Science.gov

Sample records for alcohol-highway safety related

  1. The Effects of Safety Discrimination Training and Frequent Safety Observations on Safety-Related Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to assess the effects of discrimination training only and in combination with frequent safety observations on five participants' safety-related behavior in a simulated office setting. The study used a multiple-baseline design across safety-related behaviors. Across all participants and behavior, safety improved…

  2. Estimating the severity of safety related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Ase; Hydén, Christer

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this work is to be a starting point for a more thorough description and analysis of safety related road user behaviour in order to better understand the different parts forming the traffic safety processes. The background is that it is problematic to use analysis of crash data and conflict data in the everyday traffic safety work due to low occurrence rates and the focus on rather exceptional and unsuccessful events. A new framework must consider the following aspects: (1) The importance of feedback to the road users. (2) Inclusion of more frequent events, "normal" road user behaviours and the possibility to link them to a severity dimension. (3) Prediction of safety/unsafety based on the more frequent events. By constructing severity hierarchies based on a uniform severity dimension (Time to Accident/Conflicting Speed value) it is possible to both describe the closeness to a crash and to get a comprehensive understanding of the connection between behaviour and safety by both considering unsuccessful and successful interactive situations. These severity hierarchies would make it possible to consider road users' expectations due to feedback and estimate its safety relevance.

  3. Patterns in Safety-Related Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Mike; Hunter, Charles

    Within Logica UK, safety-related projects are run in a variety of ways depending on the constraints imposed and how the risks and mitigations are owned and handled. A total of eight different types of project development patterns have been identified and this paper discusses each type. A simple decision tool has been developed based on the patterns which is used as an aid in deciding how to bid a safety project, allowing tradeoffs between risk ownership, development methods and cost to be assessed.

  4. Safety aspects related to unmanned platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.

    1996-12-31

    This article discusses some safety aspects related to unmanned platforms. The discussion is based on a specific project, but the aspects are of general character and should be of interest for similar situations. Based on frame conditions for the project, an event analysis is performed. Results from the event analysis are used to define scenarios that in turn is the basis for specification of necessary emergency preparedness means and some operational conditions. It turned out that for this particular platform there are four different kinds of operational phases which require different levels of emergency preparedness means. The phases are: Unmanned phase, maintenance phase; drilling phase; well work-over phase. Differentiating the effort of safety systems among these four phases, gave rise to reduced cost--still satisfying the acceptance criteria defined.

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  6. 18 CFR 12.10 - Reporting safety-related incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting safety-related incidents. 12.10 Section 12.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  7. 18 CFR 12.10 - Reporting safety-related incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting safety-related incidents. 12.10 Section 12.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  8. 18 CFR 12.10 - Reporting safety-related incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting safety-related incidents. 12.10 Section 12.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  9. 18 CFR 12.10 - Reporting safety-related incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting safety-related incidents. 12.10 Section 12.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  10. 18 CFR 12.10 - Reporting safety-related incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting safety-related incidents. 12.10 Section 12.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS...

  11. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied... Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems... Draft Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related...

  12. Educated Public Relations: School Safety 101. With Engineering Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Stuart; And Others

    This book is designed to enable school administrators to actively participate in planning and implementing school safety and public relations activities. It provides a conceptual framework of the public relations process and shows its practical application to the problems of school crime and student misbehavior, through discussion of school public…

  13. Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.

    2010-10-01

    One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980’s. Accidents at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Station and Unit 2 at Three Mile Island changed the safety paradigm of the nuclear power industry. New emphasis was placed on assured safety based on intrinsic plant characteristics that protect not only the public, but the significant investment in the plant as well. Plants designated to perform in this manner are considered to be passively safe since no active sensor/alarm system or human intervention is required to bring the reactor to a safe shutdown condition. The liquid metal reactor (LMR) has several key characteristics needed for a passively safe reactor: reactor coolant with superior heat transfer capability and very high boiling point, low (atmospheric) system pressures, and reliable negative reactivity feedback. The credibility of the design for a passively safe LMR rests on two issues: the validity of analytic methods used to predict passive safety performance and the availability of relevant test data to calibrate design tools. Safety analysis methods used to analyze LMRs under the old safety paradigm were focused on calculating the source term for the Core Disruptive Accident. Passive safety design requires refined analysis methods for transient events because treatment of the detailed reactivity feedbacks is important in predicting the response of the reactor. Similarly, analytic tools should be calibrated against actual test experience in existing LMR facilities. The principal objectives of the combined FFTF natural circulation and Passive Safety Testing program were: 1) to verify natural circulation as a reliable means to safely remove decay heat, 2) to extend passive safety

  14. Automating Nuclear-Safety-Related SQA Procedures with Custom Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-related procedures are rigorous for good reason. Small design mistakes can quickly turn into unwanted failures. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory worked with COMSOL to define a simulation app that automates the software quality assurance (SQA) verification process and provides results in less than 24 hours.

  15. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Safety riding program and motorcycle-related injuries in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Chatchaipan, Pornthip; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul

    2013-09-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Thailand from 2007 to 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of a safety riding program in preventing motorcycle-related injuries. A training group of motorcyclists were certified by the Asia-Pacific Honda Safety Riding Program in either 30-h instruction (teaching skills, riding demonstration) or 15-h license (knowledge, skills, and hazard perception) courses. The control group consisted of untrained motorcyclists matched on an approximately 1:1 ratio with the training group by region and date of licensure. In total, there were 3250 subjects in the training group and 2963 in the control group. Demographic data and factors associated with motorcycle-related injuries were collected. Motorcycle-related injuries were identified using the Road Injuries Victims Protection for injuries claims and inpatient diagnosis-related group datasets from the National Health Security Office. The capture-recapture technique was used to estimate the prevalence of injuries. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors related to motorcycle-related injuries. The prevalence of motorcycle-related injuries was estimated to be 586 out of 6213 riders (9.4%) with a 95% confidence interval (CI): 460-790. The license course and the instruction course were significantly associated with a 30% and 29% reduction of motorcycle-related injuries, respectively (relative risk 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92 and 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42-1.18, respectively). Other factors associated with the injuries were male gender and young age. Safety riding training was effective in reducing injuries. These training programs differ from those in other developed countries but display comparable effects. Hazard perception skills might be a key for success. This strategy should be expanded to a national scale. PMID:23727552

  17. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  18. Certification of highly complex safety-related systems.

    PubMed

    Reinert, D; Schaefer, M

    1999-01-01

    The BIA has now 15 years of experience with the certification of complex electronic systems for safety-related applications in the machinery sector. Using the example of machining centres this presentation will show the systematic procedure for verifying and validating control systems using Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and microcomputers for safety functions. One section will describe the control structure of machining centres with control systems using "integrated safety." A diverse redundant architecture combined with crossmonitoring and forced dynamization is explained. In the main section the steps of the systematic certification procedure are explained showing some results of the certification of drilling machines. Specification reviews, design reviews with test case specification, statistical analysis, and walk-throughs are the analytical measures in the testing process. Systematic tests based on the test case specification, Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI), and environmental testing, and site acceptance tests on the machines are the testing measures for validation. A complex software driven system is always undergoing modification. Most of the changes are not safety-relevant but this has to be proven. A systematic procedure for certifying software modifications is presented in the last section of the paper.

  19. Medication and drug abuse in relation to road traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Lentner, S; Mader, R; Musalek, M; Nimmerrichter, A; Walter, H

    1989-01-01

    Apart from alcohol, various other substances with a psychotropic effect have been discussed recently in relation to their association with road traffic safety. There has been a general lack of hard facts, however, on how much drug use and abuse influence this. In the absence of data on the frequency of such effects, a representative random sample (approx. 8000 persons) of the Austrian population was interviewed and questioned on their drug intake. A smaller sample (2007 persons) was also questioned as to their behaviour regarding road traffic participation. The results showed that those drugs taken most frequently belong to the 'analgesic' group, whilst the frequency in use of substances to which greater importance is attached currently regarding road safety is relatively low (tranquillizers by 4%; strictly 'psychotropic' drugs by 0.3% to 0.6% of the population). These findings are similar to those reported in English-speaking countries. Data analysis showed that socio-cultural factors (age, sex, marital status and profession) influence the frequency and type of drug intake. The definition of drug abuse and addiction used (increase of dosage, inappropriate use, effect changes) proved somewhat unreliable and called into question the criteria used for diagnosis and categorization of persons at risk. In view of the results of previous studies and the importance attached by critics, an unexpected finding of this survey was the minor influence exerted by tranquillizers on road traffic safety. However, the number of cases for individual drug classes was relatively small and there is a need for more broadly based studies of a similar design before reaching firm conclusions. PMID:2748692

  20. Occupational Safety and Related Impacts on Health and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The inter-relationship between safety, health and the ‘environment’ is a complex and at times a relatively neglected topic. In this issue, ‘safety’ is often viewed by contributors as ‘health and safety’ and includes occupationally-related ill health as well as injury or harm to employees and the wider public. ‘Environment’ is also interpreted in the widest sense covering both physical and work environments with upstream work hazards presenting risks to downstream communities. The focus is very much on exploring and where possible addressing the challenges, some old and some facing workers in a range of public and private settings and also at times their nearby communities. The 19 papers in the issue cover public and private sectors, global and very local populations, macro-theoretical perspectives, large epidemiological and some single factory or hospital site small case studies. A number of the papers are just beginning to explore and draw out for the first time the risks from hazards in their part of the world. The methodologies adopted also range from lab-based studies through ergonomic assessments and interventions to therapeutic approaches. PMID:27782047

  1. Neighborhood Crime-Related Safety and Its Relation to Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie H; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Grembowski, David E; Hannon, Peggy A; Smith, Nicholas L; Chan, K C Gary

    2015-06-01

    Crime is both a societal safety and public health issue. Examining different measures and aspects of crime-related safety and their correlations may provide insight into the unclear relationship between crime and children's physical activity. We evaluated five neighborhood crime-related safety measures to determine how they were interrelated. We then explored which crime-related safety measures were associated with children's total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and MVPA in their neighborhoods. Significant positive correlations between observed neighborhood incivilities and parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder were found (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002), as were associations between parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder and perceptions of stranger danger (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002). Parent report of prior crime victimization in their neighborhood was associated with observed neighborhood incivilities (r = 0.22, p = 0.007) and their perceptions of both stranger danger (r = 0.24, p = 0.003) and general crime and disorder (r = 0.37, p < 0.0001). After accounting for covariates, police-reported crime within the census block group in which children lived was associated with less physical activity, both total and in their neighborhood (beta = -0.09, p = 0.005, beta = -0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). Neighborhood-active children living in the lowest crime-quartile neighborhoods based on police reports had 40 min more of total MVPA on average compared to neighborhood-active children living in the highest crime-quartile neighborhoods. Findings suggest that police reports of neighborhood crime may be contributing to lower children's physical activity.

  2. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  3. 49 CFR 176.704 - Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. 176.704 Section 176.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. (a) The sum of the transport...

  4. 49 CFR 176.704 - Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. 176.704 Section 176.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. (a) The sum of the transport...

  5. Health and safety issues relating to Maine's fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Allison P; Roy, Joyce; Stacey-Scott, Norma; Joy, Joanne E A; Bogdan, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Agricultural Safety and Health Program performed a needs assessment to determine the health and safety concerns of Maine's fishing community. Information for the assessment was obtained from clinicians, focus groups of wives of fishers, and government agencies. Reports from the United States Coast Guard showed that during 1993-1994, sixty-five people were injured on commercial fishing vessels and eight people died. Decompression illness was the most frequently reported non-fatal injury (n = 15). Chronic injuries reported by clinicians included back pain, tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, dysbaric osteonecrosis. Clinicians and family members were also concerned about hand and arm infections from the bait and sun exposure. Family health issues and access to care are addressed in the report. Recommendations include, in part, increasing surveillance, reducing barriers to access, increasing clinicians' knowledge about the fishing industry, and fostering collaboration between agencies providing health and safety information to fishers.

  6. Update on Safety Issues Related to Antihyperglycemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Gandahari Rosa A.; Fonseca, Vivian A.

    2014-01-01

    In Brief The American Diabetes Association emphasizes the importance of individualized patient care in the management of diabetes. One of the important considerations in choosing an antihyperglycemic agent is its side-effect and safety profile. This article reviews the common and clinically significant side effects of each class of agents, including ways to prevent and overcome their occurrence. PMID:26246765

  7. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  8. Safety surrogate histograms (SSH): A novel real-time safety assessment of dilemma zone related conflicts at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Ghanipoor Machiani, Sahar; Abbas, Montasir

    2016-11-01

    Drivers' indecisiveness in dilemma zones (DZ) could result in crash-prone situations at signalized intersections. DZ is to the area ahead of an intersection in which drivers encounter a dilemma regarding whether to stop or proceed through the intersection when the signal turns yellow. An improper decision to stop by the leading driver, combined with the following driver deciding to go, can result in a rear-end collision, unless the following driver recognizes a collision is imminent and adjusts his or her behavior at or shortly after the onset of yellow. Considering the significance of DZ-related crashes, a comprehensive safety measure is needed to characterize the level of safety at signalized intersections. In this study, a novel safety surrogate measure was developed utilizing real-time radar field data. This new measure, called safety surrogate histogram (SSH), captures the degree and frequency of DZ-related conflicts at each intersection approach. SSH includes detailed information regarding the possibility of crashes, because it is calculated based on the vehicles conflicts. An example illustrating the application of the new methodology at two study sites in Virginia is presented and discussed, and a comparison is provided between SSH and other DZ-related safety surrogate measures mentioned in the literature. The results of the study reveal the efficacy of the SSH as complementary to existing surrogate measures.

  9. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levins, A.; Smoot, A.; Wagner, R.

    1984-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications are investigated. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the Underwriters Laboratory UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the proposed UL standard for plat plate photovoltaic modules and panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit groundings, and the type of circuit ground are covered.

  10. Multiphase problems related to safety studies in the process industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, R. Grollier

    Safety risk and analysis, particularly in the petrochemical industry, are discussed. Multiphase flow problems resulting from loss of confinement are described: rupture of long pipes used for transporting liquefied gas; rupture of short pipes and branch connections in an installation; rupture of a container holding liquefied gas or another liquid at a temperature higher than its normal boiling temperature; and rupture of a container holding gas in the supercritical state. Operation of valves and rupture disks during reaction runaway; and artificial dispersion of gas layers are considered.

  11. Role of relatives of ethnic minority patients in patient safety in hospital care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van Rosse, Floor; Suurmond, Jeanine; Wagner, Cordula; de Bruijne, Martine; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relatives of ethnic minority patients often play an important role in the care process during hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse the role of these relatives in relation to the safety of patients during hospital care. Setting Four large urban hospitals with an ethnic diverse patient population. Participants On hospital admission of ethnic minority patients, 20 cases were purposively sampled in which relatives were observed to play a role in the care process. Outcome measures We used documents (patient records) and added eight cases with qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and/or their relatives to investigate the relation between the role of relatives and patient safety. An inductive approach followed by selective coding was used to analyse the data. Results Besides giving social support, family members took on themselves the role of the interpreter, the role of substitutes of the patient and the role of care provider. The taking over of these roles can have positive and negative effects on patient safety. Conclusions When family members take over various roles during hospitalisation of a relative, this can lead to a safety risk and a safety protection for the patient involved. Although healthcare providers should not hand over their responsibilities to the relatives of patients, optimising collaboration with relatives who are willing to take part in the care process may improve patient safety. PMID:27056588

  12. Fusion Material Studies Relating to Safety in Russia in 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.; Guseva, M. I.; Khripunov, B. I.; Martynenko, Y. V.; Romanov, P. V.; Lelekhov, S. A.; Bartenev, S. A.

    2004-10-01

    The paper is a summary of Russian material studies performed in frames of activities aiming at substantiation of safety of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) after 2001. Subthreshold sputtering of tungsten by 5 eV deuterons was revealed at temperatures above 1150°C. Mechanism of globular films formation was further studied. Computations of tritium permeation into vacuum vessel coolant confirmed the acceptability of vacuum vessel cooling system for removal of the decay heat. The most dangerous accident with high-current arc in toroidal superconducting magnets able to burn out a bore up to 0.6 m in diameter in the cryostat vessel was determined. Radiochemical reprocessing of V-Cr-Ti alloy and its purification from activation products down to a contact dose rate of ~10 μSv/h was developed.

  13. Issues related to criticality safety analysis for burnup credit applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-12-01

    Spent fuel transportation and storage cask designs based on a burnup credit approach must consider issues that are not relevant in casks designed under a fresh fuel loading assumption. Parametric analyses are required to characterize the importance of fuel assembly and fuel cycle parameters on spent fuel composition and reactivity. Numerical models are evaluated to determine the sensitivity of criticality safety calculations to modeling assumptions. This paper discusses the results of studies to determine the effect of two important modeling assumptions on the criticality analysis of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) spent fuel: (1) the effect of assumed burnup history (i.e., specific power during and time-dependent variations in operational power) during depletion calculations, and (2) the effect of axial burnup distributions on the neutron multiplication factor calculated for a three-dimensional (3-D) conceptual cask design.

  14. An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Derek W; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Lesley; Sittig, Dean F; Scott, Jean M; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective A recent Institute of Medicine report called for attention to safety issues related to electronic health records (EHRs). We analyzed EHR-related safety concerns reported within a large, integrated healthcare system. Methods The Informatics Patient Safety Office of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) maintains a non-punitive, voluntary reporting system to collect and investigate EHR-related safety concerns (ie, adverse events, potential events, and near misses). We analyzed completed investigations using an eight-dimension sociotechnical conceptual model that accounted for both technical and non-technical dimensions of safety. Using the framework analysis approach to qualitative data, we identified emergent and recurring safety concerns common to multiple reports. Results We extracted 100 consecutive, unique, closed investigations between August 2009 and May 2013 from 344 reported incidents. Seventy-four involved unsafe technology and 25 involved unsafe use of technology. A majority (70%) involved two or more model dimensions. Most often, non-technical dimensions such as workflow, policies, and personnel interacted in a complex fashion with technical dimensions such as software/hardware, content, and user interface to produce safety concerns. Most (94%) safety concerns related to either unmet data-display needs in the EHR (ie, displayed information available to the end user failed to reduce uncertainty or led to increased potential for patient harm), software upgrades or modifications, data transmission between components of the EHR, or ‘hidden dependencies’ within the EHR. Discussion EHR-related safety concerns involving both unsafe technology and unsafe use of technology persist long after ‘go-live’ and despite the sophisticated EHR infrastructure represented in our data source. Currently, few healthcare institutions have reporting and analysis capabilities similar to the VA. Conclusions Because EHR-related safety concerns have complex

  15. Evidence of aging effects on certain safety-related components

    SciTech Connect

    Magleby, H.L.; Atwood, C.L.; MacDonald, P.E.; Edson, J.L.; Bramwell, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In response to interest shown by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Principal Working Group I (PWG- 1) of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) conducted a generic study on the effects of aging of active components in nuclear power plants. (This focus on active components is consistent with PWG-l`s mandate; passive components are primarily within the mandate of PWG-3.) Representatives from France, Sweden, Finland, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom participated in the study by submitting reports documenting aging studies performed in their countries. This report consists of summaries of those reports, along with a comparison of the various statistical analysis methods used in the studies. The studies indicate that with some exceptions, active components generally do not present a significant aging problem in nuclear power plants. Design criteria and effective preventative maintenance programs, including timely replacement of components, are effective in mitigating potential aging problems. However, aging studies (such as qualitative and statistical analyses of failure modes and maintenance data) are an important part of efforts to identify and solve potential aging problems. Solving these problems typically includes such strategies as replacing suspect components with improved components, and implementing improved maintenance programs.

  16. 49 CFR 191.25 - Filing safety-related condition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT REPORTS, AND SAFETY-RELATED... commodity transported or stored. (8) The corrective action taken (including reduction of pressure...

  17. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  18. Evaluating the safety risk in relation to the energetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela; Vătăsescu, Mihail; Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Vasilescu, Gabriel Dragoş

    2015-03-10

    This paper presents an approach in compliance with the European and national requirments aiming at increasing OHS level in the compaines involved in water construction works an dat providing sustainability of the related environment.

  19. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) regulatory requirements and safety-related considerations: August 1988 Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.M.; Flanagan, C.A.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to outline the safety-related considerations for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) and, by so doing, to indicate the regulatory requirements and design considerations that must be addressed by the project in the design and during subsequent operations. As such, this document represents a road map of how the project intends to analyze and document nuclear safety concerns and design considerations that will have to be addressed by the ANS Project. As the project matures and the design becomes better defined and projected performance better understood, the safety-related considerations will also become better defined and interpreted. Appropriate safety-related analyses and documentation will be produced (e.g., preliminary and final safety analysis reports). This document summarizes the sources of applicable regulatory requirements, indicates recent policy guidance from the NRC, provides the NRC general design criteria that must be met, suggests which of the major ANS systems components are likely to be categorized as ''safety related,'' and provides descriptive material that is of safety interest and importance.

  20. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  1. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  2. Exploring methods for identifying related patient safety events using structured and unstructured data.

    PubMed

    Fong, Allan; Hettinger, A Zachary; Ratwani, Raj M

    2015-12-01

    Most healthcare systems have implemented patient safety event reporting systems to identify safety hazards. Searching the safety event data to find related patient safety reports and identify trends is challenging given the complexity and quantity of these reports. Structured data elements selected by the event reporter may be inaccurate and the free-text narrative descriptions are difficult to analyze. In this paper we present and explore methods for utilizing both the unstructured free-text and structured data elements in safety event reports to identify and rank similar events. We evaluate the results of three different free-text search methods, including a unique topic modeling adaptation, and structured element weights, using a patient fall use case. The various search techniques and weight combinations tended to prioritize different aspects of the event reports leading to different search and ranking results. These search and prioritization methods have the potential to greatly improve patient safety officers, and other healthcare workers, understanding of which safety event reports are related.

  3. Safety-related issues associated with implementing wireless systems in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, B. J.; Ewing, P. D.; Moore, M. R.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, wireless technology is not used as an integral element of safety-related systems in nuclear facilities. The most prevalent introductory uses of wireless technology are for in-facility communications among personnel and for supplemental information transmission. However, further system upgrades and implementations at new facilities might introduce wireless communications into safety-significant applications. This paper documents the deployment issues and implementation considerations that can contribute to the technical basis for guidance on wireless systems. (authors)

  4. Environmental tests of a digital safety channel: An investigation of stress-related vulnerabilities of computer-based safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wilson, T.L.; Wood, R.; Tanaka, T.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Systems Research program, which was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program is expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems. The purpose of the study was to investigate potential vulnerabilities of distributed computer systems used in safety applications when subjected to environmental stressors. The EDSC assembled for the tests employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors or as retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radiofrequency interferences (EMI-RFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied at levels of intensity considerably higher than the safety channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified. On the basis of the incidence of functional errors observed during testing, EMI-RFI, smoke exposure, and high temperature coupled with high relative humidity, in that order, were found to have the greatest impact of the stressors investigated. The most prevalent stressor-induced upsets, as well as the most severe, were found to occur during the EMI-RFI tests.

  5. Unintentional and undetermined firearm related deaths: a preventable death analysis for three safety devices

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, J; O'Brien, M; Hepburn, L; Johnson, S; Webster, D; Hargarten, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of unintentional and undetermined firearm related deaths preventable by three safety devices: personalization devices, loaded chamber indicators (LCIs), and magazine safeties. A personalized gun will operate only for an authorized user, a LCI indicates when the gun contains ammunition, and a magazine safety prevents the gun from firing when the ammunition magazine is removed. Design: Information about all unintentional and undetermined firearm deaths from 1991–98 was obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for Maryland, and from the Wisconsin Firearm Injury Reporting System for Milwaukee. Data regarding the victim, shooter, weapon, and circumstances were abstracted. Coding rules to classify each death as preventable, possibly preventable, or not preventable by each of the three safety devices were also applied. Results: There were a total of 117 firearm related deaths in our sample, 95 (81%) involving handguns. Forty three deaths (37%) were classified as preventable by a personalized gun, 23 (20%) by a LCI, and five (4%) by a magazine safety. Overall, 52 deaths (44%) were preventable by at least one safety device. Deaths involving children 0–17 (relative risk (RR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 5.1) and handguns (RR 8.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 53.5) were more likely to be preventable. Projecting the findings to the entire United States, an estimated 442 deaths might have been prevented in 2000 had all guns been equipped with these safety devices. Conclusion: Incorporating safety devices into firearms is an important injury intervention, with the potential to save hundreds of lives each year. PMID:14693889

  6. Hospital nurses' working conditions in relation to motivation and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of empirical knowledge about nurses' perceptions of their workplace characteristics and conditions, such as level of autonomy and decision authority, work climate, teamwork, skill exploitation and learning opportunities, and their work motivation in relation to practice outputs such as patient safety. Such knowledge is needed particularly in countries, such as Estonia, where hospital systems for preventing errors and improving patient safety are in the early stages of development. This article reports the findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospital nurses in Estonia that was aimed at determining their perceptions of workplace characteristics, working conditions, work motivation and patient safety, and at exploring the relationship between these. Results suggest that perceptions of personal control over their work can affect nurses' motivation, and that perceptions of work satisfaction might be relevant to patient safety improvement work. PMID:25727441

  7. Hospital nurses' working conditions in relation to motivation and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of empirical knowledge about nurses' perceptions of their workplace characteristics and conditions, such as level of autonomy and decision authority, work climate, teamwork, skill exploitation and learning opportunities, and their work motivation in relation to practice outputs such as patient safety. Such knowledge is needed particularly in countries, such as Estonia, where hospital systems for preventing errors and improving patient safety are in the early stages of development. This article reports the findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospital nurses in Estonia that was aimed at determining their perceptions of workplace characteristics, working conditions, work motivation and patient safety, and at exploring the relationship between these. Results suggest that perceptions of personal control over their work can affect nurses' motivation, and that perceptions of work satisfaction might be relevant to patient safety improvement work.

  8. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  9. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  10. The Impact of Underage Drinking Laws on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes of Young Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (1998–2005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes. PMID

  11. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  12. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Plants'' on May 1, 2013, (78 FR 25488) for a 60 day public comment period. The public comment period... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC) is issuing revision 1 to regulatory guide (RG) 1.73, ``Qualification Tests for...

  13. Relational Safety and Liberating Training Spaces: An Application with a Focus on Sexual Orientation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Pilar; Rankin, Pressley, IV

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a teaching case of a clinical training situation involving a gay marriage and family therapy student working with a same-sex affectional couple. The conceptual pillars of this teaching case, relational safety and liberating spaces, are advanced as illustrations of how the student developed his voice in the…

  14. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, A.

    1984-03-01

    Underwriters Laboratories has conducted a study to identify and develop safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. This discussion of safety systems recognizes that there is little history on which to base the expected safety related performance of a photovoltaic system. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the Proposed UL Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit grounding, and the type of circuit ground are covered. The development of the Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels has continued, and with both industry comment and a product submittal and listing, the Standard has been refined to a viable document allowing an objective safety review of photovoltaic modules and panels. How this document, and other UL documents would cover investigations of certain other photovoltaic system components is described.

  15. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    PubMed

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  16. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel.

  17. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. PMID:26146050

  18. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit K.; Julka, Anil; Modi, Govind

    1994-08-01

    MDR relays manufactured by Potter & Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish. P&B has made design changes to correct these problems in relays manufactured after May 1990. However, P&B does not manufacture the relays under any 10CFR50 Appendix B quality assurance (QA) program. They manufacture the relays under their commercial QA program and supply these as commercial grade items. This necessitates CGI Dedication of these relays for use in nuclear-safety-related applications. This paper presents a CGI dedication program that has been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after May 1990. The program is in compliance with current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines and applicable industry standards; it specifies the critical characteristics of the relays, provides the tests and analysis required to verify the critical characteristics, the acceptance criteria for the test results, performs source verification to quality P&B for its control of the critical characteristics, and provides documentation. The program provides reasonable assurance that the new MDR relays will perform their intended safety functions.

  19. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  20. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  1. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 1.1-1.8 Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…

  2. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics. PMID:25086439

  3. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.

