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Sample records for alcohol-based hand sanitizers

  1. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness.

  2. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  3. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  4. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  5. Bacterial colonization on writing pens touched by healthcare professionals and hospitalized patients with and without cleaning the pen with alcohol-based hand sanitizing agent.

    PubMed

    Halton, K; Arora, V; Singh, V; Ghantoji, S S; Shah, D N; Garey, K W

    2011-06-01

    This prospective study examined bacterial colonization on writing pens touched by healthcare professionals and hospitalized patients with and without cleaning the pen with alcohol-based hand sanitizing agent after each patient visit. A significant reduction in potential healthcare-associated pathogens, especially Gram-positive cocci, was observed in the intervention group.

  6. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  7. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity.

  8. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  9. Antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels.

    PubMed

    Guilhermetti, M; Marques Wiirzler, L A; Castanheira Facio, B; da Silva Furlan, M; Campo Meschial, W; Bronharo Tognim, M C; Botelho Garcia, L; Luiz Cardoso, C

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, several commercial alcohol-based hand gels have appeared on the market to improve the hand-cleansing compliance of healthcare workers. Although the antimicrobial efficacy of these products has been reported in different countries, few studies have investigated this subject in Brazil. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of 12 alcohol-based hand gels produced in Brazil, containing 70% w/w or v/v ethyl alcohol as the active ingredient, according to the European Standard EN 1500 (EN 1500). The following alcohol gels were tested: Hand Gel, Voga Gel, Solumax Solugel, Doctor Clean, Rio Gel, Clear Gel, Sevengel, Hand CHC, Gel Bac, WBL-50 Gel, Sanigel and Soft Care Gel. In addition, 70% w/w ethyl alcohol and three alcohol-based hand rubs (Sterillium, Sterillium Gel, and Spitaderm), commonly used in Europe and effective according to EN 1500, were also tested. All the products tested, except for two, were approved by the EN 1500 test protocol with a 60s application. The results confirmed the antimicrobial efficacy of the majority of the alcohol gels produced in Brazil for hand hygiene of healthcare workers.

  10. Inspections of hand washing supplies and hand sanitizer in public schools.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mary M; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In November 2008, 90 schools (97%) reported their inspection results. Among 697 total bathrooms, 88.8% had soap and 91.7% had paper towels or hand dryers. Hand sanitizer was reported in 1.2% of bathrooms and 15.2% of cafeterias. No difference was observed between boys' and girls' bathrooms, or primary and secondary schools, in the prevalence of soap or paper towels/hand dryers. Hand washing supplies were generally available in public school bathrooms. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer in school bathrooms was reported occasionally and should be discouraged. Hand sanitizer in a supervised setting, the school cafeteria, was not often reported and should be promoted.

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting.

  12. Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Scott; Neskoski, Melissa; Spindler, Xanthe; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude

    2017-03-06

    Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.

  13. Rising Number of Kids Ill from Drinking Hand Sanitizers

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Rising Number of Kids Ill From Drinking Hand Sanitizers: CDC Some children aged 6 to 12 ... 2017 THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Gel hand sanitizer dispensers are ubiquitous now in American homes ...

  14. Efficacy of 2 alcohol-based gels and 1 alcohol-based rinse for surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Frederic; Djamdjian, Laura; Neyme, Denis; Passot, Christophe; Petit, Jean-Claude

    2007-08-01

    We assessed the efficacy of 2 alcohol-based gels and 1 alcohol-based rinse for surgical hand disinfection, using European standard EN 12791. Volunteers performed surgical hand disinfection with a reference product and each of the 3 study products, with 1-week intervals between disinfection episodes. The immediate and sustained antimicrobial activities of each study product were not significantly less than those of the reference product. The study products passed the efficacy requirements of the EN 12791 standard, and they are considered suitable for surgical hand disinfection.

  15. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of >or=160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log(10) reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log(10) reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log(10) reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log(10) compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses.

  16. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care products... and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand sanitizers...

  17. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care products... and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand sanitizers...

  18. Use of a Hand Sanitizing Wipe for Reducing Risk of Viral Illness in the Home.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Akrum H; Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah L; Gerba, Charles P

    2015-12-01

    This study determined whether a hand sanitizing wipe can reduce virus transmission in households, and could reduce the probability of infection by rhinovirus and rotavirus. Bacteriophage MS-2 (a marker virus) was used to assess viral transmission in five households having at least two children of ages 2-18. Hands of one female adult were inoculated with ~10(8) PFU MS-2 bacteriophages in each home, and after 8 h, hands of all family members and select fomites were sampled to determine baseline contamination without intervention. This sequence was repeated with the intervention, where all family members were instructed to use a quaternary ammonium compound-based sanitizing wipe at least once per day. A significant reduction of virus after the intervention occurred on inoculated hands (95.3%; p = 0.0039), all fomites combined (74.5%; p < 0.005), and non-inoculated hands and fomites combined (73.5%; p < 0.005). However, viral reduction on non-inoculated hands was not significant, likely due to small sample size. Using rhinovirus and rotavirus as models it was estimated that infection risk was reduced by ~30 to 89% with the use of sanitizing wipes once per day depending on the starting concentration of these viruses on hands of susceptible individuals. Therefore, using a hand sanitizing wipe can significantly reduce viral transmission and risk of illness in homes. Previous studies have shown other hand hygiene interventions, such as alcohol-based hand sanitizers, are even more effective for reducing risk of illness in homes; however the sanitizing wipe used in this study is appropriate to use for microbial reduction.

  19. Alcohol-based hand disinfection: a more robust hand-hygiene method in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Tvedt, C; Bukholm, G

    2005-03-01

    This study involved observation of hand-hygiene behaviour and evaluation of the effect of alcohol-based hand disinfection and handwashing with plain liquid soap on microbial flora. The study was performed in a combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. We demonstrated a crude compliance of hand hygiene of 50.4%, which was only performed adequately in 20.8% of cases. Of this group, handwashing and hand-disinfection procedures were performed properly 34.0% and 71.6% of the time, respectively. Hand samples for bacteriological examinations with the glove juice method demonstrated that whilst handwashing was sensitive to the way in which hand hygiene was performed, alcohol-based hand disinfection was less sensitive to such performance. Our study demonstrated that alcohol-based hand disinfection is a robust hand-hygiene method with many advantages in a practical setting. It is very feasible for use in hospital wards.

  20. The Rising Incidence of Intentional Ingestion of Ethanol-Containing Hand Sanitizers

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, Nicole J.; Bronstein, Alvin C.; Rasimas, Joseph J.; Pao, Maryland; T.Wratney, Angela; Sun, Junfeng; Austin, Howard A.; Suffredini, Anthony F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a case of intentional ingestion of hand sanitizer in our hospital and to review published cases and those reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS). Design A case report, a literature review of published cases, and a query of the National Poison Data System (NPDS). Measurements Incidence and outcome of reported cases of unintentional and intentional ethanol containing-hand sanitizer ingestion in the United States from 2005 through 2009. Main Results A literature search found 14 detailed case-reports of intentional alcohol-based hand sanitizer ingestions with one death. From 2005 to 2009, NPDS received reports of 68,712 exposures to 96 ethanol-based hand sanitizers. The number of new cases increased by an average of 1894 (95% CI: 1266, 2521) cases per year (p = 0.002). In 2005, the rate of exposures, per year, per million U.S residents was 33.7 (95% CI: 28.4, 39.1); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 5.87 per year (95%CI: 3.70, 8.04; p=0.003). In 2005, the rate of intentional exposures, per year, per million U.S residents, was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.17-1.20); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 0.32 per year (95%CI: 0.11,0.53; p=0.02). Conclusions The number of new cases per year of intentional hand sanitizer ingestion significantly increased during this five - year period. While the majority of cases of hand sanitizer ingestion have a favorable outcome, 288 moderate and 12 major medical complications were reported in this NPDS cohort. Increased awareness of the risks associated with intentional ingestion is warranted, particularly among healthcare providers caring for persons with a history of substance abuse, risk-taking behavior or suicidal ideation. PMID:21926580

  1. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene.

  2. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  3. Effectiveness of Liquid Soap and Hand Sanitizer against Norwalk Virus on Contaminated Hands▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of ≥160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log10 reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log10 reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log10 reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log10 compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses. PMID:19933337

  4. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers.

  5. Effectiveness of hand sanitizers with and without organic acids for removal of rhinovirus from hands.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ronald B; Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D

    2010-03-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined.

  6. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.; Guru, P. K.; Park, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated. PMID:25684875

  7. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

  8. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  9. Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection.

    PubMed

    Dyer, D L; Gerenraich, K B; Wadhams, P S

    1998-08-01

    Universal precautions require that perioperative health care personnel wash their hand before and after all patient contact. Time constraints, however, can make adhering to universal precautions, including proper hand washing, difficult. Some perioperative health care workers, therefore, routinely use rise-free hand sanitizers to supplement normal hand washing. This study evaluated immediate and persistent antimicrobial effectiveness of two alcohol--containing hand sanitizers and a novel surfactant, allantoin, benzalkonium chloride (SAB) hand sanitizer using a federally approved effectiveness protocol. Results indicate that all three products were equally effective after a single application. After repeated use, the alcohol-containing sanitizers did not meet federal performance standards, and the alcohol-free sanitizer did. These properties and others illustrated in this article indicate that the nonflammable, alcohol-free SAB hand sanitizer is the most favorable of the rise-free hand sanitizer formulas for normal hand washing.

  10. Efficacy of disinfectants and hand sanitizers against avian respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Patnayak, Devi P; Prasad, A Minakshi; Malik, Yashpal S; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2008-06-01

    Disinfectants play a major role in the control of animal diseases by decontaminating the farm environment. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of nine commonly used disinfectants on a nonporous surface contaminated experimentally with avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), avian influenza virus, or Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Phenolic compounds and glutaraldehyde were found to be the most effective against all three viruses. Quaternary ammonium compounds were effective against aMPV but not against the other two viruses. In addition, efficacy of commercially available hand sanitizers was evaluated on human fingers contaminated with aMPV and NDV. All three hand sanitizers tested were found to be effective against both viruses within 1 min of application on fingers.

  11. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand rinses under frequent-use conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, E L; Eke, P I; Laughon, B E

    1986-01-01

    Fifty volunteers randomly assigned to one of five hand washing agents (10 subjects per agent)--a nonantiseptic liquid soap (control), an antiseptic hand rinse containing 60% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with emollients (Alc A), an antiseptic hand rinse containing 70% IPA and 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate with emollients (Alc B), an antiseptic containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 4% IPA (CHG), and 70% IPA--washed their hands 15 times per day for 5 days under supervision by using a standardized technique and measured amounts of test agent. Microbiologic samples of hand flora were obtained at base line and after hand washes 1 and 15 on test days 1 and 5. After the initial hand wash there were significant reductions over base line in aerobic and anaerobic log CFU among those using Alc A, CHG, and IPA. By the end of the first day of hand washing (15 washes), there were 2-log or greater reductions in aerobic counts among subjects using all antiseptics, but no significant reductions in controls. By the end of day 5, all agents produced significant reductions in aerobic (P = 0.0002) and anaerobic (P = 0.002) counts over control soap. Subject assessment of effects of hand washing on the skin and overall satisfaction varied significantly by product (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). We conclude that alcohol-based hand rinses are highly efficacious, and such products are recommended as a health care personnel hand wash, particularly when sink and running water are inaccessible. PMID:3789690

  12. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, Sterillium, and Septicidine on skin flora. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 20 volunteers. Subjects disinfected their hands with three test products. At first, subjects washed their hands with soap. Then pre-value sample was taken from the finger tips in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB).1 After that, the hands were disinfected with one of the surgical hand rubs with as much volume as necessary to keep the hands wet, at the recommended application time. Immediate post-value sample was taken from one hand and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After removing the surgical glove, 3 h post-value sample (sustained effect) was taken from the hand. Results: All products remarkably decreased the colony forming units (CFU) immediately (P < 0.0001) and 3 h (P < 0.0001) after disinfection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among immediate post-values (P < 0.005). Septicidine was significantly the least effective than the others, whereas 3 h effect of the three products was similar (P = 0.630, ANOVA). Conclusions: Our results confirm the effectiveness of the three alcohol-based hand rubs. Considering the short application time, less volume used, and more antibacterial effect, however, Sterillium seems to be a better choice. PMID:25878700

  13. Hand hygiene--evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting.

    PubMed

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group.

  14. Hand Hygiene – Evaluation of Three Disinfectant Hand Sanitizers in a Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

  15. A systematic approach for the location of hand sanitizer dispensers in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard; Tiong, Ewing

    2014-09-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene practices is directly affected by the accessibility and availability of cleaning agents. Nevertheless, the decision of where to locate these dispensers is often not explicitly or fully addressed in the literature. In this paper, we study the problem of selecting the locations to install alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers throughout a hospital unit as an indirect approach to maximize compliance with hand hygiene practices. We investigate the relevant criteria in selecting dispenser locations that promote hand hygiene compliance, propose metrics for the evaluation of various location configurations, and formulate a dispenser location optimization model that systematically incorporates such criteria. A complete methodology to collect data and obtain the model parameters is described. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a general care unit at a collaborating hospital. A cost analysis was performed to study the trade-offs between usability and cost. The proposed methodology can help in evaluating the current location configuration, determining the need for change, and establishing the best possible configuration. It can be adapted to incorporate alternative metrics, tailored to different institutions and updated as needed with new internal policies or safety regulation.

  16. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  17. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses.

  18. Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

    2012-06-01

    A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P < 0.005) at 30 min after application. Skin moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy.

  19. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting.

  20. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  1. Ethanol and Isopropanol in Concentrations Present in Hand Sanitizers Sharply Reduce Excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and Eliminate Oral Infectivity of Giardia Cysts in Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. PMID:26282413

  2. Ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers sharply reduce excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and eliminate oral infectivity of Giardia cysts in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin; Samuelson, John

    2015-11-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba.

  3. [Survival of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus cereus after hand washing using alcohol-based handrub].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Midori; Takada, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Masao; Yasuda, Etsuko; Watase, Mariko; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2006-12-01

    Hand washing is the most fundamental method for preventing infection. Currently, hand washing with an alcohol-based handrub is the international gold standard method. However, in our study we found many samples of ineffective hand washing using an alcohol-based handrub. The rates of ineffective samples were 10.4% (5/48) in 2004 and 34.3% (12/35) in 2005. We examined the morphology by Gram staining and biochemical properties of the bacteria which remained after hand washing in 2005. Their colonies were divided into 3 groups (round colonies, irregular-shaped and diffusive colonies). The round colonies were considered Staphylococcus spp., and the irregular-shaped colonies or diffusive colonies were considered Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria. In the 12 ineffective hand washing samples (more than the same number of bacteria colonies as before hand washing, or > or = 300), there were 3 samples considered to be the result of the survival of Staphylococcus spp., and 9 samples considered to be the result of the survival of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus cereus. Based on these results, we should take careful measures, such as wearing sterile gloves if necessary. We should never be overconfident regarding the effect of hand washing.

  4. Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy and acceptability of an alcohol-based hand rinse with two alcohol-based hand gels during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Frédéric; Maury, Eric; Goldwirt, Laurianne; Boëlle, Piérre-Yves; Neyme, Denis; Aman, Rubina; Rossi, Beatrice; Offenstadt, Georges

    2007-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the antibacterial efficacy of handrubbing with an alcoholic rinse (AHRR) and two different alcoholic gels (AHRG) in reducing hand contamination under practical use conditions. We wanted to assess the acceptability of the three products and to determine the effect of each product on overall hand hygiene compliance. A prospective alternating time-series clinical trial was performed in a medical intensive care unit. The study was divided into three six-week periods (P1, P2, P3). Handrubbing was achieved with Sterillium rinse (AHRR) during P1, sterillium gel(AHRG-1) during P2 and Manugel Plus (AHRG-2) during P3. Pre- and post-rubbing hand contaminations were assessed immediately after a direct contact with a patient, using the glove juice technique. Health care workers (HCWs) evaluated the acceptability of the products through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Compliance of HCWs with hand hygiene was assessed during the three periods. We studied 242 handrubbing opportunities. The mean reduction factor (expressed as the Log(10) CFU/mL) of the AHRR, AHRG-1 and AHRG-2 were 1.28+/-0.95, 1.29+/-0.84 and 0.51+/-0.73, respectively (p<0.001). Assessment of the three products by HCWs indicated that AHRR and AHRG-1 were significantly better accepted than AHRG-2. The overall compliance of HCWs to hand hygiene was better when gel was available. Under practical use conditions, AHRG-1 and AHRR were more effective than AHRG-2, although all were claimed to pass the European standard EN1500. In vivo trials are essential to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of products for handrubbing.

  5. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isolates of the aforementioned test organisms. The well variant of agar disk diffusion test using Mueller-Hinton agar was used for evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of hand sanitizers. McFarland 0.5 turbidity standard was taken as reference to adjust the turbidity of bacterial suspensions. Fifty microliters of the hand sanitizer was introduced into each of the 4 wells while the 5th well incorporated with sterile water served as a control. This was done for all the test organisms and plates were incubated in an incubator for 24 h at 37΀C. After incubation, antimicrobial effectiveness was determined using digital caliper (mm) by measuring the zone of inhibition. Results: The mean diameters of zones of inhibition (in mm) observed in Group A (Sterillium), Group B (PureHands), Group C (Lifebuoy), and Group D (Dettol) were 22 ± 6, 7.5 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 1.5, and 8 ± 1, respectively. Maximum inhibition was found with Group A against all the tested organisms. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, followed by post hoc test for group-wise comparisons. The difference in the values of different sanitizers was statistically significant at P < 0.001. Conclusion: Sterillium was the most effective hand sanitizer to maintain the hand hygiene. PMID:27857768

  6. Evaluation of aqueous and alcohol-based quaternary ammonium sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on peanut and pistachio shells.

    PubMed

    McEgan, Rachel; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous (aQUAT) and isopropyl alcohol-based quaternary ammonium (ipQUAT) sanitizers for reducing Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes populations on peanut and pistachio shell pieces. Inoculated nutshells were mixed with QUAT sanitizers, water, or 70% ethanol and enumerated immediately or after incubation at 30 °C for 48 h. None of the treatments had any immediate effect on Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 populations on the peanut or pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations declined immediately on the peanut and pistachio shells treated with aQUAT or ipQUAT. After incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut and pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations also increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut shells, but levels did not change on the water-treated pistachio shells and levels were just above the limit of detection on the aQUAT-treated pistachio shells. After treatment with ipQUAT and 48-h incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations decreased to or below the limit of detection on both shell types; L. monocytogenes populations remained at or below the limit of detection on both shell types.

  7. Efficacy of an alcohol-based healthcare hand rub containing synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Shintre, Milind S; Gaonkar, Trupti A; Modak, Shanta M

    2006-09-01

    Healthcare workers are required to disinfect the hands several times a day using hand disinfectants, which leads to chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials contained in the disinfectants, which could compromise the skin integrity. This problem may be addressed by developing hand disinfectants containing synergistic combinations of small amounts of antimicrobials and other agents. The synergistic effect of farnesol and essential oils with several antimicrobials was studied in vitro to select an effective antimicrobial system in preservative concentration for use in healthcare hand rub. Farnesol and lemon oil showed synergistic activity against S. aureus, in combination with benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride, but not with other antimicrobials studied. All essential oils studied showed synergy with benzethonium chloride against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. An alcohol-based healthcare hand rub (ZBF hand rub) containing this unique synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride was then developed and its efficacy as a healthcare hand rub was evaluated in human volunteers according to the US FDA-TFM protocol using Serratia marcescens as a marker organism. The ZBF hand rub showed a 3.22 log(10) reduction in the microbial count after the first application and a 5.49 log(10) reduction after the tenth application in vivo and exceeds the US FDA-TFM criteria for healthcare hand rub. The ZBF hand rub did not irritate the hands when tested on human volunteers when applied 10 times everyday for five consecutive days. The ZBF hand rub exhibits more than 5.5 log(10) reduction in the microbial count within 15s and more than 2.8 log(10) reduction in the two types of viruses tested within 30s in vitro. When evaluated in an in vitro pig skin model, the ZBF hand rub shows better prolonged activity (20-35 min post-application) against transient bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) compared to other alcohol-based hand rubs. These

  8. 7 CFR 3201.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... personal care use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care... substances and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... personal care use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care... substances and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... personal care use in removing bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water. Personal care... substances and bacteria from human hands with or without the use of water are classified as hand...

  11. Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20–30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  12. Assessment of exposure to alcohol vapor from alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and H(2)SO(4). The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20-30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects.

  13. Tolerance and acceptability of 14 surgical and hygienic alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Girard, R; Bousquet, E; Carré, E; Bert, C; Coyault, C; Coudrais, S; Regard, A; Garcia, E Laprugne; Valdeyron, M L; Pergay, V

    2006-07-01

    Tests were performed under working practice conditions to measure the tolerance and acceptability of commercially available hand rubs with proven efficacy. The products were compared with those in current use at the Hospices Civils de Lyon for surgical hand disinfection (Sterillium) and hygienic hand disinfection (Purell) to obtain information for public sector purchases. The 12 test products were Alcogel H, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Dermalcool, Manugel Plus, Manugel Plus NPC, Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel, Purell 85, Spitacid, Spitagel and Sterillium Gel. They were tested from mid-November to mid-April over four periods of three weeks, separated by two-week intervals during which the customary product was re-introduced. Participation of hospital wards and theatres was voluntary. Skin dryness and irritation were scored before and after each test period. Acceptability and ease of use were assessed by means of a questionnaire. Among the eight surgical hand rubs, only Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel and Manugel Plus NPC did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Sterillium. For the 10 hygienic hand rubs, differences were noted depending upon the test period. Overall, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Purell 85 and Sterillium Gel did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Purell. However, over the (colder) first three test periods, Assanis Pro and Sterillium Gel caused more irritation and Purell 85 caused more dryness than Purell. Responses to the questionnaires on acceptability indicated that users preferred their customary hand rubs (Sterillium and Purell). As these field tests involving many participants did not identify any superior products, previous purchase orders were renewed.

