot and cold water, soap and towels... products, and all other parts of the inspected plant, shall be kept clean. There shall be no handling...

  13. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Below, Harald; Bieber, Nora; Kampf, Guenter; Toma, Cyril D; Huebner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied three hand-rubs containing 95% (hand-rub A), 85% (hand-rub B) and 55% ethanol (hand-rub C; all w/w). For hygienic hand disinfection, 4 mL were applied 20 times for 30 s, with 1 minute break between applications. For surgical hand disinfection, 20 mL of each hand rub was applied to hands and arms up to the level of the elbow 10 times for 3 minutes, with a break of 5 minutes between applications. Blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined immediately prior and up to 90 minutes after application using head space gas chromatography. Results The median of absorbed ethanol after hygienic hand disinfection was 1365 mg (A), 630 mg (B), and 358 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 2.3% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.9% (C). After surgical hand disinfection, the median of absorbed ethanol was 1067 mg (A), 1542 mg (B), and 477 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 0.7% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.5% (C). The highest median acetaldehyde concentration after 20 hygienic hand disinfections was 0.57 mg/L (hand-rub C, after 30 min), after 10 surgical hand disinfections 3.99 mg/L (hand-rub A, after 20 minutes). Conclusion The overall dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol was below toxic levels in humans and allows the conclusion that the use of the evaluated ethanol-based hand-rubs is safe. PMID:17927841

  14. Microwave sanitization of color additives used in cosmetics: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jasnow, S B; Smith, J L

    1975-08-01

    Microwave exposure has been explored as a method of microbiologically sanitizing color additives used in cosmetic products. Selected microbiologically unacceptable cosmetic color additives, D&C red no. 7 Ca lake (certified synthetic organic color), carmine (natural organic color not subject to certification), and chromium hydroxide green (inorganic color not subject to certification), were submitted to microwave exposure. Gram-negative bacteria were eliminated, as verified by enrichment procedures, and levels of gram-positive bacteria were reduced. Generally, analytical and dermal safety studies indicated no significant alterations in physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of the colors. Sanitization was also successfully performed on other colors (D&C red no. 9 Ba lake, D&C red no. 12 Ba lake, D&C green no. 5, and FD&C red no. 4); initial physical and chemical tests were satisfactory. Results indicated that this method of sanitization is feasible and warrants further investigation.

  15. Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

    2013-12-01

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services.

  16. COST ESTIMATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOCUSING ON POPULATION DECLINING IN SANITATION COVE RAGE AREA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidoura, Shigezane; Takahashi, Masahiro

    In Japan, sanitation coverage is exceeded 70% and sanitary conditions have improved. However in the future, these facilities need to be rebuilt. For that, much money will be needed. On the other hand, prolonged population decrease is predicted in Japan, so it is feared that unsound management caused by the declining of sewerage charge. In this study, costs required for the future were calculated by targeting Asahikawa, Hokkaido Prefecture which is already served by sewerage treatment system. As a result, it was found that maintaining of current sewage treatment system would be cheaper than introduction of novel individual treatment system in Asahikawa. In addition, it was turned out that cost reduction is possible in the case of rebuilding sewage pipe efficiently than maintaining the status quo.

  17. Ensuring sustainability of non-networked sanitation technologies: an approach to standardization.

    PubMed

    Starkl, Markus; Brunner, Norbert; Feil, Magdalena; Hauser, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Non-networked sanitation technologies use no sewer, water or electricity lines. Based on a review of 45 commercially distributed technologies, 12 (representing three concepts) were selected for a detailed audit. They were located in six countries of Africa and Asia. The safety of users was generally assured and the costs per use were not excessive, whereas costs were fully transparent for only one technology surveyed. A main drawback was insufficient quality of the byproducts from on-site treatment, making recycling in agriculture a hygienic and environmental risk. Further, no technology was sufficiently mature (requiring e.g. to shift wastes by hand). In order to promote further development and give producers of mature products a competitive advantage, the paper proposes a certification of technologies to confirm the fulfillment of basic requirements to make them attractive for future users. PMID:25961898

  18. Exploring the determinants of sanitation success in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nhapi, Innocent; Misi, Shepherd

    2016-10-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) missed the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target by a wide margin. However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success. This was achieved by analysing data drawn from 46 SSA countries. An objective methodological approach, using regression and cluster analyses to reveal the underlying sanitation success factors, has been adopted. A total of 11 economic and socio-political independent variables were tested against the dependent variable; proportion of the 2015 population that has gained access to sanitation since 2000. Regression results showed consistent and robust association between sanitation success and education for the national, rural and socio-political samples (p values 0.018-0.038). These results suggest that the level of education contributed to sanitation success in SSA during the MDG period. For the urban sample, a negative association was demonstrated between sanitation success and access to improved water sources (p = 0.034). This implies that countries which made huge sanitation gains had low coverage of improved water sources. The results from cluster analysis showed that countries which achieved great sanitation success were characterized by the highest education levels, incomes, population densities, political stability and high proportions of urban population. The knowledge of the key determinants of sanitation success could help in the formulation and design of appropriate policies and interventions to improve

  19. Exploring the determinants of sanitation success in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nhapi, Innocent; Misi, Shepherd

    2016-10-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) missed the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target by a wide margin. However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success. This was achieved by analysing data drawn from 46 SSA countries. An objective methodological approach, using regression and cluster analyses to reveal the underlying sanitation success factors, has been adopted. A total of 11 economic and socio-political independent variables were tested against the dependent variable; proportion of the 2015 population that has gained access to sanitation since 2000. Regression results showed consistent and robust association between sanitation success and education for the national, rural and socio-political samples (p values 0.018-0.038). These results suggest that the level of education contributed to sanitation success in SSA during the MDG period. For the urban sample, a negative association was demonstrated between sanitation success and access to improved water sources (p = 0.034). This implies that countries which made huge sanitation gains had low coverage of improved water sources. The results from cluster analysis showed that countries which achieved great sanitation success were characterized by the highest education levels, incomes, population densities, political stability and high proportions of urban population. The knowledge of the key determinants of sanitation success could help in the formulation and design of appropriate policies and interventions to improve

  20. Does Global Progress on Sanitation Really Lag behind Water? An Analysis of Global Progress on Community- and Household-Level Access to Safe Water and Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the “sanitation deficit” is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990–2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post–2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both. PMID:25502659

  1. [Environmental virology and sanitation in Brazil: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Prado, Tatiana; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Sanitation services play a critical role in controlling transmission of numerous waterborne pathogens, especially viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis and hepatitis. The viral agents with the greatest public health impact are hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and noroviruses, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses, contaminating many Brazilian aquatic ecosystems. Heavy circulation of viruses in the environment has been related to inadequate local sanitary conditions, including incomplete coverage of services or inefficacy of conventional technologies in eliminating or reducing the viral load in water or sewage. This study reviews the relations between virology, health, and sanitation, emphasizing the epidemiology of waterborne viral infections and their public health impact. PMID:25166934

  2. Skin care: an essential component of hand hygiene and infection control.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Linda

    Skin care is an important component of hand hygiene and also infection prevention education programmes relating to hand hygiene (Bissett, 2007a,b). Hand hygiene is the term commonly used to describe hand washing using plain soap or antiseptic soaps and hand rubbing using waterless antiseptic products or alcohol-based products. The importance of effective hand hygiene is well documented (Larson, 1997; Boyce et al, 2002; Horton and Parker, 2002) and can be achieved by following the six-step technique used for hand washing as illustrated by the Royal College of Nursing (2000). During hand washing, hand soaps not only remove soils, but also the natural oils that protect the skin. This can vary depending on the frequency of hand washing, the temperature of the water and the ability of the soap to be rinsed from the surface of the hands (Starobin, 2007). This article aims to examine the evidence available to enable healthcare staff to make an informed decision on the importance of following a skin care regime to reduce the risk of bacterial loading on the hands caused by damaged skin. This would consequently lead to an improvement in hand hygiene efficacy.