    1996-03-13

    This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

  4. Public Relations 2 Class Safety Survey. Research Study Number 80-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    As part of a curriculum unit on opinions and surveys, a public relations class at Los Angeles City College (LACC) conducted a survey in May 1980 to assess student attitudes toward and awareness of safety on the LACC campus. Data were collected during personal interviews conducted by 22 students at nine campus locations between 10:00 a.m. and 11:00…

  5. Safety aspects related to the operation of the Cabril L/ILW disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, M.C.; Alonso, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    In October 1992 the Spanish Ministry of Industry granted the operating permit to the Centro de Almacenamiento de El Cabril (C.A. El Cabril). The Annex 1 to this permit contains the limits and conditions related to safety and to radiological health protection, set by nuclear regulatory authority, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN). The main aspects of the operation regulated in the permit as well as their technical basis and practical meaning are discussed in this paper.

  6. Development of FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Y.; Oda, N.; Miyazaki, T.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.; Igawa, S.

    2006-07-01

    Toshiba has developed Non-rewritable (NRW) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system [1]. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non-rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. FPGA is a device which consists only of defined digital circuit: hardware, which performs defined processing. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing unit (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. The system which Toshiba developed this time is Power Range Monitor (PRM). Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development method to the other safety-related systems from now on. (authors)

  7. Recent trends in ILO conventions related to occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donald J; Takahashi, Ken; Smith, Derek R; Yoshino, Masako; Tanaka, Chieko; Takala, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the ratification status of International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions related to occupational safety and health (OSH) by ILO member states in terms of national indicators (length of ILO membership and national income status) and regional affiliation. 17 conventions designated as OSH-related by the 2003 International Labour Conference were examined. In general, countries with longer ILO membership ratified higher numbers of conventions related to OSH. With some variation, long-membership countries had the largest number of ratifications, followed by middle- and short-membership countries in all regions. There were also incremental increases in the number of ratifications for OSH-related conventions according to the national income status. Common regional characteristics that could not be explained by the factors studied also existed. Future efforts to increase ratification at an international level will need to consider the factors influencing ratification practice among the member states.

  8. Testing existing software for safety-related applications. Revision 7.1

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.A.; Lawrence, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increasing use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products in digital safety-critical applications is raising concerns about the safety, reliability, and quality of these products. One of the factors involved in addressing these concerns is product testing. A tester`s knowledge of the software product will vary, depending on the information available from the product vendor. In some cases, complete source listings, program structures, and other information from the software development may be available. In other cases, only the complete hardware/software package may exist, with the tester having no knowledge of the internal structure of the software. The type of testing that can be used will depend on the information available to the tester. This report describes six different types of testing, which differ in the information used to create the tests, the results that may be obtained, and the limitations of the test types. An Annex contains background information on types of faults encountered in testing, and a Glossary of pertinent terms is also included. This study is pertinent for safety-related software at reactors.

  9. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  10. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Culture related to road traffic safety: a comparison of eight countries using two conceptualizations of culture.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Şimşekoğlu, Özlem; Rundmo, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western

  12. Annual Report To Congress. Department of Energy Activities Relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-02-28

    The Department of Energy (Department) submits an Annual Report to Congress each year detailing the Department’s activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board), which provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy (Secretary) regarding public health and safety issues at the Department’s defense nuclear facilities. In 2003, the Department continued ongoing activities to resolve issues identified by the Board in formal recommendations and correspondence, staff issue reports pertaining to Department facilities, and public meetings and briefings. Additionally, the Department is implementing several key safety initiatives to address and prevent safety issues: safety culture and review of the Columbia accident investigation; risk reduction through stabilization of excess nuclear materials; the Facility Representative Program; independent oversight and performance assurance; the Federal Technical Capability Program (FTCP); executive safety initiatives; and quality assurance activities. The following summarizes the key activities addressed in this Annual Report.

  13. Time-related degradation, a key issue in nuclear plant safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Bustard, L.D.; Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a number of programs under NRC sponsorship which deal with safety-related equipment qualification issues, including the important aspect of aging. Among these is the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program which was probably the first to devote significant effort towards aging research and was one of the primary motivators leading to the Workshop. The thrust of the QTE aging efforts has been on elastomeric materials, typically used in electrical cables, seals, gaskets, and the like; currently, efforts are being pursued on plant ambient environments measurements, aging of electronics, and aging of motors. A brief status report is presented in this paper.

  14. The Effectiveness of a Bicycle Safety Program for Improving Safety-Related Knowledge and Behavior in Young Elementary Students

    PubMed Central

    Glang, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the “Bike Smart” program, an eHealth software program that teaches bicycle safety behaviors to young children. Methods Participants were 206 elementary students in grades kindergarten to 3. A random control design was employed to evaluate the program, with students assigned to either the treatment condition (Bike Smart) or the control condition (a video on childhood safety). Outcome measures included computer-based knowledge items (safety rules, helmet placement, hazard discrimination) and a behavioral measure of helmet placement. Results Results demonstrated that regardless of gender, cohort, and grade the participants in the treatment group showed greater gains than control participants in both the computer-presented knowledge items (p > .01) and the observational helmet measure (p > .05). Conclusions Findings suggest that the Bike Smart program can be a low cost, effective component of safety training packages that include both skills-based and experiential training. PMID:19755497

  15. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  16. Sex differences in cerebellar mechanisms involved in pain-related safety learning.

    PubMed

    Labrenz, Franziska; Icenhour, Adriane; Thürling, Markus; Schlamann, Marc; Forsting, Michael; Timmann, Dagmar; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the cerebellum contributes to the central processing of pain, including pain-related learning and memory processes. As a complex experience with multiple emotional and cognitive facets, the response to pain and its underlying neural correlates differ between men and women. However, it remains poorly understood whether and to what extent sex differences exist in the cerebellar contribution to pain-related associative learning processes. In the present conditioning study with experimental abdominal pain as unconditioned stimuli (US), we assessed sex-dependent differences in behavioral and neural responses to conditioned warning and safety cues in healthy volunteers. The results revealed that in response to visual stimuli signaling safety from abdominal pain (CS(-)), women showed enhanced cerebellar activation in lobules I-IV, V, VI, VIIIa, IX and X as well as Crus II and the dentate nucleus, which are mostly representative of somatomotor networks. On the other hand, men showed enhanced neural activation in lobules I-IV, VI, VIIb, VIIIb, IX as well as Crus I and II in response to CS(-), which are representative of frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. No sex differences were observed in response to pain-predictive warning signals (CS(+)). Similarly, men and women did not differ in behavioral measures of conditioning, including conditioned changes in CS valence and contingency awareness. Together, we could demonstrate that the cerebellum is involved in associative learning processes of conditioned anticipatory safety from pain and mediates sex differences in the underlying neural processes. Given the high prevalence of chronic pain conditions in women, these results may contribute to improve our understanding of the acquisition and manifestation of chronic abdominal pain syndromes. PMID:26004678

  17. Evaluation of the chemical compatibility of plastic contact materials and pharmaceutical products; safety considerations related to extractables and leachables.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis

    2007-10-01

    A review is provided on the general topic of the compatibility of plastic materials with pharmaceutical products, with specific emphasis on the safety aspects associated with extractables and leachables related to such plastic materials. PMID:17701994

  18. Red light violations by adult pedestrians and other safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks.

    PubMed

    Dommes, A; Granié, M-A; Cloutier, M-S; Coquelet, C; Huguenin-Richard, F

    2015-07-01

    To study human factors linked to red light violations, and more generally to safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks, the present study combines the collection of observational data with questionnaires answered by 422 French adult pedestrians. Thirteen behavioral indicators were extracted (12 before and while crossing, and red light violation), and the roles of several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables were examined. The results of the stepwise logistic regression analyses carried out on each of the 12 behavioral indicators observed before and while crossing revealed that gender had no major impact, but age did, with more cautious behaviors as pedestrians were older. The three contextual variables (group size, parked vehicles, and traffic density), as four mobility-associated variables (driving and walking experiences, self-reported crossing difficulties and falls in the street) were also found to be important factors in safety-related crossing behaviors. A wider logistic regression analysis, made specifically on red light violations with all behavioral indicators observed before and while crossings and the several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables put together, showed that red light violations were mostly affected by current situational factors (group size, parked vehicles) and particularly associated with some behavioral patterns (looking toward the traffic, the ground, the light, running and crossing diagonally). The overall results encourage the development of safer pedestrian infrastructures and engineering countermeasures.

  19. Red light violations by adult pedestrians and other safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks.

    PubMed

    Dommes, A; Granié, M-A; Cloutier, M-S; Coquelet, C; Huguenin-Richard, F

    2015-07-01

    To study human factors linked to red light violations, and more generally to safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks, the present study combines the collection of observational data with questionnaires answered by 422 French adult pedestrians. Thirteen behavioral indicators were extracted (12 before and while crossing, and red light violation), and the roles of several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables were examined. The results of the stepwise logistic regression analyses carried out on each of the 12 behavioral indicators observed before and while crossing revealed that gender had no major impact, but age did, with more cautious behaviors as pedestrians were older. The three contextual variables (group size, parked vehicles, and traffic density), as four mobility-associated variables (driving and walking experiences, self-reported crossing difficulties and falls in the street) were also found to be important factors in safety-related crossing behaviors. A wider logistic regression analysis, made specifically on red light violations with all behavioral indicators observed before and while crossings and the several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables put together, showed that red light violations were mostly affected by current situational factors (group size, parked vehicles) and particularly associated with some behavioral patterns (looking toward the traffic, the ground, the light, running and crossing diagonally). The overall results encourage the development of safer pedestrian infrastructures and engineering countermeasures. PMID:25884542

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  1. Current environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale: draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This document was prepared for DOE Resource Applications. It provides a compilation of information on current environmental, health, safety and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale. The information is the most recent available through August 29, 1980. Included are the following: (1) project title; (2) adminstering agency; (3) contractor; (4) project status; (5) funding level; (6) project schedule; (7) deliverable; and (8) key personnel. The data contained in these reports can be used in environmental impact analyses relating oil shale to various incentives given in the Alternative Fuels Bill. The information provided was obtained from computer search printouts, review of respective agency documents and communication with agency personnel. A complete list of references is provided. The sponsoring organizations include the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Interior.

  2. Do you see what I see? Effects of national culture on employees' safety-related perceptions and behavior.

    PubMed

    Casey, Tristan W; Riseborough, Karli M; Krauss, Autumn D

    2015-05-01

    Growing international trade and globalization are increasing the cultural diversity of the modern workforce, which often results in migrants working under the management of foreign leadership. This change in work arrangements has important implications for occupational health and safety, as migrant workers have been found to be at an increased risk of injuries compared to their domestic counterparts. While some explanations for this discrepancy have been proposed (e.g., job differences, safety knowledge, and communication difficulties), differences in injury involvement have been found to persist even when these contextual factors are controlled for. We argue that employees' national culture may explain further variance in their safety-related perceptions and safety compliance, and investigate this through comparing the survey responses of 562 Anglo and Southern Asian workers at a multinational oil and gas company. Using structural equation modeling, we firstly established partial measurement invariance of our measures across cultural groups. Estimation of the combined sample structural model revealed that supervisor production pressure was negatively related to willingness to report errors and supervisor support, but did not predict safety compliance behavior. Supervisor safety support was positively related to both willingness to report errors and safety compliance. Next, we uncovered evidence of cultural differences in the relationships between supervisor production pressure, supervisor safety support, and willingness to report errors; of note, among Southern Asian employees the negative relationship between supervisor production pressure and willingness to report errors was stronger, and for supervisor safety support, weaker as compared to the model estimated with Anglo employees. Implications of these findings for safety management in multicultural teams within the oil and gas industry are discussed.

  3. Exploring safety systems for dispensing in community pharmacies: Focusing on how staff relate to organizational components☆

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Jasmine; Avery, Anthony J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Boyd, Matthew; Phipps, Denham L.; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying risk is an important facet of a safety practice in an organization. To identify risk, all components within a system of operation should be considered. In clinical safety practice, a team of people, technologies, procedures and protocols, management structure and environment have been identified as key components in a system of operation. Objectives To explore risks in relation to prescription dispensing in community pharmacies by taking into account relationships between key components that relate to the dispensing process. Methods Fifteen community pharmacies in England with varied characteristics were identified, and data were collected using non-participant observations, shadowing and interviews. Approximately 360 hours of observations and 38 interviews were conducted by the team. Observation field notes from each pharmacy were written into case studies. Overall, 52,500 words from 15 case studies and interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic and line-by-line analyses. Validation techniques included multiple data collectors co-authoring each case study for consensus, review of case studies by members of the wider team including academic and practicing community pharmacists, and patient safety experts and two presentations (internally and externally) to review and discuss findings. Results Risks identified were related to relationships between people and other key components in dispensing. This included how different levels of staff communicated internally and externally, followed procedures, interacted with technical systems, worked with management, and engaged with the environment. In a dispensing journey, the following categories were identified which show how risks are inextricably linked through relationships between human components and other key components: 1) dispensing with divided attention; 2) dispensing under pressure; 3) dispensing in a restricted space or environment; and, 4) managing external influences. Conclusions

  4. Consensus-based Recommendations for Research Priorities Related to Interventions to Safeguard Patient Safety in the Crowded Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Christopher; Hall, Kendall; Morrison, J. Bradley; Stephens, Robert; Cosby, Karen; Fairbanks, Rollin (Terry) J.; Youngberg, Barbara; Lenehan, Gail; Abualenain, Jameel; O’Connor, Kevin; Wears, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of the Interventions to Safeguard Safety breakout session of the 2011 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference entitled “Interventions to Assure Quality in the Crowded Emergency Department.” Using a multistep nominal group technique, experts in emergency department (ED) crowding, patient safety, and systems engineering defined knowledge gaps and priority research questions related to the maintenance of safety in the crowded ED. Consensus was reached for seven research priorities related to interventions to maintain safety in the setting of a crowded ED. Included among these are: 1) How do routine corrective processes and compensating mechanism change during crowding? 2) What metrics should be used to determine ED safety? 3) How can checklists ensure safer care and what factors contribute to their success or failure? 4) What constitutes safe staffing levels / ratios? 5) How can we align emergency medicine (EM)-specific patient safety issues with national patient safety issues? 6) How can we develop metrics and skills to recognize when an ED is getting close to catastrophic overload conditions? and 7) What can EM learn from experts and modeling from fields outside of medicine to develop innovative solutions? These priorities have the potential to inform future clinical and human factors research and extramural funding decisions related to this important topic. PMID:22168192

  5. Consensus-based recommendations for research priorities related to interventions to safeguard patient safety in the crowded emergency department.

    PubMed

    Fee, Christopher; Hall, Kendall; Morrison, J Bradley; Stephens, Robert; Cosby, Karen; Fairbanks, Rollin Terry J; Youngberg, Barbara; Lenehan, Gail; Abualenain, Jameel; O'Connor, Kevin; Wears, Robert

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the results of the Interventions to Safeguard Safety breakout session of the 2011 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference entitled "Interventions to Assure Quality in the Crowded Emergency Department." Using a multistep nominal group technique, experts in emergency department (ED) crowding, patient safety, and systems engineering defined knowledge gaps and priority research questions related to the maintenance of safety in the crowded ED. Consensus was reached for seven research priorities related to interventions to maintain safety in the setting of a crowded ED. Included among these are: 1) How do routine corrective processes and compensating mechanism change during crowding? 2) What metrics should be used to determine ED safety? 3) How can checklists ensure safer care and what factors contribute to their success or failure? 4) What constitutes safe staffing levels/ratios? 5) How can we align emergency medicine (EM)-specific patient safety issues with national patient safety issues? 6) How can we develop metrics and skills to recognize when an ED is getting close to catastrophic overload conditions? and 7) What can EM learn from experts and modeling from fields outside of medicine to develop innovative solutions? These priorities have the potential to inform future clinical and human factors research and extramural funding decisions related to this important topic.

  6. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  7. Machine-related injuries in the US mining industry and priorities for safety research.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Todd; Coleman, Patrick; Martini, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studied mining accidents that involved a worker entangled in, struck by, or in contact with machinery or equipment in motion. The motivation for this study came from the large number of severe accidents, i.e. accidents resulting in a fatality or permanent disability, that are occurring despite available interventions. Accident descriptions were taken from an accident database maintained by the United States Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, and 562 accidents that occurred during 2000-2007 fit the search criteria. Machine-related accidents accounted for 41% of all severe accidents in the mining industry during this period. Machinery most often involved in these accidents included conveyors, rock bolting machines, milling machines and haulage equipment such as trucks and loaders. The most common activities associated with these accidents were operation of the machine and maintenance and repair. The current methods to safeguard workers near machinery include mechanical guarding around moving components, lockout/tagout of machine power during maintenance and backup alarms for mobile equipment. To decrease accidents further, researchers recommend additional efforts in the development of new control technologies, training materials and dissemination of information on best practices.

  8. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...). 75 FR 47906. The Final Crane Rule sets forth requirements that are designed to improve safety for... titled ``Railroad Occupational Safety and Health Standards'' (Policy Statement). 43 FR 10583. The...

  9. Does health care role and experience influence perception of safety culture related to preventing infections?

    PubMed

    Braun, Barbara I; Harris, Anthony D; Richards, Cheryl L; Belton, Beverly M; Dembry, Louise-Marie; Morton, David J; Xiao, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Growing evidence reveals the importance of improving safety culture in efforts to eliminate health care-associated infections. This multisite, cross-sectional survey examined the association between professional role and health care experience on infection prevention safety culture at 5 hospitals. The findings suggest that frontline health care technicians are less directly engaged in improvement efforts and safety education than other staff and that infection prevention safety culture varies more by hospital than by staff position and experience.

  10. Cabin Safety Issues Related to Pre-Departure and Inflight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports highlighting the human element in cabin safety issues and concerns.

  11. 75 FR 45697 - Safety Advisory Notice: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... of Hazardous Materials Safety is the Federal safety authority for the transportation of hazardous... reduce the risk of harm from the transportation of hazardous materials. In light of PHMSA's vital safety... are already members of the hazardous materials transportation community with policies in place...

  12. Reporter Concerns in 300 Mode-Related Incident Reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    A model has been developed which represents prominent reporter concerns expressed in the narratives of 300 mode-related incident reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The model objectively quantifies the structure of concerns which persist across situations and reporters. These concerns are described and illustrated using verbatim sentences from the original narratives. Report accession numbers are included with each sentence so that concerns can be traced back to the original reports. The results also include an inventory of mode names mentioned in the narratives, and a comparison of individual and joint concerns. The method is based on a proximity-weighted co-occurrence metric and object-oriented complexity reduction.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Medicinal Plants or Related Natural Products for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Nascimento, Simone; DeSantana, Josimari Melo; Ribeiro, Êurica Adélia Nogueira; da Silva, Daniel Lira; Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effects of medicinal plants (MPs) or related natural products (RNPs) on fibromyalgia (FM) patients, we evaluate the possible benefits and advantages of MP or RNP for the treatment of FM based on eight randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) involving 475 patients. The methodological quality of all studies included was determined according to JADAD and “Risk of Bias” with the criteria in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0. Evidence suggests significant benefits of MP or RNP in sleep disruption, pain, depression, joint stiffness, anxiety, physical function, and quality of life. Our results demonstrated that MP or RNP had significant effects on improving the symptoms of FM compared to conventional drug or placebo; longer tests are required to determine the duration of the treatment and characterize the long-term safety of using MP, thus suggesting effective alternative therapies in the treatment of pain with minimized side effects. PMID:23861696

  14. Needle Stick Injuries and their Related Safety Measures among Nurses in a University Hospital, Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Rostamabadi, Akbar; Hoboubi, Naser; Tadayon, Neda; Soleimani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors related to needle stick injuries (NSIs) and to assess related safety measures among a sample of Iranian nurses. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 168 registered active nurses was selected from different wards of one of the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). Data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire and a checklist based observational method among the 168 registered active nurses. Results The prevalence of NSIs in the total of work experience and the last year was 76% and 54%, respectively. Hollow-bore needles were the most common devices involved in the injuries (85.5%). The majority of NSIs occurred in the morning shift (57.8%) and the most common activity leading to NSIs was recapping needles (41.4%). The rate of underreporting NSIs was 60.2% and the major reasons for not reporting the NSIs were heavy clinical schedule (46.7%) and perception of low risk of infection (37.7%). A statistically significant relationship was found between the occurrence of NSIs and sex, hours worked/week, and frequency of shifts/month. Conclusion The study showed a high prevalence of NSIs among nurses. Supportive measures such as improving injection practices, modification of working schedule, planning training programs targeted at using personal protective equipment, and providing an adequate number of safety facilities such as puncture resistant disposal containers and engineered safe devices are essential for the effective prevention of NSI incidents among the studied nurses. PMID:27014494

  15. Major results from safety-related integral effect tests with VISTA-ITL for the SMART design

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H. S.; Min, B. Y.; Shin, Y. C.; Yi, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    A series of integral effect tests (IETs) was performed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) using the VISTA integral test loop (VISTA-ITL) as a small-scale IET program. Among them this paper presents major results acquired from the safety-related IETs with the VISTA-ITL facility for the SMART design. Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests of safety injection system (SIS) line break, shutdown cooling system (SCS) line break and pressurizer safety valve (PSV) line break were successfully performed and the transient characteristics of a complete loss of flowrate (CLOF) was simulated properly with the VISTA-ITL facility. (authors)

  16. The Safety of Acupuncture in Patients with Cancer Therapy–Related Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Cybularz, Paul A.; Brothers, Karen; Singh, Gurneet M.; Feingold, Jennifer L.; Niesley, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Acceptance of acupuncture as an efficacious integrative modality for oncology-related side-effect management is rapidly expanding. It is imperative that guidelines regarding safe treatment supported by clinical experience are established. Oncology patients frequently experience thrombocytopenia as a side-effect of chemotherapy or radiation. However, safety data for acupuncture in adult patients with cancer who are thrombocytopenic is lacking. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 684 patients who received acupuncture treatments in an established acupuncture program at a private cancer treatment hospital were reviewed for adverse events occurring within the context of thrombocytopenia. Results: Of 2135 visits eligible for evaluation, 98 individual acupuncture visits occurred in patients with platelet counts <100,000/μL, including nine visits in which platelet counts were <50,000/μL. No adverse events of increased bruising or bleeding were noted. Medications and nutritional supplements or botanicals that may influence coagulation were also tabulated, with no apparent adverse events in this patient population. Conclusions: Discrepancies in the literature highlight the need to create cohesive safety guidelines backed by clinical research, specifically for groups at higher risk for adverse events. The preliminary evidence put forth in this study lays the foundation that supports the notion that acupuncture can be used safely with a high-need oncology population within an integrated model of care. In this descriptive retrospective case series of adult oncology patients with thrombocytopenia, no adverse events of increased bruising or bleeding were documented. Prospective trials are needed to confirm these initial observations. PMID:26401193

  17. Prevention of Home-Related Injuries of Preschoolers: Safety Measures Taken by Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khameesa, Nedaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of safety measures taken by mothers to prevent serious injuries to their pre-school children in the home, and the factors that influence mothers' behaviour in taking these safety measures. Design: A self-completion questionnaire based on a Five Level Likert Scale was used in the study.…

  18. 78 FR 13747 - Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... CONTACT: Karl Alexy, Staff Director, Hazardous Materials Division, Office of Railroad Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590; telephone: (202) 493-6245; or Karl.Alexy@dot.gov ; or... Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) issued an advisory bulletin in the Federal Register (77 FR...

  19. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  20. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  1. Structure soil structure interaction effects: Seismic analysis of safety related collocated concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.

    2000-06-20

    The Process, Purification and Stack Buildings are collocated safety related concrete shear wall structures with plan dimensions in excess of 100 feet. An important aspect of their seismic analysis was the determination of structure soil structure interaction (SSSI) effects, if any. The SSSI analysis of the Process Building, with one other building at a time, was performed with the SASSI computer code for up to 50 frequencies. Each combined model had about 1500 interaction nodes. Results of the SSSI analysis were compared with those from soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis of the individual buildings, done with ABAQUS and SASSI codes, for three parameters: peak accelerations, seismic forces and the in-structure floor response spectra (FRS). The results may be of wider interest due to the model size and the potential applicability to other deep soil layered sites. Results obtained from the ABAQUS analysis were consistently higher, as expected, than those from the SSI and SSSI analyses using the SASSI. The SSSI effect between the Process and Purification Buildings was not significant. The Process and Stack Building results demonstrated that under certain conditions a massive structure can have an observable effect on the seismic response of a smaller and less stiff structure.

  2. Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues.

    PubMed

    Ur-Rehman, Salim; Mushtaq, Zarina; Zahoor, Tahir; Jamil, Amir; Murtaza, Mian Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. However, biotechnological method utilizes agricultural and forestry wastes which offer the possibilities of economic production of xylitol by reducing required energy. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Various fermentation process inhibitors are produced during chemical hydrolysis that reduce xylitol production, a detoxification step is, therefore, necessary. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature, time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. Xylitol has application and potential for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. This review describes recent research developments related to bioproduction of xylitol from agricultural wastes, application, health, and safety issues.

  3. Influence of drivers' comprehension of posted signs on their safety related characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-Madani, H

    2000-07-01

    The paper studies the relationship between drivers' understanding of posted signs in three of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states, Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and some of their safety related characteristics. These characteristics are driving experience, accident involvement, experience per accident, citations received in the last 3 years on speed limit violations, and seat belt usage. A total of 28 posted signs were investigated. These were categorized as warning and regulatory. To achieve the above goals a questionnaire, specially prepared to collect the necessary data, was distributed to over 6000 drivers in the three states. Over 2820 (47%) responded back. Comprehension of posted signs for drivers with high years of driving experience proved to be significantly better than those with lesser experience. However, the results revealed no significant influence on their accident involvements, even when the effect of age is incorporated; experience per accident ratios, or speed citations. Further, the seat belt usage is also found to increase with understanding of posted signs.

  4. Development of a Method for Quantifying the Reliability of Nuclear Safety-Related Software

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Zhang; Michael W. Golay

    2003-10-01

    The work of our project is intended to help introducing digital technologies into nuclear power into nuclear power plant safety related software applications. In our project we utilize a combination of modern software engineering methods: design process discipline and feedback, formal methods, automated computer aided software engineering tools, automatic code generation, and extensive feasible structure flow path testing to improve software quality. The tactics include ensuring that the software structure is kept simple, permitting routine testing during design development, permitting extensive finished product testing in the input data space of most likely service and using test-based Bayesian updating to estimate the probability that a random software input will encounter an error upon execution. From the results obtained the software reliability can be both improved and its value estimated. Hopefully our success in the project's work can aid the transition of the nuclear enterprise into the modern information world. In our work, we have been using the proprietary sample software, the digital Signal Validation Algorithm (SVA), provided by Westinghouse. Also our work is being done with their collaboration. The SVA software is used for selecting the plant instrumentation signal set which is to be used as the input the digital Plant Protection System (PPS). This is the system that automatically decides whether to trip the reactor. In our work, we are using -001 computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tool of Hamilton Technologies Inc. This tool is capable of stating the syntactic structure of a program reflecting its state requirements, logical functions and data structure.

  5. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  6. Vital staining with indocyanine green: a review of the clinical and experimental studies relating to safety.

    PubMed

    Stanescu-Segall, D; Jackson, T L

    2009-03-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is extremely effective when used as a vital stain during macular hole surgery. By staining the internal limiting membrane, ICG facilitates removal of this delicate and sometimes hard to visualize structure. There is, however, considerable debate regarding its safety. This review considers the clinical and experimental studies of ICG and a related agent, infracyanine green. Some clinical papers show visual field defects, reduced visual acuity, and persistence of ICG at the macula and optic nerve. Other clinical studies fail to demonstrate toxicity. The experimental studies are also conflicting, but there are emerging trends. These suggest that surgeons who continue to use ICG should use concentrations not greater than 0.05 mg/ml, in fluid-filled eyes, with short exposure times, iso-osmolar solutions, and avoid proximal or prolonged endoillumination of stained tissue. A smaller number of studies suggest that infracyanine green produces similar staining to ICG, and may possibly be safer, but there are too few well-designed studies to reach a conclusion. Although the use of ICG continues, on the balance of evidence, this review suggests that it is has the potential to produce subtle visual damage.

  7. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  8. 77 FR 70166 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases; Establishment of a Public Docket AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is establishing a...