  14. Lack of sustained efficacy for alcohol-based surgical hand rubs containing 'residual active ingredients' according to EN 12791.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Suchomel, M

    2017-02-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand rubs with 'sustained activity' for surgical hand preparation. This review aims to verify whether any of the alcohol-based hand rubs containing non-volatile 'active ingredients' such as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), mecetronium ethylsulphate (MES), or ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) provides such sustained efficacy for surgical hand disinfection. Literature was searched to find studies according to EN 12791. Published data sets were analysed to verify whether any of the formulations has a superior efficacy (P<0.01) after 3h in comparison to the reference procedure. Formulations with 0.5 and 1% CHG in 70% iso-propanol or 61% ethanol were not superior after 3h. Formulations with 0.2% MES in 45% iso-propanol and 30% n-propanol were also not superior when applied for 1min (one data set), 1.5min as currently recommended for use (14 data sets), and 2min (one data set). When applied for 3min the formulations were superior in three out of seven data sets. The hand rub with 0.1% OPP in 78.2% ethanol was also not superior to the reference treatment when applied as recommended for 1.5min. It appears reasonable and responsible to limit the dermal exposure and environmental input to biocidal agents with a clear benefit such as the alcohols. In analogy to avoiding dyes and fragrances in hand rubs, formulations containing 'active' substances without a clear benefit but with potential risks should be avoided when alternative formulations with the same level of antimicrobial activity, dermal tolerance, and user acceptability are available.

  15. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  16. Evaluation of Two Methods of Determining the Efficacies of Two Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs for Surgical Hand Antisepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Heeg, Peter; Paulson, Daryl

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial efficacies of preparations for surgical hand antisepsis can be determined according to a European standard (prEN 12791 [EN]) and a U.S. standard (tentative final monograph for health care antiseptic drug products [TFM]). The U.S. method differs in the product application mode (hands and lower forearms, versus hands only in EN), the number of applications (11 over 5 days, versus a single application in EN), the sampling times (0, 3, and 6 h after application, versus 0 and 3 h in EN), the sampling methods (glove juice versus fingertip sampling in EN), and the outcome requirements (absolute bacterial reduction factor [RF], versus noninferiority to reference treatment in EN). We have studied the efficacies of two hand rubs according to both methods. One hand rub was based on 80% ethanol and applied for 2 min, and the other one was based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol, and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate and applied for 1.5 min. The ethanol-based hand rub was equally effective as the 3-min reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.97 ± 0.89 versus 2.92 ± 1.03, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.20 ± 1.07 versus 2.47 ± 1.25, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.99 log10 (day 1), 3.00 log10 (day 2), and 3.43 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. The propanol-based hand rub was even more effective than the reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.35 ± 0.99 versus 1.86 ± 0.87, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.17 ± 1.00 versus 1.50 ± 1.26, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.82 log10 (day 1), 3.29 log10 (day 2), and 3.25 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. Some formulations have been reported to meet the efficacy requirements of one of the methods but not those of the other. That is why we conclude that, despite our results, meeting the efficacy

  17. Evaluation of two methods of determining the efficacies of two alcohol-based hand rubs for surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Heeg, Peter; Paulson, Daryl

    2006-06-01

    The antimicrobial efficacies of preparations for surgical hand antisepsis can be determined according to a European standard (prEN 12791 [EN]) and a U.S. standard (tentative final monograph for health care antiseptic drug products [TFM]). The U.S. method differs in the product application mode (hands and lower forearms, versus hands only in EN), the number of applications (11 over 5 days, versus a single application in EN), the sampling times (0, 3, and 6 h after application, versus 0 and 3 h in EN), the sampling methods (glove juice versus fingertip sampling in EN), and the outcome requirements (absolute bacterial reduction factor [RF], versus noninferiority to reference treatment in EN). We have studied the efficacies of two hand rubs according to both methods. One hand rub was based on 80% ethanol and applied for 2 min, and the other one was based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol, and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate and applied for 1.5 min. The ethanol-based hand rub was equally effective as the 3-min reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.97 +/- 0.89 versus 2.92 +/- 1.03, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.20 +/- 1.07 versus 2.47 +/- 1.25, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.99 log10 (day 1), 3.00 log10 (day 2), and 3.43 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. The propanol-based hand rub was even more effective than the reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.35 +/- 0.99 versus 1.86 +/- 0.87, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.17 +/- 1.00 versus 1.50 +/- 1.26, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.82 log10 (day 1), 3.29 log10 (day 2), and 3.25 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. Some formulations have been reported to meet the efficacy requirements of one of the methods but not those of the other. That is why we conclude that, despite our results, meeting the efficacy

  18. Quality of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and their regulatory status. Development and marketing authorisation.

    PubMed

    Stengele, Michael

    2008-10-01

    A 2005 survey showed that there are at least four legal product classifications for hand disinfectants in the European Union: medicinal products, biocidal products, cosmetics and medical devices. An internationally harmonized classification does not exist. The regulatory status of those products is defined at national level. In order to assure compliance with the regulations these four classifications provide different levels of official surveillance varying from product-specific marketing authorisations and production site audits to the obligation to just work in accordance with certain general guidelines. Biocidal product regulations cover eco-toxicological and toxicological aspects, but do not very much address to the customers' quality and efficacy expectations. In contrast, the medicinal product legislation is the most ambitious one claiming quality, safety, efficacy, and an independent benefit risk-assessment by an authority. In respect of ambition, the two remaining product categories--cosmetics and medical devices--rank between the both classifications mentioned above. For medical devices, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to make sure the products meet defined essential requirements regarding quality, safety and performance and to have an appropriate quality assurance system implemented under third party control. For cosmetics there are some legal restrictions, but within these it is the sole responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that the products are safe and fulfil their claims. This paper describes one way out of this increasingly complex situation, the definition of a single quality standard meeting the users' expectations as well as all legal requirements regardless of the specific sales country. This international quality standard for products would take priority over any individual national standard, to the benefit of users.

  19. Clinical double-blind trial on the dermal tolerance and user acceptability of six alcohol-based hand disinfectants for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Bernig, T; Kampf, G

    2002-06-01

    Six commercially available alcohol-based hand rubs [AHD 2000, Desderman, Mucasept A, Manorapid (Poly-Alkohol, Spitacid, and Sterillium] were investigated in a clinical double-blind trial involving 10 participants who had no previous experience of using hand rubs (Group 1), and seven who had substantial professional experience of using hand rubs (Group 2; virology laboratory staff). Group 1 was studied for one week with 20 applications on day 1 and then five applications per day for six days. Transepidermal water loss, dermal water content and superficial sebum content of the skin were measured before and after the seven-day application of the products, as well as user acceptability (self-assessment of smell, speed of drying, emolliant effect, skin dryness). Group 2 used each preparation twice for two weeks in a random sequence, and carried out self assessment at the end of each fortnight. Transepidermal water loss (mean baseline: 18.7 g/m(2)h), dermal water content (mean baseline dorsum: 75.6) and superficial sebum content (mean baseline dorsum: 4.8 microg/cm(2)) did not change significantly. In both groups assessments of the smell and the speed of drying did not reveal any significant differences between the six products. Sterillium had the best emollient effect of all products (P<0.05; Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney-U test) and was significantly better than Desderman, AHD 2000, and Mucasept A, causing less skin dryness after seven days use in Group 1 (P<0.05; Mann-Whitney-U test). Manorapid caused significantly less dryness than Spitacid, AHD 2000, and Mucasept A in Group 2 after the first use, but no significant difference was observed after the second use. Thus alcohol-based hand rubs that contain emolliants, irrespective of the type of alcohol (n-propanol, iso-propanol or ethanol), are well tolerated and do not dry out or irritate the skin. Personal assessments showed significant differences for the emolliant effect and the extent of dryness. Both factors are

  20. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

    2001-10-01

    Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group.

  1. Evaluation of an alcohol-based sanitizer spray's bactericidal effects on Salmonella inoculated onto stainless steel and shell egg processing equipment.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . Improved sanitation procedures may reduce the risk of food-borne illness . Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of an alcohol-quaternary ammonium sanitizer or water to reduce Salmonella inoculated onto stainless steel and shell egg processing equipment. A nalidixic acid-resistant Sa...

  2. Evaluation of an Alcohol-Based Sanitizer Spray's Bactericidal Effects on Salmonella Inoculated onto Stainless Steel and Shell Egg Processing Equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Safety regulations are being drafted for the shell egg industry. Sanitation standard operating procedures are an important precursor to HACCP regulations. Salmonella is the pathogen was most often associated with egg-borne outbreaks. Developing effective sanitation procedures that wil...

  3. Comparative efficacy of seven hand sanitizers against murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, and GII.4 norovirus.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Woo; Barclay, Leslie; Macinga, David; Charbonneau, Duane; Pettigrew, Charles A; Vinjé, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Contaminated hands or inanimate surfaces can act as a source of infection during outbreaks of human norovirus infection. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of seven hand sanitizers containing various active ingredients, such as ethanol, triclosan, and chlorhexidine, and compared their effectiveness against feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and a GII.4 norovirus fecal extract. We also tested the efficacy of 50, 70, and 90% of ethanol and isopropanol. Reduction of viral infectivity was measured by plaque assay, and the number of genomic copies was determined with a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription PCR assay. Based on the results of a quantitative suspension test, only one ethanol-based product (72% ethanol, pH 2.9) and one triclosan-based product (0.1% triclosan, pH 3.0) reduced the infectivity of both MNV and FCV (by >2.6 and ≥3.4 log units, respectively). Four of the seven products were effective against either MNV or FCV, whereas chlorhexidine was ineffective against both viruses. For these hand sanitizers, no correlation was found between reduced infectivity and decline of viral RNA. Ethanol and isopropanol concentrations ≥70% reduced the infectivity of MNV by ≥2.6 log units, whereas 50 and 70% ethanol reduced the infectivity of FCV by ≥2.2 log units after exposure for 5 min. The susceptibility of FCV to low pH and the relative high susceptibility of MNV to alcohols suggest that both surrogate viruses should be considered for in vitro testing of hand sanitizers.

  4. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338

  5. In vitro-in vivo sequence studies as a method of selecting the most efficacious alcohol-based solution for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaino, M J; Herruzo, I

    2010-05-01

    The use of alcohol-based hand rubs serves to reduce hospital-acquired infections. Many products of this type are now on offer and it is essential to know how to rank their efficacy. A sequence of tests is proposed here to compare any given new alcohol-based solution against the reference solution (60% 2-isopropyl-alcohol) with 30 s of contact time: (i) in vitro (with pig skin as carrier) testing of >30 species of microorganism; (ii) in vitro assessment of residual efficacy (after 30 min of drying); (iii) in vivo study of transient microbiota (modification of the EN 1500 standard procedure) using four ATCC strains; (iv) in vivo study of resident hand microbiota. After performing the in vitro evaluation of seven alcohol-based hand rubs, the two most efficacious (chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol and mecetronium- alcohol) were chosen and studied, comparatively with the reference solution (60% isopropyl alcohol), in vitro (for chemical sustainability on the skin) and in vivo (against transient and resident microbiota). Chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol proved to be significantly superior to mecetronium-alcohol or the reference solution in all tests, except against resident microbiota for which the improvement was not statistically significant.

  6. Validity of the four European test strains of prEN 12054 for the determination of comprehensive bactericidal activity of an alcohol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Hollingsworth, A

    2003-11-01

    A comprehensive bactericidal activity of an alcohol-based hand rub is essential for prevention of cross-transmission by the hands of healthcare workers. In Europe, however, only four test organisms are used to determine bactericidal activity according to prEN 12054. The susceptibility of the various bacterial species against the commonly used alcohols is thought to be similar, but so far this has never been studied. We therefore evaluated the bactericidal activity of an alcohol-based hand rub (Sterillium) within 30 s in compliance with prEN 12054 and in a time kill test against 13 Gram-positive, 18 Gram-negative bacteria and 14 antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Each strain was evaluated in quadruplicate. Counts of the four test bacteria of prEN 12054 were reduced by factors exceeding 10(5) within 30 s. In the time kill test, all 13 Gram-positive and all 18 Gram-negative bacteria were reduced more than 10(5)-fold within 30 s, not only against the ATCC test strains but also against corresponding clinical isolates. Comparable reductions were also observed against all 14 emerging bacterial pathogens. The four European test bacteria were found to be sufficient to determine a comprehensive bactericidal activity of a propanol-based hand rub.

  7. Effect of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel on microbial colonization of artificial fingernails worn by health care workers.

    PubMed

    McNeil, S A; Foster, C L; Hedderwick, S A; Kauffman, C A

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine differences in microflora on the nails of health care workers (HCWs) wearing artificial nails compared with control HCWs with native nails and to assess the effect on these microflora of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Cultures were obtained from 21 HCWs wearing artificial nails and 20 control HCWs before and after using antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Before cleansing with soap, 86% of HCWs with artificial nails had a pathogen (gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, or yeasts) isolated, compared with 35% of controls (P=.003); a similar difference was noted before hand cleansing with gel (68% vs. 28%; P=.03). Significantly more HCWs with artificial nails than controls had pathogens remaining after hand cleansing with soap or gel. Of HCWs with artificial nails, only 11% cleared pathogens with soap compared with 38% with gel. Of control HCWs, only 14% cleared with soap compared with 80% with gel. Artificial acrylic fingernails could contribute to the transmission of pathogens, and their use by HCWs should be discouraged.

  8. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A

    2000-04-01

    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer.

  9. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    PubMed

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study.

  10. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health

  11. Real-time feedback for improving compliance to hand sanitization among healthcare workers in an open layout ICU using radiofrequency identification.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Kedar; Waghmare, Abijeet; Ekstrand, Maria; Raj, Tony; Selvam, Sumithra; Sreerama, Sai Madhukar; Sampath, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to increase hand sanitizer usage among healthcare workers by developing and implementing a low-cost intervention using RFID and wireless mesh networks to provide real-time alarms for increasing hand hygiene compliance during opportune moments in an open layout Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A wireless, RFID based system was developed and implemented in the ICU. The ICU beds were divded into an intervention arm (n = 10) and a control arm (n = 14). Passive RFID tags were issued to the doctors, nurses and support staff of the ICU. Long range RFID readers were positioned strategically. Sensors were placed beneath the hand sanitizers to record sanitizer usage. The system would alert the HCWs by flashing a light if an opportune moment for hand sanitization was detected. A significant increase in hand sanitizer use was noted in the intervention arm. Usage was highest during the early part of the workday and decreased as the day progressed. Hand wash events per person hour was highest among the ancilliary staff followed by the doctors and nurses. Real-time feedback has potential to increase hand hygiene compliance among HCWs. The system demonstrates the possibility of automating compliance monitoring in an ICU with an open layout.

  12. Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water

    PubMed Central

    Gallandat, Karin; Daniels, Kyle; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94–3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18–3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44–3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71–3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28–4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21–4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26–2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30–2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (p<0.001). Thus, chlorine-based methods may offer a benefit of reducing persistence in rinse water. We recommend responders use the most practical handwashing method to ensure hand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering

  13. Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Marlene K; Gallandat, Karin; Daniels, Kyle; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94-3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18-3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44-3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71-3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28-4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21-4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26-2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30-2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (p<0.001). Thus, chlorine-based methods may offer a benefit of reducing persistence in rinse water. We recommend responders use the most practical handwashing method to ensure hand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering the potential

  14. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.

  15. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    PubMed Central

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  16. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    PubMed

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  17. Impact of a School-Based Hygiene Promotion and Sanitation Intervention on Pupil Hand Contamination in Western Kenya: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Leslie E.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Akoko, Daniel; Saboori, Shadi; Moe, Christine; Rheingans, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Handwashing with soap effectively reduces exposure to diarrhea-causing pathogens. Interventions to improve hygiene and sanitation conditions in schools within low-income countries have gained increased attention; however, their impact on schoolchildren's exposure to fecal pathogens has not been established. Our trial examined whether a school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention reduced Escherichia coli contamination on pupils' hands in western Kenya. A hygiene promotion and water treatment intervention did not reduce risk of E. coli presence (relative risk [RR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54–1.56); the addition of new latrines to intervention schools significantly increased risk among girls (RR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.29–5.34), with a non-significant increase among boys (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.74–2.49). Efforts to increase usage of school latrines by constructing new facilities may pose a risk to children in the absence of sufficient hygiene behavior change, daily provision of soap and water, and anal cleansing materials. PMID:22802437

  18. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  19. Hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    The toll of health care-associated infections on patients and the seeming ease of the procedure thought best able to prevent them have focused a spotlight onto hand hygiene performance. Poor performance of hand hygiene by health care workers inspires outrage in the general public. Much is understood regarding barriers to and motivators of hand hygiene performance. Guidelines encouraging use of alcohol-based hand hygiene agents have facilitated hand hygiene improvement efforts. These efforts and evidence that improved hand hygiene performance is associated with a reduction in health care-associated infections should encourage those in the hand hygiene campaigns.

  20. 29 CFR 1928.110 - Field sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Field sanitation. 1928.110 Section 1928.110 Labor....110 Field sanitation. (a) Scope. This section shall apply to any agricultural establishment where eleven (11) or more employees are engaged on any given day in hand-labor operations in the field....

  1. Update on hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2013-05-01

    Recent developments related to hand hygiene include new test methods for evaluating hand hygiene products, improvements in alcohol-based hand rubs, novel methods of hand antisepsis, and new strategies and technologies for monitoring hand hygiene practices among health care personnel.

  2. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities.

  3. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  4. Self-reported hand hygiene perceptions and barriers among companion animal veterinary clinic personnel in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Maureen E.C.; Weese, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. PMID:26933265

  5. Self-reported hand hygiene perceptions and barriers among companion animal veterinary clinic personnel in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C; Weese, J Scott

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers.

  6. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  7. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  8. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  9. Impact of a Comprehensive Workplace Hand Hygiene Program on Employer Health Care Insurance Claims and Costs, Absenteeism, and Employee Perceptions and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, James W.; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Jarvis, William R.; Harpster-Hagen, Amanda; Hughes, Jillian; Parker, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a multimodal hand hygiene intervention program in reducing health care insurance claims for hygiene preventable infections (eg, cold and influenza), absenteeism, and subjective impact on employees. Methods: A 13.5-month prospective, randomized cluster controlled trial was executed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer in strategic workplace locations and personal use (intervention group) and brief hand hygiene education (both groups). Four years of retrospective data were collected for all participants. Results: Hygiene-preventable health care claims were significantly reduced in the intervention group by over 20% (P < 0.05). Absenteeism was positively impacted overall for the intervention group. Employee survey data showed significant improvements in hand hygiene behavior and perception of company concern for employee well-being. Conclusion: Providing a comprehensive, targeted, yet simple to execute hand hygiene program significantly reduced the incidence of health care claims and increased employee workplace satisfaction. PMID:27281645

  10. 29 CFR 1917.127 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.127 Sanitation. (a) Washing and toilet facilities. (1) The employer shall provide accessible washing and toilet facilities sufficient for the sanitary requirements of... facilities, potable water may be provided in lieu of running water); (ii) Soap; (iii) Individual hand...

  11. Environment sanitation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The environmental Sanitation handbook provides guidance in the implementation of the basic provisions of occupational medicine and environmental health programs to environmental sanitation. It presents methods and procedures useful for the control of those sanitation factors which could create discomfort and illness in man or do harm to his environment. The provisions of this handbook are applicable to all organizational elements of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC),NASA, and to its associated contractors located at KSC in accordance with the terms of their respective contracts.

  12. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  13. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  14. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    PubMed

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  15. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  16. An evaluation of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit: Are visitors a potential vector for pathogens?

    PubMed

    Birnbach, David J; Rosen, Lisa F; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Arheart, Kristopher L; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) are frequently immunocompromised and might be highly susceptible to infection. Visitors to an ICU who do not adequately clean their hands could carry pathogenic organisms, resulting in risk to a vulnerable patient population. This observational study identifies pathogens carried on the hands of visitors into an ICU and investigates the effect of hand hygiene. Two observers, one stationed outside and one inside the ICU, evaluated whether visitors performed hand hygiene at any of the wall-mounted alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers prior to reaching a patient's room. Upon reaching a patient's room, the dominant hand of all of the participants was cultured. Of the 55 participating visitors, 35 did not disinfect their hands. Among the cultures of those who failed to perform hand hygiene, eight cultures grew Gram-negative rods and one grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Of the cultures of the 20 individuals who performed hand hygiene, 14 (70%) had no growth on the cultures, and the remaining six (30%) showed only the usual skin flora. The visitors who do not perform hand hygiene might carry pathogens that pose a risk to ICU patients.

  17. The sanitation ladder, what constitutes an improved form of sanitation?

    PubMed

    Exley, Josephine L R; Liseka, Bernard; Cumming, Oliver; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2015-01-20

    This study aimed to assess whether the MDG classifications and JMP sanitation ladder corresponded to hygienic proxies. Latrines were purposefully sampled in urban and rural Tanzania. Three hygienic proxies were measured: E. coli on points of hand contact, helminth at point of foot contact, and number of flies. Additionally, samples were collected from comparable surfaces in the household, and a questionnaire on management and use, combined with a visual inspection of the latrine's design was conducted. In total, 341 latrines were sampled. The MDG classifications "improved" vs "unimproved" did not describe the observed differences in E. coli concentrations. Disaggregating the data into the JMP sanitation ladder, on average "shared" facilities were the least contaminated: 9.2 vs 17.7 ("improved") and 137 E. coli/100 mL ("unimproved") (p = 0.04, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis suggests that both the presence of a slab and sharing a facility is protective against faecal-oral exposure (OR 0.18 95% CI 0.10, 0.34 and OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29, 0.92). The findings do not support the current assumption that shared facilities of an adequate technology should be classified for MDG purposes as "unimproved".

  18. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene.

