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Sample records for alcohol-preferring sp rats

  1. Binge drinking in alcohol-preferring sP rats at the end of the nocturnal period.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Acciaro, Carla; Lobina, Carla; Loi, Barbara; Zaru, Alessandro; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption using the standard 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with unlimited access; under this regimen, sP rats daily consume 6-7 g/kg alcohol. The present study assessed a new paradigm of alcohol intake in which sP rats were exposed to the 4-bottle "alcohol (10%, 20%, and 30%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen during one of the 12 h of the dark phase of the daily light/dark cycle; the time of alcohol exposure was changed daily in a semi-random order and was unpredictable to rats. Alcohol intake was highly positively correlated with the time of the drinking session and averaged approximately 2 g/kg when the drinking session occurred during the 12th hour of the dark phase. Alcohol drinking during the 12th hour of the dark phase resulted in (a) blood alcohol levels averaging approximately 100 mg% and (b) severe signs of alcohol intoxication (e.g., impaired performance at a Rota-Rod task). The results of a series of additional experiments indicate that (a) both singular aspects of this paradigm (i.e., unpredictability of alcohol exposure and concurrent availability of multiple alcohol concentrations) contributed to this high alcohol intake, (b) alcohol intake followed a circadian rhythm, as it decreased progressively over the first 3 h of the light phase and then maintained constant levels until the beginning of the dark phase, and (c) sensitivity to time schedule was specific to alcohol, as it did not generalize to a highly palatable chocolate-flavored beverage. These results demonstrate that unpredictable, limited access to multiple alcohol concentrations may result in exceptionally high intakes of alcohol in sP rats, modeling - to some extent - human binge drinking. A progressively increasing emotional "distress" associated to rats' expectation of alcohol might be the neurobehavioral basis of this drinking behavior.

  2. Lower risk taking and exploratory behavior in alcohol-preferring sP rats than in alcohol non-preferring sNP rats in the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test.

    PubMed

    Roman, Erika; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2009-12-14

    The present investigation continues previous behavioral profiling studies of selectively bred alcohol-drinking and alcohol non-drinking rats. In this study, alcohol-naïve adult Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and non-preferring (sNP) rats were tested in the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The MCSF test has an ethoexperimental approach and measures general activity, exploration, risk assessment, risk taking, and shelter seeking in laboratory rodents. The multivariate design enables behavioral profiling in one and the same test situation. Age-matched male Wistar rats were included as a control group. Five weeks after the first MCSF trial, a repeated testing was done to explore differences in acquired experience. The results revealed distinct differences in exploratory strategies and behavioral profiles between sP and sNP rats. The sP rats were characterized by lower activity, lower exploratory drive, higher risk assessment, and lower risk taking behavior than in sNP rats. In the repeated trial, risk-taking behavior was almost abolished in sP rats. When comparing the performance of sP and sNP rats with that of Wistar rats, the principal component analysis revealed that the sP rats were the most divergent group. The vigilant behavior observed in sP rats with low exploratory drive and low risk-taking behavior is interpreted here as high innate anxiety-related behaviors and may be related to their propensity for high voluntary alcohol intake and preference. We suggest that the different lines of alcohol-preferring rats with different behavioral characteristics constitute valuable animal models that mimic the heterogeneity in human alcohol dependence.

  3. Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats prefer chocolate and sucrose over ethanol.

    PubMed

    Colombo, G; Agabio, R; Diaz, G; Fà, M; Lobina, C; Reali, R; Gessa, G L

    1997-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining whether the concurrent availability of highly palatable fluids (i.e., a chocolate-flavored drink and a sucrose solution) would alter voluntary ethanol drinking in selectively bred, alcohol-preferring sP and -nonpreferring sNP rats. Ethanol intake occurred under the three-bottle, free choice regimen between 10% (v/v) ethanol solution, tap water, and the palatable fluids for 24 h per day. When rats were given ethanol and water, but no alternative fluids, mean ethanol intake in sP rats ranged between 6 and 7 g/kg per day and mean preference ratio was steadily higher than 80%, whereas mean ethanol intake and preference ratio in sNP rats were constantly lower than 0.3 g/kg and 5%, respectively. In the presence of either the chocolate-flavored drink or sucrose solution, both prepared as isocaloric to the ethanol solution, absolute ethanol intake in sP rats declined by 60-70%; similarly, the preference ratio was reduced by 80-90%. Ethanol intake in sNP rats was unaffected by the simultaneous presentation of either palatable fluids. The results of the present study closely replicate those previously reported in genetically selected, ethanol-preferring HAD rats; however, they differ from those of ethanol-preferring P rats, which were reported to maintain high levels of ethanol intake and preference in the presence of highly palatable fluids. These results are discussed in terms of a) an alternative reinforcement partially substituting for the reinforcing properties of ethanol in sP rats, resulting in a less urgent need of ethanol, and b) genetic animal models of alcoholism diverging in some neurochemical and behavioral traits (e.g., response to the presentation of palatable fluids), which might parallel the different types of alcoholism observed in humans.