  9. Registered nurses' perceptions of health and safety related to their intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Val Palumbo, Mary; Rambur, Betty; McIntosh, Barbara; Naud, Shelly

    2010-03-01

    This study examined perceptions of general and emotional health among a statewide sample of nurses, and their assessment of employers' workplace health and safety initiatives. These variables and demographic data were then used to model predictors of intention to leave their work positions. A survey was mailed to all registered nurses in one state. Fifty-three percent responded (n = 3,955). Findings suggested marked differences in perception of emotional health by age, with younger nurses reporting less positive perceptions of their emotional health. Perceptions of employers' safety and health initiatives varied by age, setting, and work role. Predictors of intention to leave included lower perceived emotional health among younger nurses and employer safety initiatives for both age groups. This exploratory study suggests a relationship among employer health and safety practices, nurses' emotional health, and intention to leave. Implications for occupational health nurses are detailed. PMID:20210261

  10. RECENT ADDITIONS OF CRITICALITY SAFETY RELATED INTEGRAL BENCHMARK DATA TO THE ICSBEP AND IRPHEP HANDBOOKS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Sartori

    2009-09-01

    High-quality integral benchmark experiments have always been a priority for criticality safety. However, interest in integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of future criticality safety needs to support next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The importance of drawing upon existing benchmark data is becoming more apparent because of dwindling availability of critical facilities worldwide and the high cost of performing new experiments. Integral benchmark data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the International Handbook of Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments are widely used. Benchmark data have been added to these two handbooks since the last Nuclear Criticality Safety Division Topical Meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee (September 2005). This paper highlights these additions.

  11. Qualitative study to explore stakeholder perceptions related to road safety in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Tetali, Shailaja; Lakshmi, J K; Gupta, Shivam; Gururaj, G; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    The Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme in India focuses on reduction of drink driving and increase in helmet usage in the city of Hyderabad. During the early stages of implementation, perceptions of stakeholders on road safety were explored as part of the monitoring and evaluation process for a better understanding of areas for improving road safety in Hyderabad. Fifteen in-depth interviews with government officials, subject experts, and road traffic injury victims, and four focus group discussions with trauma surgeons, medical interns, nurses, and taxi drivers were conducted, analysed manually, and presented as themes. Respondents found Hyderabad unsafe for road-users. Factors such as inadequate traffic laws, gaps in enforcement, lack of awareness, lack of political will, poor road engineering, and high-risk road users were identified as threats to road safety. The responsibility for road safety was assigned to both individual road-users and the government, with the former bearing the responsibility for safe traffic behaviour, and the latter for infrastructure provision and enforcement of regulations. The establishment of a lead agency to co-ordinate awareness generation, better road engineering, and stricter enforcement of traffic laws with economic and non-economic penalties for suboptimal traffic behaviour, could facilitate improved road safety in Hyderabad.

  12. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

  13. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  14. Safety Assessment of Dangerous Goods Transport Enterprise Based on the Relative Entropy Aggregation in Group Decision Making Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Chengbing; Huo, Yueying

    2014-01-01

    Safety of dangerous goods transport is directly related to the operation safety of dangerous goods transport enterprise. Aiming at the problem of the high accident rate and large harm in dangerous goods logistics transportation, this paper took the group decision making problem based on integration and coordination thought into a multiagent multiobjective group decision making problem; a secondary decision model was established and applied to the safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise. First of all, we used dynamic multivalue background and entropy theory building the first level multiobjective decision model. Secondly, experts were to empower according to the principle of clustering analysis, and combining with the relative entropy theory to establish a secondary rally optimization model based on relative entropy in group decision making, and discuss the solution of the model. Then, after investigation and analysis, we establish the dangerous goods transport enterprise safety evaluation index system. Finally, case analysis to five dangerous goods transport enterprises in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region validates the feasibility and effectiveness of this model for dangerous goods transport enterprise recognition, which provides vital decision making basis for recognizing the dangerous goods transport enterprises. PMID:25477954

  15. Safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise based on the relative entropy aggregation in group decision making model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Chengbing; Huo, Yueying

    2014-01-01

    Safety of dangerous goods transport is directly related to the operation safety of dangerous goods transport enterprise. Aiming at the problem of the high accident rate and large harm in dangerous goods logistics transportation, this paper took the group decision making problem based on integration and coordination thought into a multiagent multiobjective group decision making problem; a secondary decision model was established and applied to the safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise. First of all, we used dynamic multivalue background and entropy theory building the first level multiobjective decision model. Secondly, experts were to empower according to the principle of clustering analysis, and combining with the relative entropy theory to establish a secondary rally optimization model based on relative entropy in group decision making, and discuss the solution of the model. Then, after investigation and analysis, we establish the dangerous goods transport enterprise safety evaluation index system. Finally, case analysis to five dangerous goods transport enterprises in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region validates the feasibility and effectiveness of this model for dangerous goods transport enterprise recognition, which provides vital decision making basis for recognizing the dangerous goods transport enterprises. PMID:25477954

  16. Annual report to Congress: Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to the Congress describing Department of Energy (Department) activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). The Board, an independent executive-branch agency established in 1988, provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of energy regarding public health and safety issues at the Department`s defense nuclear facilities. The Board also reviews and evaluates the content and implementation of health and safety standards, as well as other requirements, relating to the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Department`s defense nuclear facilities. The locations of the major Department facilities are provided. During 1998, Departmental activities resulted in the proposed closure of one Board recommendation. In addition, the Department has completed all implementation plan milestones associated with four other Board recommendations. Two new Board recommendations were received and accepted by the Department in 1998, and two new implementation plans are being developed to address these recommendations. The Department has also made significant progress with a number of broad-based initiatives to improve safety. These include expanded implementation of integrated safety management at field sites, a renewed effort to increase the technical capabilities of the federal workforce, and a revised plan for stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  17. Safety Behavior Increases Obsession-Related Cognitions About the Severity of Threat.

    PubMed

    van Uijen, Sophie L; Toffolo, Marieke B J

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether checking behavior, the most common safety behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), contributes to the development of OCD symptoms. Ninety healthy undergraduates spent a week between a pre- and posttest either actively engaging in clinically representative checking behavior on a daily basis (experimental group, n=30), monitoring their normal checking behavior (monitor group, n=30), or received no instructions on checking behavior (control group, n=30). Cognitions about the severity of threat increased from pre- to posttest in the experimental group, but not in the monitor and control groups. Cognitions about the importance of checking decreased in the monitor group. The results indicate that checking behavior contributes directly to the exacerbation of OCD symptoms. Together with the findings of previous studies, this suggests that safety behavior may be involved in the development of anxiety disorders and OCD. Potential mechanisms of how engaging in safety behavior increases threat perception are discussed.

  18. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  19. ENVIMINE - developing environmental and geodynamical safety related to mine closure in the Barents region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, Ulpu; Kupila, Juho; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Konukhin, Vladimir; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    A project of mining environmental research in the Barents region was carried out in 2012-2014, in cooperation between Geological Survey of Finland, Mining Institute of Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, and Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. The study areas were the active chrome mine of Kemi in Northern Finland, and the closed mines of Umbozero in Murmansk region, Northwestern Russia, and Laver in Northern Sweden. Umbozero mine, producing rare earth metals, was in operation 1984-2004. Laver mine with iron sulphide ore, producing copper, was in operation 1936-1946. The objectives of the project were to develop a methodology for environmentally safe mine closure by cross border cooperation, and to produce information of the mining environment for target groups. The aim was also to find out solutions for minimizing environmental impacts and to develop multilateral relations between Finnish, Russian and Swedish organizations, responsible for environmental management. The studies were carried out by sampling and analyzing of groundwater and surface water, surficial deposits and organic sediments of streams in the mine sites and reference areas. Composition of deposits in the tailings was carried out by means of geophysical measurements (GPR, XRF). Research data of Kemi mine indicate diminished emissions, especially after open pit mining was finished in 2006. The results in Laver, Sweden, indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains in the tailings. Problems in Umbozero are seismic instability, high pH values of waters (max. 10.4), fluorine and aluminum concentrations in the mine site, due to the rock type. Concentrations were decreasing downstream, also heavy metal concentrations were low. Results of the project are the basis for updated database of environmental condition of the study areas and for

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Moxifloxacin Monotherapy for Treatment of Orthopedic Implant-Related Staphylococcal Infections ▿

    PubMed Central

    San Juan, Rafael; Garcia-Reyne, Ana; Caba, Pedro; Chaves, Fernando; Resines, Carlos; Llanos, Fernando; López-Medrano, Francisco; Lizasoain, Manuel; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    The rifampin-ciprofloxacin combination is recommended for treatment of orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections to avoid the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance; however, the efficacy of this combination is limited by the tolerability problems associated with the use of rifampin. Moxifloxacin is a quinolone up to 10 times more active against staphylococci than ciprofloxacin and the risk of resistance development during monotherapy against staphylococci is theoretically lower for moxifloxacin, but information regarding its use in bone infections is lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin monotherapy in patients with orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections. From June 2006 to April 2009, all patients with culture-proven infection by quinolone-sensitive staphylococcal strains associated with orthopedic implants at our institution were included in a management protocol that mostly included specific surgery, 1 to 2 weeks of an intravenous course of cloxacillin-cefazolin or vancomycin, and long-term therapy with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 3 months). Cure was defined as (i) a lack of clinical signs and symptoms of infection, (ii) a C-reactive protein level less than 5 mg/liter, and (iii) absence of radiological signs of loosening or infection at the latest follow-up visit. Failure was defined as (i) persisting clinical and/or laboratory signs of infection or (ii) persisting or new isolation of the initial microorganism. A total of 48 patients with a median follow-up of 716 days (range, 102 to 1,613 days) were included in the study. Complete drug compliance was achieved in all but two patients (4.2%), who required drug discontinuation because of side effects (diarrhea and dizziness). No moxifloxacin-induced arrhythmia was reported. Twenty patients had joint prosthesis infections (5 acute-onset infections and 15 chronic infections), and 28 patients had osteosynthesis material

  1. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 2.1-2.6 Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of six learning modules on safety is one of 20 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for stationary engineers. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a…

  2. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 6.1-6.6 Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of six learning modules on safety is one of eight such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  3. Restraint Safety: An Analysis of Injuries Related to Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is little research on the safety of the various types of restraint commonly used with individuals with intellectual disabilities who exhibit severely aggressive or self-injurious behaviour. Method: This study analysed the use of restraint with 209 individuals with intellectual disabilities over a 12-month period. Results: Planned…

  4. 47 CFR 5.311 - Additional requirements related to safety of the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... safety of the public. In addition to the notification requirements of § 5.309, for experiments that may... bands and geographic area as the planned experiment and, as appropriate, their end users; (b) Rapid identification, and elimination, of any harm the experiment may cause; and (c) Identifying an alternate means...

  5. 47 CFR 5.311 - Additional requirements related to safety of the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... safety of the public. In addition to the notification requirements of § 5.309, for experiments that may... bands and geographic area as the planned experiment and, as appropriate, their end users; (b) Rapid identification, and elimination, of any harm the experiment may cause; and (c) Identifying an alternate means...

  6. Parental and Adolescent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety Related to Adolescents' Physical Activity in Their Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Glanz, Karen; Roman, Caterina G.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescent and parental perceptions of neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity in multiple locations and to investigate the moderating effect of sex within this association. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 928 adolescents aged 12 to 16…

  7. Safety Belt Use and Related Health Variables in a Worksite Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Barbara E.; Sleet, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Data from an employee health survey on 3,947 employees at Control Data Corporation were examined in 1982-83 to determine the relationship between safety belt use and other health habits. Comparisons between participants in the Stay Well Program (a health promotion program) and nonparticipant and control groups were analyzed. (Author/CT)

  8. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy.

  9. Effects of Cuts in Medicaid on Dental-Related Visits and Costs at a Safety-Net Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Martha; Rich, Sharron; Gutierrez, Lillelenny Santana; Mehra, Pushkar

    2014-01-01

    We used data from Boston Medical Center, Massachusetts, to determine whether dental-related emergency department (ED) visits and costs increased when Medicaid coverage for adult dental care was reduced in July 2010. In this retrospective study of existing data, we examined the safety-net hospital’s dental-related ED visits and costs for 3 years before and 2 years after Massachusetts Health Care Reform. Dental-related ED visits increased 2% the first and 14% the second year after Medicaid cuts. Percentage increases were highest among older adults, minorities, and persons receiving charity care, Medicaid, and Medicare. PMID:24825223

  10. Current research results on the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I and C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.; Wood, R.T.; Hassan, M.; Tanaka, T.; Antonescu, C.

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents results to date of an NRC-sponsored confirmatory research program initiated at three national laboratories to address environmental compatibility/qualification concerns associated with the use of microprocessor-based safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. The research approach involved evaluating existing military and industrial guidance, identifying the most significant environmental stressors and, for advanced I and C systems in a nuclear power plant, investigating the likely failure modes--both at the integrated circuit and system level--for digital technologies under varying levels of environmental stress (such as smoke exposure and electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference). The insights gained from these studies are being used to recommend appropriate methods for qualifying safety-related digital equipment in nuclear power plants.

  11. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Riding horses on roads can be dangerous, but little is known about accidents and near misses. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey, mostly attributed to speed. Whilst our findings confirmed factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around road rules, hand signals and road rage. This paper suggests strategies for improving the safety of horses, riders and other road users. Abstract Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles; (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses; (3) mandating personal protective equipment; (4) improving road signage; (5) comprehensive data collection; (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users; (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment

  12. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    PubMed

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  13. Mechanistic studies related to the safety of Li/SOCl2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, B. J.; Williams, R. M.; Tsay, F. D.; Rodriguez, A.; Kim, S.; Evans, M. M.; Frank, H.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanistic studies of the reactions in Li-SOCl2 cells have been undertaken to improve understanding of the safety problems of these cells. The electrochemical reduction of 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 has been investigated using gas chromatography, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Cl2 and S2Cl2 have been identified as intermediates in the reduction of SOCl2, along with a radical species (g/xx/ = 2.004, g/yy/ = 2.016, g/zz/ = 2.008) and the proposed triplet ground-state dimer of this radical. SO2 and sulfur have been identified as products. Based upon these findings, a mechanism for the electrochemical reduction of 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 has been proposed, and its implications for safety of Li-SOCl2 cells during discharge to +0.5V at 25-30 C are discussed.

  14. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  15. Security, safety, and related technology - the triangle of eHealth service provision.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Mario; Hovsto, Asbjorn; Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The developing of innovative solutions in the emerging eHealth market requires strong economic efforts which may be justified only in presence of particularly suitable boundary conditions. Among the factors retained of primary importance for the development of eHealth, a correct approach to id-management is unanimously considered fundamental. Three keywords in the id-management context appear particularly important: standardization, security and safety. Standardization may contribute to increase the size and duration of the eHealth market, while security and safety may encourage all the stakeholders to trust in a appropriate and safe management of all the very sensitive personal data involved in the eHealth applications. The aim of the present paper is analyzing some security and safety issues in eHealth from the particular prospective of the identity management and standardization. The paper highlights the mission of the EU funded "BioHealth" project whose mission is to increase the stakeholders' knowledge about existing and emerging standards in eHealth with particular reference to identity management.

  16. Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Technical basis for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Hassan, M.; Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of studies sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. The studies were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The studies address the following: (1) adequacy of the present test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred (i.e., Regulatory Guide-endorsed) standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging for equipment to be located in a benign environment; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach for addressing the impact of smoke in digital equipment qualification programs. Significant findings from the studies form the technical basis for a recommended approach to the environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants.

  18. Food safety/food security aspects related to the environmental release of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes.

  19. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds--cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium deselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarized the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds;evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Modeling of dynamic vehicle-road interactions for safety-related road evaluation.

    PubMed

    Orfila, O; Coiret, A; Do, M T; Mammar, S

    2010-11-01

    Usually, road safety is assessed by following adequate highway geometric design standards and can be controlled later by measurement and expertise. Nevertheless, interactions between vehicle dynamics and road characteristics cannot be simultaneously analyzed for these two means of safety evaluation. In this study, an analytical method based on road/vehicle physical interactions applied to road diagnosis is proposed. Vehicle "point" and "bicycle" models are used in this first approach. French highway geometric design standards and a statistical method are presented and evaluated on a real curve case. The proposed numerical criterion, for the "bicycle" model, is then compared to these two classical methods for the considered road section. Its advantages are that it takes into account several combined parameters, that road defects are precisely localized and that it provides hierarchically classified solutions to the road managers. After this comparison step, further improvements should be focused on the modeling of successive curves and on the improvement of the informations given to the road manager.

  1. Estimating the Prevalence of Heat-Related Symptoms and Sun Safety-Related Behavior among Latino Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Hu, Hui; Xu, Xiaohui; Hall, Marla B; Balanay, Jo Anne G

    2016-01-01

    In hot weather, thermal heat generated by the body, combined with environmental heat from the sun, can lead outdoor workers to experience heat-related stress, severe illness, or even death. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of heat-related symptoms and potential risk factors associated with sun safety-related behavior among Latino farmworkers. Data from interviewer-administered questionnaires were collected from a cross-sectional survey among farmworkers (N = 158) from August to September 2013. Data analysis assessed associations between work activities, sun safety behavior, and the prevalence of heat-related illness (HRI) symptoms among workers. Nearly two thirds (72%) of farmworkers experienced at least one HRI symptom and lacked proper cooling methods when working outdoors. Most workers reported wearing long-sleeved shirts (85%), long pants (98%), and baseball caps (93%). The prevalence of having one HRI symptom was 72% and 27% among workers having three or more HRI symptoms. The majority of farmworkers experience symptoms of HRI and are not provided with proper shade protection when working outdoors. Increased emphasis on administrative controls, particularly educating field supervisors and workers on how to avoid and recognize HRI, should be a priority.

  2. An observational study of inhaled-treprostinil respiratory-related safety in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, R T; Levine, D J; Bourge, R C; De Souza, S A; Rosenzweig, E B; Alnuaimat, H; Burger, C; Mathai, S C; Leedom, N; DeAngelis, K; Lim, A; De Marco, T

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled treprostinil (Tyvaso) has been shown to be a safe and effective addition to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) oral therapies; however, the respiratory-related safety profile of inhaled treprostinil required further elucidation in the setting of routine clinical care. The objectives of this study were to characterize respiratory-related adverse events (AEs) associated with current or recent treatment with inhaled treprostinil and to compare the incidence of respiratory-related AEs in PAH patients treated with inhaled treprostinil with that in patients treated with other Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PAH therapies. This was a long-term, prospective, observational study. All respiratory-related AEs were recorded during the study. The number of PAH patients enrolled was 1,333, 666 treated with inhaled treprostinil and 667 controls (treated with an FDA-approved PAH therapy other than inhaled treprostinil), for a total of 958 and 1,094 patient-years of exposure, respectively. In the inhaled-treprostinil group, 1,281 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 403 patients (61%), and in the control group, 1,295 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 388 patients (58%). Cough, throat irritation, nasal discomfort, and hemoptysis were the most common respiratory-related AEs (occurring in ≥2% of patients in either treatment group) that demonstrated a higher number of events per patient-year of exposure in the inhaled-treprostinil group than in the control group (risk ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.487 [1.172-1.887], 3.777 [2.050-6.956], 2.039 [1.072-3.879], and 1.957 [1.024-3.741], respectively). Overall, inhaled treprostinil was well tolerated by PAH patients in routine clinical care, with respiratory-related AEs consistent with the known safety profile (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01266265).

  3. An observational study of inhaled-treprostinil respiratory-related safety in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian, R. T.; Levine, D. J.; Bourge, R. C.; De Souza, S. A.; Rosenzweig, E. B.; Alnuaimat, H.; Burger, C.; Mathai, S. C.; Leedom, N.; DeAngelis, K.; De Marco, T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inhaled treprostinil (Tyvaso) has been shown to be a safe and effective addition to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) oral therapies; however, the respiratory-related safety profile of inhaled treprostinil required further elucidation in the setting of routine clinical care. The objectives of this study were to characterize respiratory-related adverse events (AEs) associated with current or recent treatment with inhaled treprostinil and to compare the incidence of respiratory-related AEs in PAH patients treated with inhaled treprostinil with that in patients treated with other Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved PAH therapies. This was a long-term, prospective, observational study. All respiratory-related AEs were recorded during the study. The number of PAH patients enrolled was 1,333, 666 treated with inhaled treprostinil and 667 controls (treated with an FDA-approved PAH therapy other than inhaled treprostinil), for a total of 958 and 1,094 patient-years of exposure, respectively. In the inhaled-treprostinil group, 1,281 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 403 patients (61%), and in the control group, 1,295 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 388 patients (58%). Cough, throat irritation, nasal discomfort, and hemoptysis were the most common respiratory-related AEs (occurring in ≥2% of patients in either treatment group) that demonstrated a higher number of events per patient-year of exposure in the inhaled-treprostinil group than in the control group (risk ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.487 [1.172–1.887], 3.777 [2.050–6.956], 2.039 [1.072–3.879], and 1.957 [1.024–3.741], respectively). Overall, inhaled treprostinil was well tolerated by PAH patients in routine clinical care, with respiratory-related AEs consistent with the known safety profile (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01266265). PMID:27683610

  4. An observational study of inhaled-treprostinil respiratory-related safety in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, R T; Levine, D J; Bourge, R C; De Souza, S A; Rosenzweig, E B; Alnuaimat, H; Burger, C; Mathai, S C; Leedom, N; DeAngelis, K; Lim, A; De Marco, T

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled treprostinil (Tyvaso) has been shown to be a safe and effective addition to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) oral therapies; however, the respiratory-related safety profile of inhaled treprostinil required further elucidation in the setting of routine clinical care. The objectives of this study were to characterize respiratory-related adverse events (AEs) associated with current or recent treatment with inhaled treprostinil and to compare the incidence of respiratory-related AEs in PAH patients treated with inhaled treprostinil with that in patients treated with other Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PAH therapies. This was a long-term, prospective, observational study. All respiratory-related AEs were recorded during the study. The number of PAH patients enrolled was 1,333, 666 treated with inhaled treprostinil and 667 controls (treated with an FDA-approved PAH therapy other than inhaled treprostinil), for a total of 958 and 1,094 patient-years of exposure, respectively. In the inhaled-treprostinil group, 1,281 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 403 patients (61%), and in the control group, 1,295 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 388 patients (58%). Cough, throat irritation, nasal discomfort, and hemoptysis were the most common respiratory-related AEs (occurring in ≥2% of patients in either treatment group) that demonstrated a higher number of events per patient-year of exposure in the inhaled-treprostinil group than in the control group (risk ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.487 [1.172-1.887], 3.777 [2.050-6.956], 2.039 [1.072-3.879], and 1.957 [1.024-3.741], respectively). Overall, inhaled treprostinil was well tolerated by PAH patients in routine clinical care, with respiratory-related AEs consistent with the known safety profile (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01266265). PMID:27683610

  5. An observational study of inhaled-treprostinil respiratory-related safety in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian, R. T.; Levine, D. J.; Bourge, R. C.; De Souza, S. A.; Rosenzweig, E. B.; Alnuaimat, H.; Burger, C.; Mathai, S. C.; Leedom, N.; DeAngelis, K.; De Marco, T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inhaled treprostinil (Tyvaso) has been shown to be a safe and effective addition to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) oral therapies; however, the respiratory-related safety profile of inhaled treprostinil required further elucidation in the setting of routine clinical care. The objectives of this study were to characterize respiratory-related adverse events (AEs) associated with current or recent treatment with inhaled treprostinil and to compare the incidence of respiratory-related AEs in PAH patients treated with inhaled treprostinil with that in patients treated with other Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved PAH therapies. This was a long-term, prospective, observational study. All respiratory-related AEs were recorded during the study. The number of PAH patients enrolled was 1,333, 666 treated with inhaled treprostinil and 667 controls (treated with an FDA-approved PAH therapy other than inhaled treprostinil), for a total of 958 and 1,094 patient-years of exposure, respectively. In the inhaled-treprostinil group, 1,281 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 403 patients (61%), and in the control group, 1,295 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 388 patients (58%). Cough, throat irritation, nasal discomfort, and hemoptysis were the most common respiratory-related AEs (occurring in ≥2% of patients in either treatment group) that demonstrated a higher number of events per patient-year of exposure in the inhaled-treprostinil group than in the control group (risk ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.487 [1.172–1.887], 3.777 [2.050–6.956], 2.039 [1.072–3.879], and 1.957 [1.024–3.741], respectively). Overall, inhaled treprostinil was well tolerated by PAH patients in routine clinical care, with respiratory-related AEs consistent with the known safety profile (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01266265).

  6. Gastrointestinal microbial ecology and the safety of our food supply as related to Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Callaway, T R; Edrington, T S; Anderson, R C; Byrd, J A; Nisbet, D J

    2008-04-01

    Salmonella causes an estimated 1.3 million human foodborne illnesses and more than 500 deaths each year in the United States, representing an annual estimated cost to the economy of approximately $2.4 billion. Salmonella enterica comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. With this genetic and environmental diversity, serotypes are adapted to live in a variety of hosts, which may or may not manifest with clinical illness. Thus, Salmonella presents a multifaceted threat to food production and safety. Salmonella have been isolated from all food animals and can cause morbidity and mortality in swine, cattle, sheep, and poultry. The link between human salmonellosis and host animals is most clear in poultry. During the early part of the 20th century, a successful campaign was waged to eliminate fowl typhoid caused by Salmonella Gallinarum/Pullorum. Microbial ecology is much like macroecology; environmental niches are filled by adapted and specialized species. Elimination of S. Gallinarum cleared a niche in the on-farm and intestinal microbial ecology that was quickly exploited by Salmonella Enteritidis and other serotypes that live in other hosts, such as rodents. In the years since, human salmonellosis cases linked to poultry have increased to the point that uncooked chicken and eggs are regarded as toxic in the zeitgeist. Salmonellosis caused by poultry products have increased significantly in the past 5 yr, leading to a USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service "Salmonella Attack Plan" that aims to reduce the incidence of Salmonella in chickens below the current 19%. The prevalence of Salmonella in swine and cattle is lower, but still poses a threat to food safety and production efficiency. Thus, approaches to reducing Salmonella in animals must take into consideration that the microbial ecology of the animal is a critical factor that should be accounted for when designing intervention strategies. Use of competitive exclusion, sodium chlorate, vaccination, and bacteriophage

  7. Technical basis for evaluating electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference in safety-related I&C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses the development of the technical basis for the control of upsets and malfunctions in safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems caused by electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI) and power surges. The research was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was sponsored by the USNRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES). The motivation for research stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed with the application of advanced I&C systems to nuclear power plants. Development of the technical basis centered around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant`s electronic and electromechanical systems known to be the source(s) of EMI/RFI and power surges. First, good EMC design and installation practices need to be established to control the impact of interference sources on nearby circuits and systems. These EMC good practices include circuit layouts, terminations, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, and adequate physical separation. Second, an EMI/RFI test and evaluation program needs to be established to outline the tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and carefully formulated acceptance criteria based on the intended environment to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Third, a program needs to be developed to perform confirmatory tests and evaluate the surge withstand capability (SWC) and of I&C equipment connected to or installed in the vicinity of power circuits within the nuclear power plant. By following these three steps, the design and operability of safety-related I&C systems against EMI/RFI and power surges can be evaluated, acceptance criteria can be developed, and appropriate regulatory guidance can be provided.

  8. The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    SciTech Connect

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P.

    1997-04-01

    A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

  9. Pediatric immunization-related safety incidents in primary care: A mixed methods analysis of a national database

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Philippa; Edwards, Adrian; Powell, Colin; Evans, Huw Prosser; Carter, Ben; Hibbert, Peter; Makeham, Meredith; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Children are scheduled to receive 18–20 immunizations before their 18th birthday in England and Wales; this approximates to 13 million vaccines administered per annum. Each immunization represents a potential opportunity for immunization-related error and effective immunization is imperative to maintain the public health benefit from immunization. Using data from a national reporting system, this study aimed to characterize pediatric immunization-related safety incident reports from primary care in England and Wales between 2002 and 2013. Methods A cross-sectional mixed methods study was undertaken. This comprised reading the free-text of incident reports and applying codes to describe incident type, potential contributory factors, harm severity, and incident outcomes. A subsequent thematic analysis was undertaken to interpret the most commonly occurring codes, such as those describing the incident, events leading up to it and reported contributory factors, within the contexts they were described. Results We identified 1745 reports and most (n = 1077, 61.7%) described harm outcomes including three deaths, 67 reports of moderate harm and 1007 reports of low harm. Failure of timely vaccination was the potential cause of three child deaths from meningitis and pneumonia, and described in a further 113 reports. Vaccine administration incidents included the wrong number of doses (n = 476, 27.3%), wrong timing (n = 294, 16.8%), and wrong vaccine (n = 249, 14.3%). Documentation failures were frequently implicated. Socially and medically vulnerable children were commonly described. Conclusion This is the largest examination of reported contributory factors for immunization-related patient safety incidents in children. Our findings suggest investments in IT infrastructure to support data linkage and identification of risk predictors, development of consultation models that promote the role of parents in mitigating safety incidents, and improvement

  10. Structural Aging Program approach to providing an improved basis for aging management of safety-related concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-11-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program is organized into four tasks: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technologies, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Objectives and a summary of recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented.