  19. Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sanitizers and disinfectants can play an important role in protecting public health. They are designed to kill "pests," including infectious germs and other microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Unfortunately, sanitizers and disinfectants also contain chemicals that are "pesticides." Exposure to persistent toxic…

  20. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Leff, J.; Henley, J.; Tittl, J.; De Nardo, E.; Butler, M.; Griggs, R.; Fierer, N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one’s own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P < 0.001); we were unable to detect changes with glove-based samples. Bacterial cell counts significantly decreased with use of the ABHS (P < 0.05) and ethanol control (P < 0.05). Skin hydration at baseline correlated with bacterial abundances, bacterial community composition, pH, and redness across subjects. The importance of the method choice was substantial. These findings are important to ensure improvement of hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. PMID:28351915

  1. [Optimizing surgical hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Rotter, M; Widmer, A

    2006-08-01

    For more than 110 years hands of surgeons have been treated before a surgical procedure in order to reduce the bacterial density. The kind and duration of treatment, however, has changed significantly over time. Recent scientific evidence suggests a few changes with the aim to optimize both the efficacy and the dermal tolerance. Aim of this article is the presentation and discussion of new insights in surgical hand disinfection. A hand wash should be performed before the first disinfection of a day, ideally at least 10 min before the beginning of the disinfection as it has been shown that a 1 min hand wash significantly increases skin hydration for up to 10 min. The application time may be as short as 1.5 min depending on the type of hand rub. Hands and forearms should be kept wet with the hand rub for the recommended application time in any case. A specific rub-in procedure according to EN 12791 has been found to be suitable in order to avoid untreated skin areas. The alcohol-based hand rub should have a proven excellent dermal tolerance in order to ensure appropriate compliance. Considering these elements in clinical practice can have a significant impact to optimize the high quality of surgical hand disinfection for prevention of surgical site infections.

  2. [Evidence-based and promising interventions to prevent infectious diseases among youth as a result of poor hand hygiene in schools: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Hélène; Nugier, Angélique; Clément, Juliette; Lamboy, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a major cause of death among young people throughout the world. This paper reviews the current knowledge of empirically validated and promising interventions aimed at preventing infectious diseases among children caused by poor hand hygiene in schools. The study used a standard protocol to identify and review the literature and to classify the selected interventions. Approximately ten interventions were found to have a beneficial effect by promoting hand washing and hand hygiene in schools. The study also found that most of the interventions were implemented at elementary school. However, some interventions were also implemented at kindergarten or in child care centers, while others were aimed at university students. Most of the interventions were implemented by teachers, peers and/or external professionals. The study found that hand hygiene is effective regardless of the type of cleaning product used (i.e. antibacterial or plain soap, alcohol-based or alcohol-free hand sanitizer). This study aims to contribute to the understanding of empirically validated and promising interventions and to promote reflection on professional practice in France.

  3. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  4. SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; Mann, James; McCormack, Robert R; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M; Arbogast, James W; Dolan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The risk of inadequate hand hygiene in food handling settings is exacerbated when water is limited or unavailable, thereby making washing with soap and water difficult. The SaniTwice method involves application of excess alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), hand "washing" for 15 s, and thorough cleaning with paper towels while hands are still wet, followed by a standard application of ABHS. This study investigated the effectiveness of the SaniTwice methodology as an alternative to hand washing for cleaning and removal of microorganisms. On hands moderately soiled with beef broth containing Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), washing with a nonantimicrobial hand washing product achieved a 2.86 (±0.64)-log reduction in microbial contamination compared with the baseline, whereas the SaniTwice method with 62 % ethanol (EtOH) gel, 62 % EtOH foam, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.64 ± 0.89, 3.64 ± 0.57, and 4.61 ± 0.33 log units, respectively. When hands were heavily soiled from handling raw hamburger containing E. coli, washing with nonantimicrobial hand washing product and antimicrobial hand washing product achieved reductions of 2.65 ± 0.33 and 2.69 ± 0.32 log units, respectively, whereas SaniTwice with 62 % EtOH foam, 70 % EtOH gel, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.87 ± 0.42, 2.99 ± 0.51, and 3.92 ± 0.65 log units, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the SaniTwice regimen with various ABHS is equivalent to or exceeds that of the standard hand washing approach as specified in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code. Implementation of the SaniTwice regimen in food handling settings with limited water availability should significantly reduce the risk of foodborne infections resulting from inadequate hand hygiene.

  5. Ecological Sanitation--a way to solve global sanitation problems?

    PubMed

    Langergraber, Günter; Muellegger, Elke

    2005-04-01

    Today about 2.4 billion people in rural and urban areas do not have access to adequate sanitation services. Within 20 years, it is expected that an additional 2 billion will live in towns and cities, mainly in developing countries, demanding sanitation. Still over 90% of sewage in developing countries is discharged untreated, polluting rivers, lakes and coastal areas. Conventional sanitation concepts, based on flush toilets, a water wasting technology, are neither an ecological nor economical solution in both industrialized and developing countries. The water-based sewage systems were designed and built on the premises that human excreta are a waste; suitable only for disposal and that the environment is capable of assimilating this waste. A sanitation system that provides Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) is a cycle--a sustainable, closed-loop system, which closes the gap between sanitation and agriculture. The EcoSan approach is resource minded and represents a holistic concept towards ecologically and economically sound sanitation. The underlying aim is to close (local) nutrient and water cycles with as less expenditure on material and energy as possible to contribute to a sustainable development. Human excreta are treated as a resource and are usually processed on-site and then treated off-site. The nutrients contained in excreta are then recycled by using them, e.g., in agriculture. EcoSan is a systemic approach and an attitude; single technologies are only means to an end and may range from near-natural wastewater treatment techniques to compost toilets, simple household installations to complex, mainly decentralised systems. These technologies are not ecological per se but only in relation to the observed environment. They are picked from the whole range of available conventional, modern and traditional technical options, combining them to EcoSan systems. The paper presents an introduction to EcoSan principles and concepts including re-use aspects (available

  6. Sanitizer competency and fruit surface topography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All sanitizers and sanitizing protocols are not created equal. For the fresh produce market the lack of a comprehensive disinfection method is problematic especially in the face of the increasing recalls of fresh fruit, vegetables and unpasteurized juices. Research has shown that sanitizers and how ...

  7. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.31 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning and sanitation...) Primary enclosures for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sanitized by washing them with hot water (180 °F... detergent solution followed by a safe and effective disinfectant, or by cleaning all soiled surfaces...

  8. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  10. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  11. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  12. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  13. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs... Sanitation. (a) Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall... assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules,...

  14. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  15. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs... Sanitation. (a) Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall... assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules,...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  17. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  18. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  19. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs... Sanitation. (a) Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall... assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules,...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  1. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs... Sanitation. (a) Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall... assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules,...

  2. Hand to hand.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Susanna E; Graboys, Thomas B

    2002-08-01

    Examination of the hands has the potential to transform the encounter between physician and patient. Taking the hands conveys a sense of warmth and connectedness and is a means to communicate the physician's mindfulness. The hands can focus the examination on the individual patient as a complete human being, and not merely a disease or a collection of symptoms. The hands provide readily accessible information that may not be available through other evaluations, and they offer clues to a patient's physical and mental health. Commonplace observations, such as those revealed in the hands, can unravel medical mysteries and provide profound clinical insights.

  3. Sanitation Practices for Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    Specifically designed to assist child care food service personnel in providing wholesome food in a safe and sanitary manner, this sanitation guide interprets and expands on Chapter HSS 55 of the Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services' code for licensing activities. Following a brief introduction, chapters 2 through 7 focus on…

  4. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  5. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  6. Quantifying accessibility and use of improved sanitation: towards a comprehensive indicator of the need for sanitation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Park, M. J.; Clements, A. C. A.; Gray, D. J.; Sadler, R.; Laksono, B.; Stewart, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    To prevent diseases associated with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene, people needing latrines and behavioural interventions must be identified. We compared two indicators that could be used to identify those people. Indicator 1 of household latrine coverage was a simple Yes/No response to the question “Does your household have a latrine?” Indicator 2 was more comprehensive, combining questions about defecation behaviour with observations of latrine conditions. Using a standardized procedure and questionnaire, trained research assistants collected data from 6,599 residents of 16 rural villages in Indonesia. Indicator 1 identified 30.3% as not having a household latrine, while Indicator 2 identified 56.0% as using unimproved sanitation. Indicator 2 thus identified an additional 1,710 people who were missed by Indicator 1. Those 1,710 people were of lower socioeconomic status (p < 0.001), and a smaller percentage practiced appropriate hand-washing (p < 0.02). These results show how a good indicator of need for sanitation and hygiene interventions can combine evidences of both access and use, from self-reports and objective observation. Such an indicator can inform decisions about sanitation-related interventions and about scaling deworming programmes up or down. Further, a comprehensive and locally relevant indicator allows improved targeting to those most in need of a hygiene-behaviour intervention. PMID:27452598

  7. Are constructed treatment wetlands sustainable sanitation solutions?

    PubMed

    Langergraber, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of sanitation systems is to protect and promote human health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease. In order to be sustainable, a sanitation system has to be not only economically viable, socially acceptable and technically and institutionally appropriate, but it should also protect the environment and the natural resources. 'Resources-oriented sanitation' describes the approach in which human excreta and water from households are recognized as resource made available for reuse. Nowadays, 'resources-oriented sanitation' is understood in the same way as 'ecological sanitation'. For resources-oriented sanitation systems to be truly sustainable they have to comply with the definition of sustainable sanitation as given by the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA, www.susana.org). Constructed treatment wetlands meet the basic criteria of sustainable sanitation systems by preventing diseases, protecting the environment, and being an affordable, acceptable, and simple technology. Additionally, constructed treatment wetlands produce treated wastewater of high quality, which is fostering reuse, which in turn makes them applicable in resources-oriented sanitation systems. The paper discusses the features that make constructed treatment wetlands a suitable solution in sustainable resources-oriented sanitation systems, the importance of system thinking for sustainability, as well as key factors for sustainable implementation of constructed wetland systems.

  8. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  9. Hand disinfection in hospitals - benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2010-12-01

    The WHO regards hand hygiene as an essential tool for the prevention of noso-comial infections. The hygienic hand disinfection has a superior antimicrobial efficacy compared to hand washing and should be performed as the treatment of choice before and after a variety of activities at the point of patient care. Washing hands should be preferred when the hands are visibly soiled. Skin irritation is quite common among healthcare workers and is mainly caused by water, soap and long lasting occlusion. Compliance with hand disinfection in clinical practice is often low. Measures to improve compliance include training, provision of hand rubs where they are needed, and the responsibility of doctors to set a good example. Improved compliance in hand hygiene and targeted use of alcohol-based hand rubs can reduce the nosocomial infection rate by up to 40 %. The benefit of hand disinfection is therefore much larger than possible risks.

  10. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... formulation of essential plant oils" kills the bacterium Salmonella . These claims are also unproven and, therefore, illegal. " ... claiming to prevent infection from MRSA, E. coli , Salmonella , or H1N1 flu, which a consumer can just ...

  11. Alcohol-based solutions for bovine testicular tissue fixation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nelson C; Espinoza, Jorge R; Vargas-Jentzsch, Paul; Sandoval, Patricio; Ramos, Luis A; Aponte, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fixation, a central element in histotechnology, is currently performed with chemical compounds potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Therefore, alternative fixatives are being developed, including alcohol-based solutions. We evaluated several ethanol-based mixtures with additives to study fixative penetration rate, tissue volume changes, and morphologic effects in the bovine testis. Fixatives used were Bouin solution, 4% formaldehyde (F4), 70% ethanol (E70), E70 with 1.5% glycerol (E70G), E70 with 5% acetic acid (E70A), E70 with 1.5% glycerol and 5% acetic acid (E70AG), and E70 with 1.5% glycerol, 5% acetic acid, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; E70AGD). Five-millimeter bovine testicular tissue cubes could be completely penetrated by ethanol-based fixatives and Bouin solution in 2-3 h, whereas F4 required 21 h. Bouin solution produced general tissue shrinkage, whereas the other fixatives (alcohol-based and F4) caused tissue volume expansion. Although Bouin solution is an excellent fixative for testicular tissue, ethanol-based fixatives showed good penetration rates, low tissue shrinkage, and preserved sufficient morphology to allow identification of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, therefore representing a valid alternative for histotechnology laboratories. Common additives such as acetic acid, glycerol, and DMSO offered marginal benefits for the process of fixation; E70AG showed the best preservation of morphology with excellent nuclear detail, close to that of Bouin solution.

  12. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Zapka, C; Leff, J; Henley, J; Tittl, J; De Nardo, E; Butler, M; Griggs, R; Fierer, N; Edmonds-Wilson, S

    2017-03-28

    Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P < 0.001); we were unable to detect changes with glove-based samples. Bacterial cell counts significantly decreased with use of the ABHS (P < 0.05) and ethanol control (P < 0.05). Skin hydration at baseline correlated with bacterial abundances, bacterial community composition, pH, and redness across subjects. The importance of the method choice was substantial. These findings are important to ensure improvement of hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research.IMPORTANCE The hand microbiome is a critical area of research for diverse fields, such as public health and forensics. The suitability of culture-independent methods for assessing effects of hygiene products on microbiota has not been demonstrated. This is the first

  13. Household demand for improved sanitation services in Kumasi, Ghana: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Dale; Lauria, Donald T.; Wright, Albert M.; Choe, Kyeongae; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Swarna, Venkateswarlu

    1993-06-01

    A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying for their existing sanitation system (mostly public and bucket latrines), but in absolute terms the potential revenues from households are not large, of the order of US$1.40 per household per month (about 1-2% of household income). The results of the study confirm the conventional wisdom that conventional sewerage is not affordable to the vast majority of households without massive government subsidies. On the other hand, it appears that only modest subsidies are required to achieve relatively high levels of coverage with on-site sanitation (improved ventilated pit latrines). This is because improved ventilated pit latrines are much cheaper than conventional sewerage and because most households are willing to pay about as much for a ventilated pit latrine as for a water closet connected to a sewer. Several tests were conducted to check the accuracy of respondents' answers to contingent valuation questions. The findings indicate that contingent valuation surveys can be successfully carried out in cities in developing countries for public services such as sanitation and that reasonably reliable information can be obtained on household demand for different sanitation technologies.

  14. Influence of commercial sanitizers on lipopolysaccharide production by Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076.

    PubMed

    Venter, P; Abraham, M; Lues, J F R; Ivanov, I

    2006-12-01

    The effect of typical sanitizers on the composition and toxicity of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) produced by Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 was analyzed. Salmonella Enteritidis was propagated up to the late exponential phase in the presence of commercial sanitizing solutions. LPS was extracted and derivatized with trifluoroacetylation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and the chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay were used to assess the ultrastructure and toxicity of the LPS. The viability and debris formation during growth were evaluated to verify the bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of the sanitizers and to assess sanitizer effects on LPS formation. The LPSs produced were quantified at 1.7 x 10(4), 1.2 x 10(4), 3.6 x 10(3), and 9.6 x 10(4) [KDO] x OD(620nm)(-1) for the controls and the organisms grown in the presence of a chlorinated sanitizer, a heavy-duty alkaline cleaner, and a phenolic hand wash solution, respectively. In response to these treatments, the short-chain polysaccharide fractions of the LPSs in the Salmonella Enteritidis cells increased. This finding suggests that this organism increases the low-molecular-weight fraction of the LPS in relation to the high-molecular-weight fraction to survive these unfavorable conditions. The cumulative change in the LPS in response to the sanitizers influenced the toxicity of the LPS; however, this change could not be related to an individual compound within any of the assessed fractions.

  15. Hand Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  16. Global challenges in water, sanitation and health.

    PubMed

    Moe, Christine L; Rheingans, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    The year 2005 marks the beginning of the "International Decade for Action: Water for Life" and renewed effort to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) to reduce by half the proportion of the world's population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. Currently, UNICEF and WHO estimate that 1.1 billion people lack access to improved water supplies and 2.6 billion people lack adequate sanitation. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the MDGs will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. We review five major challenges to providing safe water and sanitation on a global basis: (1) contamination of water in distribution systems, (2) growing water scarcity and the potential for water reuse and conservation, (3) implementing innovative low-cost sanitation systems, (4) providing sustainable water supplies and sanitation for megacities, and (5) reducing global and regional disparities in access to water and sanitation and developing financially sustainable water and sanitation services.

  17. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  18. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  19. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  20. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  1. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  2. Assessment of a Foodservice Management Sanitation Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charlotte C.; Casey, Ralph

    1979-01-01

    This study determined the extent to which a course in foodservice sanitation using National Institute for the Foodservice Industry materials affected the postcourse sanitation inspection scores in selected establishments. Both experimental and control establishments had significantly higher inspection scores after the course than they had prior to…

  3. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  4. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  5. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  6. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  7. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  8. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 8365.2-1 Section 8365.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation....

  9. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  10. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  11. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  13. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  15. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  16. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  18. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  19. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  1. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  2. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  3. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  4. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  5. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  6. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  8. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation. 8365.2-1 Section 8365.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation....

  9. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  10. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  11. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 8365.2-1 Section 8365.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation....

  12. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  13. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  14. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  15. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  16. From conventional to advanced environmental sanitation.

    PubMed

    Schertenleib, R

    2005-01-01

    The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems goes back more than 100 years and became in the last century the conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas. Over the years, these sewage disposal systems had to be successively upgraded by additional sewage treatment plants increasing investment, operating and maintenance costs. Although these conventional sanitation systems could improve significantly the public health situation in those countries who could afford to install and operate them, it is highly questionable, if they are economically and ecologically sustainable. The large number of people in the developing world who still do not have access to adequate sanitation is a clear indication that the conventional approach to sanitation is not adapted to the socio-economic condition prevailing in most countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Advanced environmental sanitation is aiming not only to protect public health and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems but also to conserve precious freshwater and non-renewable resources. The Bellagio Principles and the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach (HCES) are suggested as guiding principles and a new approach for planing and designing advanced (sustainable) environmental sanitation systems.

  17. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  18. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  19. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  20. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  1. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  2. Claw hand

    MedlinePlus

    Ulnar nerve palsy - claw hand; Ulnar nerve dysfunction - claw hand; Ulnar claw ... Someone can be born with claw hand (congenital), or they can develop it because of certain disorders, such as nerve injury.

  3. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  4. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy.

  5. Hand transplantation.

    PubMed

    Amer, Hatem; Carlsen, Brian T; Dusso, Jennifer L; Edwards, Brooks S; Moran, Steven L

    2011-05-01

    The first successful hand transplant was performed in 1998, opening up a new possibility for patients who have suffered mutilating hand injuries. Since then, more than 60 such procedures have been performed throughout the world. This article describes the evolution of hand transplantation, outcomes of patients listed in the International Registry of Hand and Composite Tissue Transplantation, and ethical issues involved in hand transplantation. It also describes the hand transplantation program at Mayo Clinic, which was established in 2010.

  6. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  7. Pathways to clean hands: highlights of successful hand hygiene implementation strategies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Magiorakos, A P; Leens, E; Drouvot, V; May-Michelangeli, L; Reichardt, C; Gastmeier, P; Wilson, K; Tannahill, M; McFarlane, E; Simon, A

    2010-05-06

    Hand hygiene is the most effective way to stop the spread of microorganisms and to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The World Health Organization launched the First Global Patient Safety Challenge - Clean Care is Safer Care - in 2005 with the goal to prevent HAI globally. This year, on 5 May, the WHO s initiative SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands, which focuses on increasing awareness of and improving compliance with hand hygiene practices, celebrated its second global day. In this article, four Member States of the European Union describe strategies that were implemented as part of their national hand hygiene campaigns and were found to be noteworthy. The strategies were: governmental support, the use of indicators for hand hygiene benchmarking, developing national surveillance systems for auditing alcohol-based hand rub consumption, ensuring seamless coordination of processes between health regions in countries with regionalised healthcare systems, implementing the WHO's My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene, and auditing of hand hygiene compliance.

  8. Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella recovered from non-sanitized and sanitized broiler hatching eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitizing hatching eggs may reduce the chances that a flock will become colonized with Salmonella and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae, that can depress hatchability. An experiment was conducted to determine if a quaternary-biguanide sanitizer applied as foam ...

  9. Is it Possible to Sanitize Athletes' Shoes?

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Gabriele; Burgassi, Sandra; Russo, Carmela; Ceriale, Emma; Quercioli, Cecilia; Meniconi, Cosetta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Footwear should be designed to avoid trauma and injury to the skin of the feet that can favor bacterial and fungal infections. Procedures and substances for sanitizing the interior of shoes are uncommon but are important aspects of primary prevention against foot infections and unpleasant odor. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a sanitizing technique for reducing bacterial and fungal contamination of footwear. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Mens Sana basketball team. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven male athletes and 4 coaches (62 shoes). Intervention(s): The experimental protocol required a first sample (swab), 1/shoe, at time 0 from inside the shoes of all athletes before the sanitizing technique began and a second sample at time 1, after about 4 weeks, April 2012 to May 2012, of daily use of the sanitizing technique. Main Outcome Measure(s): The differences before and after use of the sanitizing technique for total bacterial count at 36°C and 22°C for Staphylococcus spp, yeasts, molds, Enterococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Escherichia coli, and total coliform bacteria were evaluated. Results: Before use of the sanitizing technique, the total bacterial counts at 36°C and 22°C and for Staphylococcus spp were greater by a factor of 5.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.42, 9.84), 5.84 (95% CI = 3.45, 9.78), and 4.78 (95% CI = 2.84, 8.03), respectively. All the other comparisons showed a reduction in microbial loads, whereas E coli and coliforms were no longer detected. No statistically significant decrease in yeasts (P = .0841) or molds (P = .6913) was recorded probably because of low contamination. Conclusions: The sanitizing technique significantly reduced the bacterial presence in athletes' shoes. PMID:25415415

  10. Norovirus Illness: Key Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Always wash your hands carefully with soap and water— • after using the toilet and changing diapers, and • before eating, preparing, or handling food. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers can be used in addition to hand washing. ...

  11. Zinc pyrithione in alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis: persistence of antimicrobial effects.

    PubMed

    Guthery, Eugene; Seal, Lawton A; Anderson, Edward L

    2005-02-01

    Alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis have a long history of safety and efficacy in the United States and abroad. However, alcohol alone lacks the required antimicrobial persistence to provide for the sustained periods of skin antisepsis desired in the clinical environment. Therefore, alcohol-based products must have a preservative agent such as iodine/iodophor compounds, chlorhexidine gluconate, or zinc pyrithione, to extend its antimicrobial effects. Iodine, iodophors, and chlorhexidine gluconate are well-characterized antimicrobials and preservatives. The thrust of our effort was to examine the characteristics of the lesser-known zinc pyrithione and to evaluate its utility as a preservative in the formulation of alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis. This work includes a literature review of current zinc pyrithione applications in drugs and cosmetics, a safety and toxicity evaluation, consideration of the proposed mechanisms of antimicrobial action, in vitro and in vivo efficacy data, and a discussion of the mechanisms that confer the desired antimicrobial persistence. In addition, alcohol-based, zinc pyrithione-preserved, commercially available products of skin antisepsis are compared with other commercially available antimicrobials used for skin antisepsis and with additional alcohol-based products with different preservatives. The authors' conclusion is that zinc pyrithione is not only a safe and effective antimicrobial but that its use in certain alcohol-based formulations results in antimicrobial efficacy exceeding that of iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate.