  4. Enhanced Endocannabinoid-Mediated Modulation of Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus Drive onto Dopamine Neurons in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sagheddu, Claudia; De Felice, Marta; Casti, Alberto; Madeddu, Camilla; Spiga, Saturnino; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Mackie, Kenneth; Marsicano, Giovanni; Colombo, Giancarlo; Castelli, Maria Paola; Pistis, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The progressive predominance of rewarding effects of addictive drugs over their aversive properties likely contributes to the transition from drug use to drug dependence. By inhibiting the activity of DA neurons in the VTA, GABA projections from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) are well suited to shift the balance between drug-induced reward and aversion. Since cannabinoids suppress RMTg inputs to DA cells and CB1 receptors affect alcohol intake in rodents, we hypothesized that the endocannabinoid system, by modulating this pathway, might contribute to alcohol preference. Here we found that RMTg afferents onto VTA DA neurons express CB1 receptors and display a 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)-dependent form of short-term plasticity, that is, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI). Next, we compared rodents with innate opposite alcohol preference, the Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats. We found that DA cells from alcohol-naive sP rats displayed a decreased probability of GABA release and a larger DSI. This difference was due to the rate of 2-AG degradation. In vivo, we found a reduced RMTg-induced inhibition of putative DA neurons in sP rats that negatively correlated with an increased firing. Finally, alcohol failed to enhance RMTg spontaneous activity and to prolong RMTg-induced silencing of putative DA neurons in sP rats. Our results indicate functional modifications of RMTg projections to DA neurons that might impact the reward/aversion balance of alcohol attributes, which may contribute to the innate preference observed in sP rats and to their elevated alcohol intake. PMID:25232109

  5. Enhanced endocannabinoid-mediated modulation of rostromedial tegmental nucleus drive onto dopamine neurons in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; De Felice, Marta; Casti, Alberto; Madeddu, Camilla; Spiga, Saturnino; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Mackie, Kenneth; Marsicano, Giovanni; Colombo, Giancarlo; Castelli, Maria Paola; Pistis, Marco

    2014-09-17

    The progressive predominance of rewarding effects of addictive drugs over their aversive properties likely contributes to the transition from drug use to drug dependence. By inhibiting the activity of DA neurons in the VTA, GABA projections from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) are well suited to shift the balance between drug-induced reward and aversion. Since cannabinoids suppress RMTg inputs to DA cells and CB1 receptors affect alcohol intake in rodents, we hypothesized that the endocannabinoid system, by modulating this pathway, might contribute to alcohol preference. Here we found that RMTg afferents onto VTA DA neurons express CB1 receptors and display a 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)-dependent form of short-term plasticity, that is, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI). Next, we compared rodents with innate opposite alcohol preference, the Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats. We found that DA cells from alcohol-naive sP rats displayed a decreased probability of GABA release and a larger DSI. This difference was due to the rate of 2-AG degradation. In vivo, we found a reduced RMTg-induced inhibition of putative DA neurons in sP rats that negatively correlated with an increased firing. Finally, alcohol failed to enhance RMTg spontaneous activity and to prolong RMTg-induced silencing of putative DA neurons in sP rats. Our results indicate functional modifications of RMTg projections to DA neurons that might impact the reward/aversion balance of alcohol attributes, which may contribute to the innate preference observed in sP rats and to their elevated alcohol intake.

  6. Decreased levels of muscarinic receptors in bladders from the alcohol preferring rat line

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, R.J.; Ruggieri, M.R. ); Kiianmaa, K. )

    1992-01-01

    The B{sub max} for ({sup 3}H)QNB binding in the bladders of alcohol preferring (AA) rats was only approximately 60% of that in the alcohol non-preferring (ANA) rats. No significant change in B{sub max} for ({sup 3}H)QNB binding in bladder was observed between alcohol insensitive (AT) and alcohol sensitive (ANT) rats. No significant change in K{sub d} for ({sup 3}H)QNB binding in bladder was observed between the four different rat lines studied. Therefore, alcohol preference but not sensitivity is associated with a decrease in muscarinic receptor density in the rat bladder. Because all of the rats used in this study were ethanol-naive, the decrease in muscarinic receptor density in the bladders of alcohol preferring rats is associated genetic factors inherent to this rat line. Further studies are needed to determine if these observations are tissue specific or specific to the m2 subtype, which predominates in the rat bladder.

  7. Drug-induced reductions in ethanol intake in alcohol preferring and Fawn-Hooded rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A H; Overstreet, D H; Janowsky, D S

    1991-01-01

    The ethanol intake of Fawn-Hooded rats, a serotonin deficient strain, was examined under a two bottle choice between ethanol (10%) and tap water. The Fawn-Hooded rats drank as much ethanol as the alcohol preferring strain of rats (approximately 6 times that of the control Wistar rats), but drank more fluid and ate more. In general, direct and indirect serotonin agonists, reduced ethanol intake to a smaller degree in the Fawn-Hooded rats compared to the P rats. In contrast the centrally acting antimuscarinic scopolamine reduced ethanol intake to a similar degree in the two strains.