  11. Examining the validity of AHRQ's patient safety indicators (PSIs): is variation in PSI composite score related to hospital organizational factors?

    PubMed

    Shin, Marlena H; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Rosen, Amy K; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Dunn, Edward J; Shimada, Stephanie L; Hayes, Jennifer; Rivard, Peter E

    2014-12-01

    Increasing use of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) for hospital performance measurement intensifies the need to critically assess their validity. Our study examined the extent to which variation in PSI composite score is related to differences in hospital organizational structures or processes (i.e., criterion validity). In site visits to three Veterans Health Administration hospitals with high and three with low PSI composite scores ("low performers" and "high performers," respectively), we interviewed a cross-section of hospital staff. We then coded interview transcripts for evidence in 13 safety-related domains and assessed variation across high and low performers. Evidence of leadership and coordination of work/communication (organizational process domains) was predominantly favorable for high performers only. Evidence in the other domains was either mixed, or there were insufficient data to rate the domains. While we found some evidence of criterion validity, the extent to which variation in PSI rates is related to differences in hospitals' organizational structures/processes needs further study.

  12. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; ...

  13. Work-related road safety in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: an overview of regulatory approaches and recommendations to enhance strategy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, R; Pratt, SG; Murray, W

    2015-01-01

    Work-related travel and transport by road is fundamental for industry, government and organisations. Traditionally, road safety interventions at societal level have focussed on improving road and vehicle engineering and changing road-user behaviour through transport laws and safety campaigns. Crash data indicate that significant numbers of road-user fatalities occur while driving to or for work. Therefore, workplace initiatives can improve both road and worker safety. This paper reviews regulatory approaches to work-related road safety (WRRS) in Australia, the United Kingdom and United States, identifying significant and consistent gaps in policy, management and research. In all three countries, responsibility for managing and regulating WRRS is spread across government agencies, without a single coordinating body. This paper makes the case that integrating management of WRRS into regulatory and non-regulatory occupational health and safety (OHS) initiatives would foster and support collaboration between research and practice communities, ensuring a comprehensive evidence base for future programs. PMID:26279686

  14. Self-portrayal concerns and their relation to safety behaviors and negative affect in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Moscovitch, David A; Rowa, Karen; Paulitzki, Jeffrey R; Ierullo, Maria D; Chiang, Brenda; Antony, Martin M; McCabe, Randi E

    2013-08-01

    It has been proposed that self-portrayal concerns - fundamental worries that particular negative self-attributes will become exposed during social encounters and criticized by others - underlie the experience of social anxiety (SA) and drive associated avoidance and safety behaviors (Moscovitch, 2009). The development of the Negative Self Portrayal Scale (NSPS) to assess such concerns across the dimensions of social competence, signs of anxiety, and physical appearance has helped yield promising initial findings that support the basic tenets of Moscovitch's (2009) theoretical model in samples of undergraduate students (Moscovitch & Huyder, 2011). The present study investigated the nature of self-portrayal concerns and their relation to affect and behavior in a sample of 194 community-based participants consisting of (a) 62 individuals with a principal diagnosis of generalized SAD, either with (n = 35) or without (n = 27) an additional depressive disorder diagnosis, (b) 51 individuals with another principal anxiety disorder diagnosis, either with (n = 22) or without (n = 29) an additional diagnosis of SAD, and (c) 81 healthy controls. Participants completed trait questionnaires, daily diaries of naturalistic social encounters, and a laboratory-based speech task. Results demonstrated (a) that a diagnosis of SAD confers unique risk for elevated self-portrayal concerns, (b) that such concerns predict significant variance in safety behavior use across diverse contexts, and (c) that the use of safety behaviors mediates the relation between such concerns and the experience of heightened negative affect. Implications for case conceptualization and treatment of SAD are discussed.

  15. Self-portrayal concerns and their relation to safety behaviors and negative affect in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Moscovitch, David A; Rowa, Karen; Paulitzki, Jeffrey R; Ierullo, Maria D; Chiang, Brenda; Antony, Martin M; McCabe, Randi E

    2013-08-01

    It has been proposed that self-portrayal concerns - fundamental worries that particular negative self-attributes will become exposed during social encounters and criticized by others - underlie the experience of social anxiety (SA) and drive associated avoidance and safety behaviors (Moscovitch, 2009). The development of the Negative Self Portrayal Scale (NSPS) to assess such concerns across the dimensions of social competence, signs of anxiety, and physical appearance has helped yield promising initial findings that support the basic tenets of Moscovitch's (2009) theoretical model in samples of undergraduate students (Moscovitch & Huyder, 2011). The present study investigated the nature of self-portrayal concerns and their relation to affect and behavior in a sample of 194 community-based participants consisting of (a) 62 individuals with a principal diagnosis of generalized SAD, either with (n = 35) or without (n = 27) an additional depressive disorder diagnosis, (b) 51 individuals with another principal anxiety disorder diagnosis, either with (n = 22) or without (n = 29) an additional diagnosis of SAD, and (c) 81 healthy controls. Participants completed trait questionnaires, daily diaries of naturalistic social encounters, and a laboratory-based speech task. Results demonstrated (a) that a diagnosis of SAD confers unique risk for elevated self-portrayal concerns, (b) that such concerns predict significant variance in safety behavior use across diverse contexts, and (c) that the use of safety behaviors mediates the relation between such concerns and the experience of heightened negative affect. Implications for case conceptualization and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:23778055

  16. The relative safety of MRI contrast agent in acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, J; Schmidt, J; Warshaw, A L; Gebhard, M M; Herfarth, C; Klar, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the safety of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (GD-DTPA) by measuring its effect on pancreatic capillary perfusion and acinar injury in acute pancreatitis. BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is proposed as a gold standard for early evaluation of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. However, iodinated contrast media used for CECT have been shown in these circumstances to reduce pancreatic capillary flow and increase necrosis and mortality. Recent reports suggest that post-GD MRI provides images comparable to CECT in the assessment of severe acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in 14 Wistar rats by intraductal glycodeoxycholic acid (10 mM/L) and intravenous caerulein (5 microg/kg/h) over 6 hours. Intravital microscopic quantitation of pancreatic capillary blood flow was performed using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled erythrocytes after induction of pancreatitis and 30 and 60 minutes after an intravenous bolus of either Ringer's solution or GD-DTPA (0.2 mL/kg). RESULTS: The two study groups were comparable with regard to mean arterial pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases, hematocrit, amylase, lipase, and trypsinogen activation peptide production throughout the experiment. GD-DTPA did not reduce capillary flow (1.93 +/- 0.05 nL/capillary/min) compared to animals infused with Ringer's solution (1.90 +/- 0.06 nL/capillary/min). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of GD-DTPA does not further impair pancreatic microcirculation or increase acinar injury in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Because of this advantage over CT contrast medium, further development of MRI as a staging tool in acute pancreatitis seems desirable. PMID:9445117

  17. Anti‐diabetic and Anti‐hyperlipidemic Effects and Safety of Salacia reticulata and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sidhartha

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of Salacia reticulata Wight (Hypocrataceae) roots, stems, and leaves have been used in Asia for hundreds of years for the folkloric treatment of diabetes and other health problems. Constituents that have been identified as exhibiting anti‐diabetic effects include salacinol, kotalanol, ponkorinol, salaprinol, and their corresponding de‐0‐sulfonated compounds. Mangiferin, kotalagenin 16‐acetate and various proanthocyanidin oligomers have also been isolated. Studies indicate that Salacia extracts modulate multiple targets that influence carbohydrate and lipid metabolism including α‐glucosidase, aldose reductase, pancreatic lipase, peroxisomal proliferator‐activated receptor‐α, glucose transporter‐4 mediated glucose uptake, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Furthermore, Salacia extracts exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and hepatoprotectant activities. In human studies, Salacia extracts have been shown to decrease plasma glucose and insulin levels, decrease HbA1c, and modulate serum lipid levels with no adverse effects being reported. Similar results have been demonstrated in rat and mouse models as well as in vitro systems. Safety of S. reticulata and other Salacia species as S. oblonga and S. chinensis in rats and mice indicate that extracts are exceedingly safe. No clinical studies have examined the effects of Salacia extracts on human weight loss, although weight loss and decreases in weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models. Because of the large number of pharmacologically active compounds, it is difficult to establish standards for extracts. © 2015 The Authors. Phytotheraphy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26031882

  18. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY 1979 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each contributing agency. Information elements included in the summary listings are project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in the back of this volume.

  19. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  20. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  1. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  2. Relational Aggression at School: Associations with School Safety and Social Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Young, Amy; Boyd, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines how exposure to relational aggression at school is associated with adolescents' perceptions of, and participation in, a hostile school environment. Participants were 1,335 African American and European American adolescents in grades 7 through 12 (52% female, 49% African American). Results indicate that exposure to…

  3. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    .... Potable water may be provided either as bottled water or as supplied through a plumbing system. Water uses... water, and other features to protect the health of such workers. Under separate but related statutory... facilities, potable water, and other features to protect the health of employees. 49 U.S.C. 21106(a)(1)....

  4. Exploring Parents' and Children's Awareness on Internet Threats in Relation to Internet Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous, Nikleia; Zahariadou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore parents' level of awareness in relation to the threats that children are exposed to when using the internet. Additionally, it explores the parental interest to raise their awareness on internet use and threats, as well as investigating their interest in establishing household environment safety…

  5. Smokers' beliefs about the relative safety of other tobacco products: findings from the ITC collaboration.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard J; McNeill, Ann; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David; King, Bill; Boudreau, Christian; Cummings, K Michael

    2007-10-01

    Most tobacco control efforts in western countries focus on the factory-made, mass-produced (FM) cigarette, whereas other tobacco products receive relatively little attention. Noncombusted tobacco products (i.e., referred to as smokeless tobacco), particularly Swedish-style snus, carry lower disease risks, compared with combusted tobacco products such as cigarettes. In this context, it is important to know what tobacco users believe about the relative harmfulness of various types of tobacco products. Data for this study came from random-digit-dialed telephone surveys of current smokers aged 18 or older in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Three waves of data, totaling 13,322 individuals, were assessed. Items assessed use of and beliefs about the relative harms of cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and FM and roll-your-own cigarettes, as well as sociodemographics and smoking behaviors. Cigars (2.8%-12.7%) were the other tobacco products most commonly used by current cigarette smokers, followed by pipes (0.3%-2.1%) and smokeless tobacco (0.0%-2.3%). A significant minority of smokers (12%-21%) used roll-your-own cigarettes at least some of the time. About one-quarter of smokers believed that pipes, cigars, or roll-your-own cigarettes were safer than FM cigarettes, whereas only about 13% responded correctly that smokeless tobacco was less hazardous than cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that use of other tobacco products was most strongly related to beliefs about the reduced harm of these other products. Use of other tobacco products was low but may be growing among smokers in the four countries studied. Smokers are confused about the relative harms of tobacco products. Health education efforts are needed to correct smoker misperceptions.

  6. DOE Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report of Packaging- and Transportation-related Occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, L.S.

    2001-07-26

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been charged by the DOE National Transportation Program (NTP) with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to packaging and transportation (P&T) incidents from the centralized Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database. These selected reports have been analyzed for trends, impact on P&T operations and safety concerns, and lessons learned (LL) in P&T operations. This task is designed not only to keep the NTP aware of what is occurring at DOE sites on a periodic basis, but also to highlight potential P&T problems that may need management attention and allow dissemination of LL to DOE Operations Offices, with the subsequent flow of information to contractors. The Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) was established by the NTP in fiscal year (FY) 1998 as an initiative to develop a methodology for reporting occurrences with the appropriate metrics to show rates and trends. One of its chief goals has been to augment historical reporting of occurrence-based information and present more meaningful statistics for comparison of occurrences. To this end, the SMIP established a severity weighting system for the classification of the occurrences, which would allow normalization of the data and provide a basis for trending analyses. The process for application of this methodology is documented in the September 1999 report DOE Packaging and Transportation Measurement Methodology for the Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP). This annual report contains information on those P&T-related occurrences reported to the ORPS during the period from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000. Only those incidents that occur in preparation for transport, during transport, and during unloading of hazardous material are considered as packaging- or transportation-related occurrences. Other incidents with P&T significance, but not involving hazardous material (such as vehicle accidents or empty

  7. LWR Sustainability: Assessment of Aging of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Concrete Strutures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves III, Herman; Naus, Dan J

    2013-01-01

    Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience is presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are generally discussed.

  8. Assessment of inservice conditions of safety-related nuclear plant structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1995-06-01

    The report is a compilation from a number of sources of information related to the condition Of structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants in the United States. The most significant information came from the hands-on inspection of the six old plants (licensed prior to 1977) performed by the staff of the Civil Engineering and Geosciences Branch (ECGB) in the Division of Engineering of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. For the containment structures, most of the information related to the degraded conditions came from the licensees as part of the Licensing Event Report System (10 CFR 50.73), or as part of the requirement under limiting condition of operation of the plant-specific Technical Specifications. Most of the information related to the degradation of other Structures and civil engineering features was extracted from the industry survey, the reported incidents, and the plant visits. The report discusses the condition of the structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants and provides information that would help detect, alleviate, and correct the degraded conditions of the structures and civil engineering features.

  9. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

  10. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The FY 1979 Federal Inventory contains information on 3506 federally funded energy-related environmental and safety research projects. The Inventory is published in two volumes: Volume I, an executive summary and overview of the data and Volume II, project listings, summaries, and indexes. Research and development (R and D) categories were reorganized into three main areas; environmental and safety control technology, technology impacts overview and assessments, and biological and environmental R and D and assessments. Federal offices submitting project data were: Council on Environmental Quality; Department of Agriculture; Department of Commerce; Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Housing and Urban Development; Department of the Interior; Department of Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Nuclear Regulatory Commission; National Science Foundation; Office of Technology Assessment; and Tennessee Valley Authority. The inventory also breaks out research sponsored by various federal agencies and the amount of funding provided by each in various research categories. The format and index system allows efficient access to information compiled. Users are able to identify projects by log agency, performing organization, principal investigator and subject.

  11. [Notification of incidents related to patient safety in hospitals in Catalonia, Spain during the period 2010-2013].

    PubMed

    Oliva, Glòria; Alava, Fernando; Navarro, Laura; Esquerra, Miquel; Lushchenkova, Oksana; Davins, Josep; Vallès, Roser

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discover the aggregated results of a general notification system for incidents related to patient safety implemented in Catalan hospitals from 2010 to 2013. Observational study describing the incidents notified from January 2010 to December 2013 from all hospitals in Catalonia forming part of the project to create operational patient safety management units. The Patient Safety Notification and Learning System (SiNASP) was used. This makes it possible to classify incidents depending on the area where they occur, the type of incident notified, the consequences, the seriousness according to the Severity Assessment Code (SAC) and the profession of the notifying party, as the principal variables. The system was accessed via the Internet (SiNASP portal). Access was voluntary and anonymous or with a name given and later removed. During the study period, notification of a total of 5,948 incidents came from 22-29 hospitals. 5,244 of the incidents were handled by the centres and these are the ones analysed in the study. 64% (3,380) affected patients, 18% (950) created a situation capable of causing an incident and 18% (914) did not affect patients. 26% of incidents that affected patients (864) caused some kind of harm. Most incidents occurred during hospitalisation (54%) and in casualty (15%), followed by the ICU (9%) and the surgical block (8%). The most frequent notifying parties were nurses (71%) followed by doctors (15%) and pharmacists (9%). In terms of severity, most incidents were classified as low-risk (37%) or incidents that did not affect the patient (36%). However, 40 cases (0.76%) of extreme risk should be highlighted. In terms of the types of incident notified, most were due to a medication error (26.8%), followed by falls (16.3%) and patient identification (10.6%). The majority of notifications were incidents that affected patients and, of these, 26% caused harm. In general, they occurred in hospitalisation units and notification was

  12. [Notification of incidents related to patient safety in hospitals in Catalonia, Spain during the period 2010-2013].

    PubMed

    Oliva, Glòria; Alava, Fernando; Navarro, Laura; Esquerra, Miquel; Lushchenkova, Oksana; Davins, Josep; Vallès, Roser

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discover the aggregated results of a general notification system for incidents related to patient safety implemented in Catalan hospitals from 2010 to 2013. Observational study describing the incidents notified from January 2010 to December 2013 from all hospitals in Catalonia forming part of the project to create operational patient safety management units. The Patient Safety Notification and Learning System (SiNASP) was used. This makes it possible to classify incidents depending on the area where they occur, the type of incident notified, the consequences, the seriousness according to the Severity Assessment Code (SAC) and the profession of the notifying party, as the principal variables. The system was accessed via the Internet (SiNASP portal). Access was voluntary and anonymous or with a name given and later removed. During the study period, notification of a total of 5,948 incidents came from 22-29 hospitals. 5,244 of the incidents were handled by the centres and these are the ones analysed in the study. 64% (3,380) affected patients, 18% (950) created a situation capable of causing an incident and 18% (914) did not affect patients. 26% of incidents that affected patients (864) caused some kind of harm. Most incidents occurred during hospitalisation (54%) and in casualty (15%), followed by the ICU (9%) and the surgical block (8%). The most frequent notifying parties were nurses (71%) followed by doctors (15%) and pharmacists (9%). In terms of severity, most incidents were classified as low-risk (37%) or incidents that did not affect the patient (36%). However, 40 cases (0.76%) of extreme risk should be highlighted. In terms of the types of incident notified, most were due to a medication error (26.8%), followed by falls (16.3%) and patient identification (10.6%). The majority of notifications were incidents that affected patients and, of these, 26% caused harm. In general, they occurred in hospitalisation units and notification was

  13. Beating the Odds. An Educational Program Relating Safety Belt Use to Health Lifestyles for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    This program module is designed to encourage the use of safety measures in driving, emphasizing the use of seat belts. The learning activities focus upon: (1) the importance of the use of safety belts as the most effective preventive measure in a safe and healthy lifestyle; (2) the reasons people cite for not wearing safety belts and the accuracy…

  14. The ratification status of ILO conventions related to occupational safety and health and its relationship with reported occupational fatality rates.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donald J; Takahashi, Ken; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Yoshino, Masako; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Imai, Teppei; Takala, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the ratification status of occupational safety and health (OSH)-related ILO conventions and reported occupational fatality rates of ILO member countries, while controlling for possible confounding factors. ILO member states were divided into 4 levels of income status, based on the gross national income per capita. Seventeen conventions designated as OSH-related were examined. Reported country occupational fatality rates were compared according to the ratification status of these 17 conventions and multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the fatality rates, ratification status, income level and length of ILO membership. Fatality rates were inversely and significantly related to income levels. In general, non-ratifying countries had higher work-related fatality rates than ratifying countries. A statistical model for identifying predictors of fatal injury rates showed that a larger number of conventions ratified was significantly associated with lower fatality rates. The fact that non-ratifying countries generally have higher fatality rates than ratifying ones supports the notion that all countries should promote ratification of ILO conventions aimed at improving OSH conditions.

  15. [Efficacy and safety of vaccines against tuberculosis in the relation to genetic variability of Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains].

    PubMed

    Prygiel, Marta; Janaszek-Seydlitz, Wiesława; Bucholc, Bozena

    2011-01-01

    All vaccines against tuberculosis used actually over the world contain Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) as active substance. Strain BCG, that was obtained in 1921 by Calmette and Guerin after 13 years ofpassaging on the potato-glicerol medium with addition of bile, was distributed to many laboratories for vaccine production. The repeated passages of M. bovis BCG strain in different culture conditions caused the numerous mutations and formation of many BCG substrains that differed according to efficacy and safety. The review of many publications related to genetic differences between BCG substrains was performed for identify the genes responsible for their virulence and protective characteristics. Possibility of development of new generation vaccines against tuberculosis is discussed. PMID:22390050

  16. Analysis of medical equipment management in relation to the mandatory medical equipment safety manager (MESM) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kai; Hirose, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kousaku; Tsuruta, Harukazu; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Half a decade has passed since the fifth revision of the medical law and mandatory appointment of a medical equipment safety manager (MESM) in hospitals in Japan. During this period, circumstances have changed regarding maintenance of medical equipment (ME). We conducted a survey to examine these changes and the current situation in ME management. Maintenance of ME and related work were found to have increased in many hospitals, but the number of clinical engineering technologists (CETs) has only slightly increased. The appointed MESM was a CET or physician in most hospitals. In hospitals where physicians were appointed as the MESM, 81% had operation managers. Many respondents commented that it was difficult for one person to cover all the tasks required by the MESM, due to a lack of knowledge, too much work, or other reasons. This suggests the importance of an operation manager for ME to work under the MESM. PMID:25193371

  17. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  18. SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO THE RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED FOREST AREAS IN BELARUS

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN,T.; GIBBS,B.; ANDERSSON,K.G.; ROED,J.; RYMKEVICH,V.; BREKKE,D.

    1998-03-01

    Doses currently received in Belarus through various pathways related to the contamination of forests are evaluated through calculations. A major pathway is, as expected, generally found to be the external radiation from a contaminated forest floor. Also other pathways may in some cases be highly significant. Generally, it is found that the dose contributions to people spending time in the contaminated forest or consuming forest products are highest, whereas for instance doses received from domestic use of fire-wood are found to be negligible. Recommendations for storage of waste from combustion plants fired with radioactive forest material are also given, together with an estimate of the specific activity of the waste to be disposed of.

  19. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: (1) Degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; (2) Assessment and remediation: i.e., component selection, in- service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions; and (3) Estimation of performance at present or some future point in time: i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk. Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  20. Gust-Front and Outflow Related Waterspouts: Timely Warnings, Formation, and Impact on Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappucci, M.

    2013-12-01

    this vortex is likely caused by friction between the cooler air subducting behind the gust front against the warmer air ahead of the front. The vortex, on occasion, may be tilted onto a vertical axis by the warmer air ahead of the front; this same warm air now infiltrates the vertically-oriented vortex, thus being stretched, and forming a small waterspout. Because the waterspouts, however, are under the influence of the cool air from the thunderstorm downdraft, the spouts may move erratically before being upended. Because of the inability for NWS (National Weather Service) radar domes to detect the microscale circulation associated with such gust-front related waterspouts, forecasters at NWS offices in Massachusetts will now focus on the predecessors of waterspout formation. Among these tell-tale parameters is a well-pronounced gust-front moving over warm ocean waters, as well as a sharp, highly localized temperature contrast between the air ahead of and behind the gust front. When the NWS believes that conditions will favor the development of gust-front related waterspouts that may move onshore, a special statement will now be broadcast through the EAS system in Severe Thunderstorm Warnings. Mariners will benefit as well, with Special Marine Warnings advising caution on ';short-lived waterspouts'. Despite these alterations in NWS offices in Massachusetts, much has yet to be done to warn the public of the dangers associated with gust-front related waterspouts.

  1. Carbon nanotubes: a review of their properties in relation to pulmonary toxicology and workplace safety.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Ken; Aitken, Robert; Tran, Lang; Stone, Vicki; Duffin, Rodger; Forrest, Gavin; Alexander, Andrew

    2006-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are an important new class of technological materials that have numerous novel and useful properties. The forecast increase in manufacture makes it likely that increasing human exposure will occur, and as a result, CNT are beginning to come under toxicological scrutiny. This review seeks to set out the toxicological paradigms applicable to the toxicity of inhaled CNT, building on the toxicological database on nanoparticles (NP) and fibers. Relevant workplace regulation regarding exposure is also considered in the light of our knowledge of CNT. CNT could have features of both NP and conventional fibers, and so the current paradigm for fiber toxicology, which is based on mineral fibers and synthetic vitreous fibers, is discussed. The NP toxicology paradigm is also discussed in relation to CNT. The available peer-reviewed literature suggests that CNT may have unusual toxicity properties. In particular, CNT seem to have a special ability to stimulate mesenchymal cell growth and to cause granuloma formation and fibrogenesis. In several studies, CNT have more adverse effects than the same mass of NP carbon and quartz, the latter a commonly used benchmark of particle toxicity. There is, however, no definitive inhalation study available that would avoid the potential for artifactual effects due to large mats and aggregates forming during instillation exposure procedures. Studies also show that CNT may exhibit some of their effects through oxidative stress and inflammation. CNT represent a group of particles that are growing in production and use, and therefore, research into their toxicology and safe use is warranted.

  2. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus (XMRV) and the Safety of the Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew D; Cohn, Claudia S

    2016-10-01

    In 2006, a new virus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), was discovered in a cohort of U.S. men with prostate cancer. Soon after this initial finding, XMRV was also detected in samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The blood community, which is highly sensitive to the threat of emerging infectious diseases since the HIV/AIDS crisis, recommended indefinite deferral of all blood donors with a history of CFS. As XMRV research progressed, conflicting results emerged regarding the importance of this virus in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer and/or CFS. Molecular biologists traced the development of XMRV to a recombination event in a laboratory mouse that likely occurred circa 1993. The virus was propagated via cell lines derived from a tumor present in this mouse and spread through contamination of laboratory samples. Well-controlled experiments showed that detection of XMRV was due to contaminated samples and was not a marker of or a causal factor in prostate cancer or CFS. This paper traces the development of XMRV in the prostate and CFS scientific communities and explores the effect it had on the blood community. PMID:27358491

  3. Bevacizumab in Clinical Practice: Prescribing Appropriateness Relative to National Indications and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Bonifazi, Martina; Rossi, Marta; Moja, Lorenzo; Scigliano, Vincenzo Davide; Franchi, Matteo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Zocchetti, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical use of bevacizumab in Lombardy (9.5 million inhabitants), Italy, during 2006–2007 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) to evaluate compliance with the Italian Medicine Agency (AIFA) indications, the incidence of adverse events, and the survival rate. We performed computerized record linkage among three different Lombardy health care databases: File F registry, Regional discharge database, and Registry Office records. Patients were classified into approved and off-label uses according to the AIFA indications. Treatment with bevacizumab was administered to 780 patients, of whom 81.7% (n = 637) had mCRC. Among these, 37.8% (n = 241) of patients received the drug in observance of AIFA indications. Overall, ∼10% of patients had serious treatment-related toxicities (fistula, 3.5%; venous thromboembolism, 2.8%; hemorrhage, 1.9%; intestinal perforation and arterial thromboembolism, <1%). The 1-year survival rate was 74.3% and the 2-year survival rate was 39.2%. The median survival time was 20.5 months, and there were no meaningful differences between gender and age groups. There was a gap between the bevacizumab approved indication and clinical practice pattern: overall, less than one half of the patients received bevacizumab in observance with the regulatory indication. The main reason for nonadherence to the indication was use as a second-line or advanced line of therapy. The incidence of serious adverse events and the survival rates of mCRC patients were similar to those reported in clinical trials. PMID:22210090

  4. SCOPE safety-controls optimization by performance evaluation: A systematic approach for safety-related decisions at the Hanford Tank Remediation System. Phase 1, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, K.D.; Williams, D.C.; Slezak, S.E.; Young, M.L.

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s Hanford Tank Waste Remediation system poses a significant challenge for hazard management because of the uncertainty that surrounds many of the variables that must be considered in decisions on safety and control strategies. As a result, site managers must often operate under excessively conservative and expensive assumptions. This report describes a systematic approach to quantifying the uncertainties surrounding the critical parameters in control decisions (e.g., condition of the tanks, kinds of wastes, types of possible accidents) through the use of expert elicitation methods. The results of the elicitations would then be used to build a decision support system and accident analysis model that would allow managers to see how different control strategies would affect the cost and safety of a facility configuration.

  5. Comparative assessment of therapeutic safety of norcantharidin, N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide, and N-farnesyl-norcantharimide against Jurkat T cells relative to human normal lymphoblast

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Che; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liao, Hui-Fen; Chen, Yu-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The therapeutic safety of an anticancer drug is one of the most important concerns of the physician treating the cancer patient. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and hillslope are usually used to represent the strength and sensitivity of an anticancer drug on cancer cells. The therapeutic safety of the anticancer drug can be assessed by comparing the IC50 and hillslope of anticancer drugs on cancer cells relative to normal cells. Since there are situations where “more anticancer activity” implies “more toxicity,” the safety of an anticancer drug in these situations is hard to evaluate by using IC50 and hillslope alone. In a previous study, the “net effect” index was devised to represent the net therapeutic effects of one anticancer drug relative to the other. However, the therapeutic safety of one specific anticancer drug alone was not defined in the “net effect” index. This study introduced the “safety index (SI)” to quantify the degree of safety of an anticancer drug by using 4-parameter logistic model on cancer cells relative to normal cells. The therapeutic safety of norcantharidin (NCTD), N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide (NOC15), and N-farnesyl-norcantharimide (NC15) in the treatment of Jurkat T cells relative to human normal lymphoblast was compared using the newly defined SI. We found that the SI of NOC15 and NC15 was significantly higher than that of NCTD, suggesting that both NOC15 and NC15 can damage more cancer cells and less normal cells than NCTD. We conclude that both NOC15 and NC15 are safer anticancer drugs than NCTD in the treatment of Jurkat T cells relative to human normal lymphoblast. The SI can be further applied to the screening, developments, and applications of anticancer drugs in the future. PMID:27495082

  6. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures.