  12. Resistance of pathogenic bacteria on the surface of stainless steel depending on attachment form and efficacy of chemical sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Min; Baek, Seung-Youb; Lee, Sun-Young

    2012-02-15

    Various bacteria including food spoilage bacteria and pathogens can form biofilms on different food processing surfaces, leading to potential food contamination or spoilage. Therefore, the survival of foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Cronobacter sakazakii) in different forms (adhered cells, biofilm producing in TSB, biofilm producing at RH 100%) on the surface of stainless steel and stored at various relative humidities (RH 23%, 43%, 68%, 85%, and 100%) at room temperature for 5 days was investigated in this study. Additionally, the efficacy of chemical sanitizers (chlorine-based and alcohol-based commercial sanitizers) on inhibiting various types of biofilms of E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus on the surface of stainless steel was investigated. The number of pathogens on the surface of stainless steel in TSB stored at 25°C for 7 days or RH 100% at 25°C for 7 days was significantly increased and resulted in the increase of 3 log(10) CFU/coupon after 1 day, and these levels were maintained for 7 days. When stainless steel coupons were stored at 25°C for 5 days, the number of pathogens on the surface of stainless steel was significantly reduced after storage at RH 23%, 43%, 68%, and 85%, but not at 100%. When the bacteria formed biofilms on the surface of stainless steel in TSB after 6 days, the results were similar to those of the attached form. However, levels of S. aureus and C. sakazakii biofilms were more slowly reduced after storage at RH 23%, 43%, 68%, and 85% for 5 days than were those of the other pathogens. Formation of biofilms stored at RH 100% for 5 days displayed the highest levels of resistance to inactivation. Treatment with the alcohol sanitizer was very effective at inactivating attached pathogens or biofilms on the surface of stainless steel. Reduction levels of alcohol sanitizer treatment ranged from 1.91 to 4.77 log and from 4.35 to 5.35 log CFU/coupon in E. coli

  13. Hand Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thumb Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... Tunnel Ganglion Cysts Thumb Arthritis Trigger Finger Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  14. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  15. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-11-02

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model.

  16. The virucidal effect against murine norovirus and feline calicivirus as surrogates for human norovirus by ethanol-based sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Onda, Yuko; Akasaka, Tempei; Yagyu, Fumihiro; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Tohya, Yukinobu; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the virucidal effects of five types of alcohol-based sanitizers including malic acid and sodium malate, or monoethanolamin, in 58 vol % ethanol (pH 4.0, pH 7.1, pH 11.8), 65 vol % ethanol (pH 4.2), and 75 vol % ethanol (pH 4.4) against murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). The virus titer of MNV was reduced in an ethanol dose-dependent manner under the same pH (about 4.0) condition. Virucidal effect against MNV was correlated with pH when the concentration of ethanol was constant (58 vol %). All the ethanol-based sanitizers provided sufficient virucidal effects against FCV. In conclusion, the virucidal effect of the ethanol-based sanitizer at low concentration of ethanol against norovirus (NoV) is increased when the pH is adjusted to a neutral state.

  17. Chapped hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... wind Avoid washing hands with hot water Limit hand washing as much as possible while maintaining good hygiene Try to keep the air in your home humid Use mild soaps or non-soap cleansers Use ... on your hands regularly, especially if you live in a dry ...

  18. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  19. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control... records are subject to the requirements of § 123.9. (d) Relationship to HACCP plan. Sanitation...

  20. Decision support system for the provision of emergency sanitation.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, F; Garcia, H A; Hooijmans, C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2015-04-15

    Proper provision of sanitation in emergencies is considered a life-saving intervention. Without access to sanitation, refugees at emergency camps are at a high risk of contracting diseases. Even the most knowledgeable relief agencies have experienced difficulties providing sanitation alternatives in such challenging scenarios. This study developed a computer-based decision support system (DSS) to plan a sanitation response in emergencies. The sanitation alternatives suggested by the DSS are based on a sanitation chain concept that considers different steps in the faecal sludge management, from the toilet or latrine to the safe disposal of faecal matters. The DSS first screens individual sanitation technologies using the user's given input. Remaining sanitation options are then built into a feasible sanitation chain. Subsequently, each technology in the chain is evaluated on a scoring system. Different sanitation chains can later be ranked based on the total evaluation scores. The DSS addresses several deficiencies encountered in the provision of sanitation in emergencies including: the application of standard practices and intuition, the omission of site specific conditions, the limited knowledge exhibited by emergency planners, and the provision of sanitation focused exclusively on the collection step (i.e., just the provision of toilets).

  1. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies...

  2. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159....

  3. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies...

  4. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies...

  5. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159....

  6. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159....

  7. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies...

  8. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159....

  9. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  10. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  11. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159....

  12. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159....

  13. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159....

  14. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159....

  15. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  16. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies...

  17. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  18. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  19. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  20. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  1. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  3. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159....

  4. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  5. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159....

  6. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  7. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  8. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  9. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  10. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  11. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  12. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  13. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  14. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  15. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  16. Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Robots are limited only by the dexterity of the hand. Dr. Salisbury, in conjunction with Stanford, Caltech and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed the Salisbury Hand which has three, three-jointed human-like fingers. The tips are covered with a resilient, high friction material for gripping. The robot hand can manipulate objects by finger motion, and adapts to different aims. Advanced software allows the hand to interpret information from fingertip sensors. Further development is expected. A company has been formed to reproduce the device; copies have been delivered to several laboratories.

  17. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Holly Ann; Gaines, Joanna; Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Fitter, David; Handzel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The international response to Haiti’s ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population’s response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs): 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males); one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change. PMID:26562658

  18. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012.

    PubMed

    Williams, Holly Ann; Gaines, Joanna; Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Fitter, David; Handzel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The international response to Haiti's ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population's response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs): 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males); one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change.

  19. Social constraints before sanitation improvement in tea gardens of Sylhet, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Begum, Anwara; Chowdhury, M A I

    2010-05-01

    Sylhet, the northeastern divisional city of Bangladesh, is the major tea-producing region of the country where a large number of low-income workers completely depending on extremely labor-intensive economic activity for their bread and butter, live in and around the tea gardens. The living conditions of these communities are remarkably meager due to the lack of proper utility facilities, especially in water supply and sanitation sectors. A study was conducted at Lakkatura and Ali Bahar Tea Estates to assess the deteriorated sanitation condition of the tea garden workers community and to determine the constraints before the improvement of the condition. It was found that the existing sanitary condition of both of the tea garden slums is very poor because of the same topographical condition and socioeconomic and cultural status of the dwellers. About 50% to 60% tea garden workers still are used to open defecation causing various excreta related diseases and not practiced with washing hand after defecation. Lack of knowledge and awareness about health and hygiene, unwillingness, poverty, superstitions, etc. are responsible for the deteriorated condition of the sanitation system. Based on the analysis, providing latrines free of costs, undertaking extensive motivational and awareness programs and publicity, regular consultation of tea garden workers with the health specialists, and vector control staff of concerned utilities as well as an integrated water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion programs should be considered as the priority in order to improve the deteriorated sanitary conditions in two tea gardens.

  20. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities §...

  1. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  2. Effect of different sanitizers against Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Frisón, Laura N; Chiericatti, Carolina A; Aríngoli, Elena E; Basílico, Juan C; Basílico, María Z

    2015-07-01

    Microbial contamination is a problem in food industry. The effects produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts are diverse. If they are found in high numbers it might affect the organoleptic quality of the product. Zygosaccharomyces is the most frequent contaminant genus in sweetened juices that are not properly processed and stored. The aim of this work was to compare the action of five commercial sanitizers against isolates of Z. rouxii and to determine appropriate concentrations and time of action for the inactivation. Peracetic acid, monochloramine, iodophor and quaternary ammonium compounds were evaluated on different surfaces (stainless steel, plastic and glass) at room temperature for 30 and 60 s. It was possible to achieve a 99.99 of death Efficiency corresponding to 4 log10 of reduction for a contact time of 60 s for 0.5% (v/v) of peracetic acid, monochloramines and 0.5% (w/v) of iodophors, 1% for compound with a base of 8% (v/v) of benzyl chloride and 7.5% (v/v) of glutaraldehyde and 5% for sodium hypochlorite (55 g/L active compound). Stainless steel was successfully sanitized with all the compounds tested, and then it would be the most appropriate for the food industry because this material is also highly resistant to abrasion, to impact and to different chemical treatments. In view of the great variety of sanitizing products, the selection of the best sanitizer will depend on efficiency, safety and cost.

  3. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL....) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with...

  9. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL....) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with...

  10. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  11. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... foods, or moisture condensation, the guinea pigs or hamsters shall be transferred to clean primary enclosures. (3) Prior to the introduction of guinea pigs or hamsters into empty primary enclosures previously...) Primary enclosures for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sanitized by washing them with hot water (180...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... water faucet; (b) Deposit human waste except in toilet or sewage facilities provided for that purpose... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation. 8365.2-1 Section 8365.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  13. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation. 355.13 Section 355.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION,...

  14. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation. 355.13 Section 355.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION,...

  15. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation. 355.13 Section 355.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION,...

  16. The internal social sustainability of sanitation infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A; Javernick-Will, Amy N

    2014-09-02

    While the construction of sanitation infrastructure is one of humankind's greatest public health and environmental engineering achievements, its benefits are not yet enjoyed by all. In addition to the billions of people not yet reached by sanitation infrastructure, at least half of systems constructed in developing contexts are abandoned in the years following initial construction. In this research, we target the problem of postconstruction onsite sanitation infrastructure abandonment in rural Guatemala using legitimacy and status theory. Legitimacy and status are established theoretical concepts from organizational theory that reflect cultural alignment and normative support. Crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA), which uses Boolean algebra to discover combinations of theoretical conditions that produce an outcome of interest, allowed us to describe the various pathways that have caused socially sustainable uptake. We find that three combinations of legitimacy and status theory explain 85% of household cases at a consistency of 0.97. The most practically useful pathway covers 50% of household cases and shows that the combination of consequential legitimacy (a moral understanding of outcomes) and comprehensibility legitimacy (a cognitive model connecting outcomes to processes) is a powerful way to achieve socially sustainable sanitation infrastructure.

  17. 29 CFR 1910.141 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls § 1910.141 Sanitation. (a) General—(1... means water which meets the quality standards prescribed in the U.S. Public Health Service Drinking.... Toxic material means a material in concentration or amount which exceeds the applicable...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.88 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water for other purposes such as firefighting and cleaning outdoor premises so long as it does not... sanitation facilities. (2) The employer shall establish and implement a schedule for servicing, cleaning, and...) Potable water. (1) The employer shall provide potable water for all employee health and personal needs...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.88 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water for other purposes such as firefighting and cleaning outdoor premises so long as it does not... sanitation facilities. (2) The employer shall establish and implement a schedule for servicing, cleaning, and...) Potable water. (1) The employer shall provide potable water for all employee health and personal needs...

  20. 29 CFR 1928.110 - Field sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Potable water shall be provided and placed in locations readily accessible to all employees. (ii) The... insure privacy. (iii) Toilet and handwashing facilities shall be accessibly located and in close... use. The employer shall notify each employee of the location of the sanitation facilities and...

  1. 29 CFR 1928.110 - Field sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided and placed in locations readily accessible to all employees. (ii) The water shall be suitably cool... can be closed and latched from the inside and shall be constructed to insure privacy. (iii) Toilet and... location of the sanitation facilities and water and shall allow each employee reasonable...

  2. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  3. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  4. Point-of-care hand hygiene: preventing infection behind the curtain.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Anson; Landers, Timothy; Kirk, Jane; Young, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Best practices for hand hygiene provide indications for performance of hand hygiene at specific points in time during patient care. For hand hygiene to prevent infections, hand hygiene resources must be readily available to health care workers whenever required. This article reviews practices and recommendations intended to facilitate hand hygiene behavior at the point of care (POC) within the health care setting. Key aspects of POC hand hygiene include the provision of alcohol-based hand rub products, integration of dispensing solutions within the patient zone, consideration of patient care workflow, and dispenser designs that optimize acceptance and usage.

  5. Making sustainable water and sanitation in the Peruvian Andes: an intervention model.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Sustainability of water supplies in remote rural communities is problematic and resource consuming. CARE has a long history of working hand in hand with remote rural communities and devising programs tailored to their needs. We present here an intervention that integrates development of water supplies and sanitation, with operation and maintenance skills development and training of health promoters that can educate from within the community that ensures the sustainability of drinking water supply systems in rural communities. The training used is innovative in that it uses a series of video-workshops which are found to be particularly useful in communities with high illiteracy rates.

  6. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces.

  7. Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis among health care workers by using evidence-based hand hygiene practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is often found on the hands of healthcare workers and is generally caused by frequent hand washing, gloves, aggressive disinfectants or detergents. Alcohols have only a marginal irritation potential, although they may cause a burning sensation on pre-irritated skin. A burning sensation when using alcohols therefore, suggests that the skin barrier is already damaged. Two options for hand hygiene are generally available in clinical practice: (1) hand washing with some type of soap and water or (2) hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. Most clinical situations require the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination, which is especially useful for reducing the nosocomial transmission of various infectious agents. Washing one's hands should be the exception, to be performed only when they are visibly soiled or contaminated with proteinaceous material, or visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids. The overall compliance rate in hand hygiene is around 50%, which is far too low. In addition, healthcare workers quite often wash their hands with soap and water, when they should use an alcohol-based hand rub. This not only adds to the degree of skin irritation, but is also potentially dangerous for patients, due to the low efficacy of hand washing when compared to hand disinfection with alcohol rubs. Adhering to evidence-based hand hygiene protocols and following international guidelines on hand hygiene practices therefore, can help prevent irritant contact dermatitis among healthcare workers.

  8. The influence of sanitizers on the lipopolysaccharide composition of Escherichia coli O111.

    PubMed

    Venter, P; Abraham, M; Lues, J F R; Ivanov, I

    2006-10-01

    This study focused on the influence of typical sanitizers on the composition of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produced by the verocytotoxin-producing (VTEC) Escherichia coli O111. We also aimed to cast light on the applicability of O-antigen-based serotyping and endotoxin based Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assays applied in the food industry for the identification and quantification of Gram-negative bacteria. E. coli O111 was propagated in the presence of three typical commercially applied sanitizing solutions that included a Clean in Place (CIP) chlorinated sanitizer (bacteriocidal), heavy-duty alkaline sanitizer (bacteriocidal) and a phenolic hand wash solution (bacteriostatic). After the required growth phase was reached the LPS from both the intact cells and debris was extracted and methanolysed followed by trifluoroacetylation. Subsequently GC-MS analysis and the chromogenic LAL assay were applied to assess both the ultra-structure and the toxicity of the extracted LPS. The viability and debris formation during growth was also evaluated to verify the bacteriocidial and static effect of the applied sanitizers as well as to assess its relationship with LPS formation. The total LPS produced was quantified at 1.3 x 10(6) [KDO] x OD(620 nm)(-1) for the control samples, 6.5 x 10(3) [KDO] x OD(620 nm)(-1) for E. coli grown in the presence of CIP chlorinated sanitizer and 2.1 x 10(5) and 2.85 x 10(6) [KDO] x OD(620 nm)(-1) for the organisms grown in the presence of heavy-duty alkaline sanitizer and phenolic hand wash solution respectively (KDO = 2-keto-3-deoxy-octulosonic acid). A negative correlation (gamma(2)= -0.880) between the [KDO] and Delta viability was evident and indicated that E. coli O111 responds to factors that hinder viability by producing more LPS in its outer membrane. Subsequent assessment of the LPS ultra-structure revealed a definite change in both the total assessed saccharide and lipid fractions. The cumulative change of the LPS in response to

  9. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  10. Expert assessment of the resilience of drinking water and sanitation systems to climate-related hazards.

    PubMed

    Luh, Jeanne; Royster, Sarah; Sebastian, Daniel; Ojomo, Edema; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-08-15

    We conducted an expert assessment to obtain expert opinions on the relative global resilience of ten drinking water and five sanitation technologies to the following six climate-related hazards: drought, decreased inter-annual precipitation, flood, superstorm flood, wind damage, and saline intrusion. Resilience scores ranged from 1.7 to 9.9 out of a maximum resilience of 10, with high scores corresponding to high resilience. We find that for some climate-related hazards, such as drought, technologies demonstrated a large range in resilience, indicating that the choice of water and sanitation technologies is important for areas prone to drought. On the other hand, the range of resilience scores for superstorm flooding was much smaller, particularly for sanitation technologies, suggesting that the choice of technology is less of a determinant of functionality for superstorm flooding as compared to other climate-related hazards. For drinking water technologies, only treated piped utility-managed systems that use surface water had resilience scores >6.0 for all hazards, while protected dug wells were found to be one of the least resilient technologies, consistently scoring <5.0 for all hazards except wind damage. In general, sanitation technologies were found to have low to medium resilience, suggesting that sanitation systems need to be adapted to ensure functionality during and after climate-related hazards. The results of the study can be used to help communities decide which technologies are best suited for the climate-related challenges they face and help in future adaptation planning.

  11. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Who ... hands clean: Use warm water (not cold or hot). Use whatever soap you like. Antibacterial soaps are ...

  12. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  13. Health and social benefits from improving community hygiene and sanitation: an Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Jha, P K

    2003-06-01

    India is a country where Atomic Age and near Stone Age people co-exist. On one hand India has achieved development in many areas, but on the other hand there is still the practice of open defecation and manual cleaning of human excreta from bucket privies by scavengers. National sanitation coverage is only about 34% meaning that 66% of the population practises open defecation. Such unhygienic conditions lead to infections and high mortality and morbidity in the community. Low sanitation coverage could be due to lack of affordable sanitation technology and awareness or motivation. Although the sewerage system was introduced in India long ago, high operational and maintenance costs have prohibited it from being implemented in most towns and cities. Similarly, the cost of a septic tank is beyond most people, and disposal of undigested sludge from septic tanks remains a problem. In contrast, the pour-flush two-pit toilet (known as Sulabh Shauchalaya) is a low cost, socially acceptable and appropriate technology that does not require scavengers to clean the pits. Sulabh has converted and constructed over 1.2 million such toilets throughout India, making 240 towns scavenger-free. Liberated scavengers are thereby available to take up vocational training in various market-oriented trades enabling self-employment. The on-site/ decentralised systems of waste management has improved community health and hygiene, particularly in socially deprived groups, and reduced the financial burden of local government.

  14. MRSA (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wash their hands often using plain soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers or wipes are OK for when there's no access to soap and water. Keep cuts or broken skin clean and covered ...

  15. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  16. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  17. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-11

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices.

  18. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water.

  19. Hand reanimation.

    PubMed

    Dafydd, Hywel; Lin, Chih-Hung

    2014-03-01

    Brachial plexus disruption, major traumatic amputations, and Volkmann's contracture are all devastating injuries that present difficult reconstructive challenges. Advances in our understanding of nerve injury, regeneration, and refinement of microsurgical techniques have given rise to a number of therapeutic avenues over the last 4 decades. Hand reanimation aims to provide strength, stability, and mobility to a sensate hand. How this is achieved depends on a thorough understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, which in turn dictates what surgical modalities are suitable. Common to all reanimation procedures is the need to ensure full passive range of motion of the target joints prior to definitive surgery. Hand therapy is essential to prevent deleterious sequelae of injury, and to maximize rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction. Options for reanimation include nerve repair, nerve grafting, nerve transfer, tendon transfer, and free functioning muscle transfer.

  20. The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness among College Students Living in Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…

  1. [Hand infections].

    PubMed

    Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients.

  2. The Effect of Antibacterial Formula Hand Cleaners on the Elimination of Microbes on Hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    : The purpose of this project is to find out which one of the antibacterial hand cleanser (antibacterial bar soap, antibacterial liquid hand soap, and liquid hand sanitizer) is more effective in eliminating microbes. If antibacterial- formula liquid hand soap is used on soiled hands, then it will be more effective in eliminating microbes. Germs are microorganisms that cause disease and can spread from person-to-person. Bacteria are a kind of microbe, an example of which is Transient Flora that is often found on hands. Hand washing prevents germs from spreading to others. During the procedure, swabs were used to take samples before and after the soiled hands had been washed with one of the antibacterial hand cleansers. Nutrient Easygel was poured into petri dishes to harden for 1 day, and then samples were swabbed on the gel. The Petri dishes were placed in an incubator for 24 hours, and then data was recorded accordingly. The antibacterial liquid hand soap was sufficient in eliminating the majority of bacteria. The hands had 65% of the bacteria on them, and after the liquid hand soap was used only 37% of the bacteria remained.

  3. A conceptual model of people's approach to sanitation.

    PubMed

    Avvannavar, Santosh M; Mani, Monto

    2008-02-01

    Sanitation is a term primarily used to characterize the safe and sound handling (and disposal) of human excreta - or simply, people's approach to take-care of their (unavoidable) primal urge. According to the recent Human Development Report 2006 Global access to proper sanitation stands at approximately 58% with 37% being a conservative estimate both for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Various multi-million dollar sanitation programmes the world over have had little success, often due to inadequate understanding of people's sanitation approach. Sanitation approach includes the perception, feel and practices involved in satisficing the primal need to defecate and urinate (and their disposal). This paper presents a structure to understand the nature of psycho-socio-economic influences that determine societal approach to sanitation. Societies across the globe have evolved imbibing diverse influences attributed to the local environment, religion, cultural practices, war, etc. While a civilization's living environment reflects these influences in their built-environment characteristics, the influences are often deep-rooted and can be traced to the way the community members satisfice their need to defecate and urinate (sanitation approach). The objective of this paper is to trace the various approaches that diverse societies/civilizations, over time, across the world have had towards sanitation, and present a structure to articulate and understand determining factors. Sanitation also involves other domestic (solid and liquid) waste disposal but in the context of this paper the scope of sanitation has been restricted to human excreta alone. The structure presented and discussed in this paper would be useful in understanding a community better in terms of providing appropriate sanitation. It is hoped that this structure be considered as a basis for further refinement and detailed research into each of the factors determining people's sanitation approach.