  8. Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Guthrie, S; Xie, C Y; Mai, K; Lee, D Y; Lumeng, L; Li, T K

    1996-06-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lobata, has long been used in China to lessen alcohol intoxication. We have previously shown that daidzin, one of the major components from this plant extract, is efficacious in lowering blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by alcohol ingestion. This study was conducted to test the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin and two other major isoflavonoids, daidzein and puerarin, from Pueraria lobata administered by the oral route. An alcohol-preferring rat model, the selectively-bred P line of rats, was used for the study. All three isoflavonoid compounds were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the P rats. When given orally to P rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, daidzein, daidzin, and puerarin decreased ethanol intake by 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged. The effects of these isoflavonoid compounds on alcohol and water intake were reversible. Suppression of alcohol consumption was evident after 1 day of administration and became maximal after 2 days. Similarly, alcohol preference returned to baseline levels 2 days after discontinuation of the isoflavonoids. Rats receiving the herbal extracts ate the same amounts of food as control animals, and they gained weight normally during the experiments. When administered orally, none of these compounds affected the activities of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Therefore, the reversal of alcohol preference produced by these compounds may be mediated via the CNS. Data demonstrate that isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata is effective in suppressing the appetite for alcohol when taken orally, raising the possibility that other constituents of edible plants may exert similar and more potent actions.

  9. ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL INTAKE IN ALCOHOL PREFERRING (P) AND ALCOHOL NON-PREFERRING (NP) RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Truxell, Eric; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    There is a scarcity of research on ethanol affinity in alcohol-preferring (P) rats before weaning and it is unknown if neonate P rats exhibit ethanol intake preferences comparable to those observed in adult P rats. This study examined ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring and non-preferring (NP) rats 3 hours after birth (Experiment 1, surrogate nipple test), at postnatal days (PD) 8, 12 and 18 (Experiment 2, consumption off the floor procedure) and at adolescence (Experiment 3, two-bottle choice test at PD32). The high-preference genotype was readily expressed three hours after birth. P neonates drank twice as much ethanol as their NP counterparts. This heightened ethanol preference transiently reversed at P8, reemerged as weaning approached (P18) and was fully expressed during adolescence. These results help clarify the ontogeny of genetic predisposition for ethanol. Genetic predisposition for higher ethanol intake in P than in NP rats seems to be present immediately following birth. PMID:21400486

  10. Differential sensitivity of ethanol-elicited ERK phosphorylation in nucleus accumbens of Sardinian alcohol-preferring and -non preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Michela; Zaru, Alessandro; Sabariego, Marta; Giugliano, Valentina; Carboni, Ezio; Colombo, Giancarlo; Acquas, Elio

    2014-08-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and -non preferring (sNP) rats have been selectively bred for opposite ethanol preference and consumption; sP rats represent a validated experimental tool to model several aspects of excessive ethanol drinking in humans. Phosphorylated Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (pERK) in dopamine-rich terminal areas plays a critical role in several psychopharmacological effects of addictive drugs, including ethanol. This study was aimed at investigating whether ethanol-elicited ERK activation may differ in key brain areas of ethanol-naïve sP and sNP rats. To this end, the effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg, administered intra-gastrically [i.g.]) on ERK phosphorylation were assessed by pERK immunohistochemistry in the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) of the nucleus accumbens (Acb) as well as in the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex (PFCx), in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTL) and in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Ethanol (1 g/kg) significantly increased pERK immunoreactivity in AcbSh and AcbC of sP but not sNP rats. Conversely, ethanol failed to affect pERK expression in PrL and IL PFCx as well as in BSTL and CeA of both sP and sNP rats. These results suggest that selective breeding of these rat lines results in differential effects of acute ethanol on ERK phosphorylation in brain regions critical for the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol.

  11. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  12. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction.

  13. R(+)-Baclofen, but Not S(-)-Baclofen, Alters Alcohol Self-Administration in Alcohol-Preferring Rats.

    PubMed

    Lorrai, Irene; Maccioni, Paola; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Racemic baclofen [(±)-baclofen] has repeatedly been reported to suppress several -alcohol-motivated behaviors, including alcohol drinking and alcohol -self-administration, in rats and mice. Recent data suggested that baclofen may have bidirectional, stereospecific effects, with the more active enantiomer, R(+)-baclofen, suppressing alcohol intake and the less active enantiomer, S(-)-baclofen, stimulating alcohol intake in mice. The present study was designed to investigate whether this enantioselectivity of baclofen effects may also extend to the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats were initially trained to lever respond on a fixed ratio 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement for alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding had stabilized, rats were tested with vehicle, (±)-baclofen (3 mg/kg), R(+)-baclofen (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg), and S(-)-baclofen (6, 12, and 24 mg/kg) under the FR4 schedule of reinforcement. Treatment with 3 mg/kg (±)-baclofen reduced the number of lever responses for alcohol and estimated amount of self-administered alcohol by approximately 60% in comparison to vehicle treatment. R(+)-baclofen was approximately twice as active as (±)-baclofen: treatment with 1.5 mg/kg R(+)-baclofen decreased both variables to an extent similar to that of the decreasing effect of 3 mg/kg (±)-baclofen. Conversely, treatment with all doses of S(-)-baclofen failed to affect alcohol self administration. These results (a) confirm that non-sedative doses of (±)-baclofen effectively suppressed the reinforcing properties of alcohol in sP rats and (b) apparently do not extend to operant alcohol self-administration in sP rats the capability of S(-)-baclofen to stimulate alcohol drinking in mice.