  7. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Summary of past work. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Subudhi, M.

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a review of published documents dealing with research on the environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables used in nuclear power plants. Simulations of accelerated aging and accident conditions are important considerations in qualifying the cables. Significant research in these two areas has been performed in the US and abroad. The results from studies in France, Germany, and Japan are described in this report. In recent years, the development of methods to monitor the condition of cables has received special attention. Tests involving chemical and physical examination of cable`s insulation and jacket materials, and electrical measurements of the insulation properties of cables are discussed. Although there have been significant advances in many areas, there is no single method which can provide the necessary information about the condition of a cable currently in service. However, it is possible that further research may identify a combination of several methods that can adequately characterize the cable`s condition.

  8. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  9. DOE Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) Fiscal Year 2001 Fourth Quarter Report of Packaging- and Transportation-related Occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, L.S.

    2001-11-30

    The Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) retrieved 44 packaging- or transportation-related occurrences from the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) during the period from July 1 through September 30, 2001. Only those incidents that occur in preparation for transport, during transport, and during unloading of hazardous material are considered as packaging- or transportation-related occurrences. Other incidents with packaging and transportation (P and T) significance but not involving hazardous material (such as vehicle accidents or empty packagings) are not rated to the SMIP criteria, but are archived in the SMIP Subsidiary Database of occurrences, a sub-database of the main SMIP P and T Occurrence Database. Thirty-two of the originally-selected 44 occurrences were appropriate for classification to the SMIP criteria, only 7 of which have offsite applicability. Eight of the original 44 reports are archived in a subsidiary database because they either do not involve the transport of hazardous material or do not involve transport by vehicle, plane, boat, or rail. The others either were deleted because more thorough review revealed that they were not strictly related to P and T or were canceled by the reporting site and removed from the ORPS. These occurrences have not been normalized as in the Annual Report of Occurrences because the necessary information is not yet available. The number and severity of the selected occurrence reports (ORs) are consistent with historical reporting. Contamination events continue to be among the most common type of occurrences; however, ''Shipping Preparation'' events decreased this quarter to only 4 events from the 21 reported last quarter. None of the 32 ORs that were rated had event consequence measures (W{sub EC}) greater than 2; 14 of them were categorized as having a W{sub EC} of 1. This means that all of the fourth-quarter FY 2001 ORs had only slight consequences at worst (i.e., resulting in minimal safety

  10. Electronic Health Record-Related Safety Concerns: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Electronic Health Record Users

    PubMed Central

    Pajunen, Tuuli; Saranto, Kaija; Lehtonen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion in the use of electronic health records (EHR) has increased the number of medical errors originating in health information systems (HIS). The sociotechnical approach helps in understanding risks in the development, implementation, and use of EHR and health information technology (HIT) while accounting for complex interactions of technology within the health care system. Objective This study addresses two important questions: (1) “which of the common EHR error types are associated with perceived high- and extreme-risk severity ratings among EHR users?”, and (2) “which variables are associated with high- and extreme-risk severity ratings?” Methods This study was a quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive study of EHR users. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire study at the largest hospital district in Finland. Statistical tests included the reliability of the summative scales tested with Cronbach’s alpha. Logistic regression served to assess the association of the independent variables to each of the eight risk factors examined. Results A total of 2864 eligible respondents provided the final data. Almost half of the respondents reported a high level of risk related to the error type “extended EHR unavailability”. The lowest overall risk level was associated with “selecting incorrectly from a list of items”. In multivariate analyses, profession and clinical unit proved to be the strongest predictors for high perceived risk. Physicians perceived risk levels to be the highest (P<.001 in six of eight error types), while emergency departments, operating rooms, and procedure units were associated with higher perceived risk levels (P<.001 in four of eight error types). Previous participation in eLearning courses on EHR-use was associated with lower risk for some of the risk factors. Conclusions Based on a large number of Finnish EHR users in hospitals, this study indicates that HIT safety hazards should

  11. Software Configuration Management for Safety-Related Applications in Space Systems: Extending the Application of the USAF 8-Step Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.

    2010-09-01

    Configuration management ensures that the requirements and constraints, identified in previous stages of development, are preserved throughout the design, implementation and operation of complex systems. Space-related, software systems pose particular problems because, for instance, it can be hard to determine what code is actually running on a platform as successive updates are performed over many months of remote operation. It is, therefore, important we learn as much as possible from previous mishaps that have involved configuration management; given that software continues to play a critical role in the safety of many space missions. The following pages extend the US Air Force’s 8-Step Method to identify lessons learned from space related incidents. This approach builds on Boyd’s OODA(Observe, Orient, Decide and Act) Loop and provides a common framework for the analysis of these complex incidents. It is important to stress that the application of an existing general approach to problem solving, rather than the development of a specific approach for configuration management, is intended to reduce training costs and to increase the value added from existing investments in the use of the 8-Step Method. Many specialised software engineering techniques are not used because they cannot easily be applied within the financial limits and deadlines that constrain most space programmes. The closing sections of this paper identify areas for further work; in particular, we stress the importance of links with recent European Space Agency problem solving techniques that support the early-stage development of long duration space missions.

  12. Effect of Occupational Health and Safety Management System on Work-Related Accident Rate and Differences of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Awareness between Managers in South Korea's Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seok J.; Lin, Hsing K.; Chen, Gang; Yi, Shinjea; Choi, Jeawook; Rui, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Background The study was conducted to investigate the current status of the occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) in the construction industry and the effect of OHSMS on accident rates. Differences of awareness levels on safety issues among site general managers and occupational health and safety (OHS) managers are identified through surveys. Methods The accident rates for the OHSMS-certified construction companies from 2006 to 2011, when the construction OHSMS became widely available, were analyzed to understand the effect of OHSMS on the work-related injury rates in the construction industry. The Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency 18001 is the certification to these companies performing OHSMS in South Korea. The questionnaire was created to analyze the differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers of construction companies. Results The implementation of OHSMS among the top 100 construction companies in South Korea shows that the accident rate decreased by 67% and the fatal accident rate decreased by 10.3% during the period from 2006 to 2011. The survey in this study shows different OHSMS awareness levels between site general managers and OHS managers. The differences were motivation for developing OHSMS, external support needed for implementing OHSMS, problems and effectiveness of implementing OHSMS. Conclusion Both work-related accident and fatal accident rates were found to be significantly reduced by implementing OHSMS in this study. The differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers were identified through a survey. The effect of these differences on safety and other benefits warrants further research with proper data collection. PMID:24422176

  13. Annual report to Congress. Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-01

    This Annual Report to the Congress describes the Department of Energy's activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. During 2000, the Department completed its implementation and proposed closure of one Board recommendation and completed all implementation plan milestones associated with two additional Board recommendations. Also in 2000, the Department formally accepted two new Board recommendations and developed implementation plans in response to those recommendations. The Department also made significant progress with a number of broad-based safety initiatives. These include initial implementation of integrated safety management at field sites and within headquarters program offices, issuance of a nuclear safety rule, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  14. Sleep-Related Safety Behaviors and Dysfunctional Beliefs Mediate the Efficacy of Online CBT for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lancee, Jaap; Eisma, Maarten C; van Straten, Annemieke; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    Several trials have demonstrated the efficacy of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. However, few studies have examined putative mechanisms of change based on the cognitive model of insomnia. Identification of modifiable mechanisms by which the treatment works may guide efforts to further improve the efficacy of insomnia treatment. The current study therefore has two aims: (1) to replicate the finding that online CBT is effective for insomnia and (2) to test putative mechanism of change (i.e., safety behaviors and dysfunctional beliefs). Accordingly, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in which individuals with insomnia were randomized to either online CBT for insomnia (n = 36) or a waiting-list control group (n = 27). Baseline and posttest assessments included questionnaires assessing insomnia severity, safety behaviors, dysfunctional beliefs, anxiety and depression, and a sleep diary. Three- and six-month assessments were administered to the CBT group only. Results show moderate to large statistically significant effects of the online treatment compared to the waiting list on insomnia severity, sleep measures, sleep safety behaviors, and dysfunctional beliefs. Furthermore, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviors mediated the effects of treatment on insomnia severity and sleep efficiency. Together, these findings corroborate the efficacy of online CBT for insomnia, and suggest that these effects were produced by changing maladaptive beliefs, as well as safety behaviors. Treatment protocols for insomnia may specifically be enhanced by more focused attention on the comprehensive fading of sleep safety behaviors, for instance through behavioral experiments.

  15. Forms of Safety and Their Impact on Health: An Exploration of HIV/AIDS-Related Risk and Resilience Among Trans Women in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Rachel L; Wagner, Glenn J; Nehme, Simon; Aunon, Frances; Khouri, Danielle; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Using minority stress theory, the authors investigated risk behaviors of transgender women (trans women) in Lebanon. Using semistructured interviews, the authors explored six areas: relationships with family and friends; openness about gender and sexuality; experiences with stigma; sexual behavior; attitudes and behaviors regarding HIV testing; and perceived HIV-related norms among transgender peers. Participants voiced the importance of different forms of safety: social/emotional, physical, sexual, and financial. Strategies for obtaining safety were negotiated differently depending on social, behavioral, and structural factors in the environment. In this article, we provide study findings from the perspectives of trans women, their exposure to stigma, and the necessary navigation of environments characterized by transphobia.

  16. Efficacy and safety of Stealth liposomal doxorubicin in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The International SL-DOX Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, F. D.; Goldstein, D.; Goos, M.; Jablonowski, H.; Stewart, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The utility of current chemotherapeutic regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) is often compromised by both limited efficacy and substantial toxicity. Pegylated (Stealth) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (SL-DOX) has been demonstrated specifically to deliver high concentrations of doxorubicin to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions. This phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SL-DOX in the treatment of moderate to severe AIDS-KS. Patients were treated biweekly with 10, 20, or 40 mg m-2 SL-DOX. Tumour response was assessed according to AIDS Clinical Trials Groups (ACTG) criteria before each cycle. Best response was determined for 238 patients and was achieved after a mean of 2.3 cycles (range 1-20). Fifteen patients (6.3%) had a complete response to SL-DOX, 177 (74.4%) had a partial response, 44 (18.5%) had stable disease and two (0.8%) had disease progression. SL-DOX was well tolerated: ten patients discontinued therapy because of adverse events, in four cases because of neutropenia. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred after 281 of 2023 cycles (13.9%) but involved 137 of 240 patients (57.1%) for whom data were available. SL-DOX has substantial activity in AIDS-KS. Best response is typically seen after fewer than three cycles of chemotherapy and in some cases may be prolonged. The most important adverse event is neutropenia, which occurs after a minority of cycles but which may occur in over half of all patients. PMID:8611437

  17. Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.

    1991-12-10

    The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

  18. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  19. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  20. Evaluating Product-Related Hazards at the Consumer Product Safety Commission: The Case of All-Terrain Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Gregory B.

    1990-01-01

    Application of multivariate qualitative response models, such as logit regression models, to analysis of risks of all-terrain vehicles is discussed. Data are from national exposure and injury surveys and records of fatalities of the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Suggestions are made for further applications of the method. (SLD)

  1. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  2. 78 FR 17611 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... On July 9, 2012, President Obama signed the Food and Drug Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L... Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Energy and... these new sections. On November 23, 2012 (77 FR 70166), FDA issued a Federal Register...

  3. Safety-Related Improvisation in Led Outdoor Activities: An Exploratory Investigation into Its Occurrence and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Margaret J.; Salmon, Paul M.; Lenné, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic nature of led outdoor activities means that, despite activity providers' best efforts, activity leaders can be exposed to unanticipated situations for which no procedures exist. Improvisation, the spontaneous, real-time conception and execution of a novel response, has been identified as a potential means of maintaining safety in…

  4. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at North Carolina State University

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) summarizes the findings of a safety review conducted by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). The staff conducted this review in response to a timely application filed by North Carolina State University (the licensee or NCSU) for a 20-year renewal of Facility Operating License R-120 to continue to operate the NCSU PULSTAR research reactor. The facility is located in the Burlington Engineering Laboratory complex on the NCSU campus in Raleigh, North Carolina. In its safety review, the staff considered information submitted by the licensee (including past operating history recorded in the licensee`s annual reports to the NRC), as well as inspection reports prepared by NRC Region H personnel and first-hand observations. On the basis of this review, the staff concludes that NCSU can continue to operate the PULSTAR research reactor, in accordance with its application, without endangering the health and safety of the public. 16 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Examples of Solutions to Stakeholder Needs Related to Food Safety/Security as Provided by the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the USA has one of the most abundant and wholesome food supplies in the world, based on the nature and number of recent food borne illnesses and costly product recalls we must remain ever vigilant to develop and implement strategies to enhance food safety and quality at various points in th...

  6. A systematic process for assessing human spacecraft conceptual designs in terms of relative safety and operational characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, Kevin Paul

    The research efforts in this dissertation are focused on reducing uncertainty in the conceptual design phase through a process of establishing a minimum functionality baseline before trading Safety and Operability in proposed spacecraft configurations. The challenge in human spacecraft development is how to combine the parts into a working design that complies with many requirements for top level mission objectives, safety, and mission success. The design methodologies presented here provides designers and decision makers with additional methods that provide an overall view of candidate design concepts. This work establishes a definition for a minimum functional design and is the first to group the fundamental mass parameters of a human spacecraft in the categories of Physics, Physiology, Safety, and Operability. The minimum functional baseline configuration described in this work is different from previous approaches because it eliminates the bias toward a minimum set of requirements. The amount of Safety in the spacecraft is the mass dedicated to safety through similar or dissimilar redundancy, safety components, margins, and dispersions. The amount of Operability in the spacecraft is the mass used to perform mission objectives and make functions easier or efficient. Because human spacecraft are highly coupled systems, the introduction of mass in one subsystem has downstream effects on other subsystems that are not easily recognized by designers and the use of rapidly reconfigurable prototypes allows designers and multidisciplinary teams to utilize Boundary Objects as a means of communication for maturing designs. The mass addition process coupled with the minimum functionality approach creates a tradespace of spacecraft configurations and provides designers with an overall view of how various levels of Safety or Operability will affect the overall spacecraft mass. The decisions made in the conceptual design phase are critical to the success of the program and

  7. Chemical mechanical polishing of Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide and Indium gallium arsenide films and related environment and safety aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matovu, John Bogere

    As scaling continues with advanced technology nodes in the microelectronic industry to enhance device performance, the performance limits of the conventional substrate materials such as silicon as a channel material in the front-end-of-the-line of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) need to be surmounted. These challenges have invigorated research into new materials such as III-V materials consisting of InP, GaAs, InGaAs for n-channel CMOS and Ge for p-channels CMOS to enhance device performance. These III-V materials have higher electron mobility that is required for the n-channel while Ge has high hole mobility that is required for the p-channel. Integration of these materials in future devices requires chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to achieve a smooth and planar surface to enable further processing. The CMP process of these materials has been associated with environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues due to the presence of P and As that can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous hydrides. The safe handling of As contaminated consumables and post-CMP slurry waste is essential. In this work, the chemical mechanical polishing of InP, GaAs and InGaAs films and the associated environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues are discussed. InP removal rates (RRs) and phosphine generation during the CMP of blanket InP films in hydrogen peroxide-based silica particle dispersions in the presence and absence of three different multifunctional chelating carboxylic acids, namely oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are reported. The presence of these acids in the polishing slurry resulted in good InP removal rates (about 400 nm min-1) and very low phosphine generation (< 15 ppb) with very smooth post-polish surfaces (0.1 nm RMS surface roughness). The optimized slurry compositions consisting of 3 wt % silica, 1 wt % hydrogen peroxide and 0.08 M oxalic acid or citric acid that provided the best results on blanket InP films were used to evaluate

  8. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F.

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail.

  9. Pegaptanib sodium for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: third-year safety results of the VEGF Inhibition Study in Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION) trial

    PubMed Central

    Singerman, L J; Masonson, H; Patel, M; Adamis, A P; Buggage, R; Cunningham, E; Goldbaum, M; Katz, B; Guyer, D

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the safety of up to 3 years of pegaptanib sodium therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD). Methods: Two concurrent, prospective, multicentre, double-masked studies randomised subjects with all angiographic lesion compositions of NV-AMD to receive intravitreous pegaptanib sodium (0.3, 1 and 3 mg) or sham injections every 6 weeks for 54 weeks. Those initially assigned to pegaptanib were rerandomised to continue or discontinue therapy for 48 more weeks; sham-treated subjects continued sham, discontinued or received pegaptanib. At 102 weeks, subjects receiving pegaptanib 0.3 mg or 1 mg in years 1 or 2 continued; those receiving pegaptanib 3 mg or who did not receive treatment in years 1 and 2 were rerandomised to 0.3 mg or 1 mg for year 3. Results: As in years 1 and 2, pegaptanib was well tolerated in year 3. Adverse events were mainly ocular in nature, mild, transient and injection-related. Serious adverse events were rare. No evidence of systemic safety signals attributed to vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition arose in year 3. There were no findings in relation to vital signs or electrocardiogram results suggesting a relationship to pegaptanib treatment. Conclusion: The 3-year safety profile of pegaptanib sodium was favourable in patients with NV-AMD. PMID:18614570

  10. Evaluation of station blackout accidents at nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to unresolved safety issue A-44: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    ''Station Blackout,'' which is the complete loss of alternating current (AC) electrical power in a nuclear power plant, has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue A-44. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on AC power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. This report documents the findings of technical studies performed as part of the program to resolve this issue. The important factors analyzed include: the fequency of loss of offsite power; the probability that emergency or onsite AC power supplies would be unavailable; the capability and reliability of decay heat removal systems independent of AC power; and the likelihood that offsite power would be restored before systems that cannot operate for extended periods without AC power fail, thus resulting in core damage. This report also addresses effects of different designs, locations, and operational features on the estimated frequency of core damage resulting from station blackout events.

  11. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  12. Forms of Safety and Their Impact on Health: An Exploration of HIV/AIDS-Related Risk and Resilience Among Trans Women in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, RACHEL L.; WAGNER, GLENN J.; NEHME, SIMON; AUNON, FRANCES; KHOURI, DANIELLE; MOKHBAT, JACQUES

    2016-01-01

    Using minority stress theory, the authors investigated risk behaviors of transgender women (trans women) in Lebanon. Using semistructured interviews, the authors explored six areas: relationships with family and friends; openness about gender and sexuality; experiences with stigma; sexual behavior; attitudes and behaviors regarding HIV testing; and perceived HIV-related norms among transgender peers. Participants voiced the importance of different forms of safety: social/emotional, physical, sexual, and financial. Strategies for obtaining safety were negotiated differently depending on social, behavioral, and structural factors in the environment. In this article, we provide study findings from the perspectives of trans women, their exposure to stigma, and the necessary navigation of environments characterized by transphobia. PMID:24588138

  13. "Taking the problem to the people": traffic safety from public relations to political theory, 1937-1954.

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Stève

    2015-04-01

    The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies.

  14. "Taking the problem to the people": traffic safety from public relations to political theory, 1937-1954.

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Stève

    2015-04-01

    The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies. PMID:26005086

  15. TWRS safety program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  16. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  17. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  18. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  19. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and related equipment in an HPHT environment, you must submit detailed information with...

  20. Safety management practices and safety behaviour: assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M

    2010-11-01

    Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace.

  1. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and related equipment in an HPHT environment, you must submit detailed information with your Application...

  2. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and related equipment in an HPHT environment, you must submit detailed information with your Application...

  3. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and related equipment in an HPHT environment, you must submit detailed information with your Application...

  4. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and related equipment in an HPHT environment, you must submit detailed information with your Application for Permit to Drill...

  5. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  6. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor design. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report supplements the final safety evaluation report (FSER) for the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design. The FSER was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff as NUREG-1503 in July 1994 to document the NRC staff`s review of the US ABWR design. The US ABWR design was submitted by GE Nuclear Energy (GE) in accordance with the procedures of Subpart B to Part 52 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This supplement documents the NRC staff`s review of the changes to the US ABWR design documentation since the issuance of the FSER. GE made these changes primarily as a result of first-of-a-kind-engineering (FOAKE) and as a result of the design certification rulemaking for the ABWR design. On the basis of its evaluations, the NRC staff concludes that the confirmatory issues in NUREG-1503 are resolved, that the changes to the ABWR design documentation are acceptable, and that GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B to 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR design.

  7. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80+ design: Docket Number 52-002. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report supplements the final safety evaluation report (FSER) for the System 80+ standard design. The FSER was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff as NUREG-1462 in August 1994 to document the NRC staff`s review of the System 80+ design. The System 80+ design was submitted by Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE), in accordance with the procedures of Subpart B to Part 52 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This supplement documents the NRC staff`s review of the changes to the System 80+ design documentation since the issuance of the FSER. ABB-CE made these changes as a result of its review of the System 80+ design details. The NRC staff concludes that the changes to the System 80+ design documentation are acceptable, and that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B to 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ design.

  8. A chemical with proven clinical safety rescues Down-syndrome-related phenotypes in through DYRK1A inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongki; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Ae-Kyeong; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Min-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Lee, So-Young; Song, Woo-Joo; Yu, Kweon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DYRK1A is important in neuronal development and function, and its excessive activity is considered a significant pathogenic factor in Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, inhibition of DYRK1A has been suggested to be a new strategy to modify the disease. Very few compounds, however, have been reported to act as inhibitors, and their potential clinical uses require further evaluation. Here, we newly identify CX-4945, the safety of which has been already proven in the clinical setting, as a potent inhibitor of DYRK1A that acts in an ATP-competitive manner. The inhibitory potency of CX-4945 on DYRK1A (IC50=6.8 nM) in vitro was higher than that of harmine, INDY or proINDY, which are well-known potent inhibitors of DYRK1A. CX-4945 effectively reverses the aberrant phosphorylation of Tau, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) in mammalian cells. To our surprise, feeding with CX-4945 significantly restored the neurological and phenotypic defects induced by the overexpression of minibrain, an ortholog of human DYRK1A, in the Drosophila model. Moreover, oral administration of CX-4945 acutely suppressed Tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus of DYRK1A-overexpressing mice. Our research results demonstrate that CX-4945 is a potent DYRK1A inhibitor and also suggest that it has therapeutic potential for DYRK1A-associated diseases. PMID:27483355

  9. Application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most important result to date is the demonstration of the special value of repetitive ERTS-1 multiband coverage for detecting previously unknown fracture lineaments despite the presence of a deep glacial overburden. The Illinois Basin is largely covered with glacial drift and few rock outcrops are present. A contribution to the geological understanding of Illinois and Indiana has been made. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery has provided useful information to the State of Indiana concerning the surface mined lands. The contrast between healthy vegetation and bare ground as imaged by Band 7 is sharp and substantial detail can be obtained concerning the extent of disturbed lands, associated water bodies, large haul roads, and extent of mined lands revegetation. Preliminary results of analysis suggest a reasonable correlation between image-detected fractures and mine roof fall accidents for a few areas investigated. ERTS-1 applications to surface mining operations appear probable, but further investigations are required. The likelihood of applying ERTS-1 derived fracture data to improve coal mine safety in the entire Illinois Basin is suggested from studies conducted in Indiana.

  10. A chemical with proven clinical safety rescues Down-syndrome-related phenotypes in through DYRK1A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongki; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Ae-Kyeong; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Min-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Lee, So-Young; Song, Woo-Joo; Yu, Kweon; Cho, Sungchan

    2016-08-01

    DYRK1A is important in neuronal development and function, and its excessive activity is considered a significant pathogenic factor in Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, inhibition of DYRK1A has been suggested to be a new strategy to modify the disease. Very few compounds, however, have been reported to act as inhibitors, and their potential clinical uses require further evaluation. Here, we newly identify CX-4945, the safety of which has been already proven in the clinical setting, as a potent inhibitor of DYRK1A that acts in an ATP-competitive manner. The inhibitory potency of CX-4945 on DYRK1A (IC50=6.8 nM) in vitro was higher than that of harmine, INDY or proINDY, which are well-known potent inhibitors of DYRK1A. CX-4945 effectively reverses the aberrant phosphorylation of Tau, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) in mammalian cells. To our surprise, feeding with CX-4945 significantly restored the neurological and phenotypic defects induced by the overexpression of minibrain, an ortholog of human DYRK1A, in the Drosophila model. Moreover, oral administration of CX-4945 acutely suppressed Tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus of DYRK1A-overexpressing mice. Our research results demonstrate that CX-4945 is a potent DYRK1A inhibitor and also suggest that it has therapeutic potential for DYRK1A-associated diseases. PMID:27483355

  11. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  12. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  13. Food safety-related refrigeration and freezer practices and attitudes of consumers in Peoria and surrounding counties.

    PubMed

    Towns, Ruth E; Cullen, Robert W; Memken, Jean A; Nnakwe, Nweze E

    2006-07-01

    Government agencies have recently emphasized the importance of food safety. Reducing the risk of foodborne illnesses within the home requires American consumers to put government refrigeration and freezer recommendations into practice; however, little research has been conducted regarding the use of proper refrigeration and freezer storage practices by consumers. A random sample survey was conducted to examine attitudes and practices of proper refrigeration and storage techniques of consumers in Peoria County, Illinois, and to determine whether gender, age, education, and income level have an effect on these variables. Eighty-one of 500 random sample surveys mailed were returned between 10 January and 15 February 2005. The majority of the participants were female (56, 69.1%), were 50 to 59 years old (18, 22.2%), had a bachelor's degree (33, 40.7%), and had a reported total household income of 60,000 dollars or greater (39, 91.4%). Average attitudinal scores indicated that participants thought it was important to take proper steps to prevent foodborne illnesses in the home; however, 68.8% of participants scored poorly on the practice portion of the survey. Only 12.3% of participants stated that they had a thermometer in their freezer, and 24.7% had one in their refrigerator. Eighty-four percent of respondents did not store eggs correctly in the refrigerator. No significant relationships (P < 0.05) were found within this sample population. These results suggest that further evaluation of consumer practices and attitudes is needed to better understand consumers so that they can be effectively educated about the prevention of foodborne illnesses at home.

  14. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  15. Relative bioavailability, food effect, and safety of the single-dose pharmacokinetics of omecamtiv mecarbil following administration of different modified-release formulations in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Palaparthy, Rameshraja; Banfield, Christopher; Alvarez, Paco; Yan, Lucy; Smith, Brian; Johnson, Jessica; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Malik, Fady

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Omecamtiv mecarbil is a novel small molecule that directly activates cardiac myosin and increases cardiac contractility without increasing cardiac myocyte intracellular calcium. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability, food effect, and safety of several modified-release (MR) formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil. Methods: This was a phase 1, randomized, open-label, 4-way crossover, incomplete block-design study evaluating 5 MR formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil vs. an immediate-release (IR) formulation. Materials: Healthy subjects were randomized to 1 of 30 possible sequences: within each sequence, subjects were assigned to receive a single 25-mg dose of 2 of the 6 possible formulations in the fasting and/or fed states. Results: 65 subjects were screened and enrolled; 5 were replacement subjects. Pharmacokinetic and safety data were analyzed from 62 and 63 subjects in the fasting and fed states, respectively. Compared with the IR formulation, median tmax was longer (0.5 vs. 2 – 10 hours), and mean Cmax was lower for all 5 MR formulations (262 vs. 34 – 78 ng/mL); t1/2,z was similar (18 – 21 hours). The relative bioavailability was high (> 75%) for three MR formulations but lower (< 65%) for the other two. Overall, the effect of food on omecamtiv mecarbil pharmacokinetics was minimal for four of the MR formulations. The pharmacokinetics of the inactive metabolites M3 and M4 were similar across all formulations. Conclusions: The relative bioavailability of omecamtiv mecarbil was high (> 75%) for 3 of the five MR formulations. Food had a marginal, nonclinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of the MR formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil. PMID:26709596

  16. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of

  17. Developing safety-critical software.

    PubMed

    Garnsworthy, J

    1996-05-01

    The role of safety-critical software in the development of medical devices is becoming increasingly important and ever more exacting demands are being made of software developers. This article considers safety issues and a software development life-cycle based on the safety life-cycle described in IEC 1508, "Safety-Related Systems: Functional Safety." It identifies relevant standards, both emerging and published, and provides guidance on methods that could be used to meet those standards.