  3. Is it time for brushless scrubbing with an alcohol-based agent?

    PubMed

    Gruendemann, B J; Bjerke, N B

    2001-12-01

    The practice of surgical scrubbing in perioperative settings is changing rapidly. This article presents information about eliminating the traditional scrub brush technique and using an alcohol formulation for surgical hand scrubs. Also covered are antimicrobial agents, relevant US Food and Drug Administration classifications, skin and fingernail care, and implementation of changes. The article challenges surgical team members to evaluate a new and different approach to surgical hand scrubbing.

  4. Development of a proposed standard method for assessing the efficacy of fresh produce sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, L R; Harris, L J; Ward, T E; Kajs, T M

    2001-08-01

    A series of studies was done for the purpose of developing a proposed standard method to evaluate point-of-use home sanitizers for fresh produce. Preliminary experiments were done to determine the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes after inoculation onto the surface of ripe tomatoes and drying for up to 24 h at 22 +/- 2 degrees C. Within 2 h, the initial population (6.88 log10 CFU/tomato) of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by approximately 3 log10, while reductions in similar initial populations of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were approximately 1 and 0.6 log10 CFU/tomato, respectively, after 40 min and 3 h. A pilot study evaluated treatment with 200 ppm free chlorine and a prototype Fit produce wash (Fit) for their efficacy in killing a five-serotype mixture of Salmonella or L. monocytogenes spot inoculated on tomatoes using the proposed inoculation and recovery procedures. Inoculated tomatoes were sprayed with chlorinated water, Fit, or sterile distilled water (control) and hand rubbed for 30 s. Each tomato was then placed in a plastic bag and rinsed with 200 ml of sterile water by vigorously agitating for 30 s to simulate a procedure consumers might use for sanitizing and rinsing produce in a home setting. Each tomato was transferred to a second bag, and 20 ml of sterile 0.1% peptone was added; tomatoes were rubbed by hand for 40 s. Populations of Salmonella or L. monocytogenes in the rinse water and the 0.1% peptone wash solution were determined. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and Fit resulted in > or = 3.07 and > 6.83 log10 reductions, respectively, in Salmonella. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and Fit reduced the number of L. monocytogenes by > or = 3.33 and > or = 4.96 log10 CFU/tomato, respectively. The proposed standard method for testing the efficacy of point-of-use produce sanitizers needs to be evaluated for reproducibility of results through a larger scale series of experiments.

  5. Study of the efficacy of antiseptic handrub lotions with hand washing machines.

    PubMed

    Namura, S; Nishijima, S; Mitsuya, K; Asada, Y

    1994-06-01

    The effectiveness of quick handwashing in regards to four alcohol-based handrub lotions, including two products already on the market and our original lotions 1, 2, with two different kinds of hand washing machines was studied in vivo. We also tried to evaluate the efficacy of the four lotions in vitro. The in vivo testing of each lotion, including ethanol, was evaluated using two hand washing methods, first with and then without a previous soap wash. Computerized image analysis was used to calculate the bacterial count on the hand surface. The results showed that a 3 second application of the original lotion 2 (0.5% chlorhexidine in a 77% ethyl alcohol solution) preceded by a soap wash eradicated 89.3% of the bacteria on the hands; this was the highest reduction rate of all four detergents. AROKULIN-E (67.9% ethyl alcohol solution) without a prior handwashing produced the lowest reduction, 49.1% against hand surface bacteria. These results were compatible with those in vitro. It seems that an alcohol-based solution containing an effective antimicrobial detergent preceded by a soap wash is necessary to acceptably reduce hand surface bacteria.

  6. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  7. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  8. Hand orientation in hand paddle swimming.

    PubMed

    Gourgoulis, V; Aggeloussis, N; Vezos, N; Antoniou, P; Mavromatis, G

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of hand paddles on the pitch, the sweepback angles and other stroke kinematic characteristics of the hand during front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive swimmers swam without and with small (116 cm (2)) and large (268 cm (2)) paddles. Four cameras (60 Hz) were used to record the underwater strokes and the digitizing was undertaken using the Ariel Performance Analysis System. When the size of the paddles increased, the stroke length, the mean swimming velocity and the total duration of the stroke were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the average velocity of the hand during the pull and the push phases were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The stroke rate was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) only when using large paddles. The relative duration of the separate phases of the stroke, the magnitude of the medial-lateral displacements and the pitch and sweepback angles of the hand were not modified, indicating that the use of hand paddles did not caused significant alterations in the orientation and the movement of the hand during the underwater stroke in front crawl swimming. PMID:17879890

  9. Hands-Only CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR In Schools Hands-Only CPR Community CPR Tracker AED Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Hands-Only CPR Program Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE ...

  10. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  11. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  12. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  13. Polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic beads for rapid and efficient separation of specific or unspecific nucleic acid sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jürgen; Parker, Jeffrey; à Brassard, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    The versatile application of polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic M-PVA beads is demonstrated in the separation of genomic DNA, sequence specific nucleic acid purification, and binding of bacteria for subsequent DNA extraction and detection. It is shown that nucleic acids can be obtained in high yield and purity using M-PVA beads, making sample preparation efficient, fast and highly adaptable for automation processes.

  14. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  15. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA... from the sites. You may not dispose of such materials in a sewer line, tank, drain, storm drain, or...

  16. 7 CFR 58.146 - Cleaning and sanitizing treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning and sanitizing treatment. 58.146 Section 58... (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and...

  17. 9 CFR 590.552 - Cleaning and sanitizing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any sanitary means but it is preferable (unless high pressure cleaning is used) to flush soiled.... 590.552 Section 590.552 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.552 Cleaning and sanitizing requirements. (a) Cleaning....

  18. 9 CFR 590.552 - Cleaning and sanitizing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... any sanitary means but it is preferable (unless high pressure cleaning is used) to flush soiled.... 590.552 Section 590.552 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.552 Cleaning and sanitizing requirements. (a) Cleaning....

  19. 29 CFR 1915.97 - Health and sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and sanitation. 1915.97 Section 1915.97 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.97 - Health and sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and sanitation. 1915.97 Section 1915.97 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working...

  1. Seminar On Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, the conceptual outline is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Two major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, the effect of sanitary practices on the financial profits of food service, focuses on: (1) service and quality to…

  2. 7 CFR 58.146 - Cleaning and sanitizing treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall not be removed until the tank is again washed and sanitized. (d) Building. All windows, glass, partitions, and skylights should be washed as often as necessary to keep them clean. Cracked or broken glass shall be replaced promptly. The walls, ceilings and doors should be washed periodically and kept...