  14. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total) or were given access only to water (control). Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase (Degs2), an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels achieved by

  15. Enhanced morphine- and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in alcohol-preferring AA rats.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, A; Mikkola, J; Korpi, E R; Hyytiä, P; Seppälä, T; Ahtee, L

    1999-03-01

    Locomotor stimulation and behavioral sensitization induced by acute and repeated treatment with alcohol, cocaine or morphine were studied in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol), alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) rats and non-selected Wistar rats. Daily treatment with alcohol (ethanol, 0.4 or 1.0 g/kg, IP) for 6 days had no effect on locomotor activity either in the AA or ANA rats. Acute cocaine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, IP) produced a locomotor stimulation in the animals of all lines studied, and there was no difference in this effect between the AA and ANA rats. During a 4-day repeated cocaine treatment, the AA rats became sensitized with the 10 mg/kg dose, while the ANA rats did not show any sensitization with this dose. With the 20 mg/kg cocaine dose, in addition to locomotor stimulation, the rats of all lines studied showed stereotyped behavior, which response was enhanced during repeated treatment. Morphine-induced locomotor stimulation was larger in the AA rats than in the ANA or Wistar rats both with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg doses and only the AA rats were sensitized during 4-day treatment with the 1 mg/kg dose. With the 3.0 mg/kg morphine dose, only the AA rats showed a weak sensitization evident only during the initial 30 min after morphine injection. As the drug-induced behavioral sensitization is an important factor in the development of drug addiction, it is possible that mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility of the AA rats to morphine- and cocaine-induced sensitization contribute to the high intake of alcohol and other abused drugs by these animals.

  16. The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clonidine, reduces alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Alexander, Laura; Malone, Julia; Federoff, David; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that noradrenergic signaling may play a role in mediating alcohol-drinking behavior in both rodents and humans. We have investigated this possibility by administering clonidine to alcohol-drinking rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (P line). Clonidine is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist which, at low doses, inhibits noradrenergic signaling by decreasing norepinephrine release from presynaptic noradrenergic neurons. Adult male P rats were given 24 h access to food and water and scheduled access to a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution for 2 h daily. Rats received intra-peritoneal (IP) injections with clonidine (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight [BW], 10-11 rats/treatment group) once/day at 30 min prior to onset of the daily 2 h alcohol access period for 2 consecutive days. Clonidine, in doses of 40 or 80 μg/kg BW, significantly reduced alcohol intake on both days of treatment (p<0.001). Two weeks later, rats were treated with clonidine for 5 consecutive days and clonidine, in doses of 40 or 80 μg/kg BW, reduced alcohol intake on all 5 treatment days (p < 0.001). Clonidine did not alter water consumption during the daily 2 h free-choice between alcohol and water. In a separate group of male P rats, clonidine (40 μg/kg BW) suppressed intake of a saccharin solution (0.04 g/L). These results are consistent with and complement our previous findings that the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, decreases voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, but suggests that effects of clonidine may not be specific for alcohol. The results suggest that although activation of the noradrenergic system plays an important role in mediating voluntary alcohol drinking, care is needed in selecting which drugs to use to suppress central noradrenergic signaling in order to maximize the selectivity of the drugs for treating alcohol-use disorders.

  17. Dopaminergic modulation of reward-guided decision making in alcohol-preferring AA rats.

    PubMed

    Oinio, Ville; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Petteri; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2017-03-06

    R**esults from animal gambling models have highlighted the importance of dopaminergic neurotransmission in modulating decision making when large sucrose rewards are combined with uncertainty. The majority of these models use food restriction as a tool to motivate animals to accomplish operant behavioral tasks, in which sucrose is used as a reward. As enhanced motivation to obtain sucrose due to hunger may impact its reward-seeking effect, we wanted to examine the decision-making behavior of rats in a situation where rats were fed ad libitum. For this purpose, we chose alcohol-preferring AA (alko alcohol) rats, as these rats have been shown to have high preference for sweet agents. In the present study, AA rats were trained to self-administer sucrose pellet rewards in a two-lever choice task (one pellet vs. three pellets). Once rational choice behavior had been established, the probability of gaining three pellets was decreased over time (50%, 33%, 25% then 20%). The effect of d-amphetamine on decision making was studied at every probability level, as well as the effect of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-81297 and D2 agonist quinpirole at probability levels of 100% and 25%. d-Amphetamine increased unprofitable choices in a dose-dependent manner at the two lowest probability levels. Quinpirole increased the frequency of unprofitable decisions at the 25% probability level, and SKF-82197 did not affect choice behavior. These results mirror the findings of probabilistic discounting studies using food-restricted rats. Based on this, the use of AA rats provides a new approach for studies on reward-guided decision making.

  18. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Kimpel, Mark W.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Strother, Wendy N.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J.; McBride, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-hr dark-cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24 hr/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hr after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p < 0.01; Storey false discovery rate = 0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity® analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal. PMID:19666046

  19. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Kimpel, Mark W; McClintick, Jeanette N; Strother, Wendy N; Carr, Lucinda G; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A; Mayfield, R Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J; McBride, William J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-h dark cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24h/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hours after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p<0.01; Storey false discovery rate=0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal.