  18. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  19. The relation of cool flames and auto-ignition phenomena to process safety at elevated pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    Pekalski, A A; Zevenbergen, J F; Pasman, H J; Lemkowitz, S M; Dahoe, A E; Scarlett, B

    2002-07-01

    The cool-flame phenomenon can occur in fuel-oxygen (air) mixtures within the flammable range and outside the flammable range, at fuel-rich compositions, at temperatures below the auto-ignition temperature (AIT). It is caused by chemical reactions occurring spontaneously at relatively low temperatures and is favoured by elevated pressure. The hazards that cool flames generate are described. These vary from spoiling a product specification through contamination and explosive decomposition of condensed peroxides to the appearance of unexpected normal (hot) flame (two-stage ignition).

  20. Perceptions of safety at work: a framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M A; Neal, A

    2000-07-01

    Research in the areas of organizational climate and work performance was used to develop a framework for measuring perceptions of safety at work. The framework distinguished perceptions of the work environment from perceptions of performance related to safety. Two studies supported application of the framework to employee perceptions of safety in the workplace. Safety compliance and safety participation were distinguished as separate components of safety-related performance. Perceptions of knowledge about safety and motivation to perform safely influenced individual reports of safety performance and also mediated the link between safety climate and safety performance. Specific dimensions of safety climate were identified and constituted a higher order safety climate factor. The results support conceptualizing safety climate as an antecedent to safety performance in organizations. PMID:10912498

  1. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed.

  2. A review of safety-related pregnancy data surrounding the oral disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ellen; Wang, Bing Wei; Alwan, Sura; Synnes, Anne; Dahlgren, Leanne; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Tremlett, Helen

    2014-02-01

    The recent approval of several oral disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) brings promise of improved clinical effectiveness as well as greater drug compliance compared to the existing non-oral DMDs, and substantially increases patient choice and therapeutic options in the effective management of MS. However, for men and women with MS of childbearing age, concerns about the effect of oral DMDs on pregnancy and the fetus may arise. Some limited data from animal reproductive studies of oral DMDs suggest a potential increased risk of early pregnancy loss, impaired growth and birth defects. Although active surveillance mechanisms exist, there is limited data to inform clinical practice. Using existing information from published clinical trials and drug monographs, as well as recent conference proceedings, this review summarizes the mechanism of action (in relation to embryogenesis and pregnancy) and existing animal or human pregnancy-related data for approved (fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate) and investigational (laquinimod and firategrast) oral DMDs for MS. PMID:24343726

  3. Relative safety of intravenous digital subtraction angiography over other methods of carotid angiography and impact on clinical management of cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J M; Barter, S; Kerslake, R; Schneidau, A; Barber, C; Thomas, D J

    1989-09-01

    Data from a multicentre survey based on three London teaching hospitals on the relative safety and clinical utility of intravenous carotid digital subtraction angiography (DSA) over intra-arterial DSA and conventional carotid angiography are presented. The incidence of stroke during intra-arterial DSA was 0.7% (n = 538) and during conventional angiography was 0.8% (n = 780). The incidence of stroke during intravenous DSA was zero (n = 3710). When it constituted the initial investigation, intravenous DSA achieved a 93.8% replacement value over intra-arterial studies as a whole (n = 474) and 89% replacement value for patients having carotid endarterectomy (n = 99). It was also noted that the installation of DSA equipment at one unit coincided with a sixfold increase in the number of carotid angiographic examinations and an almost threefold increase in carotid endarterectomies. PMID:2790421

  4. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization. PMID:24364129

  5. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization.

  6. Description of extended pre-harvest pig Salmonella surveillance-and-control programme and its estimated effect on food safety related to pork.

    PubMed

    Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.

  7. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Russell, O. R.; Martin, K. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mined land reclamation analysis procedures developed within the Indiana portion of the Illinois Coal Basin were independently tested in Ohio utilizing 1:80,000 scale enlargements of ERTS-1 image 1029-15361-7 (dated August 21, 1972). An area in Belmont County was selected for analysis due to the extensive surface mining and the different degrees of reclamation occurring in this area. Contour mining in this area provided the opportunity to extend techniques developed for analysis of relatively flat mining areas in Indiana to areas of rolling topography in Ohio. The analysts had no previous experience in the area. Field investigations largely confirmed office analysis results although in a few areas estimates of vegetation percentages were found to be too high. In one area this error approximated 25%. These results suggest that systematic ERTS-1 analysis in combination with selective field sampling can provide reliable vegetation percentage estimates in excess of 25% accuracy with minimum equipment investment and training. The utility of ERTS-1 for practical and reasonably reliable update of mined lands information for groups with budget limitations is suggested. Many states can benefit from low cost updates using ERTS-1 imagery from public sources.

  8. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Johan L; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2012-01-01

    With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals. PMID:23327327

  9. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Johan L; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2012-12-05

    With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals.

  10. Safety in Aquaculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  11. Serving Up Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals can do to protect children from food-related illness in school: Forming of food-safe school teams, developing food-safety procedures, including food safety in crises-management plans, educating staff on plans and procedures, encouraging hand washing, making sure the cafeteria works properly, and encouraging the hiring of…

  12. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  13. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  14. [Patient safety in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Rutberg, H; Eckhardt, M; Biermann, O

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the patient safety work in Sweden and the cooperation between the Nordic countries in the area of patient safety. It depicts the national infrastructure, methods and partners in patient safety work as well as the development in key areas. Since 2000, the interest in patient safety and quality issues has significantly increased. A national study (2009) showed that more than 100,000 patients (8.6 %) experienced preventable harm in hospitals. Since 2007, all Swedish counties and regions work on the "National commitment for increased patient safety" to systematically minimize adverse events in the healthcare system. Also, a national strategy for patient safety has been proposed based on a new law regulating the responsibility for patient safety (2011) and a zero vision in terms of preventable harm and adverse events. The Nordic collaboration in this field currently focuses on the development of indicators and quality measurement with respect to nosocomial infections, harm in inpatient somatic care, patient safety culture, hospital mortality and polypharmacy in the elderly. The Nordic collaboration is driven by the development, exchange and documentation of experiences and evidence on patient safety indicators. The work presented in this article is only a part of the Swedish and the Nordic efforts related to patient safety and provides an interesting insight into how this work can be carried out.

  15. Nuclear Reactor Safety: a current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.C.

    1985-01-15

    Nuclear Reactor Safety announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of fission reactors, including: accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures.

  16. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  17. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  18. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia.

  19. Comparative assessment of therapeutic safety of norcantharidin, N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide, and N-farnesyl-norcantharimide against Jurkat T cells relative to human normal lymphoblast: A quantitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Che; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liao, Hui-Fen; Chen, Yu-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2016-08-01

    The therapeutic safety of an anticancer drug is one of the most important concerns of the physician treating the cancer patient. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and hillslope are usually used to represent the strength and sensitivity of an anticancer drug on cancer cells. The therapeutic safety of the anticancer drug can be assessed by comparing the IC50 and hillslope of anticancer drugs on cancer cells relative to normal cells. Since there are situations where "more anticancer activity" implies "more toxicity," the safety of an anticancer drug in these situations is hard to evaluate by using IC50 and hillslope alone. In a previous study, the "net effect" index was devised to represent the net therapeutic effects of one anticancer drug relative to the other. However, the therapeutic safety of one specific anticancer drug alone was not defined in the "net effect" index. This study introduced the "safety index (SI)" to quantify the degree of safety of an anticancer drug by using 4-parameter logistic model on cancer cells relative to normal cells. The therapeutic safety of norcantharidin (NCTD), N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide (NOC15), and N-farnesyl-norcantharimide (NC15) in the treatment of Jurkat T cells relative to human normal lymphoblast was compared using the newly defined SI. We found that the SI of NOC15 and NC15 was significantly higher than that of NCTD, suggesting that both NOC15 and NC15 can damage more cancer cells and less normal cells than NCTD. We conclude that both NOC15 and NC15 are safer anticancer drugs than NCTD in the treatment of Jurkat T cells relative to human normal lymphoblast. The SI can be further applied to the screening, developments, and applications of anticancer drugs in the future. PMID:27495082

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Tadalafil and Tamsulosin in Relieving Double J Stent Related Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Satinder Pal; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, S. S.; Gangkak, Goto; Vyas, Nachiket; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kumar, Ujwal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Tadalafil and Tamsulosin in treating Double J stent related symptoms. Methods. In a prospective study, 161 patients with DJ related symptoms were randomized into 3 groups: Group A patients (54), Group B patients (53), and Group C patients (54). They were given Tadalafil, Tamsulosin, and placebo, respectively, at 1st week till removal of DJ stent at 3rd week. All patients completed Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) at 1st week and at 3rd week. The statistical significant difference among groups was determined by the t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate analysis were used to assess association of the variables within the three groups, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. Tadalafil and Tamsulosin were comparable in relieving urinary symptoms, general health, and work performance (OR = 0.65, 1.8, and 0.92). But Tadalafil was more effective in relieving body pain, sexual problems, and additional problems than Tamsulosin (OR = 5.95, 19.25, and 2.69) and was statistically significant as P < 0.05. Conclusion. Tadalafil was as effective as Tamsulosin in relieving urinary symptom but more effective in relieving sexual symptoms and body pain. PMID:26788054

  1. TJC: HCOs need to be on alert for HIT problems related to sociotechnical factors, take steps to improve safety culture, process, and leadership.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Noting that too many errors related to health information technology (HIT) are resulting in adverse consequences, The Joint Commission (TJC) has issued a Sentinel Event Alert, urging health care providers to take steps to improve their safety culture, approach to process improvement, and leadership in this area. In this latest alert, the accrediting agency is taking particular aim at risks posed by sociotechnical factors--or the ways in which HIT is implemented and used. Experts say that many of these risks are, in fact, exemplified at a higher level in the emergency setting, where providers are under constant pressure to see more patients and move them though the system faster. In an analysis of 3,375 sentinel events that resulted in permanent patient harm or death between January 1, 2010, and June 20, 2013, The Joint Commission (TJC) found that 120 events included HIT-related contributing factors. Many of the problems cited by TJC relate to orders or medicines being prescribed for the wrong patients. These can result from toggling errors or pop-up screens where providers are asked to click on the appropriate patient or medicine, and they mistakenly click on the wrong selection. In the ED, experts recommend the creation of a multidisciplinary performance improvement group to continuously monitor the ED information system (EDIS), recognize problems, and work with the vendor to resolve them. Also important is a quick and easy way for providers to report HIT-related problems. Experts add that emergency providers need to be fully engaged in the process of selecting HIT that they will be using, and that health care organizations should arrange for usability assessments before purchasing HIT.

  2. School Safety Study: Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Alka

    This report summarizes findings from a study concerned with Arizona school safety. The survey component highlights safety-related policy information across 300 schools; the interview component highlights school-safety perceptions of 64 staff across 16 schools. Various policies and programs that respond to internal and external threats to school…

  3. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  4. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  5. Nuclide Importance to Criticality Safety, Decay Heating, and Source Terms Related to Transport and Interim Storage of High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I. C.; Ryman, J. C.

    2000-12-11

    This report investigates trends in the radiological decay properties and changes in relative nuclide importance associated with increasing enrichments and burnup for spent LWR fuel as they affect the areas of criticality safety, thermal analysis (decay heat), and shielding analysis of spent fuel transport and storage casks. To facilitate identifying the changes in the spent fuel compositions that most directly impact these application areas, the dominant nuclides in each area have been identified and ranked by importance. The importance is investigated as a function of increasing burnup to assist in identifying the key changes in spent fuel characteristics between conventional- and extended-burnup regimes. Studies involving both pressurized water-reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies and boiling-water-reactor (BWR) assemblies are included. This study is seen to be a necessary first step in identifying the high-burnup spent fuel characteristics that may adversely affect the accuracy of current computational methods and data, assess the potential impact on previous guidance on isotopic source terms and decay-heat values, and thus help identify areas for methods and data improvement. Finally, several recommendations on the direction of possible future code validation efforts for high-burnup spent fuel predictions are presented.

  6. Americans with Disabilities Act-related considerations when an alcoholic nurse is your employee: when is a nurse legally considered a "direct threat" to patient safety?

    PubMed

    Menendez, Juliet Battard

    2010-01-01

    When contemplating the legal and ethical issues surrounding employment of an alcoholic nurse, nursing administrators are challenged with recognizing and upholding the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)-related civil rights of their employees while ensuring the quality of care provided by the practitioners in their facility. The "direct-threat" exception to disability accommodations relieves employers from making accommodations for a disability if those accommodations would necessitate lowering patient care quality standards. According to the ADA's direct-threat exception, a healthcare facility may legally terminate a nurse with the disability of alcoholism if that practitioner poses a threat to the safety of its patients. This article provides an informative overview of alcoholism as a disability in the context of nursing. A nurse administrator could use the information provided to objectively and competently make a determination of direct threat. The focus is on the importance of making an objective and unbiased assessment when determining if an alcoholic nurse meets the direct-threat" criteria that eliminates the requirement for making reasonable accommodations for a disabled employee. General ADA guidelines are provided, but the assessment must be individualized based on the patient care setting, the requirements of the position, and the nurse's present ability to safely perform the essential job functions.

  7. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding Injection Safety and Related Biomedical Waste Management amongst Interns in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Priyanka; Khandekar, Jyoti; Bachani, Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by needle sticks and sharps due to unsafe injection practices are the most common occupational hazard amongst health care personnel. The objectives of our study were to determine the existing knowledge and practices of interns and change in their level following an information education and communication (IEC) package regarding safe injection practices and related biomedical waste management and to determine the status of hepatitis B vaccination. We conducted a follow-up study among all (106) interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Delhi. A predesigned semistructured questionnaire was used. IEC package in the form of hands-on workshop and power point presentation was used. A highly significant (P < 0.001) improvement in the knowledge of interns was observed after intervention with respect to the “three criteria of a safe injection” and cleaning of injection site. Thus, the baseline knowledge of interns was good in certain aspects of injection safety, namely, diseases transmitted by unsafe injections and their prevention. We conclude that IEC intervention package was effective in significantly improving the interns' knowledge regarding safe injection practices and biomedical waste management. Almost two-thirds of interns were immunised against hepatitis B before the intervention and this proportion rose significantly after the intervention. PMID:27433489

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Tamsulosin, Solifenacin, and Combination of Both in Treatment of Double-J Stent-Related Lower Urinary Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Essam; Ahmed, Abul-fotouh; Yahia, Iman; Ali, Mohamed; Ghobish, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of tamsulosin, solifenacin, and combination of both in reducing double-J stent-related lower urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods. A total of 338 patients with double-J ureteral stenting were randomly divided, postoperatively, into 4 groups. In group I (n = 84), no treatment was given (control group), group II (n = 85) received tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily, group III (n = 84) received solifenacin 10 mg daily, and group IV (n = 85) received a combination of both medications. Before insertion and 2 weeks after, all patients completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life component of the IPSS (IPSS/Qol), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), and Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS) questionnaire. Results. The demographics and preoperative questionnaires scores of all groups were comparable. There were statistically significant differences in all scores in favour of groups II, III, and IV as compared to control group (P value < 0.005). Group IV showed statistically significant differences in total IPSS, QoL score, and OAB-q score as compared to groups II and III (P value < 0.001). Conclusions. Combined therapy of tamsulosin and solifenacin significantly alleviated lower urinary symptoms associated with double-J stents as compared to either medication alone. PMID:24235970

  9. Skateboard Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

  10. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  11. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  12. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  13. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  14. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  15. A critical assessment of the scientific basis, and implementation, of regulations for the safety assessment and marketing of innovative tobacco-related products.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our scientific, logistical, ethical and animal welfare-related concerns about the latest US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for existing and so-called 'new' tobacco products, aimed at reducing harmful exposures, are explained. Such claims for sales in the USA now have to be based on a wide range of information, a key part of which will increasingly be data on safety and risk. One of the pathways to achieve marketing authorisation is to demonstrate substantial equivalence (SE) with benchmark products, called predicates. However, the regulations are insufficiently transparent with regard to: a) a rationale for the cut-off date for 'old' and 'new' products, and for exempting the former from regulation; b) the scientific validity and operation of SE; c) options for product labelling to circumvent SE; d) the experimental data required to support, and criteria to judge, a claim; and e) a strategy for risk assessment/management. Scientific problems related to the traditional animal methods used in respiratory disease and inhalation toxicology, and the use of quantitative comparators of toxicity, such as the No Observed Adverse Effect Level, are discussed. We review the advantages of relevant in vitro, mechanism-based, target tissue-oriented technologies, which an advisory report of the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences largely overlooked. These benefits include: a) the availability, for every major site in the respiratory tract, of organotypic human cell-based tissue culture systems, many of which are already being used by the industry; b) the accurate determination of concentrations of test materials received by target cells; c) methods for exposure to particulate and vapour phases of smoke, separately or combined; d) the ability to study tissue-specific biotransformation; and e) the use of modern, human-focused methodologies, unaffected by species differences. How data extrapolation, for risk assessment, from tissue culture to

  16. A critical assessment of the scientific basis, and implementation, of regulations for the safety assessment and marketing of innovative tobacco-related products.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our scientific, logistical, ethical and animal welfare-related concerns about the latest US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for existing and so-called 'new' tobacco products, aimed at reducing harmful exposures, are explained. Such claims for sales in the USA now have to be based on a wide range of information, a key part of which will increasingly be data on safety and risk. One of the pathways to achieve marketing authorisation is to demonstrate substantial equivalence (SE) with benchmark products, called predicates. However, the regulations are insufficiently transparent with regard to: a) a rationale for the cut-off date for 'old' and 'new' products, and for exempting the former from regulation; b) the scientific validity and operation of SE; c) options for product labelling to circumvent SE; d) the experimental data required to support, and criteria to judge, a claim; and e) a strategy for risk assessment/management. Scientific problems related to the traditional animal methods used in respiratory disease and inhalation toxicology, and the use of quantitative comparators of toxicity, such as the No Observed Adverse Effect Level, are discussed. We review the advantages of relevant in vitro, mechanism-based, target tissue-oriented technologies, which an advisory report of the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences largely overlooked. These benefits include: a) the availability, for every major site in the respiratory tract, of organotypic human cell-based tissue culture systems, many of which are already being used by the industry; b) the accurate determination of concentrations of test materials received by target cells; c) methods for exposure to particulate and vapour phases of smoke, separately or combined; d) the ability to study tissue-specific biotransformation; and e) the use of modern, human-focused methodologies, unaffected by species differences. How data extrapolation, for risk assessment, from tissue culture to

  17. Safety Auditing and Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

  18. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety.

  19. Safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1995-01-01

    We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

  20. Global harmonization of safety regulations for the use of industrial robots-permission of collaborative operation and a related study by JNIOSH

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Tsuyoshi; HOSHI, Toshiro; IKEDA, Hiroyasu; OKABE, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) partially amended the safety regulations for use of industrial robots so that “collaborative operation” could be performed at Japanese worksites as allowed in the ISO standard for industrial robots. In order to show global harmonization of Japanese legislation on machinery safety and problems with applying ISO safety standards to Japanese worksites, this paper reports the progress of a research study which have been conducted in National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan from 2011 to the present at the request of MHLW to examine the necessity and effect of the amendment. In the first phase of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted among domestic robot manufacturers and users. The obtained results revealed their potential demand for the collaborative operation and problems concerning their risk assessment and rule-based risk reduction. To solve the problems, we propose a method based on an investigation result of the regulatory framework for safety of machinery in the European Union. Furthermore, a model of robot system capable of demonstrating the collaborative operation and risk reduction measures which is being developed to support appropriate implementation of the amendment is also described. PMID:26118854

  1. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  2. Safety and Tolerability Study of AAV2-sFLT01 in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-20

    Macular Degeneration; Age-Related Maculopathies; Age-Related Maculopathy; Maculopathies, Age-Related; Maculopathy, Age-Related; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Neovascularization; Gene Therapy; Therapy, Gene; Eye Diseases

  3. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS AND...

  4. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS AND...

  5. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY ENFORCEMENT...

  6. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  7. An Education in Electrical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.; Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching electrical safety guidelines in the process of teaching the concepts related to electricity. Discusses household current; electrical insulation; and examples of electrical safety in the home related to appliances, the bathroom, the yard and the neighborhood. (10 references) (MDH)

  8. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391): Supplement No. 19

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Supplement No. 19 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation with (1) additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 18 was issued, and (2) matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 18 was issued.

  10. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1993-10-01

    Supplement No. 12 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County, Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation of (1) additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 11 was issued, and (2) matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 11 was issued.

  11. [Discussion about relativity between post-marketed safety outcome and treatment course of traditional Chinese medicine drugs on basis of reinforced urn processes].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Hu, Si-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2013-09-01

    Based on relevant research and development, the possibility of applying the reinforced urn processes (RUPs) statistical approach to traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) drugs safety research is discussed in this paper, primarily through theoretical discussion and simulations. Also introduced are work flows and the key points for the application of the RUPs approach. This potentially new approach has recently been applied to the target estimation of phase I human tolerance clinical trials. A traditional RUPs approach has also been widely applied in the precise point-estimation of allowable longest treatment courses, according to the particular safety outcomes of post-marketed TCM.

  12. Archetypes for Organisational Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marais, Karen; Leveson, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a framework using system dynamics to model the dynamic behavior of organizations in accident analysis. Most current accident analysis techniques are event-based and do not adequately capture the dynamic complexity and non-linear interactions that characterize accidents in complex systems. In this paper we propose a set of system safety archetypes that model common safety culture flaws in organizations, i.e., the dynamic behaviour of organizations that often leads to accidents. As accident analysis and investigation tools, the archetypes can be used to develop dynamic models that describe the systemic and organizational factors contributing to the accident. The archetypes help clarify why safety-related decisions do not always result in the desired behavior, and how independent decisions in different parts of the organization can combine to impact safety.

  13. Impact of Safety-Related Dose Reductions or Discontinuations on Sustained Virologic Response in HCV-Infected Patients: Results from the GUARD-C Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Graham R.; Coppola, Carmine; Derbala, Moutaz; Ferenci, Peter; Orlandini, Alessandra; Reddy, K. Rajender; Tallarico, Ludovico; Shiffman, Mitchell L.; Ahlers, Silke; Bakalos, Georgios; Hassanein, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, peginterferon alfa/ribavirin remains relevant in many resource-constrained settings. The non-randomized GUARD-C cohort investigated baseline predictors of safety-related dose reductions or discontinuations (sr-RD) and their impact on sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients receiving peginterferon alfa/ribavirin in routine practice. Methods A total of 3181 HCV-mono-infected treatment-naive patients were assigned to 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon alfa/ribavirin by their physician. Patients were categorized by time-to-first sr-RD (Week 4/12). Detailed analyses of the impact of sr-RD on SVR24 (HCV RNA <50 IU/mL) were conducted in 951 Caucasian, noncirrhotic genotype (G)1 patients assigned to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin for 48 weeks. The probability of SVR24 was identified by a baseline scoring system (range: 0–9 points) on which scores of 5 to 9 and <5 represent high and low probability of SVR24, respectively. Results SVR24 rates were 46.1% (754/1634), 77.1% (279/362), 68.0% (514/756), and 51.3% (203/396), respectively, in G1, 2, 3, and 4 patients. Overall, 16.9% and 21.8% patients experienced ≥1 sr-RD for peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, respectively. Among Caucasian noncirrhotic G1 patients: female sex, lower body mass index, pre-existing cardiovascular/pulmonary disease, and low hematological indices were prognostic factors of sr-RD; SVR24 was lower in patients with ≥1 vs. no sr-RD by Week 4 (37.9% vs. 54.4%; P = 0.0046) and Week 12 (41.7% vs. 55.3%; P = 0.0016); sr-RD by Week 4/12 significantly reduced SVR24 in patients with scores <5 but not ≥5. Conclusions In conclusion, sr-RD to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin significantly impacts on SVR24 rates in treatment-naive G1 noncirrhotic Caucasian patients. Baseline characteristics can help select patients with a high probability of SVR24 and a low probability of sr-RD with

  14. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  15. Science and Safety: 'Acceptable' Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Stresses ways to answer questions related to widespread publicity - are nuclear reactors safe, will dangerous research in genetic manipulation be banned? - with emphasis on true meaning of safety as related to risks. (EB)

  16. Total safety management: An approach to improving safety culture

    SciTech Connect

    Blush, S.M. )

    1993-01-01

    A little over 4 yr ago, Admiral James D. Watkins became Secretary of Energy. President Bush, who had appointed him, informed Watkins that his principal task would be to clean up the nuclear weapons complex and put the US Department of Energy (DOE) back in the business of producing tritium for the nation's nuclear deterrent. Watkins recognized that in order to achieve these objectives, he would have to substantially improve the DOE's safety culture. Safety culture is a relatively new term. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) used it in a 1986 report on the root causes of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In 1990, the IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group issued a document focusing directly on safety culture. It provides guidelines to the international nuclear community for measuring the effectiveness of safety culture in nuclear organizations. Safety culture has two principal aspects: an organizational framework conducive to safety and the necessary organizational and individual attitudes that promote safety. These obviously go hand in hand. An organization must create the right framework to foster the right attitudes, but individuals must have the right attitudes to create the organizational framework that will support a good safety culture. The difficulty in developing such a synergistic relationship suggests that achieving and sustaining a strong safety culture is not easy, particularly in an organization whose safety culture is in serious disrepair.

  17. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  18. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  19. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 18

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    In June 1982, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff (NRC staff or staff) issued a Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0847, regarding the application by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA or the applicant) for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Each of the following sections and appendices of this supplement is numbered the same as the section or appendix of the SER that is being updated, and the discussions are supplementary to, and not in lieu of, the discussion in the SER, unless otherwise noted. Accordingly, Appendix A continues the chronology of the safety review. Appendix E lists principal contributors to this supplement. Appendix FF is added in this supplement. The other appendices are not changed by this supplement.

  20. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  1. Basic Program Elements for Federal employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and related matters; Subpart I for Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    OSHA is issuing a final rule amending the Basic Program Elements to require Federal agencies to submit their occupational injury and illness recordkeeping information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and OSHA on an annual basis. The information, which is already required to be created and maintained by Federal agencies, will be used by BLS to aggregate injury and illness information throughout the Federal government. OSHA will use the information to identify Federal establishments with high incidence rates for targeted inspection, and assist in determining the most effective safety and health training for Federal employees. The final rule also interprets several existing basic program elements in our regulations to clarify requirements applicable to Federal agencies, amends the date when Federal agencies must submit to the Secretary of Labor their annual report on occupational safety and health programs, amends the date when the Secretary of Labor must submit to the President the annual report on Federal agency safety and health, and clarifies that Federal agencies must include uncompensated volunteers when reporting and recording occupational injuries and illnesses.

  2. Incongruity and Provisional Safety: Thinking through Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconceive safety as a form of relation embedded in particular ways of speaking, listening and thinking. Moving away from safety as a relation that is achieved once and for all and afterwards remains safe avoids some of the disappointments of discourses of safety that seem to promise once a risk is taken or a gap is…

  3. Online Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Describes provisions of Children's Internet Protection Act, which school districts are required to implement on or before October 31, 2001, involving the development and public dissemination of federally mandated Internet-safety policy to prevent minors from accessing inappropriate and harmful material. Provides suggestions to protect children…

  4. Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  5. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…

  6. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  7. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Healthcare-associated Infections HIV / AIDS Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... the Issue Related Pages February 2014 43% Motor vehicle deaths among children age 12 and under decreased ...

  9. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  10. Physics and Automobile Safety Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortman, Peter; Witt, C. Edwin

    This collection of problems and experiments related to automobile safety belt usage is intended to serve as a supplement to a standard physics course. Its purpose is to convince the students that the use of safety belts to prevent injury or death is firmly supported by the considerations of physical quantities and laws which apply in a collision…

  11. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the third of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  12. Tractor Safety. Unit A-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…

  13. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the second of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  14. SSC Safety Review Document

    SciTech Connect

    Toohig, T.E.