  3. Evaluation of a 1% iodophor postmilking teat sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J J; Murdough, P A; Howard, A B; Drechsler, P A; Pankey, J W; Ledbetter, G A; Richards, D A; Day, L L

    1994-03-01

    A natural exposure field trial a with positive control was conducted to evaluate bacteriological efficacy and teat conditioning qualities of an experimental postmilking teat dip. An experimental 1% iodine postmilking teat sanitizer with a 10% emollient system was compared with a 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin teat sanitizer. Efficacy of the two sanitizers was equivalent for all new IMI, major pathogens, and environmental pathogens. The products were not equivalent for efficacy against coliforms and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Fewer coliform IMI were diagnosed in the control group than in the treatment group. Differences were determined for efficacy against coagulase-negative staphylococci in favor of the treatment product. The products were equivalent for all clinical mastitis, including previously existing IMI that became clinical. The products were not equivalent for all or new clinical IMI with major pathogens, all environmental pathogens, or coliforms. Fewer infections were diagnosed in the control group than in the treatment group. Teat end and teat skin conditions improved with the use of the triple emollient, postmilking teat sanitizer under the winter conditions experienced during this field trial. PMID:8169282

  4. WASH (Water and Sanitation for Health) Rainwater Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes project funded by U.S. Agency for International Development to provide short-term technical assistance (general, technology transfer, institutional development and training, information support) to rural and urban fringe water supply and sanitation projects. Initial steps, special collection, and future components of rainwater network…

  5. Seminar on Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, unit two of the curriculum guide is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Four major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, providing sanitary conditions in food service establishments, discusses safe use and storage of cleaning…

  6. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....12 Section 416.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... be signed and dated upon initially implementing the Sanitation SOP's and upon any modification to the... be identified as such, and shall address, at a minimum, the cleaning of food contact surfaces...

  7. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....12 Section 416.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... be signed and dated upon initially implementing the Sanitation SOP's and upon any modification to the... be identified as such, and shall address, at a minimum, the cleaning of food contact surfaces...

  8. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  9. The status of water and sanitation among Pacific Rim nations.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Robert G; Heyworthz, Jane; Sáez, A Eduardo; Rodriguez, Clemencia; Weinstein, Phil; Ling, Bo; Memon, Saima

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of relationships among national wealth, access to improved water supply and sanitation facilities, and population health indices suggests that the adequacy of water resources at the national level is a poor predictor of economic development--namely, that low water stress is neither necessary nor sufficient for economic development at the present state of water stress among Pacific Rim nations. Although nations differ dramatically in terms of priority provided to improved water and sanitation, there is some level of wealth (per capita GNP) at which all nations promote the development of essential environmental services. Among the Pacific Rim countries for which there are data, no nation with a per capita GNP > US$18,000 per year has failed to provide near universal access to improved water supply and sanitation. Below US$18,000/person-year, however, there are decided differences in the provision of sanitary services (improved water supply and sanitation) among nations with similar economic success. There is a fairly strong relationship between child mortality/life expectancy and access to improved sanitation, as expected from the experiences of developed nations. Here no attempt is made to produce causal relationships among these data. Failure to meet Millennium Development Goals for the extension of improved sanitation is frequently evident in nations with large rural populations. Under those circumstances, capital intensive water and sanitation facilities are infeasible, and process selection for water/wastewater treatment requires an adaptation to local conditions, the use of appropriate materials, etc., constraints that are mostly absent in the developed world. Exceptions to these general ideas exist in water-stressed parts of developed countries, where water supplies are frequently augmented by water harvesting, water reclamation/reuse, and the desalination of brackish water resources. Each of these processes involves public acceptance of water

  10. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.

  11. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Chunga, Richard M.; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Jenkins, Marion W.; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge. PMID:27532871

  12. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge. PMID:27532871

  13. Water and sanitation in schools: a systematic review of the health and educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Christian; Le, Thanh-Tam; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children's health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements.

  14. Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Christian; Le, Thanh-Tam; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children’s health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements. PMID:23066396

  15. A physiological perspective for utility or futility of alcohol-based hand rub gel against nausea-vomiting: is it P-6 acupoint or transnasal aroma?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Mazumdar, Ashish; Stellini, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Nausea-vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon with numerous underlying mechanisms and pathways that are not always well elucidated. In clinical practice, refractory nausea-vomiting is encountered in several settings. Antiemetic medications may reduce these symptoms but are not always effective in all patients. In the absence of a well-defined optimal strategy for management of nausea-vomiting, the search for better approaches to treat this distressing symptom continues. One of the alternative treatment approaches is a compounded formulation called ABHR gel that is comprised of multiple antiemetic medications and has been shown to be useful for symptomatic relief in some patients with refractory nausea-vomiting. It has been suggested that alternative mechanisms should be explored to explain the perceived efficacy of ABHR gel, because transdermal absorption leading to nil-to-minimal or subtherapeutic blood concentrations of active ingredients does not explain the role of ABHR gel in the treatment of nausea-vomiting. In the current paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain ABHR transdermal gel's efficacy. Compounded ABHR transdermal gel formulation's efficacy in antagonizing nausea-vomiting that has been recently questioned may be explained by alternative mechanisms mediated through the P-6 acupoint stimulation and facial-nasal, cooling-related counterstimulation.

  16. Pain and Hand Function.

    PubMed

    Howland, Nicholas; Lopez, Mariela; Zhang, Andrew Y

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a unique somatosensory perception that can dramatically affect our ability to function. It is also a necessary perception, without which we would do irreparable damage to ourselves. In this article, the authors assess the impact of pain on function of the hand. Pain can be categorized into acute pain, chronic pain, and neuropathic pain. Hand function and objective measurements of hand function are analyzed as well as the impact of different types of pain on each of these areas.

  17. [The lysoamidase cleaning of the nasal and throat mucosa and hands of S. aureus carriers].

    PubMed

    Malanchin, I N; Sytnik, A N

    1994-01-01

    A combined method has been devised of treatment of those harboring Staphylococcus aureus, using lysoamidase and myramistin. Nasopharyngeal mucosa is irrigated with buffered solution of lysoamidase from an atomizing device, the skin of the hands is treated with 0.01% solution of myramistin. A total of 138 persons have been sanitized, among whom 70 were of the medical staff of the obstetric gynecologic in-patient department, 16 doctors and nurses from the surgery department, 22 students and pedagogues from the medical institute, 30 workers of the engineering plant. The suggested method ensures efficient elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from all three biotypes in different groups for time ranges of 15 to 30 days. It can be used at health care institutions for sanitation of medical personnel, and at engineering plants in prophylaxis of purulent diseases of the hands and fingers in those workers having sustained a minor injury related to work at the plant.

  18. Coordination of hand shape.

    PubMed

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  19. Coordination of Hand Shape

    PubMed Central

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In Experiment 1, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  20. The Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Control Cholera: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Dawn L.; Kahawita, Tanya M.; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Methods Cholera remains a significant threat to global public health with an estimated 100,000 deaths per year. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions are frequently employed to control outbreaks though evidence regarding their effectiveness is often missing. This paper presents a systematic literature review investigating the function, use and impact of WASH interventions implemented to control cholera. Results The review yielded eighteen studies and of the five studies reporting on health impact, four reported outcomes associated with water treatment at the point of use, and one with the provision of improved water and sanitation infrastructure. Furthermore, whilst the reporting of function and use of interventions has become more common in recent publications, the quality of studies remains low. The majority of papers (>60%) described water quality interventions, with those at the water source focussing on ineffective chlorination of wells, and the remaining being applied at the point of use. Interventions such as filtration, solar disinfection and distribution of chlorine products were implemented but their limitations regarding the need for adherence and correct use were not fully considered. Hand washing and hygiene interventions address several transmission routes but only 22% of the studies attempted to evaluate them and mainly focussed on improving knowledge and uptake of messages but not necessarily translating this into safer practices. The use and maintenance of safe water storage containers was only evaluated once, under-estimating the considerable potential for contamination between collection and use. This problem was confirmed in another study evaluating methods of container disinfection. One study investigated uptake of household disinfection kits which were accepted by the target population. A single study in an endemic setting compared a combination of interventions to improve water and sanitation infrastructure, and

  1. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access. PMID:27171520

  2. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    PubMed

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.