  20. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Ketchum, Myles J; Olney, Jeffrey J; Lemon, Christian H

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-non-preferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests, P rats prefer highly concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3-40%), sucrose (0.01-1 M), quinine (0.01-3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003-1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant post-absorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits.

  1. Higher density of serotonin-1A receptors in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring P rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G. ); Lumeng, L.; Li, Ting-Kai )

    1990-01-01

    Saturable ({sup 3}H)-80HDPAT binding to 5HT-1A receptors in membranes prepared from hippocampus and frontal cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring (P) rats and of alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats has been compared. The B{sub max} values or densities of recognition sites for 5HT-1A receptors in both brain areas of the P rats are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats. The corresponding K{sub D} values are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats, indicating higher affinities of the recognition sites for the 5HT-1A receptors in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the P rats. These findings indicate either an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptor density during selective breeding for alcohol preference or an upregulation of 5HT-1A receptors of 5HT found in these brain areas of P rats as compared with the NP rats.

  2. Effects of neuropeptide Y and ethanol on arousal and anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Henderson, Angela N; Badia-Elder, Nancy E; Stewart, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the mammalian brain and plays a prominent role in behaviors related to negative affect and alcohol. NPY suppresses anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-drinking behaviors in a wide array of rodent models and also affects changes in these behaviors produced by fearful and stressful stimuli. Rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference (P rats) appear to be particularly sensitive to the behavioral effects of NPY. The dual purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of intraventricular NPY on (1) the acoustic startle response (ASR) of P rats in a high-anxiety setting and (2) social interaction behavior of P rats. In experiment 1, P rats were either cycled through periods of long-term ethanol access and abstinence or they remained ethanol naive. Rats were injected with one of four NPY doses and tested for ASR before and after footshock stress. NPY suppressed ASR in all P rats regardless of shock condition or drinking history. In experiment 2, rats received intraventricular infusion of one of four NPY doses and were then injected with either ethanol (0.75 g/kg) or saline and tested for social interaction. NPY increased social interaction in P rats even at doses that suppressed locomotor activity, regardless of ethanol dose. Suppression of anxiety-like and arousal behaviors by NPY in the present study confirm a role for NPY in alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring P rats.

  3. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Lossie, Amy C; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C; Muir, William M

    2016-08-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  4. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C.; Muir, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits. PMID:27490364

  5. The alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats--animal models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the literature on the utility of using the selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats in studies examining high alcohol drinking in adults and adolescents, craving-like behavior, and the co-abuse of alcohol with other drugs. The P line of rats meets all of the originally proposed criteria for a suitable animal model of alcoholism. In addition, the P rat exhibits high alcohol-seeking behavior, demonstrates an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) under relapse drinking conditions, consumes amounts of ethanol during adolescence equivalent to those consumed in adulthood, and co-abuses ethanol and nicotine. The P line also exhibits excessive binge-like alcohol drinking, attaining blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 200 mg% on a daily basis. The HAD replicate lines of rats have not been as extensively studied as the P rats. The HAD1,2 rats satisfy several of the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism, e.g., these rats will voluntarily consume ethanol in a free-choice situation to produce BACs between 50 and 200 mg%. The HAD1,2 rats also exhibit an ADE under repeated relapse conditions, and will demonstrate similar levels of ethanol intake during adolescence as seen in adults. Overall, the P and HAD1,2 rats have characteristics attributed to an early onset alcoholic, and can be used to study various aspects of alcohol use disorders.

  6. Neuropeptide Y administration into the amygdala suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats following multiple deprivations.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Stewart, Robert B; Badia-Elder, Nancy E

    2008-09-01

    The present experiment examines the effects of NPY administered into the amygdala on ethanol drinking by alcohol-preferring P rats following long-term continuous ethanol access, with and without multiple periods of imposed ethanol abstinence. P rats had access to 15% (v/v) ethanol and water for 11 weeks followed by 2 weeks of ethanol abstinence, re-exposure to ethanol for 2 weeks, 2 more weeks of ethanol abstinence, and a final ethanol re-exposure. Immediately prior to the second ethanol re-exposure, 4 groups of rats received bilateral infusions NPY (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 microg) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) into the amygdala. Two additional groups were given uninterrupted ethanol access and were infused with a single NPY dose (1.0 microg) or aCSF. The highest NPY dose (1.0 microg) suppressed ethanol intake for 24 h in rats with a history of ethanol abstinence (i.e. deprivation) periods, but had no effect in rats with a history of continuous ethanol access. Water and food intakes were not altered. These results suggest that the amygdala mediates the suppressive effects of centrally administered NPY on ethanol drinking, and that NPY may block relapse-like drinking by opposing the anxiogenic effects of ethanol abstinence.