    1988-11-01

    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  15. Seismic Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  16. Developing a patient safety plan.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rosanne; Ip, Ivan; Christoffersen, Emily; Shaver, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Many healthcare organizations are focused on the development of a strategic plan to enhance patient safety. The challenge is creating a plan that focuses on patient safety outcomes, integrating the multitude of internal and external drivers of patient safety, aligning improvement initiatives to create synergy and providing a framework for meaningful measurement of intermediate and long-term results while remaining consistent with an organizational mission, vision and strategic goals. This strategy-focused approach recognizes that patient safety initiatives completed in isolation will not provide consistent progress toward a goal, and that a balanced approach is required that includes the development and systematic execution of bundles of related initiatives. This article outlines the process used by Hamilton Health Sciences in adopting Kaplan and Norton's strategy map methodology underpinned by their balanced scorecard framework to create a comprehensive multi-year plan for patient safety that integrates best practice literature from patient safety, quality and organizational development. PMID:18382157

  17. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 2, Chapters 15--22 and appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the system 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of ABB-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design include: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 2, contains Chapters 15 through 22 and Appendices A through E.

  18. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 1, Chapters 1--14

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the System 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of Abb-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design included: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors, and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 1, contains Chapters 1 through 14 of this report.

  19. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  20. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W.

    1990-01-01

    Safety issues specifically related to the analytical laboratory are discussed including hazardous reagents, transferring samples, cleaning apparatus, eye protection, and equipment damage. Special attention is given to techniques which not only endanger the technician but also endanger expensive equipment. (CW)

  1. Another look at safety climate and safety behavior: deepening the cognitive and social mediator mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fugas, Carla S; Silva, Sílvia A; Meliá, José L

    2012-03-01

    In this study, safety climate literature and the theory of planned behavior were combined to explore the cognitive and social mechanisms that mediate the relationship between organizational safety climate and compliance and proactive safety behaviors. The sample consisted of 356 workers from a transportation organization. Using a multiple mediation design, the results revealed that proactive and compliance safety behaviors are explained by different patterns of combinations of individual and situational factors related to safety. On the one hand, the relationship between organizational safety climate and proactive safety behaviors was mediated by coworkers' descriptive norms and attitudes toward safety. On the other hand, supervisors' injunctive safety norms and perceived behavioral control were the mediator variables between organizational safety climate and compliance safety behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Another look at safety climate and safety behavior: deepening the cognitive and social mediator mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fugas, Carla S; Silva, Sílvia A; Meliá, José L

    2012-03-01

    In this study, safety climate literature and the theory of planned behavior were combined to explore the cognitive and social mechanisms that mediate the relationship between organizational safety climate and compliance and proactive safety behaviors. The sample consisted of 356 workers from a transportation organization. Using a multiple mediation design, the results revealed that proactive and compliance safety behaviors are explained by different patterns of combinations of individual and situational factors related to safety. On the one hand, the relationship between organizational safety climate and proactive safety behaviors was mediated by coworkers' descriptive norms and attitudes toward safety. On the other hand, supervisors' injunctive safety norms and perceived behavioral control were the mediator variables between organizational safety climate and compliance safety behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22269531

  3. Safety of Gadobutrol

    PubMed Central

    Endrikat, Jan; Vogtlaender, Kai; Dohanish, Susan; Balzer, Thomas; Breuer, Josy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to provide a systematic safety analysis of gadobutrol after more than 29 million applications in clinical routine. Materials and Methods Forty-two clinical development phase II to IV studies on gadobutrol or comparator and the postmarketing safety surveillance database for gadobutrol (1998–2015) were analyzed. Adverse events (AEs) and drug-related AEs were evaluated in the clinical development database and spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the postmarketing database. Subgroup analyses were run on patients with special medical history and on patients of different age groups. Results In the clinical development studies, 6809 and 2184 patients received gadobutrol or comparators, respectively. The incidence of drug-related AEs was 3.5% for both groups. With the exception of nausea (0.7% related cases in both groups), all other drug-related AEs were 0.3% or less in both groups. Hypersensitivity reactions were sporadic (<0.1%). Patients with history of allergies to contrast agents experienced slightly more drug-related AEs. No differences were seen between age groups. The overall reporting rate of ADRs from postmarketing surveillance was 0.05%. The most frequent ADRs were anaphylactoid/hypersensitivity reactions, nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. For 3 single-agent reports of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, using a conservative approach, association with gadobutrol could not be excluded. Conclusions Gadobutrol is well tolerated and has a favorable safety profile for patients of all age groups. PMID:26964075

  4. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. First-in-man safety and pharmacokinetics of synthetic ozonide OZ439 demonstrates an improved exposure profile relative to other peroxide antimalarials

    PubMed Central

    Moehrle, Joerg J; Duparc, Stephan; Siethoff, Christoph; Giersbergen, Paul L M; Craft, J Carl; Arbe-Barnes, Sarah; Charman, Susan A; Gutierrez, Maria; Wittlin, Sergio; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    Aims To assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of a new synthetic ozonide antimalarial, OZ439, in a first-in-man, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. Methods OZ439 was administered as single oral daily doses of a capsule formulation (50–1200 mg) or an oral dispersion (400–1600 mg, fed and fasted states) and for up to 3 days as an oral dispersion (200–800 mg day−1). Plasma concentrations of OZ439 and its metabolites were measured by LC-MS. Results The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of OZ439 was characterized by a tmax of around 3 h, followed by a multiphasic profile with a terminal half-life of 25–30 h. The PK parameters were approximately dose proportional for each group and profiles of the metabolites followed a similar pattern to that of the parent compound. Following dosing for 3 days, accumulation was less than two-fold but steady-state was not achieved. In the presence of food, no effect was observed on the t1/2 of OZ439 while the exposure was increased by 3 to 4.5-fold. Exposure was higher and inter-subject variability was reduced when OZ439 was administered as an oral dispersion compared with a capsule. The urinary clearance of OZ439 and its metabolites was found to be negligible and OZ439 did not induce CYP3A4. The antimalarial activity profiles of a subset of serum samples suggested that the major antimalarial activity originated from OZ439 rather than from any of the metabolites. Conclusion The safety and pharmacokinetic profile of OZ439 merits progression to phase 2a proof of concept studies in the target population of acute uncomplicated malaria. PMID:22759078

  6. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  7. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  8. A Product Safety Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  9. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1415 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety devices. 1926.1415 Section 1926.1415 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1415 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety devices. 1926.1415 Section 1926.1415 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1415 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety devices. 1926.1415 Section 1926.1415 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1415 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety devices. 1926.1415 Section 1926.1415 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  14. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  15. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  16. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  17. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  18. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2511 - Personnel safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personnel safety. 193.2511 Section 193.2511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2511 - Personnel safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personnel safety. 193.2511 Section 193.2511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2511 - Personnel safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personnel safety. 193.2511 Section 193.2511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  2. CONVEYOR SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.

  3. 76 FR 71077 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of... advise the Secretary of Labor (Secretary) on all matters relating to the occupational safety and......

  4. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SAFETY CULTURE IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD JA JR

    2009-01-16

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and communicated to contractors participating in a year long pilot project. After a year, lessons learned will be collected and a path forward determined. The goal of this effort was to achieve improved safety and mission performance through ISMS continuous improvement. The focus of ISMS improvement was safety culture improvement building on operating experience from similar industries such as the domestic and international commercial nuclear and chemical industry.

  5. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER.

  6. A literature review of safety culture.

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  7. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  8. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  9. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  10. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  11. Comparing two levels of closed system suction pressure in ICU patients: Evaluating the relative safety of higher values of suction pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yazdannik, Ahmad R.; Haghighat, Somayeh; Saghaei, Mahmoud; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most common supportive measures in intensive care units (ICU). ETS may be associated with complications including hypoxia and tachycardia. Closed system suctioning (CSS) decreases the rate of cardiorespiratory complication mainly due to continuation of ventilatory support and oxygenation during procedure. CSS has questionable efficacy, therefore higher values of negative pressure has been recommended to enhance the efficacy of CSS. This study was designed to evaluate the effects on gas exchange of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure compared with 100 mmHg in CSS. Materials and Methods: Fifty mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients were selected for the study. Two consecutive ten seconds CSS using suction pressures of 100 and 200 mmHg, in random order applied in each subject with the two hours wash out period. Effects of two levels of suction pressure on gas exchange were measured by recording the SPo2 values at 4 times. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance didn't show any significant difference between two levels of pressure (P = 0.315), but within each groups (100 and 200 mmHg) SPO2 changes was significant (P = 0.000). There was a mild but significant and transient increase in heart rate following both suction pressures, but no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: The results show that CSS with suction pressure 200 mmHg has no detrimental effect on cardiorespiratory function of MV ICU patients. Since the safety of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure was approved, using 200 mmHg suction pressures is recommended for ETS of MV patients. PMID:23983740

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC`s extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA`s operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation.

  13. Assuring the quality of safety analyses and safety analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Johnson

    2000-05-03

    Planning, preparation, and submittal of safety analysis reports might be pursued in a manner similar to a quality-related procurement, where customer needs, expectations and acceptance criteria are established in advance. Then the product/service provider, the contractor, should apply various quality control processes to assure the desired characteristics of the product safety analysis documents. Improving the quality and acceptability to DOE of safety documents at first submittal should result in a more expeditious DOE review and approval process, thereby reducing costs of network and recycle through reviews.

  14. Assuring the Quality of Safety Analyses and Safety Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Edwin

    2000-05-01

    Planning, preparation, and submittal of safety analysis reports might be pursued in a manner similar to a quality-related procurement, where customer needs, expectations and acceptance criteria are established in advance. Then the product/service provider, the contractor, should apply various quality control processes to assure the desired characteristics of the product safety analysis documents. Improving the quality and acceptability to DOE of safety documents at first submittal should result in a more expeditious DOE review and approval process, thereby reducing costs of network and recycle through reviews.

  15. Economic Issues on Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, Felice; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work. PMID:27800432

  16. Racial discrimination and alcohol-related behavior in urban transit operators: findings from the San Francisco Muni Health and Safety Study.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, I H; Ragland, D R; Greiner, B A; Fisher, J M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A growing body of literature is documenting the health effects of racial discrimination. The authors investigated the association between racial discrimination and alcohol-related behavior in a sample of urban transit operators. METHODS: Using data from a 1993-1995 cross-sectional study of transit operators in San Francisco, California, the authors analyzed responses to two sets of questions about racial discrimination; the first set focused on reaction to unfair treatment and the second on arenas, or domains, of discrimination. Alcohol-related variables were: number of drinks per month, heavy drinking, alcohol dependence, and negative consequences of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Operators who reported five or more domains of discrimination drank an average of 13.4 more drinks per month than those who reported no domains of discrimination (P = 0.01). Similarly, they were more likely to be heavy drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14, 4.09) and dependent on alcohol (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.08, 3.79) than operators who reported no domains of discrimination. The number of domains in which operators reported having experienced discrimination was not related to sex, age, household income, job seniority, or marital status, but varied significantly by educational level and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Data from a sample of urban transit operators showed an association between the number of domains of discrimination and some alcohol-related outcomes, but not others. PMID:10590767

  17. How safe is the safety paradigm?

    PubMed Central

    Arah, O; Klazinga, N

    2004-01-01

    

 This paper reviews safety initiatives in the health systems of the UK, Canada, Australia, and the US. Initiatives to tackle safety shortcomings involve public-private collaborations. Patient safety agencies (to institute learning, action and safety culture), adverse event reporting and, to a lesser extent, safety related performance indicators are currently used to design safer health systems. Their benefits are mixed, but there is little debate as to their possible side effects. Foreseeable adverse effects of multiple safety organisations stem from them being too many, too vague, too narrowly focused, threatened by the medical practice environment, and too optimistic. Safety related performance indicators are most developed in the US but suffer from inadequacies of administrative data, underreporting, variable indicator definitions, "extended" use, and low sensitivity of the diagnosis coding system, and arguable preventability of the prescribed conditions. A critical appraisal of the implications of these deficiencies is important to assure the safety of current health system safety initiatives and to establish evidence based safety. It is necessary to embed health system safety (as well as patient safety) in the societal culture, structures, and policies which promote effective, user centred, high performance care while allowing for healthy innovation. PMID:15175496

  18. FY 1991 safety program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In FY 1991, the NASA Safety Division continued efforts to enhance the quality and productivity of its safety oversight function. Recent initiatives set forth in areas such as training, risk management, safety assurance, operational safety, and safety information systems have matured into viable programs contributing to the safety and success of activities throughout the Agency. Efforts continued to develop a centralized intra-agency safety training program with establishment of the NASA Safety Training Center at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The objective is to provide quality training for NASA employees and contractors on a broad range of safety-related topics. Courses developed by the Training Center will be presented at various NASA locations to minimize travel and reach the greatest number of people at the least cost. In FY 1991, as part of the ongoing efforts to enhance the total quality of NASA's safety work force, the Safety Training Center initiated development of a Certified Safety Professional review course. This course provides a comprehensive review of the skills and knowledge that well-rounded safety professionals must possess to qualify for professional certification. FY 1992 will see the course presented to NASA and contractor employees at all installations via the NASA Video Teleconference System.

  19. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  20. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

  1. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed.

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  3. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  4. 48-Week Efficacy and Safety of Dolutegravir Relative to Commonly Used Third Agents in Treatment-Naive HIV-1–Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipen A.; Snedecor, Sonya J.; Tang, Wing Yu; Sudharshan, Lavanya; Lim, Jessica W.; Cuffe, Robert; Pulgar, Sonia; Gilchrist, Kim A.; Camejo, Rodrigo Refoios; Stephens, Jennifer; Nichols, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Background A network meta-analysis can provide estimates of relative efficacy for treatments not directly studied in head-to-head randomized controlled trials. We estimated the relative efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) versus third agents currently recommended by guidelines, including ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r), efavirenz (EFV), cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir (EVG/c), ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), raltegravir (RAL), and rilpivirine (RPV), in treatment-naive HIV-1–infected patients. Methods A systematic review of published literature was conducted to identify phase 3/4 randomized controlled clinical trials (up to August 2013) including at least one third agent of interest in combination with a backbone nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) regimen. Bayesian fixed-effect network meta-analysis models adjusting for the type of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine [TDF/FTC] or abacavir/lamivudine [ABC/3TC]) were used to evaluate week 48 efficacy (HIV-RNA suppression to <50 copies/mL and change in CD4+ cells/µL) and safety (lipid changes, adverse events, and discontinuations due to adverse events) of DTG relative to all other treatments. Sensitivity analyses assessing the impact of NRTI treatment adjustment and random-effects models were performed. Results Thirty-one studies including 17,000 patients were combined in the analysis. Adjusting for the effect of NRTI backbone, treatment with DTG resulted in significantly higher odds of virologic suppression (HIV RNA<50 copies/mL) and increase in CD4+ cells/µL versus ATV/r, DRV/r, EFV, LPV/r, and RPV. Dolutegravir had better or equivalent changes in total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and lower odds of adverse events and discontinuation due to adverse events compared to all treatments. Random-effects and unadjusted models resulted in similar conclusions. Conclusion Three clinical

  5. Using Hydrogen Safety Best Practices and Learning from Safety Events

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Quick, Kathleen A.

    2011-02-28

    A best practice is a technique or methodology that has reliably led to a desired result. A wealth of experience regarding the safe use and handling of hydrogen exists as a result of an extensive history in a wide variety of industrial and aerospace settings. Hydrogen Safety Best Practices (www.h2bestpractices.org) captures this vast knowledge base and makes it publically available to those working with hydrogen and related systems, including those just starting to work with hydrogen. This online manual is organized under a number of hierarchical technical content categories. References, including publications and other online links, that deal with the safety aspects of hydrogen are compiled for easy access. This paper discusses the development of Hydrogen Safety Best Practices as a safety knowledge tool, the nature of its technical content, and the steps taken to enhance its value and usefulness. Specific safety event examples are provided to illustrate the link between technical content in the online best practices manual and a companion safety knowledge tool, Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned (www.h2incidents.org), which encourages the sharing of lessons learned and other safety event information.

  6. Using Hydrogen Safety Best Practices and Learning from Safety Events

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Quick, Kathleen A.

    2009-09-16

    A best practice is a technique or methodology that has reliably led to a desired result. A wealth of experience regarding the safe use and handling of hydrogen exists as a result of an extensive history in a wide variety of industrial and aerospace settings. Hydrogen Safety Best Practices (www.h2bestpractices.org) captures this vast knowledge base and makes it publically available to those working with hydrogen and related systems, including those just starting to work with hydrogen. This online manual is organized under a number of hierarchical technical content categories. References, including publications and other online links, that deal with the safety aspects of hydrogen are compiled for easy access. This paper discusses the development of Hydrogen Safety Best Practices as a safety knowledge tool, the nature of its technical content, and the steps taken to enhance its value and usefulness. Specific safety event examples are provided to illustrate the link between technical content in the online best practices manual and a companion safety knowledge tool, Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned (www.h2incidents.org), which encourages the sharing of lessons learned and other safety event information.

  7. NASA Range Safety Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2007-01-01

    As always, Range Safety has been involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events. Throughout the year, we have strived to meet our goal of protecting the public, the workforce, and property during range operations. During the past year, Range Safety was involved in the development, implementation, and support of range safety policy. Range Safety training curriculum development was completed this year and several courses were presented. Tailoring exercises concerning the Constellation Program were undertaken with representatives from the Constellation Program, the 45th Space Wing, and the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel. Range Safety actively supported the Range Commanders Council and it subgroups and remained involved in updating policy related to flight safety systems and flight safety analysis. In addition, Range Safety supported the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel and addressed policy concerning unmanned aircraft systems. Launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, the Eastern and Western ranges, Dryden Flight Research Center, and Wallops Flight Facility were addressed. Range Safety was also involved in the evaluation of a number of research and development efforts, including the space-based range (formerly STARS), the autonomous flight safety system, the enhanced flight termination system, and the joint advanced range safety system. Flight safety system challenges were evaluated. Range Safety's role in the Space Florida Customer Assistance Service Program for the Eastern Range was covered along with our support for the Space Florida Educational Balloon Release Program. We hope you have found the web-based format both accessible and easy to use. Anyone having questions or wishing to have an article included in the 2008 Range Safety Annual Report should contact Alan Dumont, the NASA Range Safety Program Manager located at the Kennedy Space Center, or Michael Dook at NASA Headquarters.

  8. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  9. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  10. 75 FR 26266 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... improvements in the delivery of occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section...

  11. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  12. Patient safety: the doctor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, David; Olsha, Oded; Goldin, Ilya; Danin, Sigalit

    2015-01-01

    Medical errors can be defined as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim. Beyond their economic cost and their cost in human lives, errors cause loss of trust in the healthcare system by patients and diminished satisfaction by both patients and health professionals. There are many evidence-based safety-oriented behaviours and interventions that are easily implemented, such as ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion, prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection and more. In vascular access, the development of research in patient safety has raised a variety of issues requiring study in order to provide the optimal patient safety approach. Patients are major contributors to their own safety, and as such, physicians should develop a new approach to involve them in the cycle of decision making through every step of their treatment. There are many opportunities along this path for the patient to be engaged in safety behaviours and for the access team to ensure such behaviours by employing simple strategies. The advent of the access centre, based on multidisciplinary teamwork, has enhanced the potential to improve patient safety by prevention of errors in planning and performing access surgery, avoiding delay in treatment of access malfunction and improving communication between the team members. However, a significant effort in research is still needed in order to implement intervention by evidence-based data focused on patient safety. PMID:25751565

  13. Patient safety: the doctor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, David; Olsha, Oded; Goldin, Ilya; Danin, Sigalit

    2015-01-01

    Medical errors can be defined as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim. Beyond their economic cost and their cost in human lives, errors cause loss of trust in the healthcare system by patients and diminished satisfaction by both patients and health professionals. There are many evidence-based safety-oriented behaviours and interventions that are easily implemented, such as ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion, prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection and more. In vascular access, the development of research in patient safety has raised a variety of issues requiring study in order to provide the optimal patient safety approach. Patients are major contributors to their own safety, and as such, physicians should develop a new approach to involve them in the cycle of decision making through every step of their treatment. There are many opportunities along this path for the patient to be engaged in safety behaviours and for the access team to ensure such behaviours by employing simple strategies. The advent of the access centre, based on multidisciplinary teamwork, has enhanced the potential to improve patient safety by prevention of errors in planning and performing access surgery, avoiding delay in treatment of access malfunction and improving communication between the team members. However, a significant effort in research is still needed in order to implement intervention by evidence-based data focused on patient safety.

  14. Seeking safety: predictors of hurricane evacuation of community-dwelling families affected by Alzheimer's disease or a related disorder in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Janelle J; Richey, Elizabeth Danforth; Castañeda, Heide

    2013-11-01

    This article explores how dyads of 186 community-dwelling individuals with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or a related disorder (ADRD) and their caregivers (dyads) plan to respond to hurricane evacuation warnings in South Florida. Predictors of dyad evacuation for a category 1-3 storm include (1) a younger age of the person with an ADRD diagnosis, (2) the caregiver living in a different residence than the person with ADRD, (3) lack of hurricane shutters, and (4) lower income. A dyad is more likely to evacuate in a category 4 or 5 hurricane if there is (1) a younger age person with an ADRD diagnosis, (2) a more recent diagnosis of ADRD, (3) a residence in an evacuation zone, and if (4) they report needing a shelter. Emergency management teams, especially those who assist with special needs shelters or other outreach programs for people with cognitive disabilities, can use these guidelines to estimate service usage and needs.

  15. 29 CFR 1924.1 - Applicable safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1 Applicable safety standards. The safety standards provided in 41 CFR part 50-204 shall have effect... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable safety standards. 1924.1 Section 1924.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  17. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  18. 49 CFR 211.61 - Informal safety inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Informal safety inquiries. 211.61 Section 211.61..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Miscellaneous Safety-Related Proceedings and Inquiries § 211.61 Informal safety inquiries. The Administrator may conduct informal safety inquiries to...

  19. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  20. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  1. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The safety audit. 385.107 Section 385.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  2. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  3. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  4. Assuring Safety in Bus Transportation--Update on Federal Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the growing use of vans for transportation by child care centers and increasing concerns about van safety. Presents information on relevant federal legislation related to motor vehicle safety and the safety standards of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Recommends that child care programs replace retiring vans with…

  5. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section 1926.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  6. 49 CFR 451.21 - Safety approval plate required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety approval plate required. 451.21 Section 451.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS TESTING AND APPROVAL OF CONTAINERS Safety Approval Plate § 451.21 Safety approval...

  7. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  8. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  9. Fleet Safety

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brian S.; Pratt, Stephanie G.; Ross, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Millions of U.S. workers are at risk for a work-related motor vehicle crash. Fatality data show that across all industries, motor vehicle crashes are consistently the leading cause of work-related fatalities. Of 43,025 work-related fatalities reported by BLS between 2003 and 2010, 10,202 were the result of single- or multiple-vehicle crashes of workers driving or riding in a vehicle on a public roadway, and 2,707 were pedestrian workers struck by a motor vehicle. During the same period, an additional 2,487 workers died in crashes that occurred off a public roadway or on industrial premises (BLS, 2013). PMID:26251557

  10. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  11. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  12. AFR-100 safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, T.; Moisseytsev, A.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Fast Reactor-100 (AFR-100) is Argonne National Laboratory's 250 MWth metal-fueled modular sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor concept. [1] A series of accident sequences that focused on the AFR-100's ability to provide protection against reactor damage during low probability accident sequences resulting from multiple equipment failures were examined. Protected and Unprotected Loss of Flow (PLOF and ULOF) and Unprotected Transient Over-Power (UTOP) accidents were simulated using the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 safety analysis code. The large heat capacity of the sodium in the pool-type reactor allows the AFR-100 to absorb large amounts of energy during a PLOF with relatively small temperature increases throughout the system. During a ULOF with a 25-second flow halving time, coolant and cladding temperatures peak around 720 deg. C within the first minute before reactivity feedback effects decrease power to match the flow. Core radial expansion and fuel Doppler provide the necessary feedback during the UTOP to bring the system back to critical before system temperatures exceed allowable limits. Simulation results indicate that adequate ULOF safety margins exist for the AFR-100 design with flow halving times of twenty-five seconds. Significant safety margins are maintained for PLOF accidents as well as UTOP accidents if a rod stop is used. (authors)

  13. The safety of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Snydman, David R

    2008-02-01

    Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used. PMID:18181712

  14. Oncology pharmacy units: a safety policy for handling hazardous drugs and related waste in low- and middle-income African countries—Angolan experience

    PubMed Central

    da Conceição, Ana Vaz; Bernardo, Dora; Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Miguel, Fernando; Bessa, Fernanda; Monteiro, Fernando; Santos, Cristina; Oliveira, Blasques; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2015-01-01

    In African countries, higher rates of late-stage cancers at the time of first diagnosis are a reality. In this context, hazardous drugs (HDs), such as chemotherapy, play an important role and have immense benefits for patients’ treatment. HDs should be handled under specific conditions. At least a class 5 environment primary engineering control (PEC), physically located in an appropriate buffer area, is mandatory for sterile HDs compounding, as well as administrative control, personal protective equipment, work practices and other engineering and environmental controls, in order to protect the environment, patient, and worker. The aim of this study is to describe the Angolan experience regarding the development of oncology pharmacy units and discuss international evidence-based guidelines on handling HDs and related waste. Measures to incorporate modern and economical solutions to upgrade or build adequate and safe facilities and staff training, in order to comply with international guidelines in this area, are crucial tasks for African countries of low and middle income. PMID:26557873

  15. Safety considerations in clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Scott, R N; Paasche, P E

    1986-01-01

    Clinical engineering is a professional specialty which emerged in the 1960s primarily in response to concern about the hazard of electrocution in hospitals. It has already developed to encompass a much broader range of topics affecting the safe and effective use of technology in health care. However, safety remains as one major focus of clinical engineering. In this paper, issues arising in relation to electrical safety and treated in considerable detail. The next major safety area of concern involves medical gases. This area is newer and, consequently, the issues are less well resolved and therefore it is treated in less detail. Other safety issues, which are numerous, await review at some time in the future.

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning. For example, the section on computer hardware and software contains specific findings related to required longer range safety-related actions. NASA can be proud of its accomplishments this past year, but must remain ever vigilant, particularly as ISS assembly begins to accelerate. The Panel will continue to focus on both the short- and long-term aspects of risk management and safety planning. This task continues to be made manageable and productive by the excellent cooperation the Panel receives from both NASA and its contractors. Particular emphasis will continue to be directed to longer term workforce and program planning issues as well as the immediate risks associated with ISS assembly and the initial flights of the X-33 and X-34. Section 2 of this report presents specific findings and recommendations generated by ASAP activities during 1998. Section 3 contains more detailed information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendix A is a current roster of Panel members, consultants, and staff. Appendix B contains NASA's response to the findings and recommendations from the 1997 ASAP Annual Report. Appendix C details the fact-finding activities of the Panel in 1998. During the year, Mr. Richard D. Blomberg was elected chair of the Panel and Vice Admiral (VADM) Robert F Dunn was elected deputy chair. VADM Bernard M. Kauderer moved from consultant to member. Mr. Charles J. Donlan retired from the Panel after many years of meritorious service. Ms. Shirley C. McCarty and Mr. Robert L. ('Hoot') Gibson joined the Panel as consultants.