  3. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    PubMed

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access. PMID:27171520

  4. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  5. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  6. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Haiti: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013-2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation.

  7. The toilet tripod: understanding successful sanitation in rural India.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kathleen; Louis, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod): (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term; (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets; (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use. This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation. PMID:24954614

  8. Watson, Swellengrebel and species sanitation: environmental and ecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D J

    1994-08-01

    Following the discovery of mosquito transmission of malaria, the theory and practice of malaria control by general and selective removal of specific vector populations resulted particularly from Malcolm Watson's empirical work in peninsular Malaysia, first in the urban and peri-urban areas of Klang and Port Swettenham and subsequently in the rural rubber plantations, and from the work of N.H. Swellengrebel in nearby Indonesia on the taxonomy, ecology and control of anophelines. They developed the concept of species sanitation: the selective modification of the environment to render a particular anopheline of no importance as a vector in a particular situation. The lack of progress along these lines in India at that time is contrasted with that in south-east Asia. The extension of species sanitation and related concepts to other geographical areas and to other vector-borne disease situations is outlined. PMID:7898951

  9. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene at the World's Largest Mass Gathering.

    PubMed

    Vortmann, Michael; Balsari, Satchit; Holman, Susan R; Greenough, P Gregg

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a Hindu religious festival and the largest human gathering on earth, drew an estimated 120 million pilgrims to bathe at the holy confluence of the Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna rivers. To accommodate the massive numbers, the Indian government constructed a temporary city on the flood plains of the two rivers and provided it with roads, electricity, water and sanitation facilities, police stations, and a tiered healthcare system. This phenomenal operation and its impacts have gone largely undocumented. To address this gap, the authors undertook an evaluation and systematic monitoring initiative to study preparedness and response to public health emergencies at the event. This paper describes the water, sanitation, and hygiene components, with particular emphasis on preventive and mitigation strategies; the capacity for surveillance and response to diarrheal disease outbreaks; and the implications of lessons learned for other mass gatherings. PMID:25783442

  10. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health. PMID:25007823

  11. Household sanitation in Uasin Gishu district in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Some, E S

    1992-11-01

    In rural Uasin Gishu District in 1990, 78.2% of the households had pit latrines, 11.3% ventilated improved pit latrines, 0.8% water-borne and 9.7% with no toilet facilities. On inspection, 97% of the toilet facilities were in use. Compost pits were present in 52.3% of the households. Utensil drying racks were found in 56.0% of the households. Compared to previous estimates, these levels represent a tremendous improvement in sanitation service coverage. It is recommended that the impact of water and sanitation programmes on health status needs to be evaluated. There is a need for studies to be done on the value of utensil drying racks in disease control.

  12. Incentivizing Decentralized Sanitation: The Role of Discount Rates.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Garland, Jay L; Lawler, Desmond F

    2016-06-21

    In adoption decisions for decentralized sanitation technologies, two decision makers are involved: the public utility and the individual homeowner. Standard life cycle cost is calculated from the perspective of the utility, which uses a market-based discount rate in these calculations. However, both decision-makers must be considered, including their differing perceptions of the time trade-offs inherent in a stream of costs and benefits. This study uses the discount rate as a proxy for these perceptions and decision-maker preferences. The results in two case studies emphasize the dependence on location of such analyses. Falmouth, Massachusetts, appears to be a good candidate for incentivizing decentralized sanitation while the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority service area in Pennsylvania appears to have no need for similar incentives. This method can be applied to any two-party decision in which the parties are expected to have different discount rates.

  13. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013–2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation. PMID:24106193

  14. Use of propolis in the sanitization of lettuce.

    PubMed

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-07-09

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  15. Incentivizing Decentralized Sanitation: The Role of Discount Rates.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Garland, Jay L; Lawler, Desmond F

    2016-06-21

    In adoption decisions for decentralized sanitation technologies, two decision makers are involved: the public utility and the individual homeowner. Standard life cycle cost is calculated from the perspective of the utility, which uses a market-based discount rate in these calculations. However, both decision-makers must be considered, including their differing perceptions of the time trade-offs inherent in a stream of costs and benefits. This study uses the discount rate as a proxy for these perceptions and decision-maker preferences. The results in two case studies emphasize the dependence on location of such analyses. Falmouth, Massachusetts, appears to be a good candidate for incentivizing decentralized sanitation while the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority service area in Pennsylvania appears to have no need for similar incentives. This method can be applied to any two-party decision in which the parties are expected to have different discount rates. PMID:27183382

  16. The toilet tripod: understanding successful sanitation in rural India.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kathleen; Louis, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod): (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term; (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets; (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use. This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation.

  17. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene at the World's Largest Mass Gathering.

    PubMed

    Vortmann, Michael; Balsari, Satchit; Holman, Susan R; Greenough, P Gregg

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a Hindu religious festival and the largest human gathering on earth, drew an estimated 120 million pilgrims to bathe at the holy confluence of the Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna rivers. To accommodate the massive numbers, the Indian government constructed a temporary city on the flood plains of the two rivers and provided it with roads, electricity, water and sanitation facilities, police stations, and a tiered healthcare system. This phenomenal operation and its impacts have gone largely undocumented. To address this gap, the authors undertook an evaluation and systematic monitoring initiative to study preparedness and response to public health emergencies at the event. This paper describes the water, sanitation, and hygiene components, with particular emphasis on preventive and mitigation strategies; the capacity for surveillance and response to diarrheal disease outbreaks; and the implications of lessons learned for other mass gatherings.

  18. [Left-handed painters].

    PubMed

    Lanthony, P

    1995-03-01

    The role of the right hemisphere in the building of our visual space is now well established. The purpose of the present research was to determine the proportion of left handed painters, and to identify famous painters which were left-handed. The methods were as follows. First, the study of the portraits of the painters; but self-portraits were worthless (right-handed painters often painting themself as observed in the mirror, i.e. left-handed). Therefore, only portraits of painters made by another painter or by photography were used. Secondly, the orientation of the hatchings used by the artist for the representation of the shadows in the drawing: the right-handed artist making hatchings descending from right to left, and the left-handed artist making hatchings descending from left to right. Thirdly, the study of the relevant literature about history of art. The studied population included 500 painters divided in two groups: a population of 127 painters studied by portraits and hatchings; and a population of 373 painters studied only by hatchings. In the first population, the proportion of left-handed painters was 4.7%. In the second population, the proportion of left-handed painters was 2.1%. Among the 500 painters they were 14 left-handed subjects, i.e. 2.8%. These 14 painters were, in alphabetical order: Cambiaso, Dufy, Escher, Füssli, Grandville, Holbein, Klee, De La Patellière, Léonard de Vinci, Menzel, Montelupo, Papety, Regnault, Van Goyen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. [The hand and rheumatism].