  7. Neuropeptide Y Administration into the Amygdala Suppresses Ethanol Drinking in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats Following Multiple Deprivations

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Stewart, Robert B.; Badia-Elder, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment examines the effects of NPY administered into the amygdala on ethanol drinking by alcohol-preferring P rats following long-term continuous ethanol access, with and without multiple periods of imposed ethanol abstinence. P rats had access to 15% (v/v) ethanol and water for 11 weeks followed by 2 weeks of ethanol abstinence, re-exposure to ethanol for 2 weeks, 2 more weeks of ethanol abstinence, and a final ethanol re-exposure. Immediately prior to the second ethanol re-exposure, 4 groups of rats received bilateral infusions NPY (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 μg) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) into the amygdala. Two additional groups were given uninterrupted ethanol access and were infused with a single NPY dose (1.0 μg) or aCSF. The highest NPY dose (1.0 μg) suppressed ethanol intake for 24 hrs in rats with a history of ethanol abstinence (i.e. deprivation) periods, but had no effect in rats with a history of continuous ethanol access. Water and food intakes were not altered. These results suggest that the amygdala mediates the suppressive effects of centrally administered NPY on ethanol drinking, and that NPY may block relapse-like drinking by opposing the anxiogenic effects of ethanol abstinence. PMID:18499241

  8. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    PubMed

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  9. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Qrunfleh, Abeer M; Alazizi, Adnan; Sari, Youssef

    2013-06-01

    Relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior depends on increased glutamate transmission in the mesocorticolimbic motive circuit. Extracellular glutamate is regulated by a number of glutamate transporters. Of these transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We have recently reported that ceftriaxone (CEF) treatment (i.p.), a β-lactam antibiotic known to elevate GTL1 expression, reduced ethanol intake in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We investigated here whether CEF treatment attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior. P rats were exposed to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol for 5 weeks and treated with CEF (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) during the last 5 days of the 2-week deprivation period. Rats treated with CEF during the deprivation period showed a reduction in ethanol intake compared with saline-treated rats upon re-exposure to ethanol; this effect persisted for 9 days. Moreover, CEF-mediated attenuation in relapse to ethanol-drinking behavior was associated with upregulation of GLT1 level in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core. GLT1 upregulation was revealed only at the higher dose of CEF. In addition, CEF has no effect on relapse-like sucrose-drinking behavior. These findings suggest that ceftriaxone might be used as a potential therapeutic treatment for the attenuation of relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior.

  10. Potent inhibition of alcohol self-administration in alcohol-preferring rats by a κ-opioid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Cashman, John R; Azar, Marc R

    2014-07-01

    A substituted aryl amide derivative of 6-naltrexamine--17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6β-[(4'-trimethylfluoro)benzamido]morphinan-hydrochloride--(compound 5), previously shown to be a potent κ-opioid receptor antagonist, was used to characterize the physicochemical properties and efficacy to decrease alcohol self-administration in alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) and binge-like P-rats. Previous studies showed that compounds closely related to compound 5 possessed favorable properties regarding penetration of the blood-brain barrier. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that compound 5 had acceptable bioavailability. In contrast to other κ-receptor antagonists, in particular norbinaltorphimine, compound 5 showed favorable drug-like properties. Based on these findings, further studies were done. Safety studies showed that compound 5 was not hepatotoxic at doses 200-fold greater than an efficacious dose. The effects of compound 5 or naltrexone on the hepatotoxicity of thiobenzamide were investigated. In contrast to naltrexone, which exacerbated thiobenzamide-mediated hepatotoxicity, compound 5 was observed to be hepatoprotective. Based on the physicochemical properties of compound 5, the compound was examined in rat animal models of alcohol self-administration. The inhibition of ethanol self-administration by compound 5 in alcohol-dependent and alcohol-nondependent P-rats trained to self-administer a 10% (w/v) ethanol solution, using operant techniques, showed very potent efficacy (i.e., estimated ED50 values of 4-5 μg/kg). In a binge-like P-rat animal model, inhibition of alcohol self-administration by compound 5 had an estimated ED50 value of 8 μg/kg. The results suggest that compound 5 is a potent drug-like κ-opioid receptor antagonist of utility in alcohol cessation medications development.

  11. Innate BDNF expression is associated with ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Raivio, Noora; Miettinen, Pekka; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2014-09-04

    We have shown recently that acute administration of ethanol modulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in several rat brain areas known to be involved in the development of addiction to ethanol and other drugs of abuse, suggesting that BDNF may be a factor contributing to the neuroadaptive changes set in motion by ethanol exposure. The purpose of the present study was to further clarify the role of BDNF in reinforcement from ethanol and in the development of addiction to ethanol by specifying the effect of acute administration of ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) on the expression profile of BDNF mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the terminal areas of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the brain of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats, selected for high and low voluntary ethanol intake, respectively. The level of BDNF mRNA expression was higher in the amygdala and ventral tegmental area of AA than in those of ANA rats, and there was a trend for a higher level in the nucleus accumbens. In the amygdala and hippocampus, a biphasic change in the BDNF mRNA levels was detected: the levels were decreased at 3 and 6h but increased above the basal levels at 24h. Furthermore, there was a difference between the AA and ANA lines in the effect of ethanol, the ANA rats showing an increase in BDNF mRNA levels while such a change was not seen in AA rats. These findings suggest that the innate levels of BDNF expression may play a role in the mediation of the reinforcing effects of ethanol and in the control of ethanol intake.