  17. Defining cardiac adaptations and safety of endurance training in patients with m.3243A>G-related mitochondrial disease☆☆☆☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew G.D.; Newman, Jane H.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.; Hollingsworth, Kieren G.; Alston, Charlotte L.; Zalewski, Pawel; Klawe, Jacek J.; Blamire, Andrew M.; MacGowan, Guy A.; Keavney, Bernard D.; Bourke, John P.; Schaefer, Andrew; McFarland, Robert; Newton, Julia L.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Taylor, Robert W.; Trenell, Michael I.; Gorman, Gráinne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac hypertrophic remodelling and systolic dysfunction are common in patients with mitochondrial disease and independent predictors of morbidity and early mortality. Endurance exercise training improves symptoms and skeletal muscle function, yet cardiac adaptations are unknown. Methods and results Before and after 16-weeks of training, exercise capacity, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and phosphorus-31 spectroscopy, disease burden, fatigue, quality of life, heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) were assessed in 10 adult patients with m.3243A>G-related mitochondrial disease, and compared to age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects. At baseline, patients had increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI, p < 0.05) and LV mass to end-diastolic volume ratio, and decreased longitudinal shortening and myocardial phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate ratio (all p < 0.01). Peak arterial–venous oxygen difference (p < 0.05), oxygen uptake (VO2) and power were decreased in patients (both p < 0.01) with no significant difference in cardiac power output. All patients remained stable and completed ≥ 80% sessions. With training, there were similar proportional increases in peak VO2, anaerobic threshold and work capacity in patients and controls. LVMI increased in both groups (p < 0.01), with no significant effect on myocardial function or bioenergetics. Pre- and post-exercise training, HRV and BPV demonstrated increased low frequency and decreased high frequency components in patients compared to controls (all p < 0.05). Conclusion Patients with mitochondrial disease and controls achieved similar proportional benefits of exercise training, without evidence of disease progression, or deleterious effects on cardiac function. Reduced exercise capacity is largely mediated through skeletal muscle dysfunction at baseline and sympathetic over-activation may be important in pathogenesis. PMID:23742928

  18. Relative bioavailability and safety of aripiprazole lauroxil, a novel once-monthly, long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, following deltoid and gluteal administration in adult subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turncliff, Ryan; Hard, Marjie; Du, Yangchun; Risinger, Robert; Ehrich, Elliot W

    2014-11-01

    Aripiprazole lauroxil is a linker lipid ester of aripiprazole for extended-release intramuscular (IM) injection. This multicenter, randomized, open-label study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), relative bioavailability, and tolerability of a single IM deltoid or gluteal injection of aripiprazole lauroxil in adult subjects with chronic stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Forty-six subjects were randomized 1:1 to aripiprazole lauroxil 441 mg IM in the deltoid or gluteal muscle. Samples were collected through 89 days post-dose to measure levels of aripiprazole lauroxil, N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole, aripiprazole, and dehydro-aripiprazole. Forty-three (93.5%) subjects completed all study assessments; most were CYP2D6 extensive or immediate metabolizers (96%); two (4%) were poor metabolizers. The PK of aripiprazole following aripiprazole lauroxil was characterized by a steady rise in plasma concentrations (Tmax 44-50 days), a broad peak, and prolonged exposure attributable to the dissolution of aripiprazole lauroxil and formation rate-limited elimination of aripiprazole (t1/2=15.4-19.2 days). Deltoid vs. gluteal administration resulted in slightly higher Cmax aripiprazole concentrations [1.31 (1.02, 1.67); GMR 90% CI]; total exposure (AUCinf) was similar between sites of administration [0.84 (0.57, 1.24)]. N-hydroxymethyl-aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole exposures were 10% and 33-36%, respectively, of aripiprazole exposure following aripiprazole lauroxil. The most common adverse events were injection site pain in 20 subjects (43.5%) and headache in 6 subjects (13.0%) of mild intensity occurring at a similar rate with deltoid and gluteal administration. Exposure ranges with deltoid and gluteal administration overlapped, suggesting that these sites may be used interchangeably. Despite a higher incidence of adverse events, deltoid muscle provides a more accessible injection site and could facilitate patient acceptance.

  19. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

  20. 2009 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This year, NASA Range Safety transitioned to a condensed annual report to allow for Secretariat support to the Range Safety Group, Risk Committee. Although much shorter than in previous years, this report contains full-length articles concerning various subject areas, as well as links to past reports. Additionally, summaries from various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year are presented, as well as information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2009 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  1. Efficacy and safety of open-label etanercept on extended oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis: part 1 (week 12) of the CLIPPER study

    PubMed Central

    Horneff, Gerd; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Constantin, Tamas; Foeldvari, Ivan; Vojinovic, Jelena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav G; Dehoorne, Joke; Panaviene, Violeta; Susic, Gordana; Stanevica, Valda; Kobusinska, Katarzyna; Zuber, Zbigniew; Mouy, Richard; Rumba-Rozenfelde, Ingrida; Breda, Luciana; Dolezalova, Pavla; Job-Deslandre, Chantal; Wulffraat, Nico; Alvarez, Daniel; Zang, Chuanbo; Wajdula, Joseph; Woodworth, Deborah; Vlahos, Bonnie; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of etanercept (ETN) in paediatric subjects with extended oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (eoJIA), enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), or psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods CLIPPER is an ongoing, Phase 3b, open-label, multicentre study; the 12-week (Part 1) data are reported here. Subjects with eoJIA (2–17 years), ERA (12–17 years), or PsA (12–17 years) received ETN 0.8 mg/kg once weekly (maximum 50 mg). Primary endpoint was the percentage of subjects achieving JIA American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 30 criteria at week 12; secondary outcomes included JIA ACR 50/70/90 and inactive disease. Results 122/127 (96.1%) subjects completed the study (mean age 11.7 years). JIA ACR 30 (95% CI) was achieved by 88.6% (81.6% to 93.6%) of subjects overall; 89.7% (78.8% to 96.1%) with eoJIA, 83.3% (67.2% to 93.6%) with ERA and 93.1% (77.2% to 99.2%) with PsA. For eoJIA, ERA, or PsA categories, the ORs of ETN vs the historical placebo data were 26.2, 15.1 and 40.7, respectively. Overall JIA ACR 50, 70, 90 and inactive disease were achieved by 81.1, 61.5, 29.8 and 12.1%, respectively. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), infections, and serious AEs, were reported in 45 (35.4%), 58 (45.7%), and 4 (3.1%), subjects, respectively. Serious AEs were one case each of abdominal pain, bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and pyelocystitis. One subject reported herpes zoster and another varicella. No differences in safety were observed across the JIA categories. Conclusions ETN treatment for 12 weeks was effective and well tolerated in paediatric subjects with eoJIA, ERA and PsA, with no unexpected safety findings. PMID:23696632

  2. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  3. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  4. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  5. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  6. Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

  7. Measuring and improving patient safety through health information technology: The Health IT Safety Framework.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hardeep; Sittig, Dean F

    2016-04-01

    Health information technology (health IT) has potential to improve patient safety but its implementation and use has led to unintended consequences and new safety concerns. A key challenge to improving safety in health IT-enabled healthcare systems is to develop valid, feasible strategies to measure safety concerns at the intersection of health IT and patient safety. In response to the fundamental conceptual and methodological gaps related to both defining and measuring health IT-related patient safety, we propose a new framework, the Health IT Safety (HITS) measurement framework, to provide a conceptual foundation for health IT-related patient safety measurement, monitoring, and improvement. The HITS framework follows both Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) and sociotechnical approaches and calls for new measures and measurement activities to address safety concerns in three related domains: 1) concerns that are unique and specific to technology (e.g., to address unsafe health IT related to unavailable or malfunctioning hardware or software); 2) concerns created by the failure to use health IT appropriately or by misuse of health IT (e.g. to reduce nuisance alerts in the electronic health record (EHR)), and 3) the use of health IT to monitor risks, health care processes and outcomes and identify potential safety concerns before they can harm patients (e.g. use EHR-based algorithms to identify patients at risk for medication errors or care delays). The framework proposes to integrate both retrospective and prospective measurement of HIT safety with an organization's existing clinical risk management and safety programs. It aims to facilitate organizational learning, comprehensive 360 degree assessment of HIT safety that includes vendor involvement, refinement of measurement tools and strategies, and shared responsibility to identify problems and implement solutions. A long term framework goal is to enable rigorous measurement that helps achieve the safety

  8. Measuring and improving patient safety through health information technology: The Health IT Safety Framework.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hardeep; Sittig, Dean F

    2016-04-01

    Health information technology (health IT) has potential to improve patient safety but its implementation and use has led to unintended consequences and new safety concerns. A key challenge to improving safety in health IT-enabled healthcare systems is to develop valid, feasible strategies to measure safety concerns at the intersection of health IT and patient safety. In response to the fundamental conceptual and methodological gaps related to both defining and measuring health IT-related patient safety, we propose a new framework, the Health IT Safety (HITS) measurement framework, to provide a conceptual foundation for health IT-related patient safety measurement, monitoring, and improvement. The HITS framework follows both Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) and sociotechnical approaches and calls for new measures and measurement activities to address safety concerns in three related domains: 1) concerns that are unique and specific to technology (e.g., to address unsafe health IT related to unavailable or malfunctioning hardware or software); 2) concerns created by the failure to use health IT appropriately or by misuse of health IT (e.g. to reduce nuisance alerts in the electronic health record (EHR)), and 3) the use of health IT to monitor risks, health care processes and outcomes and identify potential safety concerns before they can harm patients (e.g. use EHR-based algorithms to identify patients at risk for medication errors or care delays). The framework proposes to integrate both retrospective and prospective measurement of HIT safety with an organization's existing clinical risk management and safety programs. It aims to facilitate organizational learning, comprehensive 360 degree assessment of HIT safety that includes vendor involvement, refinement of measurement tools and strategies, and shared responsibility to identify problems and implement solutions. A long term framework goal is to enable rigorous measurement that helps achieve the safety

  9. Measuring and improving patient safety through health information technology: The Health IT Safety Framework

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology (health IT) has potential to improve patient safety but its implementation and use has led to unintended consequences and new safety concerns. A key challenge to improving safety in health IT-enabled healthcare systems is to develop valid, feasible strategies to measure safety concerns at the intersection of health IT and patient safety. In response to the fundamental conceptual and methodological gaps related to both defining and measuring health IT-related patient safety, we propose a new framework, the Health IT Safety (HITS) measurement framework, to provide a conceptual foundation for health IT-related patient safety measurement, monitoring, and improvement. The HITS framework follows both Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) and sociotechnical approaches and calls for new measures and measurement activities to address safety concerns in three related domains: 1) concerns that are unique and specific to technology (e.g., to address unsafe health IT related to unavailable or malfunctioning hardware or software); 2) concerns created by the failure to use health IT appropriately or by misuse of health IT (e.g. to reduce nuisance alerts in the electronic health record (EHR)), and 3) the use of health IT to monitor risks, health care processes and outcomes and identify potential safety concerns before they can harm patients (e.g. use EHR-based algorithms to identify patients at risk for medication errors or care delays). The framework proposes to integrate both retrospective and prospective measurement of HIT safety with an organization's existing clinical risk management and safety programs. It aims to facilitate organizational learning, comprehensive 360 degree assessment of HIT safety that includes vendor involvement, refinement of measurement tools and strategies, and shared responsibility to identify problems and implement solutions. A long term framework goal is to enable rigorous measurement that helps achieve the safety

  10. Tritium related safety considerations for mirror upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, S.K.

    1983-11-30

    One of the primary objectives of the MFTF-B upgrades is to demonstrate the technology of tritium breeding in a reactor-like configuration. This requires use and processing of tritium, involving an inventory of several hundred grams at the plant. This paper reviews the results of a preliminary assessment of the radiation hazard associated with the handling of tritium. The radiation dose consequences due to tritium release from normal operation and due to postulated accidents on plant personnel and the public were assessed. Maximum credible (probability < 10/sup -3/, but > 10/sup -7//yr) accidental releases were estimated to be 10 gm in the reactor building and 100 gm in the tritium-processing building. Higher probability (> 10/sup -3//yr) accidents or component failures would result in much smaller releases. In the reactor building, the most severe accident would result from the rupture of a plasma exhaust duct from the end cell or the tritium feed pipe to the neutral beam injector, accompanied by a fire. In the tritium processing building, the most severe accident would be the rupture of the Isotope Separation System (ISS) distillation columns and vacuum jackets accompanied by a fire.

  11. The relative safety of Hawaii's drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Au, L.K. Office, Honolulu, HI )

    1991-03-01

    There are two types of drinking water sources: groundwater and surface water (the latter includes catchment of rain). Surface water runs over the surface of the earth in rivers and watercourses, or is stored in lakes and reservoirs. groundwater is water that is stored below ground level; it feeds artesian wells and springs. It is important to remember that untreated groundwater may not be the same thing as treated drinking water. A contaminant in groundwater represents a threat to a drinking water source but not necessarily a threat to health, if the contaminant's concentration is decreased before it becomes available as potable.

  12. The relative safety of Hawaii's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Au, L K

    1991-03-01

    There are two types of drinking water sources: groundwater and surface water (the latter includes catchment of rain). Surface water runs over the surface of the earth in rivers and watercourses, or is stored in lakes and reservoirs. groundwater is water that is stored below ground level; it feeds artesian wells and springs. It is important to remember that untreated groundwater may not be the same thing as treated drinking water. A contaminant in groundwater represents a threat to a drinking water source but not necessarily a threat to health, if the contaminant's concentration is decreased before it becomes available as potable.

  13. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  14. Pupil Transportation Safety Audits in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Watson I.

    1980-01-01

    Safety audits were conducted in each of New York State's 750 school districts to help school administrators understand and comply with laws and regulations relating to the safety aspects of pupil transportation. (Author/MLF)

  15. Nuclear Safety Information Center, Its Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) serves as a focal point for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information related to safety problems encountered in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear facilities. (Author/AB)

  16. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  17. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... analysis. (a) A railroad shall develop a Safety Analysis (SA) for each product subject to this...

  18. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... analysis. (a) A railroad shall develop a Safety Analysis (SA) for each product subject to this...

  19. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... analysis. (a) A railroad shall develop a Safety Analysis (SA) for each product subject to this...

  20. 76 FR 21772 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or comments related to this... SECURITY Coast Guard Navigation Safety Advisory Council AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Navigation Safety Advisory Council (NAVSAC) will meet on May...

  1. Patient safety considerations regarding dermal filler injections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jill K

    2006-01-01

    Today's population is seeking procedures that enhance or improve its appearance, that require little or no downtime, and that provide immediate results. Dermal filler injections are among the top five procedures performed for this purpose. Patient safety must remain the ultimate goal of any practitioner delivering such procedures. This column will examine pertinent safety considerations in relation to the delivery of dermal filler injections.

  2. 76 FR 8699 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... NPRM related to locomotive safety standards. See 76 FR 2200. The NPRM established a public docket to... the proposed rule published January 12, 2011, at 76 FR 2200, remains March 14, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 229 and 238 RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety...

  3. 77 FR 23159 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... rule related to locomotive safety standards. See 77 FR 21312. The final rule established a public... safety standards and comments on such petitions. That final rule mistakenly lists FR-2009- 0095... is FRA-2009-0094. The final rule issued on April 9, 2012, incorrectly identified docket number...

  4. Criticality safety evaluation - an endusers's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S T

    1999-05-06

    This paper presents criticality safety evaluations from an enduser's perspective. Overall issues related to a criticality safety evaluation in an operations support setting are discussed. A work flow process is presented which shows the key steps in conducting an effective criticality evaluation. Finally, a few suggestions are given to assist newcomers to this field.

  5. Community gun safety in Central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Christina; Erdman, Deborah A; Smith, Jill Gray; Widom, Kenneth; Reardon, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Firearm-related injuries are a public health issue in the United States. In rural Pennsylvania, it is a familiar way of life to have a gun or guns in the home. Safety behaviors along with gun storage in the home, specifically where there are young children (aged 6 years and younger), are a concern for this level I regional resource center in rural Pennsylvania. Head Start families were surveyed regarding gun safety habits before and after safety educational activities. A noteworthy number of families reported changing behaviors regarding better safety habits for storing and use of firearms in the home postsurvey.

  6. Infusing Reliability Techniques into Software Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Software safety analysis for a large software intensive system is always a challenge. Software safety practitioners need to ensure that software related hazards are completely identified, controlled, and tracked. This paper discusses in detail how to incorporate the traditional reliability techniques into the entire software safety analysis process. In addition, this paper addresses how information can be effectively shared between the various practitioners involved in the software safety analyses. The author has successfully applied the approach to several aerospace applications. Examples are provided to illustrate the key steps of the proposed approach.

  7. A trial product of a new safety belt for a wheelchair user and its evaluation based on the actual investigation of fall accidents related to wheelchairs in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Teuko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Toyoda, Mitsuko; Maie, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    Old-aged patients, especially when they cannot keep stable sitting postures on wheelchairs, may get hurts seriously by falls. Preventing fall accidents is one of the most important subjects for keeping ADL of old-aged persons. We investigated the fall accidents related to from wheelchairs that occurred in a hospital (Asao General Hospital of Rehabilitation), and tried to make a new type of safety belts for old-aged wheelchair users based on the investigation. The results of trials using the product was evaluated by the care givers. The number of fall accidents in the hospital amounted to 226 cases within a year. It is noticed that the patients removed their belts by themselves intentionally or unintentionally, which is the most important point of the accidents. The evaluators of new belts were 91 care givers. The evaluation items were (1) the convenience for caregivers to fasten and remove the belts, (2) the ability of holding the patient on the wheelchair, (3) the safeness to prevent the fall from wheelchair (including the disability of removing a belt by the user), (4) the appearance when the usually used belts and the new belts were used, and only for the new belts, (5) the hygienic aspect and (6) the utility of the pocket. The new belts got better marks than the usually used belts. We intend to further improve the trial product (new belt) to be safer, more effective and more comfortable, based on the evaluation.

  8. Reports, standards, and safety guides

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.G.; Queener, D.S.

    1982-07-01

    This article contains four lists of various safety-related documents as compiled by the editors. These lists are as follows: (1) Foreign Reports, (2) Other Reports (originated by and pertaining to the US nuclear community), (3) Regulatory Guides, and (4) Nuclear Standards. Each lits contains the documents in its category which were published (or became available) during the 2-month period (March-April 1982) covered by this issue of Nuclear Safety. The availability and cost of the documents are noted in most instances.

  9. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Employees gather around a demonstration by Florida Power and Light during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health- and safety-related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  10. 2012 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a NASA Range Safety (NRS) overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program (RSP) activities performed during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be conducted in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2012 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2012 highlights; Range Safety Training; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  11. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    -- In the Training Auditorium at KSC, Center Director Roy Bridges addresses attendees at a presentation for Super Safety and Health Day. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  12. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During Super Safety and Health Day at KSC, keynote speaker Dr. Beck Weathers is given a memento of his visit by Center Director Roy Bridges. Weathers spoke about his ordeal of surviving the 1996 Mt. Everest disaster and the lessons learned from the experience. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  13. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During Super Safety and Health Day at KSC, keynote speaker Dr. Beck Weathers grimaces over the satellite photo of Mt. Everest being presented by Center Director Roy Bridges. Weathers spoke about his ordeal of surviving the 1996 Mt. Everest disaster and the lessons learned from the experience. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  14. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges talks to workers outside the Hazardous Maintenance Facility during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  15. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In an exhibit tent during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC, employees sample iced tea from a vendor. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health- and safety-related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  16. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  17. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Vendor tents and displays filled the grounds in the Industrial Area as well as LC 39 Area during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  18. Vocational Education Safety Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, Russell, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This manual describes four program areas in vocational education safety instruction: (1) introduction to a safety program; (2) resources to ensure laboratory safety; (3) safety program implementation; and (4) safety rules and safety tests. The safety rules and tests included in section four are for the most common tools and machines used in…

  19. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management system; (g) Education and outreach highway safety programs, such as use of child safety seats...-related deaths, injuries and accidents; (j) Impaired driver initiatives; (k) Child safety seat programs..., breathalyser, video cameras....

  20. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... management system; (g) Education and outreach highway safety programs, such as use of child safety seats...-related deaths, injuries and accidents; (j) Impaired driver initiatives; (k) Child safety seat programs..., breathalyser, video cameras....

  1. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... management system; (g) Education and outreach highway safety programs, such as use of child safety seats...-related deaths, injuries and accidents; (j) Impaired driver initiatives; (k) Child safety seat programs..., breathalyser, video cameras....

  2. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management system; (g) Education and outreach highway safety programs, such as use of child safety seats...-related deaths, injuries and accidents; (j) Impaired driver initiatives; (k) Child safety seat programs..., breathalyser, video cameras....

  3. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePlus

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  4. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  5. Facility safety study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The safety of NASA's in house microelectronics facility is addressed. Industrial health standards, facility emission control requirements, operation and safety checklists, and the disposal of epitaxial vent gas are considered.

  6. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lumber Liquidators Agrees To Not Resume Sales of Inventory of Chinese-Made Laminate Flooring, Continue Comprehensive Testing ... Safety Report an Unsafe Product Join Neighborhood Safety Network View Injury Statistics Put CPSC Recalls on Your ...

  7. Security vs. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Provides administrative advice on how some safety experts have made college campuses safer and friendlier without breaking the budget. Tips on security and advice on safety management that encompasses the whole environment are highlighted. (GR)

  8. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The origins and development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the aviation system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national aviation system.

  9. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  10. Safety analysts training

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this task was to support ESH-3 in providing Airborne Release Fraction and Respirable Fraction training to safety analysts at LANL who perform accident analysis, hazard analysis, safety analysis, and/or risk assessments at nuclear facilities. The task included preparation of materials for and the conduct of two 3-day training courses covering the following topics: safety analysis process; calculation model; aerosol physic concepts for safety analysis; and overview of empirically derived airborne release fractions and respirable fractions.

  11. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  12. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  13. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  14. Prophylactic onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with chronic migraine and comorbid depression: An open-label, multicenter, pilot study of efficacy, safety and effect on headache-related disability, depression, and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Guy P; Grosberg, Brian M; McAllister, Peter J; Lipton, Richard B; Buse, Dawn C

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is associated with significant headache-related disability and psychiatric comorbidity. OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) is effective and well tolerated in the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine. This study aimed to provide preliminary data on the efficacy and safety of prophylactic onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with chronic migraine and comorbid depressive symptoms. Methods This was a prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot study. Eligible patients met International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd edition Revision criteria for chronic migraine and had associated depressive symptoms, including Patient Health Questionnaire depression module scores of 5–19. Eligible participants received 155 units of onabotulinumtoxinA, according to the PREEMPT protocol, at baseline and week 12. Assessments included headache frequency, the Headache Impact Test™, the Migraine Disability Assessment, the Beck Depression Inventory®-II, the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression module, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire. Adverse events were also monitored. Results Overall, 32 participants received treatment. At week 24, there were statistically significant mean (standard deviation [SD]) improvements relative to baseline in the number of headache/migraine-free days (+8.2 [5.8]) (P<0.0001) and in the number of headache/migraine days (−8.2 [5.8]) (P<0.0001) per 30-day period. In addition, there were significant improvements in Headache Impact Test scores (−6.3 [6.9]) (P=0.0001) and Migraine Disability Assessment scores (−44.2 [67.5]) (P=0.0058). From baseline to week 24, statistically significant improvements were also seen in Beck Depression Inventory-II (−7.9 [6.0]) (P<0.0001), Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (−4.3 [4.7]) (P<0.0001), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (−3.5 [5.0]) (P=0.0002) scores. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events

  15. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  16. SNTP environmental, safety, and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

  17. Safety in the Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Mimi

    Guidelines for safety in the cooperative preschool are outlined, emphasizing control of the physical environment to insure maximum freedom for the children compatible with maximum safety. Building standards are set for stairways, rooms, lavatories, parking lots, harmful supplies, and wading pools. Orientation for safety is discussed in regard to…

  18. School Safety Audit Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMary, Jo Lynne; Owens, Marsha; Ramnarain, A. K. Vijay

    The 1997 Virginia General Assembly passed legislation directing school boards to require all schools to conduct safety audits. This audit is designed to assess the safety conditions in each public school to: (1) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues; and (2) identify and…

  19. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  20. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Karen Bruner; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Equipment to allow safe transportation of disabled children is reviewed. Such equipment includes infant car seats, child safety seats, safety vests, and accommodations for children in casts and/or braces. Five principles for evaluation and selection of safe seating options are given as are safety rules and information on standards and resources.…

  1. Virtual Safety Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Scott; Davis, Jason

    2003-01-01

    The Multimedia Tool Box Talk is a web-based quick reference safety guide and training tool for construction personnel. An intended outcome of this effort was to provide an efficient and effective way to locate and interpret crucial safety information while at the job site. The tool includes information from the Occupational Safety and Health…

  2. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  3. Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir America's work ... while also balancing the traditional parenting responsibilities. 1 Work-related health challenges facing women Women face different ...

  4. How Stereochemistry Considerations can Improve Pesticide Safety

    EPA Science Inventory

    About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences can impact their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mi...

  5. Safety and IVHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    When we address safety in a book on the business case for IVHM, the question arises whether safety isn t inherently in conflict with the need of operators to run their systems as efficiently (and as cost effectively) as possible. The answer may be that the system needs to be just as safe as needed, but not significantly more. That begs the next question: How safe is safe enough? Several regulatory bodies provide guidelines for operational safety, but irrespective of that, operators do not want their systems to be known as lacking safety. We illuminate the role of safety within the context of IVHM.

  6. NASA Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda

    1997-01-01

    If software is a critical element in a safety critical system, it is imperative to implement a systematic approach to software safety as an integral part of the overall system safety programs. The NASA-STD-8719.13A, "NASA Software Safety Standard", describes the activities necessary to ensure that safety is designed into software that is acquired or developed by NASA, and that safety is maintained throughout the software life cycle. A PDF version, is available on the WWW from Lewis. A Guidebook that will assist in the implementation of the requirements in the Safety Standard is under development at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). After completion, it will also be available on the WWW from Lewis.

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  8. Bayesian methods for design and analysis of safety trials.

    PubMed

    Price, Karen L; Xia, H Amy; Lakshminarayanan, Mani; Madigan, David; Manner, David; Scott, John; Stamey, James D; Thompson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Safety assessment is essential throughout medical product development. There has been increased awareness of the importance of safety trials recently, in part due to recent US Food and Drug Administration guidance related to thorough assessment of cardiovascular risk in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Bayesian methods provide great promise for improving the conduct of safety trials. In this paper, the safety subteam of the Drug Information Association Bayesian Scientific Working Group evaluates challenges associated with current methods for designing and analyzing safety trials and provides an overview of several suggested Bayesian opportunities that may increase efficiency of safety trials along with relevant case examples.

  9. 49 CFR 178.255-8 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety devices. 178.255-8 Section 178.255-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Portable Tanks § 178.255-8 Safety devices. (a) See § 173.315(i) of this subchapter. (b)...

  10. 49 CFR 178.255-8 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety devices. 178.255-8 Section 178.255-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Portable Tanks § 178.255-8 Safety devices. (a) See § 173.315(i) of this subchapter. (b)...

  11. 75 FR 47311 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet by teleconference to discuss items related to safety of operations and other matters affecting...

  12. 33 CFR 6.14-1 - Safety measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety measures. 6.14-1 Section 6... Vessels in Port § 6.14-1 Safety measures. The Commandant, in order to achieve the purposes of this part, may prescribe such conditions and restrictions relating to the safety of waterfront facilities...

  13. 33 CFR 6.14-1 - Safety measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety measures. 6.14-1 Section 6... Vessels in Port § 6.14-1 Safety measures. The Commandant, in order to achieve the purposes of this part, may prescribe such conditions and restrictions relating to the safety of waterfront facilities...

  14. 49 CFR 178.255-8 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety devices. 178.255-8 Section 178.255-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Portable Tanks § 178.255-8 Safety devices. (a) See § 173.315(i) of this subchapter. (b)...

  15. 49 CFR 178.255-8 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety devices. 178.255-8 Section 178.255-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Portable Tanks § 178.255-8 Safety devices. (a) See § 173.315(i) of this subchapter. (b)...

  16. 33 CFR 6.14-1 - Safety measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety measures. 6.14-1 Section 6... Vessels in Port § 6.14-1 Safety measures. The Commandant, in order to achieve the purposes of this part, may prescribe such conditions and restrictions relating to the safety of waterfront facilities...

  17. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 49 CFR 178.255-8 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety devices. 178.255-8 Section 178.255-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-8 Safety devices. (a) See § 173.315(i) of this subchapter. (b)...

  3. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.93 Safety cut-off device. The fuel line shall have a safety cut-off device that— (a)...

  4. 75 FR 27353 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Navigation Safety Advisory Council (NAVSAC) will meet in Washington, DC, to discuss various issues relating to the safety of navigation. The meeting will be open to the public....

  5. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  6. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  7. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  8. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal...

  9. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  10. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements. 192.515 Section 192.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER...

  11. 49 CFR 192.515 - Environmental protection and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental protection and safety requirements. 192.515 Section 192.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER...

  12. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  13. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2013-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  14. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  15. 49 CFR 238.603 - Safety planning requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety planning requirements. 238.603 Section 238.603 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Safety Planning Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment §...

  16. 49 CFR 238.603 - Safety planning requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety planning requirements. 238.603 Section 238.603 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Safety Planning Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment §...

  17. 49 CFR 238.603 - Safety planning requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety planning requirements. 238.603 Section 238.603 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Safety Planning Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment §...

  18. Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

    This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying…

  19. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of safety fitness determination. 385.11 Section 385.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety fitness determination. (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of safety fitness determination. 385.11 Section 385.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety fitness determination. (a)...