    PubMed

    Lioté, F; Chicheportiche, V

    1997-01-01

    The hand is a major site of musculoskeletal disorders. Clinical features to be studied include the patient's age and sex, pain, stiffness, range of motion of the various joints of the wrists and hands, soft tissue swelling (particularly tendons sheaths), bone excrescences, skin changes. Radiological abnormalities in the hands, if any, may confirm the clinical diagnosis. The main features of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, erosive degenerative changes, Südeck syndrome, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease, etc., are reviewed. PMID:9810076

  20. Socio-economic aspects of improved sanitation in slums: a review.

    PubMed

    Isunju, J B; Schwartz, K; Schouten, M A; Johnson, W P; van Dijk, M P

    2011-06-01

    This socio-economic review provides an overview of the sanitation crisis in slum areas, and re-emphasizes the importance of sanitation. It highlights a lack of recognition of actual drivers for sanitation improvements, and the complexities in the provision of sanitation services in the context of urban slums with a mix of tenants and landlords. It elaborates how the drivers of demand for sanitation outlined in contemporary research are not universal but are rather context specific. The authors point out specific knowledge gaps for future research; for example, the need to establish a scientific basis for context-specific drivers of demand for sanitation improvements in slums, and a better understanding of associated complexities in order to set boundary conditions for achieving desired improvements. PMID:21616514

  1. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ganesh S; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Jain, Animesh

    2011-09-01

    Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country. PMID:22412284

  2. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ganesh S; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Jain, Animesh

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country. PMID:22412284

  3. [The rheumatoid hand].

    PubMed

    Henry, Julien; Roulot, Eric; Gaujoux-Viala, Cécile

    2013-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis usually affects the hand (90%). Without treatment, joint damages and deformities lead to loss of the ability to grip, grasp, and pinch, often leaving the patient unable to perform the activities of daily living. Early treatment with DMARDs ± physical therapy is the best way to control the disease and prevent deformity, as well as disability, which often occurs when joints get damaged. Two decades later dramatic advances have been made in the medical therapy of RA with the expanded range of effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. When a patient with RA develops joint damages in the hand or wrist that are unresponsive to medical management and injections therapy, surgical intervention may be necessary. Optimal care involves a team approach among the patient involving rheumatologists, physical therapists and hand surgeons. Patients with RA should be closely monitored in order to detect joint damages necessitating physical therapist or hand surgeon consultation.

  4. Find a Hand Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    Toggle navigation Blog Conditions and Injuries Common Conditions Carpal Tunnel Ganglion Cysts Thumb Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger ... Hand Surgeon Blog Conditions and Injuries Common Conditions Carpal Tunnel Ganglion Cysts Thumb Arthritis Trigger Finger Wrist ...

  5. Arthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hand and wrist arthritis. (Note: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not test dietary supplements. These compounds may cause negative interactions with other medications. Always consult your doctor before taking dietary supplements.) ...

  6. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk.

  7. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention. PMID:26551866

  8. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  9. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Hulland, Kristyna R. S.; Chase, Rachel P.; Caruso, Bethany A.; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women’s reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention. PMID:26551866

  10. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  11. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water. PMID:26613904

  12. Marketing hand hygiene in hospitals--a case study.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Jeanes, A; Osman, M; Aylott, C; Green, J

    2002-01-01

    Hand hygiene of healthcare workers is frequently poor despite the efforts of infection control teams to promote hand decontamination as the most important method to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In this case study, we describe how principles of societal marketing were applied to improve hand hygiene. Pre-marketing analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to implementation; attention to product, price, promotion and placement; and post-marketing 'customer' surveys were the essential components of the marketing strategy and its implementation. Placement of an alcohol-based gel decontaminant (Spirigel) at the bedside of every patient was widely welcomed in the hospital, and has played a major role in improving hand hygiene of healthcare workers. In the twelve months following the implementation, the decontaminant was used at least 440,000 times. The cost of purchasing the decontaminant was approximately 5000 pounds sterling. Following the introduction of Spirigel, there was a consistent reduction in the proportion of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in each of the quarters of 2000-2001 compared with 1999-2000. In the period 1999-2000, nearly 50% of the MRSA were hospital acquired compared with 39% in 2000-2001. Similarly, the average incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) decreased in each of the quarters in 2000-2001 following the introduction of Spirigel. During this period, there was an average incidence of 9.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions compared with 11.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions in 1999-2000. This represents a 17.4% reduction in the incidence of CDAD. However, this reduction was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Our case study demonstrates that principles of societal marketing methods can be used effectively to promote and sustain hand hygiene in hospitals. Improvement in hand hygiene will lead to considerable reduction in hospital

  13. Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While the sanitation ladder is useful in analysing progressive improvements in sanitation, studies in Uganda have not indicated the sanitation barriers faced by the urban poor. There are various challenges in shared latrine use, cleaning and maintenance. Results from Kampala city indicate that, failure to clean and maintain sanitation infrastructure can lead to a reversal of the potential benefits that come with various sanitation facilities. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted between March and May 2013. Data were collected through 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; one with women, men and youth respectively. We also used pictorial methods; in addition, 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content thematic approach. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of the results. Results Whether a shared sanitation facility was improved or not, it was abandoned once it was not properly used and cleaned. The problem of using shared latrines began with the lack of proper latrine training when people do not know how to squat on the latrine hole. The constrained access and security concerns, obscure paths that were filthy especially at night, lack of light in the latrine cubicle, raised latrines sometimes up to two metres above the ground, coupled with lack of cleaning and emptying the shared facilities only made a bad situation worse. In this way, open defecation gradually substituted use of the available sanitation facilities. This paper argues that, filthy latrines have the same net effect as crude open defection. Conclusion Whereas most sanitation campaigns are geared towards provision of improved sanitation infrastructure, these findings show that mere provision of infrastructure (improved or not) without adequate emphasis on proper use, cleaning and maintenance triggers an involuntary descent off the sanitation ladder. Understanding this

  14. Physical examination of the hand.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Raymond J; Hammert, Warren C

    2014-11-01

    Examination of the hand is an essential piece of a hand surgeon's skill set. This current concepts review presents a systematic process of performing a comprehensive physical examination of the hand including vascular, sensory, and motor assessments. Evaluations focused on specific hand diseases and injuries are also discussed. This information can be useful for any health care provider treating patients with hand conditions.

  15. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  16. Solo hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michael Sg; Reitsma, Bert J

    2005-01-01

    Unassisted hand surgery is being undertaken by necessity for both elective and emergency cases, due to hospital resource restrictions. The authors outline the principles of local anesthesia, surgeon-controlled tourniquet techniques, and a number of new instruments which allow a surgeon to work in comfort and safety, unassisted. The traditional surgical instruments designed for the days when trained surgical assistants were available to hold them are no longer suitable. We are entering a new era of surgical design with safer instruments that can complement our skills rather than challenge them. There are significant cost savings and efficiency when hand procedures are undertaken in the emergency and outpatient clinic settings.

  17. [Relationship between water supply, sanitation, public health, and environment: elements for the formulation of a sanitary infrastructure planning model].