  12. Serotonin-3 receptors in the posterior ventral tegmental area regulate ethanol self-administration of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Oster, Scott M; Toalston, Jamie E; Pommer, Tylene J; McBride, William J; Murphy, James M

    2010-05-01

    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 ([5-hydroxy tryptamine] 5-HT(3)) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers (Coulbourn Instruments, Allentown, PA) were used to examine the effects of seven consecutive bilateral microinfusions of ICS 205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (vol/vol) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the fourth session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25, and 1.25 microg) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition postinjection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the three highest doses (0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 microg) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; after the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Microinfusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% wt/v) self-administration. Microinfusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT(3) receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA.

  13. Decreased measures of experimental anxiety in rats bred for high alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Möller, C; Wiklund, L; Thorsell, A; Hyytiä, P; Heilig, M

    1997-06-01

    A prevalent notion holds that acute anti-anxiety actions of ethanol are important for the reinforcing properties of this drug, and might predispose individuals with pre-existing anxiety disorders for developing ethanol dependence. This notion remains controversial, and human studies have yielded conflicting results. Ethanol dependence is likely a heterogenous disorder, and the discrepancies might be explained by a different relationship between anxiety and alcohol reinforcement in different subtypes of alcoholism. Recent results in experimental animals suggest that antianxiety actions of ethanol are important reinforcers of voluntary ethanol consumption in heterogeneous rats. Here, we examined whether the relationship is different in the AA line of rats bred for high voluntary ethanol intake. Behavior was studied in two established animal models of anxiety, a punished drinking conflict test, and the elevated plus maze. In the conflict test, the AA line displayed a markedly disinhibited behavior over a range of shock intensities, compared both with their counterpart, the ANA line, and with regular Wistar rats. On the plus maze, both AA and Wistar rats showed lower measures of experimental anxiety than ANA subjects. The phenotype of the animals was confirmed using a two-bottle free choice alcohol drinking procedure. The disinhibited behavior and spontaneous ethanol preference of the AA line differs from what has been found in heterogeneous rats, and displays similarities to genetically transmitted type II alcoholism according to the nomenclature of Cloninger.

  14. The effects of calorie restriction on operant-responding for alcohol in the alcohol preferring (iP) rat.

    PubMed

    Guccione, Lisa; Paolini, Antonio G; Penman, Jim; Djouma, Elvan

    2012-04-21

    Calorie restriction (CR) is well established in the research literature to have several beneficial effects on health and has also been found to induce anxiolytic effects in the rat. Heightened levels of stress and anxiety are often regarded as key precipitating factors of relapse to substance abuse and alcohol addiction. In this study, the potential implication of a 25% CR diet in altering drug-seeking and relapse like behaviour through its capacity to influence anxiolytic-like behavioural changes was investigated.Anxiety was assessed in all rats with the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test prior to being trained to operantly self-administer either 10% ethanol, or water. Differences were found between the groups in the percentage of open arm/total arm duration and open arm/total arm entries in the EPM,demonstrating the anxiolytic effects of CR25%. Both control and CR25% groups showed preference for alcohol vs. water, however, controls responded more for alcohol during the conditioning phase than the CR25% group. Controls exhibited an alcohol deprivation-effect (ADE) post abstinence, and a cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking post extinction however the CR25% did not. These results demonstrate that the anxiolytic effects of CR25% reduces operant responding for ethanol and inhibits relapse behaviour.Taken collectively, the results of this study suggest that in line with past research a CR25% dietary regime can induce anxiolytic effects in the alcohol preferring (iP) rat. Furthermore, it also reduces the intake of ethanol and inhibits the ADE and cue-induced relapse that is characteristic of addiction in this strain.

  15. Accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity and conditioned place preference in alcohol-preferring AA rats and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats treated repeatedly with cocaine.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Kristiina; Petteri Piepponen, T; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2007-07-30

    Transcription factor DeltaFosB has been implicated in the psychomotor responses and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we compared the effects of cocaine on the expression of DeltaFosB-like proteins by immunohistochemistry in striatal brain areas of alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats. Cocaine was administered using a previously verified treatment paradigm that sensitized the locomotor response to cocaine in AA but not in ANA rats. We also studied the rewarding effects of cocaine with a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in both lines of rats. Cocaine treatment increased the FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats but not in ANA rats. In addition, after repeated saline injections the accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB IR was significantly greater in saline-injected AA rats than in ANA rats. In the caudate-putamen cocaine significantly increased FosB/DeltaFosB IR, but no differences were found between the rats of two lines. In the CPP experiment, AA rats treated with cocaine 2.5 mg/kg preferred the cocaine-associated compartment, in contrast to ANA rats, which did not show such a preference. In conclusion, our findings show that AA rats are more sensitive to cocaine than ANA rats, and suggest that one possible mediator for this increased sensitivity could be the increased expression of fosB-derived proteins in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats.