  4. Bactericidal Efficacy of Sanitizers Produced by Commercial Water Treatment Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Tween 80, a non -reactive reagent with no bactericidal activity. 2.3.4 Numbers Control. To determine the number of recoverable bacteria, two coupons...TECHNICAL REPORT NATICK/TR-09/013 AD------ BACTERICIDAL EFFICACY OF SANITIZERS PRODUCED BY COMMERCIAL WATER TREATMENT GENERATORS by Edmund M. Powers...Engineering Center (NSRDEC), for bactericidal efficacy of their sanitizer on stainless steel surfaces. Sanitizers generated were Acid Electrolyzed Water (AEW

  5. Women, water supply and sanitation: INSTRAW's training initiatives.

    PubMed

    Tavares, J

    1997-01-01

    The International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) has worked on women, water supply and sanitation since 1986. The program aims to establish the relationship between women, water supply and sanitation and the promotion of the needs of women and their participation in Water Supply and Sanitation projects. Using a multimedia and modular approach, the training package on Women, Water Supply and Sanitation aims to provide an overview for the different government agencies, engineers, trainers and managers involved in water supply and sanitation projects. The six modules contained in this package include: 1) The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade and beyond; 2) The Participation of Women in planning, Choice of Technology and Implementation of Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation Projects; 3) Role of Women in Hygiene Education and Training Activities for Water Supply and Sanitation Projects; 4) Involvement of Women in Management of Water resources, Water Supply and Waste Disposal; 5) Women and Waste Management; and 6) Evaluation and Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation Programs, Projects and the Role of Women. In addition, each module comprises five components including objective description, detailed bibliography, feedback tools for each modular unit, lesson plan and guides for trainers and users, and audiovisual aids. In the face of water scarcity, INSTRAW highlights the importance of women¿s participation in the sustainable use of water supply.

  6. Microbiological test for sanitation of equipment in the food factory.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Microbiological sampling of utensils, tableware, and kitchen ware, in addition to equipment, permits objective evaluation of sanitation practices and procedures used for these items from food service operations.

  7. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General...) Relationship to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. Sanitation standard...

  8. Improving adherence to surgical hand preparation.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Hübner, N; Below, H; Heidecke, C-D; Assadian, O

    2008-10-01

    At present, no universal agreement on detailed practice for surgical hand preparation exists. In order to fill this gap, in 2002 a Franco-German recommendation for surgical hand preparation was published as a first step towards a generally accepted European recommendation. Based on an assessment of the actual literature, a protocol for surgical hand preparation is discussed with the aim to recommend evidence-based standard procedures including prerequisites, washing and disinfection phase, and its practical implementation. In contrast to hygienic hand disinfection, for surgical hand preparation compliance is not an issue, since it mostly is regarded as a ceremony which is carried out without exception. Nevertheless, the following factors influence acceptance and efficacy: skin tolerance, ease of use, duration of procedure, and recommended time), potential for impaired efficacy due to incorrect performance of the procedure, possibility of systemic risks and irritating potential by applied preparations, religious restrictions, ecological aspects, costs and safety. Here, we report our experience with the introduction of a new hand preparation regime in all surgical disciplines in our university hospital based on the above factors. The following statements were evaluated: 1) The immediate efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant is impaired by a preceding hand wash for up to 10 minutes. Therefore hands should not be routinely washed before the disinfection period unless there is a good reason for it such as visible soiling. 2) A shortened application time (1.5 minutes) is equal to 3 min in terms of efficacy. 3) Hands should be air dried before gloves are put on, otherwise the perforation rate of gloves will increase. 4) The efficacy of alcohol-based disinfectants is significantly higher when hands are allowed to dry for 1 minute after the washing phase and before the disinfection phase. To clarify the above questions before the establishment of the modified

  9. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph Lawrence, J.; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K.; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L.; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12–18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  10. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

  11. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. Methods We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. Results There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Conclusion Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing. PMID:26587098

  12. Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, David H; Vincent, Emily M; Meade, Gloria K; Watson, Clytrice L; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-02-03

    The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10% stool filtrate. One-minute free chlorine treatments at concentrations of 33 and 189 ppm reduced virus binding in the PGM-MB assay by 1.48 and 4.14 log₁₀, respectively, suggesting that chlorine is an efficient sanitizer for inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV). Five minute treatments with 5% trisodium phosphate (pH~12) reduced HuNoV binding by 1.6 log₁₀, suggesting that TSP, or some other high pH buffer, could be used to treat food and food contact surfaces to reduce HuNoV. One minute treatments with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide dissolved in water did not reduce PGM-MB binding, suggesting that the sanitizer may not be suitable for HuNoV inactivation in liquid form. However a 60-min treatment with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide did reduce human norovirus by 2.8 log₁₀, indicating that chlorine dioxide had some, albeit limited, activity against HuNoV. Results also suggest that peroxyacetic acid has limited effectiveness against human norovirus, since 1-min treatments with up to 195 ppm reduced human norovirus binding by <1 log₁₀. Hydrogen peroxide (4%) treatment of up to 60 min resulted in minimal binding reduction (~0.1 log₁₀) suggesting that H₂O₂ is not a good liquid sanitizer for HuNoV. Overall this study suggests that HuNoV is remarkably resistant to several commonly used disinfectants and advocates for the use of chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) as a HuNoV disinfectant wherever possible.

  13. Sanitation in the time of cholera.

    PubMed

    Misch, A

    1991-01-01

    Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. Water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae is used for washing food and/or drinking thereby transmitting the disease. PAHO estimates 6 million people in South America may get cholera within the next 3 years. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. In fact, in Lima, Peru, 40% of the people do not have potable, piped water available. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. In addition, 40% do not have access to a sewage system. Further, 80% of sick people in developing countries have a water related illness, be it transmitted by contaminated water or by insects and snails that reproduce in the water. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions. Indeed every year 10-20 million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet 940 million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1.7 billion do not have a sanitary means of disposing of human wastes, despite the fact that the UN decreed the 1980s the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Nevertheless UNICEF efforts did bring communal taps, odorless latrines, and/or pour flush toilets to 1.2 billion people. These types of sanitation costs $20-25/person whereas conventional sewers cost $350/person. Low technology supplied water averages $30/person compared to $200/person for piped water. Peru has spent $43 million on emergency medical care for cholera victims which could have provided low cost clean water and sanitation for almost 800,000 poor.

  14. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  15. Environmental engineering and sanitation, 4th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Salvato, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book has been updated to cover new laws and standards, including the Federal Safe Drinking Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Clean Air Act of 1990. This book applies sanitation and engineering theory and principles to environmental control in urban, suburban and rural communities. Engineering design, construction, operation and maintenance details are provided throughout as they relate to plants and structures. Topics include: disease control, water supply, wastewater treatment and disposal, air pollution and noise control, radiation uses and protection, recreation areas, solid waste management and much more.

  16. An evaluation, using computerized image analysis, of antimicrobial efficacy of an automatic hand washing machine with ultrasonic wave spraying.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, S; Namura, S; Mitsuya, K; Asada, Y

    1993-10-01

    We studied the antimicrobial efficacy of hand washing with a quick-dry hand washing machine [TE-KIREIKI] employing ultrasonic wave spraying and its incidental alcohol-based product [AROKULIN-E]. The subjects of this study were 10 males who had been instructed not to use any antimicrobial agent for the previous 2 weeks or any hand soap for the previous 5 hours. They pressed their palms on agar before and after washing their hands. After 48-hour incubation at 37 degrees C, the bacterial colonies grown on the agar were counted using the [ASPECT] image processing system. The colony count was expressed as the post-stamp versus pre-stamp percent (%) reduction. Two patterns of hand washing were examined in this study: [A] a 3-second hand wash using an alcohol-based product [AROKULIN-E] and [B] a 30-second hand wash using a nonmedicated detergent soap with running water in addition to hand washing by [A]. The percent (%) reduction after hand washing patterns [A] and [B] were 49.1% and 51.3%. These reduction rates indicated that these patterns did not eradicate bacteria from the hand surface. Therefore, we concluded that this quick-dry hand washing machine employing an ultrasonic wave spraying method combined with an alcohol-based product needs improvement.

  17. Assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene practice and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS home based care services in Gondar city, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background People living with HIV/AIDS have substantially greater need for water, sanitation, and hygiene. Encouraging hygiene education for People Living with HIV/AIDS in home based care services and additional support for the provision of water, sanitation, and hygiene services is recommended. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried during 2009 to assess water, sanitation status and hygiene practices and associated factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS in home based care services in Gondar city of Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects from 900 Home Based Care clients of People Living HIV/AIDS in Gondar city. Data was collected from 296 People Living with HIV/AIDS from two NGO’s in the city. For in-depth interview, four different categories were participated. Logistic regression and thematic framework analysis were performed for quantitative and qualitative part respectively. Results Two hundred ninety four subjects (72.8% (214) females and 27.2% (80) males) were studied. The mean age was 35.8 ± 8.7 years. In the study, 42.9% (126) of the households have unimproved water status, 67% (197) of the households have unimproved sanitation status, and 51.7% (152) of the households have poor hygienic practice. Diarrhoea with water status; educational status and latrine availability with sanitation status; and hand washing device availability and economical reasons for the affordability of soap with hygienic practice were significantly associated. Economical reasons and hygiene education were factors that affect water, sanitation, and hygienic practice. Stigma and discrimination were minimized as a factor in the study area. Conclusions There is high burden of water, sanitation and hygiene in people living HIV/AIDS in home based care services. Encouraging hygiene education for people living HIVAIDS in home based care services and additional support for the provision of water, sanitation, and hygiene services is recommended

  18. Facile access to unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on cis-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ye; Wang, Ping-An; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2015-02-11

    Well-defined unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on a cis-2,5-disubstitued pyrrolidine backbone were synthesized from commercially available starting materials meso-diethyl-2,5-dibromoadipate, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine, and phenylalaninol. The structures of these unnatural dipeptide-alcohols are supported by HRMS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. These unnatural dipeptide-alcohols can act as building blocks for peptidomimetics.

  19. [Hand hygiene--part of patient safety from Semmelweis to the present].

    PubMed

    Anttila, Veli-Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Hand disinfection is one of the most important part of patient safety. By adequate hand disinfection healthcare workers can prevent about 40 per cent of healthcare-associated infections and about 50 per cent of patients' MRSA contaminations in hospitals. Adherence to hand disinfection has been observed in an average of 40 per cent of patient contacts. One of the risk factors leading to poor adherence is the "doctor" status of a healthcare worker. Introduction of an alcohol-based hand rub close to the patient is one of the most significant factors for improved hand hygiene.

  20. [Products for hand hygiene and antisepsis: use by health professionals and relationship with hand eczema].

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; García-Doval, I; de la Torre, C

    2012-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important measure for the prevention of nosocomial infection. We describe the different products available for hygiene and antisepsis of the hands and the use of these products in daily practice. Hand hygiene products such as soaps and detergents are a cause of irritant dermatitis in health professionals. This irritation is one of the principal factors affecting their use in clinical practice. Alcohol-based products are better tolerated and less irritant than soap and water; irritation should not therefore be a limiting factor in the use of these products and they are to be recommended in place of soap and water. Informative and continued education programs could increase their use.

  1. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation...

  2. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation...

  3. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation...

  4. Efficacy of Post-Wash Shell Egg Sanitizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine (Cl) solutions of 100-200 ppm are the standard by which post-wash shell egg sanitizers are measured. Any facility that packages eggs with the USDA grade shields must use a comparable sanitizer. While chlorine solutions are inexpensive, non-corrosive, and safe to handle, they are not very ...

  5. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  9. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14... RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other refuse facilities...

  10. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  11. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  12. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  13. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  14. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  15. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  16. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  17. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  18. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  19. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  20. 78 FR 51728 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise... within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announces fees for vessel sanitation inspections... necessary, re-inspection. DATES: These fees are effective October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014....

  1. 77 FR 12843 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise... the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), announces fees for vessel sanitation inspections.... DATES: These fees are effective March 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: CAPT Jaret T....

  2. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  3. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot...

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  5. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  6. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot...

  7. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot...

  8. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  10. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  11. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  12. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  13. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  14. Bridging the sanitation gap between disaster relief and development.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky

    2015-10-01

    By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development.

  15. Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals.

  16. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Guiteras, Raymond; Levinsohn, James; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq

    2015-05-22

    Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, P = 0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, P = 0.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, P < 0.001) and their unsubsidized neighbors (+8.5 percentage points, P = 0.001), which suggests that investment decisions are interlinked across neighbors. Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (P < 0.001).

  17. A hand hygiene intervention to decrease infections among children attending day care centers: design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Day care center attendance has been recognized as a risk factor for acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, which can be prevented with adequate hand hygiene (HH). Based on previous studies on environmental and sociocognitive determinants of caregivers’ compliance with HH guidelines in day care centers (DCCs), an intervention has been developed aiming to improve caregivers’ and children’s HH compliance and decrease infections among children attending DCCs. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. Methods/design The intervention will be evaluated in a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial among 71 DCCs in the Netherlands. In total, 36 DCCs will receive the intervention consisting of four components: 1) HH products (dispensers and refills for paper towels, soap, alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and hand cream); 2) training to educate about the Dutch national HH guidelines; 3) two team training sessions aimed at goal setting and formulating specific HH improvement activities; and 4) reminders and cues to action (posters/stickers). Intervention DCCs will be compared to 35 control DCCs continuing usual practice. The primary outcome measure will be observed HH compliance of caregivers and children, measured at baseline and one, three, and six months after start of the intervention. The secondary outcome measure will be the incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in 600 children attending DCCs, monitored over six months by parents using a calendar to mark the days their child has diarrhea and/or a cold. Multilevel logistic regression will be performed to assess the effect of the intervention on HH compliance. Multilevel poisson regression will be performed to assess the incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children attending DCCs. Discussion This is one of the first DCC intervention studies to assess

  18. Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries

    PubMed Central

    Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie; Clasen, Thomas; Colford, John M; Cumming, Oliver; Curtis, Valerie; Bonjour, Sophie; Dangour, Alan D; De France, Jennifer; Fewtrell, Lorna; Freeman, Matthew C; Gordon, Bruce; Hunter, Paul R; Johnston, Richard B; Mathers, Colin; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Medlicott, Kate; Neira, Maria; Stocks, Meredith; Wolf, Jennyfer; Cairncross, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases from exposure to inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene in low- and middle-income settings and provide an overview of the impact on other diseases. Methods For estimating the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on diarrhoea, we selected exposure levels with both sufficient global exposure data and a matching exposure-risk relationship. Global exposure data were estimated for the year 2012, and risk estimates were taken from the most recent systematic analyses. We estimated attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by country, age and sex for inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene separately, and as a cluster of risk factors. Uncertainty estimates were computed on the basis of uncertainty surrounding exposure estimates and relative risks. Results In 2012, 502 000 diarrhoea deaths were estimated to be caused by inadequate drinking water and 280 000 deaths by inadequate sanitation. The most likely estimate of disease burden from inadequate hand hygiene amounts to 297 000 deaths. In total, 842 000 diarrhoea deaths are estimated to be caused by this cluster of risk factors, which amounts to 1.5% of the total disease burden and 58% of diarrhoeal diseases. In children under 5 years old, 361 000 deaths could be prevented, representing 5.5% of deaths in that age group. Conclusions This estimate confirms the importance of improving water and sanitation in low- and middle-income settings for the prevention of diarrhoeal disease burden. It also underscores the need for better data on exposure and risk reductions that can be achieved with provision of reliable piped water, community sewage with treatment and hand hygiene. PMID:24779548

  19. Suitability of Sterillium Gel for surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Kapella, M

    2003-07-01

    In some countries, alcohol-based hand gels are used for hygienic hand disinfection but their efficacy and suitability for surgical hand disinfection has never been investigated. The efficacy of Sterillium Gel was investigated according to prEN 12791 in two separate experiments. Finger tips of 20 volunteers per experiment were sampled for resident skin bacteria before surgical hand disinfection. In a cross-over design, each volunteer carried out a surgical hand disinfection with the reference alcohol [n-propanol 60%, (v/v)] or Sterillium Gel [ethanol 85% (v/v)] for 3 min. After the product application, one hand was sampled for the immediate effect, the other hand was gloved for 3 h and then sampled for the sustained effect. Samples were analysed for remaining resident bacteria. The mean of the pre-value, the 0 h and 3 h values of the reference disinfection and the test product were calculated. With the reference alcohol, respective mean immediate log10-reduction factors of 2.06+/-0.76 and 2.23+/-1.13 were found in both experiments. The mean sustained effects with the reference alcohol were 2.03+/-1.14 and 1.44+/-0.81. Sterillium Gel achieved respective mean immediate effects of 2.48+/-1.06 and 2.13+/-0.81, the mean sustained effects were 2.77+/-0.95 and 2.18+/-0.72. They proved significantly larger than those obtained with the reference alcohol (P<0.05; pair-wise Wilcoxon test). Sterillium Gel, therefore, more than fulfils the efficacy requirements for surgical hand disinfection of prEN 12791. In addition, 25 of 26 operating theatre healthcare workers in an orthopaedic hospital found it suitable for surgical hand disinfection after a single use, which included putting on a pair of surgical gloves. Although none of them had ever used an alcohol-based gel before, they had rather been accustomed to alcohol-based liquid products for years. The main reasons given for the positive assessment were better skin feeling after use, smell and easier donning of the surgical

  20. Rural sanitation problems in Uganda--institutional and management aspects.

    PubMed

    Mukungu, D M

    2000-01-01

    Rural Uganda faces a lot of problems caused by poor sanitation facilities such as pollution of water sources, a high rate of waterborne diseases, high expenditures on curative health care, and the threat of reduced educational performance of children through illness, early school drop out, especially of girls. Limited budgets and expenditures for the health sector, lack of staff, lack of accountability and transparency are important factors affecting sanitation status on the national level. Other restrictions can be found at the community level, e.g. taboos, cultural and customary beliefs, ignorance, poverty, or in soil conditions. To address the poor level of sanitation, the Government of Uganda has set up both a whole string of laws and guidelines and an institutional and management framework. One main emphasis was placed on the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation Programme (PHAST) introduced in 1994 and since then adopted by several non-governmental organisations (NGO's).

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  2. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... water that comes into contact with food or food contact surfaces or that is used in the manufacture of..., fuel, pesticides, cleaning compounds, sanitizing agents, condensate, and other chemical, physical,...

  3. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and relate to the following: (1) Safety of the water that comes into contact with food or food contact... adulteration with lubricants, fuel, pesticides, cleaning compounds, sanitizing agents, condensate, and...

  4. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  5. Sanitation of Water Contaminated with Botulin Toxin - USSR .

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    sanitation for water contaminated with botulin. For the above purpose we used preparations contain- ing chlorine (chloride of lime and pantocide...utmost importance is the question of now the botulinum toxin is acted upon by the chlorine prepara- tions used for water sanitation in communal practice...ana in the second to 6 mg per liter. As in the earlier tests the chlorination of water with the dose mentioned jat a residual chloride content of

  6. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  7. Challenges with up-scaling dry sanitation technologies.

    PubMed

    Bhagwan, J N; Still, D; Buckley, C; Foxon, K

    2008-01-01

    The acceleration of sanitation delivery towards meeting the South African Government's target of completely eradicating the existing backlogs by 2010, has led to a surge of activities. As part of its strategy for ensuring that basic sanitation is provided, the policy has recommended that a ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP) is considered as the basic minimum requirement in the form of a sanitation technology. The up-scaling and delivering of sanitation in many cases in the form of VIPs and its derivatives, as well as urine diversion technology are beginning to pose many technical challenges. The principles on which they have been designed are not always being observed in practice. As a result, some systems are filling up much faster than expected. Research has found that the breakdown in the faeces is not happening as would be expected in an anaerobic reactor, and that the drying of faeces in humid conditions, even with the use of drying agents, is not optimum. These problems, which are being experienced in the field, will have long term repercussions on the sustainability of sanitation provision. This paper aims to share these experiences and findings of research, and the impact it may have on the Sanitation MDG goals.

  8. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  9. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  10. Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation. In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys. Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success. Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%. Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low. PMID:27211881

  11. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter.

  12. [Food Sanitation Act and Minamata Disease].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Immediately after the official recognition of Minamata disease (1956.5.l) a study group at Kumamoto University suggested that Minamata disease was caused by food poisoning. The next year, this suggestion was accepted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW). Prior to the decision to apply the Food Sanitation Act (FSA), the local government asked MHW for the application of FSA. Soon after, the chief of the Public Health Bureau replied to the local government that the application of FSA to the Minamata area was impossible. Epidemiological investigations of residents and polluted areas, therefore, were not carried out. Data essential for the screening for exposed residents were unavailable. The criteria for the screening were presented. The Environmental Agency (EA) presented the criteria in the form of notice in 1971, which were revised in 1977. Notwithstanding the clear difference between the original and revised criteria, EA insisted that these two sets of criteria were quite similar. This insistence by EA and the absence of epidemiological data on residents and polluted area resulted in the present confusion about Minamata disease. The application of FSA was stopped by bureaucrats who had no interest in the environmental problems and by several scientists patronized by stakeholders (Chisso, Japanese Association of Chemical Industries, MHW and EA). Stakeholders suppressed science.

  13. Rethinking sanitation: panacea or Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Esrey, S A

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, sanitation solutions were designed and built on the premises that human excreta was a waste suitable only for disposal and that the environment was capable of assimilating the waste. The prevailing view last century was that vapors from smells caused disease, and the best way to deal with excreta was to convey it to rivers and streams where it could be diluted and cleansed. Times have changed, the premises are outdated, and current solutions contribute, either directly or indirectly, to many of the problems faced by society today: water pollution, scarcity of fresh water, food insecurity, destruction and loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming. A common denominator of all these problems is how society deals with its wastes, specifically how it deals with human excrement. We have to rethink past premises, design and build new systems, and contribute to the solving of society's most pressing problems. The panacea of the 19th century is turning out to be the pandora's box of the 21st century.