    PubMed

    Soares, Sérgio R A; Bernardes, Ricardo S; Netto, Oscar de M Cordeiro

    2002-01-01

    The understanding of sanitation infrastructure, public health, and environmental relations is a fundamental assumption for planning sanitation infrastructure in urban areas. This article thus suggests elements for developing a planning model for sanitation infrastructure. The authors performed a historical survey of environmental and public health issues related to the sector, an analysis of the conceptual frameworks involving public health and sanitation systems, and a systematization of the various effects that water supply and sanitation have on public health and the environment. Evaluation of these effects should guarantee the correct analysis of possible alternatives, deal with environmental and public health objectives (the main purpose of sanitation infrastructure), and provide the most reasonable indication of actions. The suggested systematization of the sanitation systems effects in each step of their implementation is an advance considering the association between the fundamental elements for formulating a planning model for sanitation infrastructure.

  18. American Association for Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Wrist Injuries: A Brief Literature Update HAND Journal HAND , the official Journal of AAHS HAND is the official peer-reviewed Journal of AAHS, featuring articles written by clinicians worldwide ...

  19. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  20. SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD OF SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT IS THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARDS. THESE STANDARDS ARE ISSUED IN RECOGNITION OF THE LONG FELT NEED FOR A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF SANITATION INVOLVING INDUSTRIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEALTH OFFICIALS WHOSE OBLIGATION IT IS TO ENFORCE REGULATIONS.…

  1. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray rinsed... sanitizing shell eggs washed in the plant. (b) Shell eggs shall be sufficiently dry at time of breaking...

  2. Industrial Sanitation and Personal Facilities. Module SH-13. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on industrial sanitation and personal facilities is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module deals wth many facets of industrial sanitation and the facilities industries should provide so that proper health procedures may be followed. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in…

  3. Stability of nonfouling electroless nickel-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings after exposure to commercial dairy equipment sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Application of nonfouling coatings on thermal processing equipment can improve operational efficiency. However, to enable effective commercial translation, a need exists for more comprehensive studies on the stability of nonfouling coatings after exposure to different sanitizers. In the current study, the influence of different commercial dairy equipment sanitizers on the nonfouling properties of stainless steel modified with electroless Ni-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings was determined. Surface properties, such as dynamic contact angle, surface energy, surface morphology, and elemental composition, were measured before and after the coupons were exposed to the sanitizers for 168 cleaning cycles. The fouling behavior of Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel coupons after exposure was also evaluated by processing raw milk on a self-fabricated benchtop-scale plate heat exchanger. The results indicated that peroxide sanitizer had only minor effect on the Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel surface, whereas chlorine- and iodine-based sanitizers influenced the surface properties drastically. The coupons after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide sanitizer accumulated the least amount of fouling material (4.44±0.24mg/cm(2)) compared with the coupons exposed to the other 3 sanitizers. These observations indicated that the Ni-PTFE nonfouling coating retained antifouling properties after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide-based sanitizer, supporting their potential application as nonfouling coatings for stainless steel dairy processing equipment.

  4. [Introduction to management of environmental sanitation in public concession in Shanghai in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Zhu, D

    2000-10-01

    The environmental sanitation in Shanghai public concession is one of the regions with better administration. A complete set of administration rules was proposed by the Hygienic Department and Logistic Department of its public Security Bureau. It also spent a wealth of money to organize personnel and material supply to treat its environmental sanitation. This experience is worthy of summarization. PMID:11871436

  5. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  6. Menu Planning, Food Consumption, and Sanitation Practices in Day Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Martin, Ruth E.; Lan, William Y.; Chappell, James A.; Ahmad, Mahassen

    2000-01-01

    In 102 day care centers, data were collected on nutritional content of menus, compliance with guidelines, children's food consumption, and safety/sanitation. Although menus exceeded recommended daily allowances, quantities of food were below recommendations. No menu components were consumed by more than 65% of children. Sanitation problems were…

  7. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... observed in order that proper discipline may be maintained on shipboard. They shall also be instructed...

  8. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... observed in order that proper discipline may be maintained on shipboard. They shall also be instructed...

  9. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... observed in order that proper discipline may be maintained on shipboard. They shall also be instructed...

  10. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... observed in order that proper discipline may be maintained on shipboard. They shall also be instructed...

  11. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... observed in order that proper discipline may be maintained on shipboard. They shall also be instructed...

  12. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. 590.516 Section 590.516 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying...

  13. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. 590.516 Section 590.516 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying...

  14. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. 590.516 Section 590.516 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying...

  15. Sanitation Doesn't Cost, It Pays: Is It True and Can We Prove It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Marsha; McSwane, David

    1994-01-01

    This article describes an approach to substantiate the premise that good sanitation has economic benefits. It details the results of a research study conducted to measure the cost effectiveness of good sanitation in a retail food store meat department and found a 5.3% decrease in product reprocessing loss. (LZ)

  16. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub. PMID:22724306

  17. Impact of environmental sanitation and crowding on infant mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Rahaman, M M; Wojtyniak, B; Aziz, K M

    1985-07-01

    In two villages of Bangladesh, 2471 infants born in 1976 and 1977 were followed up for a year to study the impact of environmental sanitation and crowding on their mortality. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates in the study cohort were 100 and 75 per 1000 live-births, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the effects of the selected risk factors while controlling for some socioeconomic, demographic, and biological characteristics. Risk of postneonatal mortality (PNNM) in the households which did not use latrines was 3 X 12 times (p less than 0.01) higher than in those which did and 1.5 times (p less than 0.05) higher in the households with 10 or more persons than in smaller households. PNNM in the households which did not use tube-wells (hand-pump) water was higher, but not significantly so, than in those which used tube-well water for all purposes. Neonatal mortality was completely unrelated to the environmental factors investigated. PMID:2861464

  18. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  19. Hands-On Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss manipulatives and hands-on investigations for Calculus involving volume, arc length, and surface area to motivate and develop formulae which can then be verified using techniques of integration. Pre-service teachers in calculus courses using these activities experience a classroom in which active learning is encouraged and…

  20. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  1. Hands-On Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Marc; Crannell, Annalisa; Maki, Dan; Hodgson, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the mathematics underlying the construction of perspective images of three-dimensional objects. Through hands-on applications and the use of standard secondary content, the article presents perspective art in a away that is accessible to secondary teachers and their students.

  2. Hands-On Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  3. Learning "Hands On."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Janice T.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a computer teacher's incorporation of hand-held computer technology into her third- and fifth-grade students' study of acid rain. The project successfully brought two grade levels together for cross-grade research, provided an opportunity for classroom teachers and technology specialists to work collaboratively, and enhanced students'…

  4. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Arnie

    2003-01-01

    Describes steps schools can take to provide cleaner and safer washrooms. Emphasizes hand-washing to battle germs and asserts that creating a comfortable and user-friendly washroom is a critical and often overlooked aspect for encouraging better hygiene habits. (EV)

  5. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  6. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  7. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  8. Surgical hand disinfection using alcohol: the effects of alcohol type, mode and duration of application.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, M; Gnant, G; Weinlich, M; Rotter, M

    2009-03-01

    Due to their strong antimicrobial activity, rapid action, good dermal tolerance and ease of application, alcohol-based hand rubs are recommended for pre-operative preparation of the surgical team's hands. Using the EN 12791 protocol, three commercial products containing either mixtures of propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol or ethanol at total alcohol concentrations (w/w) between 73% (propanols) and 78.2% (ethanol), as the main active agents, were tested with a shortened application of 1.5 min rather than the usual 3 min. Preparation A containing 30% propan-1-ol and 45% propan-2-ol not only passed the test at this short application but even exceeded, though not significantly, the efficacy of the reference disinfection procedure in EN 12791 when applied for 3 min. Preparation B containing 45% propan-1-ol and 28% propan-2-ol fulfilled the required standard whereas the ethanol (78.2%)-based product C did not (P<0.1). This demonstrates that some, but not all, alcohol-based hand rubs pass the test even within 1.5 min, emphasising the importance of validation before a product is introduced into clinical practice. In another series with both preparation A and 60% v/v propan-1-ol, it was demonstrated that the additional inclusion of the forearms into the disinfection procedure, not required by EN 12791 but normal practice in surgical hand disinfection, does not significantly interfere with the antimicrobial efficacy of either hand rub. Therefore, the mode of test procedure in EN 12791 does not need specific adaptation for hand disinfection by surgical teams.