  14. A liner timeline at Grand Central Sanitation

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-08-01

    Since the promulgation of the minimum landfill liner requirements under RCRA's Subtitle D in September 1991, nearly every operating landfill in the US that has expanded horizontally has been brought up to speed with basic environmental protection measures, i.e., liners, leachate collection groundwater monitoring, etc. For most landfills, however, these changes did not happen overnight. For more than a decade, most of the states and countless private landfills have been anticipating the advent of Subtitle D and have been upgrading outdated landfills long before the federal regulations were enforced. Grand Central Sanitation, Inc. (GCS, Pen Argyl, Pa.), for example, is a case in point. The family-run company's sanitary landfill began operation as a 52-acre, natural renovation, or earthen barrier, fill in the early 1950s and its first two fill areas, now closed, had only natural soils as a liner. Today, GCS's facility has more than doubled its permitted capacity. Its 10th disposal cell, now under construction, is triple-lined with the latest synthetic geomembranes, including high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liners, geotextiles, geonets, and leachate collection systems.

  15. Risk assessment of hand washing efficacy using literature and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Chen, Yuhuan; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-03-01

    This study simulated factors that influence the levels of bacteria on foodservice workers' hands. Relevant data were collected from the scientific literature and from laboratory experiments. Literature information collected included: initial bacterial counts on hands and water faucet spigots, bacterial population changes during hand washing as effected by soap type, sanitizing agent, drying method, and the presence of rings. Experimental data were also collected using Enterobacter aerogenes as a surrogate for transient bacteria. Both literature and experimental data were translated into appropriate discrete or probability distribution functions. The appropriate statistical distribution for each phase of the hand washing process was determined. These distributions were: initial count on hands, beta (2.82, 2.32, 7.5); washing reduction using regular soap, beta (3.01, 1.91, -3.00, 0.60); washing reduction using antimicrobial soap, beta (4.19, 2.99, -4.50, 1.50); washing reduction using chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), triangular (-4.75, -1.00, 0); reductions from hot air drying, beta (3.52, 1.92, -0.20, 1.00); reduction from paper towel drying, triangular (-2.25, -0.75, 0); reduction due to alcohol sanitizer, gamma (-1.23, 4.42) -5.8; reduction due to alcohol-free sanitizer, gamma (2.22, 5.38) -5.00; and the effect of rings, beta (8.55, 23.35, 0.10, 0.45). Experimental data were fit to normal distributions (expressed as log percentage transfer rate): hand-to-spigot transfer, normal (-0.80, 1.09); spigot to hand, normal (0.36, 0.90). Soap with an antimicrobial agent (in particular, CHG) was observed to be more effective than regular soap. Hot air drying had the capacity to increase the amount of bacterial contamination on hands, while paper towel drying caused a slight decrease in contamination. There was little difference in the efficacy of alcohol and alcohol-free sanitizers. Ring wearing caused a slight decrease in the efficacy of hand washing. The experimental data

  16. Hand Hygiene Program Decreases School Absenteeism Due to Upper Respiratory Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azor-Martinez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Fernández-Sánchez, Carmen; Strizzi, Jenna M.; Torres-Alegre, Pilar; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizer to prevent school absenteeism due to upper respiratory infections (URIs). Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, and open study on a sample of 1341 children 4-12 years old, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow-up. The…

  17. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Gonzalez Perez, Maria Eliette; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  18. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  19. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  20. Transmission of Enterobius vermicularis eggs through hands of school children in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Imogen; Potgieter, Natasha; Mathebula, Sammy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2015-10-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a helminth that is difficult to control, is found globally, especially in crowded conditions, and can be transmitted from person to person by contaminated hands. A newly developed method for the quantification of helminth eggs on hands was tested among schoolchildren in a rural South African region to look at the role hands play in helminth infection, and to determine the risk factors for hand contamination. The study found 16.6% of participants' hands positive for helminth eggs, with E. vermicularis most commonly identified. Egg concentrations on hands ranged from 0 to 57 eggs/2 hands. Gender, toilet type used at home, and not reporting to wash hands with soap before eating were all associated with the presence of eggs on hands. The study highlights the need to improve sanitation facilities, and promote handwashing with soap in schools to prevent transmission of E. vermicularis.

  1. Water handling, sanitation and defecation practices in rural southern India: a knowledge, attitudes and practices study.

    PubMed

    Banda, Kalyan; Sarkar, Rajiv; Gopal, Srila; Govindarajan, Jeyanthi; Harijan, Bhim Bahadur; Jeyakumar, Mary Benita; Mitta, Philip; Sadanala, Madhuri Evangeline; Selwyn, Tryphena; Suresh, Christina Rachel; Thomas, Verghese Anjilivelil; Devadason, Pethuru; Kumar, Ranjit; Selvapandian, David; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar

    2007-11-01

    Diarrhoea and water-borne diseases are leading causes of mortality in developing countries. To understand the socio-cultural factors impacting on water safety, we documented knowledge, attitudes and practices of water handling and usage, sanitation and defecation in rural Tamilnadu, India, using questionnaires and focus group discussions, in a village divided into an upper caste Main village and a lower caste Harijan colony. Our survey showed that all households stored drinking water in wide-mouthed containers. The quantity of water supplied was less in the Harijan colony, than in the Main village (P<0.001). Residents did not associate unsafe water with diarrhoea, attributing it to 'heat', spicy food, ingesting hair, mud or mosquitoes. Among 97 households interviewed, 30 (30.9%) had toilets but only 25 (83.3%) used them. Seventy-two (74.2%) of respondents defecated in fields, and there was no stigma associated with this traditional practice. Hand washing with soap after defecation and before meals was common only in children under 15 years (86.4%). After adjusting for other factors, perception of quantity of water received (P<0.001), stated causation of diarrhoea (P=0.02) and low socio-economic status (P<0.001) were significantly different between the Main village and the Harijan colony. Traditional practices may pose a significant challenge to programmes aimed at toilet usage and better sanitation.

  2. Antimicriobial resistance patterns of colonizing flora on nurses' hands in the neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Heather A.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of an alcohol-based handrub for health care worker hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of hand hygiene product and skin condition on the antimicrobial resistance patterns of colonizing hand flora among nurses. Methods Colonizing hand flora of 119 nurses working in 2 neonatal intensive care units was compared during a 22-month crossover study using alcohol handrub or antiseptic soap. Results Altogether, 1442 isolates from 834 hand cultures (mean, 7 cultures/nurse) were obtained. In 3 of 9 regression analyses modeling for resistant staphylococcal flora, the use of antiseptic soap was a significant predictor of resistance, and nurses with damaged skin were 2.79 times more likely to carry Staphylococcus warneri isolates resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion Hand hygiene product and skin condition may influence resistance patterns of hand flora of care providers. PMID:17482994

  3. Polydiacetylene sensor interaction with food sanitizers and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueyuan; Northcutt, Julie; Hanks, Tim; Miller, Ian; Pennington, Bill; Jelinek, Raz; Han, Inyee; Dawson, Paul

    2017-04-15

    Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles are of interest as biosensors, particularly for pathogenic bacteria. As part of a food monitoring system, interaction with food sanitizers/surfactants was investigated. PDA vesicles were prepared by inkjet-printing, photopolymerized and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The optical response of PDA vesicles at various concentrations verses a fixed sanitizer/surfactant concentration was determined using a two variable factorial design. Sanitizer/surfactant response at various concentrations over time was also measured. Results indicated that only Vigilquat and TritonX-100 interacted with PDA vesicles giving visible colour change out of 8 sanitizers/surfactants tested. PDA vesicle concentration, sanitizer/surfactant concentration, and time all had a significant (P<0.0001) effect on colour change. As they are highly sensitive to the presence of Vigilquat and TritonX-100, PDA sensors could be used to detect chemical residues as well as for detection of various contaminants in the food industry.

  4. Inactivation of dairy bacteriophages by commercial sanitizers and disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Céline; Villion, Manuela; Labrie, Simon J; Duchaine, Caroline; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-02-03

    Many commercial sanitizers and disinfectants have been used over the years to control microbial contamination but their efficacy on phages is often unknown. Here, 23 commercial chemical products, including 21 food-grade sanitizers were tested against virulent dairy phages. These food-grade chemicals included oxidizing agents, halogenated agents, alcohols, quaternary ammonium compounds, anionic acids, iodine-based acids, and an amphoteric chemical. Phage P008 was first exposed to each sanitizer for 2 and 15min at room temperature and at two different concentrations, namely the lowest and highest no-rinse sanitizing concentrations. Organic matter (whey or milk) was also added to the testing solutions. At the end of the exposure period, the test solution was neutralized and the number of infectious phages was determined by plaque assays. The five most efficient sanitizers against phage P008 (<4 log of inactivation) were then tested against virulent lactococcal phages P008, CB13, AF6, P1532 of the 936 group, P001 (c2), Q54, and 1358 as well as Lactobacillus plantarum phage B1 and Streptococcus thermophilus phage 2972 using the same protocol. The oxidizing agents and the quaternary ammonium compounds were the most efficient against all phages although phages CB13 and P1532 were less sensitive to these chemicals than the other phages. This study may help in the selection of appropriate chemicals for controlling phage contamination in industrial factories and research laboratories.

  5. Epidemiologic Background of Hand Hygiene and Evaluation of the Most Important Agents for Scrubs and Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking the antimicrobial efficacy and the mechanical removal together, they are still less effective than the alcohols. Plain soap and water has the lowest efficacy of all. In the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs containing various emollients instead of irritating soaps and detergents is one strategy to reduce skin damage, dryness, and irritation. Irritant contact dermatitis is highest with preparations containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, less frequent with nonantimicrobial soaps and preparations containing lower concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, and lowest with well-formulated alcohol-based hand rubs containing emollients and other skin conditioners. Too few published data

  6. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.].

  7. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  8. Cytomegalovirus Survival and Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus on Live Human Hands

    PubMed Central

    Stowell, Jennifer D.; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 105 infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands. PMID:24185855

  9. 29 CFR 1918.95 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Washing and toilet facilities. (1) Accessible washing and toilet facilities sufficient for the sanitary... running water); (ii) Soap; (iii) Individual hand towels, clean individual sections of continuous toweling... will be occupied by only one person at a time. (2) Washing and toilet facilities shall be...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.51 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cold water feeding a common discharge line. (v) Employees who use showers shall be provided with... purpose. (4) The common drinking cup is prohibited. (5) Where single service cups (to be used but once... cold running water, or tepid running water. (iii) Hand soap or similar cleansing agents shall...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.51 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cold water feeding a common discharge line. (v) Employees who use showers shall be provided with... purpose. (4) The common drinking cup is prohibited. (5) Where single service cups (to be used but once... cold running water, or tepid running water. (iii) Hand soap or similar cleansing agents shall...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.51 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cold water feeding a common discharge line. (v) Employees who use showers shall be provided with... purpose. (4) The common drinking cup is prohibited. (5) Where single service cups (to be used but once... cold running water, or tepid running water. (iii) Hand soap or similar cleansing agents shall...

  13. Bidirectional Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transfer between bare/glove hands and green bell pepper and its interruption.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Maribel; Siller, Jorge H; Valdez, Jose B; Carrillo, Armando; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transferred from volunteers' hands (bare or gloved) to green bell peppers and vice versa; and to assess the effectiveness of hand hygiene techniques. The highest and lowest percentages of bacterial transfer were achieve from green bell peppers to gloved hands (46.56%) and from bare hands to green bell peppers (0.21%), respectively. The highest and lowest Log10 reductions of S. Typhimurium were achieved by the combination of hand washing and alcohol-based gel (4.38 Log10) and iodine solution (2.08 Log10), respectively. This study provides important information concerning the transfer's efficiency of S. Typhimurium from hands to fresh produce and from fresh produce to hands. The study also showed that gloved hands, could be a mean of transfer of S. Typhimurium between green peppers and hands, and the best hand hygiene technique was the combination of hand washing and alcohol-based gel.

  14. Shipshape: sanitation inspections on cruise ships, 1990-2005, Vessel Sanitation Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Elaine H; Blanton, Curtis J; Otto, Charles

    2008-03-01

    In the course of a successful collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the cruise ship industry on reducing common-source outbreaks, CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) has expanded its training, education, and cruise ship inspection programs. The study reported here evaluated 15 years of ship sanitation inspection data from the National Center for Environmental Health and assessed performance in specific sanitation categories from 1996 to 2005. During the period 1990-2005, scores from cruise ship environmental sanitation inspections steadily improved. The percentage of inspections with violations decreased among five of nine categories. Those five categories were Washing Facilities, Contact Surfaces, Facility Maintenance, Food Handling, and Communicable Disease Practices. Inspection violations increased proportionally in the categories of Swimming Pools and Water System Protection/Chart Recording. Overall continued good performance in most sanitation categories is likely attributable to on-site training during inspections, improvements in ship construction, and a switch from hot-holding temperatures to time limits as a public health control for foods on display.

  15. Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

    2013-12-01

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services.

  16. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  17. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin ... A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ...

  18. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  19. Hands in Systemic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin ... A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ...

  20. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  1. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Tumors and Wrist Tumors Email to a friend * ... are seen commonly. CAUSES Common Types of Wrist Hand Tumors Ganglion Cysts (Figure 1): This is the ...

  2. The antibacterial action of cloths and sanitizers and the use of environmental alternatives in food industries.

    PubMed

    Lalla, Fairuz; Dingle, Peter; Cheong, Cedric

    2005-12-01

    The use of cleaning cloths in food industries has been implicated in the spread and growth of infective bacteria. Generic cloths sanitized with hot water at 75 degrees C and chemical sanitizers such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) and hypochlorites currently used in food industries were compared with environmentally conscious alternatives such as fiber cloths sanitized with hot water at 75 degrees C. The results indicated that concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli on the fiber cloths were significantly lower than concentrations of bacteria on most of the generic cloths sanitized with hot water at 75 degrees C or a chemical sanitizer. Concentrations of bacteria on the fiber cloths sanitized with hot water at 75 degrees C also were lower than concentrations on cloths sanitized with chemical sanitizers. Concentrations of bacteria on the generic cloths, however, were significantly increased.

  3. Rethinking sanitation: Adding behavioral change to the project mix. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Yacoob, M.; Braddy, B.; Edwards, L.

    1992-07-01

    All too often, water and sanitation (water and sanitation) projects focus on new facilities to the neglect of sanitation and hygiene behaviors. The study makes a case for letting the determination of what behavioral sanitation changes may reasonably be introduced within the cultural and religious milieu of the target community guide the introduction of new water and sanitation technologies. Key to this approach is an ongoing process of gathering extensive data on community sanitation practices and documenting project experiences. A behavioral model is presented for the promotion and implementation of sanitation behavioral change by field workers. The report concludes with recommendations regarding community participation, data collection, and the necessity of providing health and hygiene education in all water and sanitation projects.

  4. COST ESTIMATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOCUSING ON POPULATION DECLINING IN SANITATION COVE RAGE AREA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidoura, Shigezane; Takahashi, Masahiro

    In Japan, sanitation coverage is exceeded 70% and sanitary conditions have improved. However in the future, these facilities need to be rebuilt. For that, much money will be needed. On the other hand, prolonged population decrease is predicted in Japan, so it is feared that unsound management caused by the declining of sewerage charge. In this study, costs required for the future were calculated by targeting Asahikawa, Hokkaido Prefecture which is already served by sewerage treatment system. As a result, it was found that maintaining of current sewage treatment system would be cheaper than introduction of novel individual treatment system in Asahikawa. In addition, it was turned out that cost reduction is possible in the case of rebuilding sewage pipe efficiently than maintaining the status quo.

  5. Ensuring sustainability of non-networked sanitation technologies: an approach to standardization.

    PubMed

    Starkl, Markus; Brunner, Norbert; Feil, Magdalena; Hauser, Andreas

    2015-06-02

    Non-networked sanitation technologies use no sewer, water or electricity lines. Based on a review of 45 commercially distributed technologies, 12 (representing three concepts) were selected for a detailed audit. They were located in six countries of Africa and Asia. The safety of users was generally assured and the costs per use were not excessive, whereas costs were fully transparent for only one technology surveyed. A main drawback was insufficient quality of the byproducts from on-site treatment, making recycling in agriculture a hygienic and environmental risk. Further, no technology was sufficiently mature (requiring e.g. to shift wastes by hand). In order to promote further development and give producers of mature products a competitive advantage, the paper proposes a certification of technologies to confirm the fulfillment of basic requirements to make them attractive for future users.

  6. Striving for success in sanitation, hygiene, and water supply.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 people do not have access to improved water sources, and 2.5 billion are without access to improved sanitation. As a result, an estimated 1800 children under 5 years of age die every day from preventable diseases related to water, sanitation & hygiene; more are ill or stunted. To sustainably improve people's health, actors in the water sector at all levels should use flexible, integrated approaches focused on behavior change and service delivery. Approaches and technologies should be as simple as possible while still protecting human health and the environment. Remember, it's not just about the toilet.

  7. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    PubMed

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation.

  8. [Environmental virology and sanitation in Brazil: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Prado, Tatiana; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Sanitation services play a critical role in controlling transmission of numerous waterborne pathogens, especially viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis and hepatitis. The viral agents with the greatest public health impact are hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and noroviruses, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses, contaminating many Brazilian aquatic ecosystems. Heavy circulation of viruses in the environment has been related to inadequate local sanitary conditions, including incomplete coverage of services or inefficacy of conventional technologies in eliminating or reducing the viral load in water or sewage. This study reviews the relations between virology, health, and sanitation, emphasizing the epidemiology of waterborne viral infections and their public health impact.

  9. Exploring the determinants of sanitation success in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nhapi, Innocent; Misi, Shepherd

    2016-10-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) missed the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target by a wide margin. However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success. This was achieved by analysing data drawn from 46 SSA countries. An objective methodological approach, using regression and cluster analyses to reveal the underlying sanitation success factors, has been adopted. A total of 11 economic and socio-political independent variables were tested against the dependent variable; proportion of the 2015 population that has gained access to sanitation since 2000. Regression results showed consistent and robust association between sanitation success and education for the national, rural and socio-political samples (p values 0.018-0.038). These results suggest that the level of education contributed to sanitation success in SSA during the MDG period. For the urban sample, a negative association was demonstrated between sanitation success and access to improved water sources (p = 0.034). This implies that countries which made huge sanitation gains had low coverage of improved water sources. The results from cluster analysis showed that countries which achieved great sanitation success were characterized by the highest education levels, incomes, population densities, political stability and high proportions of urban population. The knowledge of the key determinants of sanitation success could help in the formulation and design of appropriate policies and interventions to improve

  10. Effects of neighbourhood and household sanitation conditions on diarrhea morbidity: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Hum, Ryan James; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Sanitation in neighbourhood and household domains can provide primary protection against diarrhea morbidity, yet their distinct health benefits have not been succinctly distinguished and reviewed. We present here the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the distinct effect of neighbourhood and household sanitation conditions on diarrhea morbidity. We identified studies reporting the effect of neighbourhood-level exposure to wastewater or household sanitation facilities on diarrhea, by performing comprehensive search on five databases, namely the Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science, from the earliest date available to February 2015. Twenty-one non-randomized studies and one randomized controlled trial met the pre-determined inclusion criteria, consisting of six datasets on neighbourhood sanitation conditions (total 8271 subjects) and 20 datasets on household sanitation (total 20021 subjects). We calculated the pooled effect estimates of neighbourhood and household sanitation conditions on diarrhea morbidity using the inverse variance random-effects model. The pooled effect estimates showed that both neighbourhood sanitation conditions (odds ratio = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.40–0.79) and household sanitation (odds ratio = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.55–0.75) are associated with reduced diarrheal illness, and that the magnitudes of the associations are comparable. Evidence of risk of bias and heterogeneity were found in the included studies. Our findings confirm that both neighbourhood sanitation conditions and household sanitation are associated with considerable reduction in diarrhea morbidity, in spite of a number of methodological shortcomings in the included studies. Furthermore, we find evidence that neighbourhood sanitation conditions is associated with similar magnitude of reduction in diarrhea morbidity as household sanitation. The findings suggest that, in addition to household sanitation provision, dual emphasis on neighbourhood sanitation

  11. Does Global Progress on Sanitation Really Lag behind Water? An Analysis of Global Progress on Community- and Household-Level Access to Safe Water and Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the “sanitation deficit” is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990–2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post–2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both. PMID:25502659

  12. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  13. Development of a proposed standard method for assessing the efficacy of fresh produce sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, L R; Harris, L J; Ward, T E; Kajs, T M

    2001-08-01

    A series of studies was done for the purpose of developing a proposed standard method to evaluate point-of-use home sanitizers for fresh produce. Preliminary experiments were done to determine the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes after inoculation onto the surface of ripe tomatoes and drying for up to 24 h at 22 +/- 2 degrees C. Within 2 h, the initial population (6.88 log10 CFU/tomato) of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by approximately 3 log10, while reductions in similar initial populations of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were approximately 1 and 0.6 log10 CFU/tomato, respectively, after 40 min and 3 h. A pilot study evaluated treatment with 200 ppm free chlorine and a prototype Fit produce wash (Fit) for their efficacy in killing a five-serotype mixture of Salmonella or L. monocytogenes spot inoculated on tomatoes using the proposed inoculation and recovery procedures. Inoculated tomatoes were sprayed with chlorinated water, Fit, or sterile distilled water (control) and hand rubbed for 30 s. Each tomato was then placed in a plastic bag and rinsed with 200 ml of sterile water by vigorously agitating for 30 s to simulate a procedure consumers might use for sanitizing and rinsing produce in a home setting. Each tomato was transferred to a second bag, and 20 ml of sterile 0.1% peptone was added; tomatoes were rubbed by hand for 40 s. Populations of Salmonella or L. monocytogenes in the rinse water and the 0.1% peptone wash solution were determined. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and Fit resulted in > or = 3.07 and > 6.83 log10 reductions, respectively, in Salmonella. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and Fit reduced the number of L. monocytogenes by > or = 3.33 and > or = 4.96 log10 CFU/tomato, respectively. The proposed standard method for testing the efficacy of point-of-use produce sanitizers needs to be evaluated for reproducibility of results through a larger scale series of experiments.

  14. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  15. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles....

  16. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  17. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  18. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... the fundamentals of ship sanitation as prescribed by law and regulations, and shall be given...

  19. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... the fundamentals of ship sanitation as prescribed by law and regulations, and shall be given...

  20. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... the fundamentals of ship sanitation as prescribed by law and regulations, and shall be given...

  1. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... the fundamentals of ship sanitation as prescribed by law and regulations, and shall be given...

  2. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  3. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... the fundamentals of ship sanitation as prescribed by law and regulations, and shall be given...

  4. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles....

  5. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles....

  6. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  7. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles....

  8. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles....

  9. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  10. Hand washing and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Susan

    2010-05-01

    Hand hygiene has always been an important element of perioperative practice and is a topic that has gained even more importance in recent years for healthcare workers. In the mid 19th century Semmelweis first noted the link between hospital acquired diseases and hand hygiene (Semmelweis 1847, NATN 2000). More recently, it has been established that continuous effective hand hygiene can significantly decrease the transmission of microorganisms, thus reducing cross infection rates of many hospital acquired infections (Pratt et al 2007).

  11. On the Identification of Associations between Five World Health Organization Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Phenotypes and Six Predictors in Low and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Hugh; Schoenberger, Erica

    2017-01-01

    predictors remains the same across all responses. That is, Unsafe Water Source (UWS), Improved Sanitation (IS) and Filtered and Bottled Water in the Household (FBH) were the only statistically significant predictors whether the response was Unsafe Sanitation Death Fraction, Unsafe Hygiene Death Fraction or Unsafe Water Death Fraction. Moreover, the fraction of variance explained for all fitted models remained relatively high (adjusted R2 ranges from 0.7605 to 0.8533). We find that two of the statistically significant predictors–Improved Sanitation and Unimproved Water Sources–are particularly influential. We also find that some predictors (Piped Water to Premises, Other Improved Water Sources) have very little explanatory power for predicting mortality and one (Other Improved Water Sources) has a counterintuitive effect on response (Unsafe Sanitary Death Fraction increases with increases in OIWS) and one predictor (Hand Washing) to have essentially no explanatory usefulness. Conclusions Our results suggest that a higher priority may need to be given to improved sanitation than has been the case. Nevertheless, while our focus in this paper is mortality, morbidity is a staggering consequence of inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene, and lower impact on mortality may not mean a similarly low impact on morbidity. More specifically, those predictors that we found uninfluential for predicting mortality-related responses may indeed be important when morbidity is the response. PMID:28125625

  12. Synthesis of magnetic and multiferroic materials from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes results on the synthesis of the magnetic materials including modified nickel ferrite (Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ), yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12), lanthanum-containing manganites (MxLa1-xMnO3 (M=Pb, Ba or Sr; x=0.3-0.35)), and multiferroics (BiFeO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3) from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels. It is shown that the ammonium nitrate accelerates destruction of organic components of xerogels and thus Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ and BiFeO3 can be prepared at record low temperatures (100 and 250 °C, respectively) which are 200-300 °C lower compared to the process where air is used as an oxidizing agent. As for the synthesis of Y3Fe5O12, MxLa1-xMnO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, the presence of NH4NO3 favors formation of foreign phases, which ultimately complicate reaction mechanisms and lead to the higher temperature to synthesize target products. Developed methods provide nanoscale magnetic and multiferroic materials with an average particle size of ∼20-50 nm.

  13. Bioactivities of alcohol based extracts of Phyllanthus emblica branches: antioxidation, antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Junlatat, Jintana

    2014-07-01

    Phyllanthus emblica is an euphorbiaceous plant that has long been used in traditional medicines for health promotion, anti-aging and also for treatment of wide ranges of symptoms and diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological activity of the plant branch. Alcohol based extracts of P. emblica branch were prepared in 50 % ethanolic extract by maceration (EPE) and methanolic extract by Soxhlet apparatus (MPE). EPE and MPE contained high total phenolic content and strong antioxidative activity. By HPLC analysis, gallic acid and vanillic acid are the major phenolic compounds of these extracts. Both EPE and MPE inhibited tyrosinase activity stronger than the ethanolic extract of P. emblica fruit (IC50 of 247.37 ± 18.57 and 193.75 ± 44.90 versus 4346.95 ± 166.23 μg/ml). EPE significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of tyrosinase, and tyrosinase related proteins (TRP-1 and TRP-2) in B16 murine melanoma cells and suppressed the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory genes (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-16 and IL-6) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner. These extracts significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated.

  15. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Below, Harald; Bieber, Nora; Kampf, Guenter; Toma, Cyril D; Huebner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied three hand-rubs containing 95% (hand-rub A), 85% (hand-rub B) and 55% ethanol (hand-rub C; all w/w). For hygienic hand disinfection, 4 mL were applied 20 times for 30 s, with 1 minute break between applications. For surgical hand disinfection, 20 mL of each hand rub was applied to hands and arms up to the level of the elbow 10 times for 3 minutes, with a break of 5 minutes between applications. Blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined immediately prior and up to 90 minutes after application using head space gas chromatography. Results The median of absorbed ethanol after hygienic hand disinfection was 1365 mg (A), 630 mg (B), and 358 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 2.3% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.9% (C). After surgical hand disinfection, the median of absorbed ethanol was 1067 mg (A), 1542 mg (B), and 477 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 0.7% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.5% (C). The highest median acetaldehyde concentration after 20 hygienic hand disinfections was 0.57 mg/L (hand-rub C, after 30 min), after 10 surgical hand disinfections 3.99 mg/L (hand-rub A, after 20 minutes). Conclusion The overall dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol was below toxic levels in humans and allows the conclusion that the use of the evaluated ethanol-based hand-rubs is safe. PMID:17927841

  16. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  17. WASH (Water and Sanitation for Health) Rainwater Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes project funded by U.S. Agency for International Development to provide short-term technical assistance (general, technology transfer, institutional development and training, information support) to rural and urban fringe water supply and sanitation projects. Initial steps, special collection, and future components of rainwater network…

  18. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416.14 Section 416.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... contamination or adulteration of product(s) and shall revise both as necessary to keep them effective...

  19. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....12 Section 416.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) The Sanitation SOP's shall be signed and dated by... be identified as such, and shall address, at a minimum, the cleaning of food contact surfaces...

  20. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....12 Section 416.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) The Sanitation SOP's shall be signed and dated by... be identified as such, and shall address, at a minimum, the cleaning of food contact surfaces...

  1. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416.14 Section 416.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... contamination or adulteration of product(s) and shall revise both as necessary to keep them effective...

  2. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Protection of food, food packaging material, and food contact surfaces from adulteration with lubricants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6 Section 120.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  3. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Protection of food, food packaging material, and food contact surfaces from adulteration with lubricants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6 Section 120.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416.14 Section 416.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... contamination or adulteration of product(s) and shall revise both as necessary to keep them effective...

  5. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416.14 Section 416.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... contamination or adulteration of product(s) and shall revise both as necessary to keep them effective...

  6. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416.14 Section 416.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... contamination or adulteration of product(s) and shall revise both as necessary to keep them effective...

  7. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Protection of food, food packaging material, and food contact surfaces from adulteration with lubricants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6 Section 120.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416.12 Section 416.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the individual with overall authority on-site or a higher level official of the establishment....

  9. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416.12 Section 416.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the individual with overall authority on-site or a higher level official of the establishment....

  10. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416.12 Section 416.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the individual with overall authority on-site or a higher level official of the establishment....

  11. Resistance of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores and biofilm to industrial sanitizers.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos, Márcia Maria; Ruiz, Suelen Pereira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the adhesion and biofilm formation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on industrial orange juice processing equipment and the bactericidal efficacy of peracetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and quaternary ammonia after biofilm formation. The efficacy of these sanitizers against the spores of this microorganism was also evaluated. Stainless steel and nylon surfaces exhibited higher cell adhesion levels than did polyvinyl chloride surfaces. Peracetic acid was the most effective in removing biofilms from all surfaces (P < 0.05) and also reduced bacterial counts by 3 log CFU/cm² on the surface of polyvinyl chloride, but the other sanitizers also reduced the bacterial counts by 2 log CFU/cm². Quaternary ammonia exhibited the optimal minimum sporicidal concentration, preventing spore germination after only 15 s of contact at a concentration of 82 ppm. The flow cytometry results indicated that the spores and cells had low incidences of plasma membrane lysis after treatment with sanitizer, suggesting that lysis is not the principal mode of action for these sanitizers on A. acidoterrestris.

  12. Effect of residual sanitizers on Salmonella enterica biofilm formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella enterica are a diverse group of bacteria that represent a serious risk to public health. Bacterial attachment on food and contact surfaces can lead to biofilm formation, and once in this state, bacteria are more resistant to sanitization and may serve as a continuous contam...

  13. 77 FR 50511 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... 1970s as a cooperative activity with the cruise ship industry. VSP helps the cruise ship industry... schedule for sanitation inspections of passenger cruise ships by VSP was first published in the Federal... October 1, 2006. The cruise ship industry should be aware that if travel expenses for VSP increase,...

  14. Seminar On Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, the conceptual outline is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Two major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, the effect of sanitary practices on the financial profits of food service, focuses on: (1) service and quality to…

  15. 29 CFR 1915.97 - Health and sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and sanitation. 1915.97 Section 1915.97 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.97 - Health and sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and sanitation. 1915.97 Section 1915.97 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working...

  17. Lessons Learned from a Third World Water and Sanitation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-McLean, Terri

    1991-01-01

    The seven-step project cycle used in a water sanitation project in Belize from 1986-89 is described. The direct involvement of community organizations, village councils, family gatherings, parent-teacher organizations, political groups, Village Health Committees, and volunteer organizations is emphasized. (CW)

  18. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quantity to permit flushing; (3) For those systems that utilize chemicals for treatment, the chemical (chlorine or other comparable oxidizing agent) used to treat waste must be present; and (4) No blockage is present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  19. Seminar on Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, unit two of the curriculum guide is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Four major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, providing sanitary conditions in food service establishments, discusses safe use and storage of cleaning…

  20. Sanitation in School Housekeeping, A Training Course for School Custodians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. School Plant Management Section.

    The most efficient and modern methods for cleaning and sanitizing school facilities are presented for the benefit of school custodians. Careful attention to the total school environment can be supportive of the general education program and at the same time make a sound contribution to the health and health education. Topics discussed include--(1)…

  1. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.

  2. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Chunga, Richard M.; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Jenkins, Marion W.; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge. PMID:27532871

  3. Skin care: an essential component of hand hygiene and infection control.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Linda

    Skin care is an important component of hand hygiene and also infection prevention education programmes relating to hand hygiene (Bissett, 2007a,b). Hand hygiene is the term commonly used to describe hand washing using plain soap or antiseptic soaps and hand rubbing using waterless antiseptic products or alcohol-based products. The importance of effective hand hygiene is well documented (Larson, 1997; Boyce et al, 2002; Horton and Parker, 2002) and can be achieved by following the six-step technique used for hand washing as illustrated by the Royal College of Nursing (2000). During hand washing, hand soaps not only remove soils, but also the natural oils that protect the skin. This can vary depending on the frequency of hand washing, the temperature of the water and the ability of the soap to be rinsed from the surface of the hands (Starobin, 2007). This article aims to examine the evidence available to enable healthcare staff to make an informed decision on the importance of following a skin care regime to reduce the risk of bacterial loading on the hands caused by damaged skin. This would consequently lead to an improvement in hand hygiene efficacy.

  4. Water and sanitation in schools: a systematic review of the health and educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Christian; Le, Thanh-Tam; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children's health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements.

  5. Hand contamination before and after different hand hygiene techniques: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lucet, J-C; Rigaud, M-P; Mentre, F; Kassis, N; Deblangy, C; Andremont, A; Bouvet, E

    2002-04-01

    The efficacy of alcohol-based handrubs (ABH) for hand hygiene (HH) compared with handwashing (HW) remains to be established in the clinical setting. Factors associated with severe hand contamination before HH techniques were medical ward, physician and not wearing gloves. Forty-three healthcare workers [HCW, 26 nurses (N), nine nurse assistants (NA) and eight physicians (P)] each performed six HH techniques in random order, immediately after a patient care activity: HW with non-antiseptic soap for 10 (US10) and 30 (US30) s; HW with antiseptic (polyvidone iodine- or chlorhexidine-based) soap for 10 (AS10), 30 (AS30) or 60 (AS60) s; and ABH (Sterillium, Bode Chemie, Germany). The fingertips of the dominant hand were pressed on to agar for culture before and after each HH technique. Five hundred and sixteen specimens were obtained. Log(10)-transformed bacterial count reductions after HH were 0.74, 0.51, 1.13, 1.14, 1.21 and 1.40 for US10, US30, AS10, AS30, AS60 and ABH, respectively; both AS and ABH were significantly better than US. Qualitative assessment showed that 11 of the 256 pre-HH specimens (4.3%) had pathogenic bacteria, and that two of these 11 remained positive after HH (US in both instances).

  6. Promotion of sanitation and hygiene in a rural area of South India: A community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Veerapu, Nagapraveen; Subramaniyan, P.; Praveenkumar, B. A.; Arun, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, billions of people do not have access to improved sanitation and many defecate in the open air. Poor hand washing practices and limited access to sanitation facilities perpetuate the transmission of disease-causing germs. The objectives of the study were to find out the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) on sanitary latrine, footwear, and hand washing among rural people and to assess the improvement in KAP after health education intervention. Materials and Methods: A health education intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to January 2014 in a rural area of Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, South India among the people aged 15 years and above. The individuals were selected by multistage random sampling and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. After a baseline KAP assessment, intervention activities were conducted twice. The intervention activities were group level talks and discussions, free soap distribution, and display of posters at anganwadi centers. Post-KAP was assessed twice, and the significance of difference was found by using McNemar's test. Results: After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in the overall KAPs among the subjects in post test-1 and post test-2 (P1 < 0.0001, P2 < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: Health education as an intervention has significantly increased KAP more than 30%. Hence, it is imperative that education interventions are needed to bring or sustain positive change. PMID:28217588

  7. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  8. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  9. Effect of Leaf Surface Chemical Properties on Efficacy of Sanitizer for Rotavirus Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Fuzawa, Miyu; Ku, Kang-Mo; Palma-Salgado, Sindy Paola; Nagasaka, Kenya; Feng, Hao; Juvik, John A.; Sano, Daisuke; Shisler, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of sanitizers is essential for produce safety. However, little is known about how sanitizer efficacy varies with respect to the chemical surface properties of produce. To answer this question, the disinfection efficacies of an oxidant-based sanitizer and a new surfactant-based sanitizer for porcine rotavirus (PRV) strain OSU were examined. PRV was attached to the leaf surfaces of two kale cultivars with high epicuticular wax contents and one cultivar of endive with a low epicuticular wax content and then treated with each sanitizer. The efficacy of the oxidant-based sanitizer correlated with leaf wax content as evidenced by the 1-log10 PRV disinfection on endive surfaces (low wax content) and 3-log10 disinfection of the cultivars with higher wax contents. In contrast, the surfactant-based sanitizer showed similar PRV disinfection efficacies (up to 3 log10) that were independent of leaf wax content. A statistical difference was observed with the disinfection efficacies of the oxidant-based sanitizer for suspended and attached PRV, while the surfactant-based sanitizer showed similar PRV disinfection efficacies. Significant reductions in the entry and replication of PRV were observed after treatment with either disinfectant. Moreover, the oxidant-based-sanitizer-treated PRV showed sialic acid-specific binding to the host cells, whereas the surfactant-based sanitizer increased the nonspecific binding of PRV to the host cells. These findings suggest that the surface properties of fresh produce may affect the efficacy of virus disinfection, implying that food sanitizers should be carefully selected for the different surface characteristics of fresh produce. IMPORTANCE Food sanitizer efficacies are affected by the surface properties of vegetables. This study evaluated the disinfection efficacies of two food sanitizers, an oxidant-based sanitizer and a surfactant-based sanitizer, on porcine rotavirus strain OSU adhering to the leaf epicuticular surfaces of

  10. Estimating Access to Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene Facilities in Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia, in Reference to National Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Debebe, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The coverage of sanitation and access to safe drinking water in Ethiopia especially in Wolaita Sodo town are not well studied. Therefore, the main objective of this study was estimating access to drinking water supply, sanitation, and hygiene facilities in Wolaita Sodo town, southern Ethiopia, in reference to national coverage. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study design method was employed in the study in 588 households of Wolaita Sodo town inhabitants. Face-to-face interview to household owners, in-depth interview to key informants, reviewing secondary data, and observational check lists were used to collect data. Districts were selected using simple random sampling techniques, while systematic random sampling technique was applied to select households. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16 statistical software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out. Results. The community has access to improved water supply which was estimated to be 67.9%. The main water sources of the town were tap water within the yard, which was estimated to be 44.7%, and tap water in the community was 40.0% followed by private protected well which was 14.5%. Ninety-one percent of the households had at least one type of latrine in their homes. The most common type of latrine available to households was pit latrine with superstructure which was estimated to be 75.9% followed by a pit without superstructure, 21.3%, and more than half of the respondents had hand washing facilities in their compound. Occupational status, educational status, and training on water, sanitation, and hygiene related topics were significantly associated with use of improved water source, improved sanitation, and hygiene facilities. Conclusion. In order to address the demand of the town, additional water, sanitation, and hygiene programs are required. PMID:28025598

  11. Hand fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of Hand Fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  12. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

  13. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  14. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Wash Your Hands Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... facilities and hospitals . When should you wash your hands? You can help yourself and others stay healthy ...

  15. Stiffness in the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  16. About Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  17. Find a Hand Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  18. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  19. The Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Control Cholera: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Dawn L.; Kahawita, Tanya M.; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Methods Cholera remains a significant threat to global public health with an estimated 100,000 deaths per year. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions are frequently employed to control outbreaks though evidence regarding their effectiveness is often missing. This paper presents a systematic literature review investigating the function, use and impact of WASH interventions implemented to control cholera. Results The review yielded eighteen studies and of the five studies reporting on health impact, four reported outcomes associated with water treatment at the point of use, and one with the provision of improved water and sanitation infrastructure. Furthermore, whilst the reporting of function and use of interventions has become more common in recent publications, the quality of studies remains low. The majority of papers (>60%) described water quality interventions, with those at the water source focussing on ineffective chlorination of wells, and the remaining being applied at the point of use. Interventions such as filtration, solar disinfection and distribution of chlorine products were implemented but their limitations regarding the need for adherence and correct use were not fully considered. Hand washing and hygiene interventions address several transmission routes but only 22% of the studies attempted to evaluate them and mainly focussed on improving knowledge and uptake of messages but not necessarily translating this into safer practices. The use and maintenance of safe water storage containers was only evaluated once, under-estimating the considerable potential for contamination between collection and use. This problem was confirmed in another study evaluating methods of container disinfection. One study investigated uptake of household disinfection kits which were accepted by the target population. A single study in an endemic setting compared a combination of interventions to improve water and sanitation infrastructure, and

  20. Hand-Strength Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Elliot, Joe

    1987-01-01

    Special grip-strength meter designed for accurate, reproducible measurement of hand rehabilitation. Four strain gauges connected in Wheatstone bridge to measure deflection caused by gripping hand. Compressive force exerted by hand transmitted to measuring beams. Beams therefore deflected or strained, and mechanical strain sensed by strain gauges and converted into electrical signal. After amplification and conditioning, signal displayed on LED as measure of gripping strength of hand.

  1. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access. PMID:27171520

  2. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  3. [The effectiveness of hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization of health care workers by using CHROMagar MRSA].

    PubMed

    Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Irmak, Hasan; Bulut, Cemal; Cesur, Salih; Kınıklı, Sami; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were; to investigate the hand hygiene compliance of the health care workers (HCWs) during their routine patient care, to determine the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hand colonization of the HCWs, to investigate the effect of different hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization and to evaluate the effectiveness of chromogenic agar for detecting MRSA. HCWs were investigated during their routine patient care and hand cultures were taken before and after hand wash/hygiene. Two different techniques were used to obtain the hand cultures: fingertip method (CHROMagar MRSA containing HygiSlide); and direct swab method and then inoculation to CHROMagar MRSA media. MRSA strains grown on those cultures were confirmed with conventional methods. A total of 100 HCWs (of them 61 were female; mean age: 32.7 ± 5.2 years; age range: 25-51 years) involving physicians (n= 33), nurses (n= 38) and health care assistants (n= 29), were included in the study. MRSA was detected in 39% and 11% before hand hygiene and in 13% and 6% after hand hygiene, with HygiSlide CHROMagar media and with CHROMagar in plate media, respectively. No difference were found regarding clinics, occupations, or the type of patient handling in those HCWs who were positive (n= 13) for MRSA colonization following hand hygiene, and those who were negative (n= 26). However, the type of the hand hygiene product used exhibited a statistical difference. None of the seven HCWs who used alcohol based hand rub revealed growth in the second culture while 10 of 19 (53%) HCWs who used soap and three of 13 (23%) HCWs who used chlorhexidine were still colonized with MRSA. In terms of reduction in the MRSA counts, the most effective one was the alcohol based hand rub while the soap was the least, since seven of 19 (37%) HCWs who used soap showed no reduction at all in the MRSA counts. A high ratio of hand colonization with MRSA was detected in our hospital staff (39%). It was shown that

  4. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  5. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene at the World's Largest Mass Gathering.

    PubMed

    Vortmann, Michael; Balsari, Satchit; Holman, Susan R; Greenough, P Gregg

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a Hindu religious festival and the largest human gathering on earth, drew an estimated 120 million pilgrims to bathe at the holy confluence of the Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna rivers. To accommodate the massive numbers, the Indian government constructed a temporary city on the flood plains of the two rivers and provided it with roads, electricity, water and sanitation facilities, police stations, and a tiered healthcare system. This phenomenal operation and its impacts have gone largely undocumented. To address this gap, the authors undertook an evaluation and systematic monitoring initiative to study preparedness and response to public health emergencies at the event. This paper describes the water, sanitation, and hygiene components, with particular emphasis on preventive and mitigation strategies; the capacity for surveillance and response to diarrheal disease outbreaks; and the implications of lessons learned for other mass gatherings.