  9. Evaluation of water, sanitation and hygiene program outcomes shows knowledge-behavior gaps in Coast Province, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Schlegelmilch, Michael Paul; Lakhani, Amyn; Saunders, Leslie Duncan; Jhangri, Gian Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Water related diseases constitute a significant proportion of the burden of disease in Kenya. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs are in operation nation-wide to address these challenges. This study evaluated the impact of the Sombeza Water and Sanitation Improvement Program (SWASIP) in Coast Province, Kenya. Methods This study is a cluster randomized, follow-up evaluation that compared baseline (2007) to follow-up (2013) indicators from 250 households. Twenty-five villages were selected with probability proportional to size sampling, and ten households were selected randomly from each village. Follow-up data were collected by in-person interviews using pre-tested questionnaires, and analyzed to compare indicators collected at baseline. Cross-sectional results from the follow-up data were also reported. Results Statistically significant improvements from baseline were observed in the proportions of respondents with latrine access at home, who washed their hands after defecation, who treated their household drinking water and the average time to collect water in the dry season. However, this study also observed significant decreases in the proportion of respondents who washed their hands before preparing their food, or feeding their children, and after attending to a child who has defecated. The analysis also revealed a knowledge-behavior gap in WASH behaviors. Conclusion SWASIP contributed to improvements from baseline, but further progress still needs to be seen. The findings challenge the assumption that providing infrastructure and knowledge will result in behavior change. Further understanding of specific, non-knowledge predictors of WASH related behavior is needed. PMID:27279970

  10. Current trends in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalliainen, Loree K

    2012-06-01

    Hand surgery became an established subspecialty between World Wars I and II. Prior to this time, hand injuries were cared for by various specialists-neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and general surgeons-each of whom would focus on their particular tissue within the hand. With the nearly 90,000 hand injuries sustained during World War II, military hospitals were created to deal solely with hand injuries, and hand specialists began to treat the hand as a single functional organ. This article briefly reviews the origin of the field and discusses current trends in hand surgery.

  11. Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city’s population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements. PMID:24336021

  12. Challenges to achieving sustainable sanitation in informal settlements of Kigali, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-12-10

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city's population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements.

  13. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  14. Indicator organisms for assessing sanitization during composting of plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Pietravalle, S; Weekes, R; Henry, C M

    2011-08-01

    The potential for using plant pathogens and seeds as indicator organisms for assessing sanitization of plant wastes during composting was tested in bench-scale flask and large-scale systems. Plasmodiophora brassicae was unsuitable due to high temperature tolerance in dry to moist composts, and detection of viable inoculum post-composting using bioassay plants not corresponding with that using TaqMan® PCR, possibly due to preservation of nucleic acids at elevated temperatures. Several other plant pathogens (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Microdochium nivale, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora nicotianae) were unsuitable due their low temperature tolerance. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae and f.sp. radicis-lycopersici chlamydospores and tomato seeds were suitable indicators due to their moderate temperature tolerance and ease of viability testing post-composting. Abutilon seeds were more tolerant than tomato seeds of compost temperatures ≥52°C but more prone to degradation at lower temperatures and therefore less suitable as indicators. Relationships between compost temperature during exposures of 2-10 days and subsequent viability of the above chlamydospores or seeds enabled the sanitizing effect of composting processes to be predicted within 2-6 days. Plant waste type (woody or vegetable) had a small but significant effect on the relationship for tomato seeds but not for F. oxysporum chlamydospores.

  15. Characterization of Contaminants from a Sanitized Milk Processing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Cleto, Sara; Matos, Sónia; Kluskens, Leon; Vieira, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank - transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties. PMID:22761957

  16. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Cumming, Oliver; Peletz, Rachel; Chan, Gabrielle Ka-Seen; Brown, Joe; Baker, Kelly; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. Methods and Findings Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR) 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18–1.76). Conclusion Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines. PMID:24743336

  17. Waking up the alien hand: rubber hand illusion interacts with alien hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Galazky, Imke

    2013-08-01

    It has been shown that combinations of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive manipulations in healthy subjects may elicit illusory feelings of embodiment (the rubber hand illusion and the somatic rubber hand illusion). We report a case of alien hand syndrome in which the alien hand interacted with the somatic rubber hand illusion to provoke a very strong movement of the alien hand. This effect could be reliably replicated at every application of the experimental procedure. Thus, the illusion seemed to wake up the alien hand. The results demonstrate that the alien hand syndrome can be affected by experimentally induced bodily illusions, which are based on the manipulation of touch and proprioceptive information.

  18. Combination hand rejuvenation procedures.

    PubMed

    Shamban, Ava T

    2009-01-01

    Although the hands age at the same rate as the face, the aging process differs and requires a combination treatment approach for optimal rejuvenation. Photoaging causes epidermal changes such as lentigines, actinic keratoses, fine wrinkles, and crepe-like textural change. Thinning of the dermis and subcutaneous fat occurs as a result of both ultraviolet light exposure and intrinsic aging. This process can lead to a skeletal appearance of the hands, with prominent veins and bulging tendons. The combination approach addresses all of these issues, employing lasers, intense pulsed light devices, fractional devices, fillers, peels, vein sclerotherapy, and an effective at-home skin care program as indicated for individual needs and concerns. PMID:19825471

  19. Hand chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  20. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okpara, TC; Ezeala-Adikaibe, BA; Omire, O; Nwonye, E; Maluze, J

    2015-01-01

    Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence. A diagnosis of TDHS in a patient with hyperosmolar state was made. She was managed accordingly and subsequently underwent aggressive debridement and desloughing. Two fingers were amputated and the wound was allowed to heal by secondary intention. PMID:27057390

  1. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okpara, T C; Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Omire, O; Nwonye, E; Maluze, J

    2015-01-01

    Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence. A diagnosis of TDHS in a patient with hyperosmolar state was made. She was managed accordingly and subsequently underwent aggressive debridement and desloughing. Two fingers were amputated and the wound was allowed to heal by secondary intention. PMID:27057390

  2. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  3. Terra Preta sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Factura, H; Bettendorf, T; Buzie, C; Pieplow, H; Reckin, J; Otterpohl, R