  6. Optimization analysis of decentralised sanitation and re-use system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhang, Hui

    2006-01-01

    With the application of system dynamics, a dynamic nonlinear model reflecting the relationship between decentralised water use and reclaimed water supply and demand has been established. Through a system analysis, the model has been applied to a small residential district to predict and analyse the situation of future use of fresh water, demand and supply of re-used water, and treatment scale of reclaimed water. It is illustrated in this paper that wastewater decentralised treatment and re-use can decrease the consumption of fresh water without lowering the standard of living water for the district residents. On this basis, a rational scale and construction time of the decentralised sanitation and re-use system have been determined. Also, the paper predicts the influencing factors of the increasing water cost and changes in consumers' acceptability to re-use water in the decentralised sanitation and re-use system.

  7. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health. PMID:25007823

  8. The toilet tripod: understanding successful sanitation in rural India.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kathleen; Louis, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod): (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term; (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets; (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use. This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation.

  9. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Haiti: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013-2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation.

  10. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  11. Demand for sanitation in Salvador, Brazil: a hybrid choice approach.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andreia C; Roberts, Jennifer A; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cairncross, Sandy

    2011-04-01

    Funds to promote access to water and sanitation in developing countries are scarce and most of the investments come from the national governments and households sources, not international resources. In many of these countries, mainly in middle income countries, households are paying direct taxes to access these services, and understanding what determines their choice and motivation is fundamental to promote access to them. It has been argued that is not enough to supply a wide range of alternatives unless the individuals can recognise their benefits and sustainability. The objective of this paper is to understand the choice of sanitation technology by residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil. We propose a unique hybrid choice model that incorporates a set of latent attitudinal variables and explains how the demographic factors within a household influence choice. The substantial difference of our hybrid choice model from descriptive frameworks is that it integrates choice and latent variables (such as attitudes and preferences) allowing us to model explicitly the cognitive process that influences sanitation adoption, draw conclusions from cognitive variables associated with individuals' socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and establishes a causal pathway among these variables. The results show that the attributes of health protection, accessibility, privacy, and house modernisation were what households cared about when opting for flush toilet and sewerage connection, rather than the high cost and consequent household socio-economic status associated with them. The hybrid model is statistically consistent with these findings, and seems to fill the gap between behavioural theory and discrete choice models applied to sanitation.

  12. Chemical Sanitation System for Pots and Pans in Field Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    DISHWASHING COMPOUNDS, DETERGENTS- WATER,- WATER CONSERVATION CLEANING, COLD WATER, LOW TEMPERATURE (over) 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and...Ingredients 21 v LIST OF ’ ES 1. cmmercial Products Tested 4 2. Sponge /Pads Testd 5 3. Meals Served at Field Test Site 9 4. Cleaning/Sanitizing Capability of...Adminstration (FDA) approval for incorpration into a disposable wipe or sponge /brush. In a similar study, conducted under a work unit entitled "Eating Utensil

  13. Industry sector analysis, China: Urban water sanitation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market for urban water sanitation in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  14. Implementing sustainable sanitation concepts in Luxembourg: methodological approach and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schosseler, P; Lohmann, T; Schmitt, B; Perbal, S; Dubois, C; Sauerborn, K; Muschwitz, C; Weidenhaupt, A

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the approaches adopted to involve and inform stakeholders at various levels and to identify barriers and needed actions towards the implementation of sustainable sanitation concepts in Luxembourg. The study was split into two phases, starting with a workshop and interviews of important actors/professionals of the water sector such as public administrations, engineering companies and sanitary firms. The second phase consisted of a survey among end-users, developed in order to analyse enabling and disabling factors with respect to sustainable water use in households, and for which over 200 questionnaires were evaluated. Valuable conclusions for the project orientation were derived from these studies in terms of further needs for awareness raising, information and formation. The water professionals pointed to specific questions with respect to the feasibility of sustainable sanitation, such as hygienic concerns or maintenance issues for decentralised technology. A moderate financial commitment towards environmentally friendly techniques as well as a considerable lack of knowledge concerning innovative sanitation concepts was detected for end-users. Based on these findings, tailor-made communication strategies for key stakeholder groups were elaborated and pilot projects were initiated.

  15. National Water and Sanitation Week April 29 - May 6, 1998.

    PubMed

    Ha Thi Khiet

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the water and sanitation activities of women's groups during National Water and Environmental Week held from April 29-May 6, 1998, in Viet Nam. Vietnamese women from the Viet Nam Women's Union (VWU) participated in concrete and practical activities in national water and sanitation programs at all administrative levels. These efforts have resulted in model villages with clean roads, sanitary sewage systems, and clean water. Poor sanitation is widespread. Water pollution has resulted in the lack of clean water for cooking among families and the spread of disease. To combat water pollution, women raise awareness of bad practices such as destruction of forests, careless disposal of garbage and human waste, use of human excrement for fertilizer and fish food, and use of unboiled water. Families are urged to have a sanitary latrine, to manage waste properly, and to use improved stoves that reduce smoke and increase fuel efficiency. VWU chapters and other women's groups are encouraged to continue to promote environmental awareness throughout the year. In 1998, the VWU made a commitment to implement actions during the week according to the Prime Minister's nationwide plan No. 200TTg. Actions included mobilization of women to preserve the purity of water resources; to limit disposal of garbage, dead animals, and excrement near water resources; to help the community build water facilities (wells, water filtering tanks, rainwater tanks), and to use only clean water for cooking and daily needs. Clean-ups should be organized every weekend. Other activities are identified.

  16. A physiological perspective for utility or futility of alcohol-based hand rub gel against nausea-vomiting: is it P-6 acupoint or transnasal aroma?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Mazumdar, Ashish; Stellini, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Nausea-vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon with numerous underlying mechanisms and pathways that are not always well elucidated. In clinical practice, refractory nausea-vomiting is encountered in several settings. Antiemetic medications may reduce these symptoms but are not always effective in all patients. In the absence of a well-defined optimal strategy for management of nausea-vomiting, the search for better approaches to treat this distressing symptom continues. One of the alternative treatment approaches is a compounded formulation called ABHR gel that is comprised of multiple antiemetic medications and has been shown to be useful for symptomatic relief in some patients with refractory nausea-vomiting. It has been suggested that alternative mechanisms should be explored to explain the perceived efficacy of ABHR gel, because transdermal absorption leading to nil-to-minimal or subtherapeutic blood concentrations of active ingredients does not explain the role of ABHR gel in the treatment of nausea-vomiting. In the current paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain ABHR transdermal gel's efficacy. Compounded ABHR transdermal gel formulation's efficacy in antagonizing nausea-vomiting that has been recently questioned may be explained by alternative mechanisms mediated through the P-6 acupoint stimulation and facial-nasal, cooling-related counterstimulation.

  17. Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jenna; White, Gary; Damodaron, Said; Thorsten, Rich

    2008-01-01

    This article summarises initial findings of a study to explore the potential of providing micro-financing for low-income households wishing to invest in improved water supply and sanitation services. Through in-depth interviews with more than 800 households in the city of Hyderabad in India, we conclude that, even if provided with market (not concessional) rates of financing, a substantial proportion of poor households would invest in water and sewer network connections.

  18. Effect of Leaf Surface Chemical Properties on Efficacy of Sanitizer for Rotavirus Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Fuzawa, Miyu; Ku, Kang-Mo; Palma-Salgado, Sindy Paola; Nagasaka, Kenya; Feng, Hao; Juvik, John A; Sano, Daisuke; Shisler, Joanna L; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2016-10-15

    The use of sanitizers is essential for produce safety. However, little is known about how sanitizer efficacy varies with respect to the chemical surface properties of produce. To answer this question, the disinfection efficacies of an oxidant-based sanitizer and a new surfactant-based sanitizer for porcine rotavirus (PRV) strain OSU were examined. PRV was attached to the leaf surfaces of two kale cultivars with high epicuticular wax contents and one cultivar of endive with a low epicuticular wax content and then treated with each sanitizer. The efficacy of the oxidant-based sanitizer correlated with leaf wax content as evidenced by the 1-log10 PRV disinfection on endive surfaces (low wax content) and 3-log10 disinfection of the cultivars with higher wax contents. In contrast, the surfactant-based sanitizer showed similar PRV disinfection efficacies (up to 3 log10) that were independent of leaf wax content. A statistical difference was observed with the disinfection efficacies of the oxidant-based sanitizer for suspended and attached PRV, while the surfactant-based sanitizer showed similar PRV disinfection efficacies. Significant reductions in the entry and replication of PRV were observed after treatment with either disinfectant. Moreover, the oxidant-based-sanitizer-treated PRV showed sialic acid-specific binding to the host cells, whereas the surfactant-based sanitizer increased the nonspecific binding of PRV to the host cells. These findings suggest that the surface properties of fresh produce may affect the efficacy of virus disinfection, implying that food sanitizers should be carefully selected for the different surface characteristics of fresh produce.

  19. The six golden rules to improve compliance in hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G

    2004-04-01

    Improvement of compliance in hand hygiene is probably the most effective step in reducing the incidence of nosocomial infections (NI). But improvement of compliance is known to be complex. Six possibilities for improving compliance are available although some of them may be difficult to carry out. Rule 1: Select an alcohol-based hand rub which has a good skin tolerance and is acceptable to health care workers to use. This has been shown to improve compliance. Rule 2: The hand rub shall be easily available. Wall dispensers near the patient and pocket bottles may well help. Other possibilities should be assessed locally. Rule 3: Implement teaching and promotion of hand hygiene, which has been shown to be very effective. This is may be the most effective tool but will cost time and money. If money is a problem, rule 4 may be the solution. Rule 4: Create a hospital budget which covers all costs involved with preventable nosocomial infection. Combine it with the budget for hand hygiene products. Even a small number of prevented NI largely outweighs the cost of effective hand hygiene products. Rule 5: Get senior staff to set a good example in order to motivate junior staff, because negligence in hand hygiene appears to correlate with the number of professional years. Rule 6: Have the patient-staff ratio well balanced. It has been shown that staff shortage decreases hand hygiene compliance. Other factors may be important as well, but implementation of these 6 golden rules could be an effective step into the right direction.

  20. Dermal tolerance of Sterillium, a propanol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Muscatiello, M

    2003-12-01

    Alcohol-based hand rubs have been used for hygienic hand disinfection in hospitals for decades. In order to achieve good compliance with hand hygiene practices in the healthcare setting, dermal tolerance of a hand rub product is crucial. Sterillium, which is used in many European countries for hygienic hand disinfection, is based on iso-propanol, n-propanol and mecetronium etilsulphate. The potential for dermal irritation and sensitization of commercially available propanol-based hand rubs containing emollients has not been studied systematically. We therefore studied the dermal tolerance of Sterillium in a repetitive occlusive patch test on 55 subjects. Sterillium was applied to one site on the back under an occlusive patch during an induction phase (total of nine applications over a three-week period) and two weeks later to a virgin site on the back during a challenge phase (one application). Twenty-four hours after removal of the patches (induction phase and challenge phase), and in addition, after 48 and 72 h (challenge phase), the sites were graded for skin reactions using a standardized scoring scale. In the induction phase, two of the 55 subjects had a barely perceptible minimal erythema at one of nine time points. The remaining 53 subjects had no skin reaction at any time. In the challenge phase, all 55 subjects had no skin reaction at all. The absence of significant reactions with respect to severity and frequency demonstrates the favourable dermal tolerance of the hand rub product. The lack of irritation or sensitization potential could enhance compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers.

  1. The alien hand syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Panikkath, Deepa; Mojumder, Deb; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with the complaint of observing her left hand moving without her knowledge while watching television. Her left hand stroked her face and hair as if somebody was controlling it. These movements lasted only half an hour but on recovery, she had left hemiparesis. Alien hand syndrome as the presentation of cardioembolic stroke is extremely rare but can be terrifying to patients. PMID:24982566

  2. Hand and Power Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Hand and Power Tools U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3080 1998 (Revised) Report Documentation Page Report...Date 00001998 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Hand and Power Tools Contract Number Grant Number Program...basic safety procedures and safeguards associated with hand and portable power tools . Material in this booklet is based on the standards of the

  3. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Editor); Iberall, Thea (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  4. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Hulland, Kristyna R. S.; Chase, Rachel P.; Caruso, Bethany A.; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women’s reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention. PMID:26551866

  5. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  6. Efficacy of electrolyzed water and an acidic formulation compared with regularly used chemical sanitizers for tableware sanitization during mechanical and manual ware-washing protocols.

    PubMed

    Handojo, Aldo; Lee, Jaesung; Hipp, Joel; Pascall, Melvin A

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated residual bacteria and different food types left on tableware items after various washing and sanitization protocols. Escherichia coli K-12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis were inoculated into whole milk and soft cream cheese. The milk was used to contaminate regular drinking glasses and the cheese was used to contaminate plates and silverware. These tableware items were washed in manual (43 degrees C) and mechanical (49 degrees C) washers and sanitized with different sanitizers (24 degrees C) for 5 s. Quaternary ammonium compound, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), and a combination of citric acid with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (acidic formulation) were used as the chemical sanitizers. Tap water was used as a control. Results showed that at least 5-log reductions in both bacterial numbers were achieved for all sanitizers in both types of washers, except for the control. With mechanical dishwashing, the NEW and acidic formulation treatments reduced bacterial populations by >6.9 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. With the manual operation, bacterial numbers were reduced by >5.4 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. This study revealed that NEW and the acidic formulation are as effective as the other chemical sanitizers for food contact surface sanitization in manual and mechanical ware washing.

  7. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  8. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Pittet, Didier

    2002-10-25

    The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission ofpathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report reviews studies published since the 1985 CDC guideline (Garner JS, Favero MS. CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. Infect Control 1986;7:231-43) and the 1995 APIC guideline (Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251-69) were issued and provides an in-depth review of hand-hygiene practices of HCWs, levels of adherence of personnel to recommended handwashing practices, and factors adversely affecting adherence. New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized. Recommendations concerning related issues (e.g., the use of surgical hand antiseptics, hand lotions or creams, and wearing of artificial fingernails) are also included.

  9. Hand contamination during routine care in medical wards: the role of hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Monistrol, Olga; López, M Liboria; Riera, Montserrat; Font, Roser; Nicolás, Carme; Escobar, Miguel Angel; Freixas, Núria; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther

    2013-04-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are the most common vehicle for the transmission of micro-organisms from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multimodal campaign on the type and amount of resident and transient flora and the presence of potential risk factors for hand contamination during routine care. A before-after (PRE and POST periods) interventional study was carried out in medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Eighty-nine samples were analysed. Samples were cultured immediately before patient contact using a glove-juice method. Data collected included socio-demographic and risk factors for hand contamination. Flora was measured as log10 c.f.u. ml(-1) and evaluated by comparing median values in the PRE and POST periods. Transient flora was isolated from the hands of 67.4 and 46.1 % of HCWs in the PRE and POST periods, respectively (P<0.001). Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant contaminants. Resident flora was isolated from 92.1 % of HCWs in the PRE period and from 70.8 % in the POST period (P<0.001). The meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci log10 c.f.u. count ml(-1) decreased from 1.96 ± 1.2 to 0.89 ± 1.2 (mean ± s d; P<0.001), and the global flora count decreased from 2.77 ± 1.1 to 1.56 ± 1.4 (P<0.001). In the POST period, the wearing of fewer rings (P<0.001), shorter fingernail length (P = 0.008), a shorter time since recent hand hygiene (HH) (P = 0.007) and an increased use of alcohol-based hand rub instead of soap (P<0.001) were documented. The HH multimodal strategy reduced the number of risk factors and the level of HCW hand contamination.

  10. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  11. [Passover hand injuries].

    PubMed

    Ashur, H; Mushayov, R

    1994-04-01

    Almost every year just before Passover there is increased exposure to hand trauma in matzah bakeries. In the past 5 years we treated 11 cases of hand trauma incurred during matzah baking. The typical injuries were amputations at different levels, crush injuries and burns. We present a case seen last Passover and suggest preventive methods to eliminate these accidents in the future.

  12. Treating the Rheumatoid Hand

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, D. E.; Welsh, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Deformities in the rheumatoid hand will vary according to whether the joints or the tendons are involved. Frequently both will be involved and several different deformities will be present in the same hand. However, a logical approach to examination and treatment, as outlined in this article, will simplify decision making and ensure prompt, appropriate treatment. PMID:21304805

  13. Alcohol based fixatives provide excellent tissue morphology, protein immunoreactivity and RNA integrity in paraffin embedded tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Milcheva, Rositsa; Janega, Pavol; Celec, Peter; Russev, Russy; Babál, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Fixation techniques preserving morphological fidelity, protein antigenicity and integrity of nucleic acids can have a high impact on both basic and applied biomedical sciences and diagnostic pathology. Different types of mouse tissues were fixed with neutral buffered formalin, ethanol supplemented with acetic acid and modified methacarn (methanol-Carnoy) fixative. The alcohol-fixed samples were processed in an Autotechnicon tissue processor or in an incubator. The preservation of tissue morphology was assessed in all specimens and the immunoreactivity was evaluated with antibodies specific for proteins with nuclear, membrane or cytoplasmic localization. RNA was extracted from all groups of fixed hind limb skeletal muscle specimens and was assessed versus unfixed tissue for preservation of its quantity and quality by amplification of gene-specific fragments of different lengths. Both alcohol-based fixatives preserved the tissue architecture and the specificity of immunoreactivity in excellent quality; the trimming approach did not result in detectable differences. Oligonucleotide fragments of length between 108 and 577 base pairs were amplified from all groups of alcohol-fixed skeletal muscle specimens in amounts comparative to the unfixed muscle tissue. We conclude that both alcohol-based fixatives are an excellent tool for storage of tissue samples designed for immunohistochemical and mRNA expression studies when the access to fresh samples is limited.

  14. Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Simiyu, Sheillah; Swilling, Mark; Rheingans, Richard; Cairncross, Sandy

    2017-01-06

    Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation. This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu's informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices. Our study finds that sanitation constitutes approximately 54% of the rent paid in the settlements; and dynamics such as landlords and tenants preferences, and sharing of sanitation facilities influence provision and payment for sanitation. This study contributes to general development by estimating the cost of sanitation, and further identifies barriers and opportunities for improvement including the interplay between landlords and tenants. Provision of sanitation in informal settlements is intertwined in social and economic dynamics, and development approaches should target both landlords and tenants, while also engaging various stakeholders to work together to identify affordable and appropriate sanitation technologies.

  15. Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Simiyu, Sheillah; Swilling, Mark; Rheingans, Richard; Cairncross, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation. This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu’s informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices. Our study finds that sanitation constitutes approximately 54% of the rent paid in the settlements; and dynamics such as landlords and tenants preferences, and sharing of sanitation facilities influence provision and payment for sanitation. This study contributes to general development by estimating the cost of sanitation, and further identifies barriers and opportunities for improvement including the interplay between landlords and tenants. Provision of sanitation in informal settlements is intertwined in social and economic dynamics, and development approaches should target both landlords and tenants, while also engaging various stakeholders to work together to identify affordable and appropriate sanitation technologies. PMID:28067812

  16. American Association for Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Annual Meeting Calendar of Events International Courses HAND Accepted to Medline! The Sage publishing office was ... Rehab for Wrist Injuries: A Brief Literature Update HAND Journal HAND , the official Journal of AAHS HAND ...

  17. Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While the sanitation ladder is useful in analysing progressive improvements in sanitation, studies in Uganda have not indicated the sanitation barriers faced by the urban poor. There are various challenges in shared latrine use, cleaning and maintenance. Results from Kampala city indicate that, failure to clean and maintain sanitation infrastructure can lead to a reversal of the potential benefits that come with various sanitation facilities. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted between March and May 2013. Data were collected through 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; one with women, men and youth respectively. We also used pictorial methods; in addition, 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content thematic approach. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of the results. Results Whether a shared sanitation facility was improved or not, it was abandoned once it was not properly used and cleaned. The problem of using shared latrines began with the lack of proper latrine training when people do not know how to squat on the latrine hole. The constrained access and security concerns, obscure paths that were filthy especially at night, lack of light in the latrine cubicle, raised latrines sometimes up to two metres above the ground, coupled with lack of cleaning and emptying the shared facilities only made a bad situation worse. In this way, open defecation gradually substituted use of the available sanitation facilities. This paper argues that, filthy latrines have the same net effect as crude open defection. Conclusion Whereas most sanitation campaigns are geared towards provision of improved sanitation infrastructure, these findings show that mere provision of infrastructure (improved or not) without adequate emphasis on proper use, cleaning and maintenance triggers an involuntary descent off the sanitation ladder. Understanding this

  18. Development of a Self-Powered Food Sanitation Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    finned coil is installed into the boiler so that it is completely submerged in boiling water to generate hot water for the spray system . It is intended...for the various flow rates. Above a flow rate of 0.9 gpm, the water stopped boiling in the vessel. At the 0.9 gpm flow rate, a temperature rise of...rinsing, and sanitizing as required by the Code . The Food Code requires that alternative methods to the standard 3-sink system be approved before use

  19. Selecting sanitation systems for sustainability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Buckley, C; Fenner, R

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for systematically incorporating multi-dimensional sustainability considerations into the selection of wastewater options for developing countries and the evaluation and comparison of these options. Appropriate technologies for developing countries were screened based on their function and their use of operational sustainability features; this list of technologies can then be used to elaborate design options. Sustainability indicators are used to enable a parallel comparison of the options from environmental, economic, and socio-cultural perspectives. For illustration, the indicator approach is applied to a case study of the sanitation options for peri-urban/rural areas of the eThekwini Municipality in South Africa.

  20. Expedient emergency sanitation measures: Final report, October 1986--October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmanis, I.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-04-01

    This guide is designed as an annotated checklist to aid local officials who are responsible for maintaining or restoring adequate sanitation in a widespread emergency. In the event of a major earthquake or nuclear attack, sewage collection and treatment systems, electric power and water treatment and distribution systems may be damaged or destroyed. Loss of sanitary sewage systems and water treatment capability sharply increases risk of the spread of disease among the survivors. The guide includes details of expedient methods of water disinfection, septic waste disposal, and disease vector control. Information on obtaining and using chemicals for these purposes is included. 3 tabs.