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the bio-waste and excreta treatment of a former civilisation in the Amazon reveals the possibility of a highly efficient and simple sanitation system. With the end product that was black soil they converted 10% of former infertile soil of the region: Terra Preta do Indio (black soil of the Indians). These soils are still very fertile 500 years after this civilisation had disappeared. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Natural formation processes are employed to transform excreta into lasting fertile soil that can be utilised in urban agriculture. The authors studied the lacto-fermentation of faecal matter with a minimum of 4 weeks followed by vermicomposting. The results showed that lactic-acid fermentation with addition of a charcoal mixture is a suitable option for dry toilets as the container can be closed after usage. Hardly any odour occured even after periods of several weeks. Lactic-acid fermentation alone without addition of bulking agents such as paper and sliced-cut wood to raise the C/N ratio is creating a substrate that is not accepted by worms. PMID:20453341

  4. Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    AA, Lambrechts; IS, Human; JH, Doughari; JFR, Lues

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa. Methods: A total of 230 samples were collected, involving 100% of the food handlers, in 8 selected convenient food outlets with their main focus on preparing ready-to-eat foods. The workers’ cleaned and disinfected dominant hands were sampled for Total Plate Count (TPC), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacteria were isolated and counted using standard methods. Results: The highest bacterial count from the hand samples was 7.4 x 103 cfu.cm-2 and the lowest showed no detectable growth. Although hands with a count of 0 cfu.cm-2 were found in all of the plants, the results indicated that all the plants exceeded the legal limit for food surfaces or hands of < 100 cfu.cm-2 when the average bacterial counts on hands were compared. Sixty percent of the TPC analysed exceeded the legal limit and only 18% of the food handlers had no bacteria detectable on their hands. One sample tested positive for E. coli and S. aureus could not be detected on the hands of any of the food handlers. Conclusion: The study revealed that hand hygiene is unsatisfactory and may have serious implications for public health due to contamination of food from food handlers’ hands. This therefore underlined the importance of further training to improve food handlers’ knowledge of good hand washing practices. PMID:25097511

  5. Polydactyly of the hand.

    PubMed

    Faust, Katherine C; Kimbrough, Tara; Oakes, Jean Evans; Edmunds, J Ollie; Faust, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    Polydactyly is considered either the most or second most (after syndactyly) common congenital hand abnormality. Polydactyly is not simply a duplication; the anatomy is abnormal with hypoplastic structures, abnormally contoured joints, and anomalous tendon and ligament insertions. There are many ways to classify polydactyly, and surgical options range from simple excision to complicated bone, ligament, and tendon realignments. The prevalence of polydactyly makes it important for orthopedic surgeons to understand the basic tenets of the abnormality.

  6. Radiology of the hand

    SciTech Connect

    Thijn, C.J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The coverage of the author is extensive but inevitably not comprehensive. Congenital dysplasias, dysostoses, and chromosomal aberrations are covered and referenced. However, rheumatoid diseases are scantily covered. The text is sparse and in almost telegraphic style lists with useful data the site affected, the radiographic features, and the differential diagnoses. Illustrations provide an exercise in reviewing disorders affecting the hands and also provides a viewbox reference manual.

  7. Hand tools: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A selection of new hand tools, modifications of existing tools, and techniques developed in the course of NASA research and development projects are presented. The items are presented in two sections: tools for cable and connector applications, and tools for welding applications. Safety is emphasized, together with ease of operation and use in restricted areas or hazardous environments. The discussions are directed primarily toward the technician engaged in assembly or maintenance of mechanical or electrical equipment.

  8. It's not all about me: motivating hand hygiene among health care professionals by focusing on patients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M; Hofmann, David A

    2011-12-01

    Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves.

  9. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  10. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  11. Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

    Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne

  12. [Costs of hand emergencies].

    PubMed

    Raimbeau, G

    2003-10-01

    In France at the present time, there is no comprehensive registry of hand injuries. Three types of occurrences; motor vehicle accidents, work accidents, and accidents incident to activities of daily living, are covered by different types of insurance. It is the individual insurance companies, payers of the indemnification, who maintain registries of these accidents. Statistics on work accidents are very detailed and consistent, but they are oriented toward risk management. The aggregate cost of traumatic injuries to the hand is not known. Only large financial institutions are equipped to determine appropriate preventive measures and to establish premium rates based on loss experience. In 2001, hand injuries accounted for 27% of work accidents causing loss of work of at least 1 day. About 29.8% of these work accidents caused permanent partial impairment. About 17.7% of total days lost and 18.2% of the total costs of permanent impairment were due to hand injuries. In the system of compensation for work accidents, there is a major difference in the cost according to the severity of the impairment. If the permanent impairment is equal to or less than 9%, a lump sum payment is made, but if the permanent impairment is over 9%, the worker receives regular payments for the rest of his life. In 2000, the average cost of a work injury with partial permanent impairment of over 9% was [symbol: see text] 85,405, while the average cost of a lump sum settlement was only [symbol: see text] 1479, a ratio of 57 to 1. The compensation costs represent 80% of the cost of work accidents, while the cost of treatment, including all providers and institutions, makes up only 20% of the cost. Compensation for sequelae of accidents in the course of daily life is new for the insurance companies, although these accidents are frequent and often cause significant repercussions in the professional lives of victims because of the loss of hand function. Provision of optimal treatment for these

  13. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  14. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  15. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  16. Hand dermatitis: an allergist's nightmare.

    PubMed

    Wold, Lindsey; Chen, Jennifer K; Lampel, Heather P

    2014-11-01

    Hand dermatitis is a common skin complaint. We use our hands to explore our environment; subsequently, our hands are in frequent contact with potential allergens and irritants. Patients with hand dermatitis may present to their allergist with this complaint. Approaching the diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis can be challenging, as both internal and external factors may contribute to the overall condition. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis of hand dermatitis is broad and the cause often multifactorial. Obtaining a thorough history and performing a focused examination may help the clinician differentiate between multiple causes of hand dermatitis. Numerous treatment options exist for hand dermatitis, and new potential treatments are in development as well. We aim to provide the allergist with a streamlined toolkit for help in the diagnosis and management of hand dermatitis.

  17. Cultured construction: global evidence of the impact of national values on sanitation infrastructure choice.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2015-06-16

    Case study research often claims culture-variously defined-impacts infrastructure development. I test this claim using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and newly available data representing change in national coverage of sewer connections, sewerage treatment, and onsite sanitation between 1990 and 2010 for 21 developing nations. The results show that the cultural dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity, and individualism-collectivism have statistically significant relationships to sanitation technology choice. These data prove the global impact of culture on infrastructure choice, and reemphasize that local cultural preferences must be considered when constructing sanitation infrastructure. PMID:25961326

  18. Cultured construction: global evidence of the impact of national values on sanitation infrastructure choice.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2015-06-16

    Case study research often claims culture-variously defined-impacts infrastructure development. I test this claim using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and newly available data representing change in national coverage of sewer connections, sewerage treatment, and onsite sanitation between 1990 and 2010 for 21 developing nations. The results show that the cultural dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity, and individualism-collectivism have statistically significant relationships to sanitation technology choice. These data prove the global impact of culture on infrastructure choice, and reemphasize that local cultural preferences must be considered when constructing sanitation infrastructure.

  19. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Young, B; Briscoe, J

    1988-01-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in families who use good quality water supplies and latrines experience 20% less diarrhoea as reported to the health clinics during the warm, rainy season. PMID:3418292

  20. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Young, B; Briscoe, J

    1988-03-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in families who use good quality water supplies and latrines experience 20% less diarrhoea as reported to the health clinics during the warm, rainy season. PMID:3418292