  16. Ethanol drinking reduces extracellular dopamine levels in the posterior ventral tegmental area of nondependent alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Engleman, Eric A; Keen, Elizabeth J; Tilford, Sydney S; Thielen, Richard J; Morzorati, Sandra L

    2011-09-01

    Moderate ethanol exposure produces neuroadaptive changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system in nondependent rats and increases measures of DA neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, moderate ethanol drinking and moderate systemic exposure elevates extracellular DA levels in mesocorticolimbic projection regions. However, the neuroadaptive changes subsequent to moderate ethanol drinking on basal DA levels have not been investigated in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the present study, adult female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were divided into alcohol-naive, alcohol-drinking, and alcohol-deprived groups. The alcohol-drinking group had continuous access to water and ethanol (15%, vol/vol) for 8 weeks. The alcohol-deprived group had 6 weeks of access followed by 2 weeks of ethanol deprivation, 2 weeks of ethanol re-exposure, followed again by 2 weeks of deprivation. The deprived rats demonstrated a robust alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) on ethanol reinstatement. The alcohol-naïve group had continuous access to water only. In the last week of the drinking protocol, all rats were implanted with unilateral microdialysis probes aimed at the posterior VTA and no-net-flux microdialysis was conducted to quantify extracellular DA levels and DA clearance. Results yielded significantly lower basal extracellular DA concentrations in the posterior VTA of the alcohol-drinking group compared with the alcohol-naive and alcohol-deprived groups (3.8±0.3nM vs. 5.0±0.5nM [P<.02] and 4.8±0.4nM, [P<.05], respectively). Extraction fractions were significantly (P<.0002) different between the alcohol-drinking and alcohol-naive groups (72±2% vs. 46±4%, respectively) and not significantly different (P=.051) between alcohol-deprived and alcohol-naive groups (61±6% for the alcohol-deprived group). The data indicate that reductions in basal DA levels within the posterior VTA occur after moderate chronic ethanol intake in nondependent P rats. This reduction may

  17. Effects of naltrexone and LY255582 on ethanol maintenance, seeking, and relapse responding by alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Ronnie; Toalston, Jamie E; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; McKinzie, David L; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2012-02-01

    Research indicates opioid antagonists can reduce alcohol drinking in rodents. However, tests examining the effects of opioid antagonists on ethanol seeking and relapse behavior have been limited. The present study examined the effects of two opioid antagonists on ethanol maintenance, seeking, and relapse responding by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult P rats were self-trained in two-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% (vol/vol) ethanol on a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) versus water on a FR1 concurrent schedule of reinforcement in daily 1-h sessions. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. Rats were then returned to the operant chambers without ethanol or water to measure responses on the ethanol and water levers for four sessions. After a subsequent 2 weeks in the home cage, without access to ethanol, rats were returned to the operant chambers with ethanol and water available. Effects of antagonists on maintenance responding were tested after several weeks of daily 1-h sessions. Naltrexone (NAL; 1-10mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]; n=8/dose), LY255582 (LY; 0.03-1mg/kg, s.c.; n=8/dose), or vehicle were injected 30min before the first session (in the absence of ethanol), following 2 weeks in their home cages, and for four consecutive sessions of ethanol self-administration under maintenance and relapse conditions. Both NAL and LY reduced responses on the ethanol lever without any fluids present, and ethanol self-administration under relapse and on-going drinking conditions, with LY being more potent than NAL. Both NAL and LY were less effective in reducing responding in the absence of ethanol than in reducing ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results indicate that the opioid system is involved in mediating ethanol seeking, and ethanol self-administration under relapse and on-going alcohol drinking, but that different neurocircuits may underlie these behaviors.

  18. Neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 reduces ethanol consumption in part through activation of GLT1 in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sari, Y; Sreemantula, S N

    2012-12-27

    We have previously shown that ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), reduced ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. GLT1 is a glial glutamate transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We tested in this study the effects of neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 (3-(3-pyridyl)-1-propyl (2S)-1-(3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dioxopentyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylate), known also to upregulate GLT1 expression, in ethanol intake in P rats. Male P rats had concurrent access to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol, water, and food for five weeks. On Week 6, P rats continued in this drinking and food regimen and they were administered either 10 or 20mg/kg GPI-1046 (i.p.), or a vehicle for five consecutive days. Body weight, ethanol intake, and water consumption were measured daily for 8 days starting on Day 1 of GPI-1046 or vehicle i.p. injections. We have also tested the effect of GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) on daily sucrose (10%) intake. The data revealed significant dose-dependent effects in the reduction of ethanol intake starting 48 h after the first treatment with GPI-1046 throughout treatment and post-treatment periods. There were also dose-dependent increases in water intake. However, GPI-1046 treatment did not affect the body weight of all animals nor sucrose intake. Importantly, GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level compared to all groups in nucleus accumbens core (NAc-core). Alternatively, GPI-1046 (10mg/kg) upregulated GLT1 level in NAc-core compared to vehicle (ethanol naïve) group. Moreover, both doses of GPI-1046 increased significantly GLT1 level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared to ethanol naïve vehicle group. GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level in PFC compared to naïve control group that was exposed to water and food only. These findings demonstrated that neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 attenuates ethanol intake in part through the upregulation of GLT1 in PFC and NAc-core.

  19. Lorcaserin, a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist, decreases alcohol intake in female alcohol preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty C; Levin, Edward D

    2014-10-01

    Serotonergic systems in the brain have been found to be important in the addiction to alcohol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel 5-HT2c receptor agonist, lorcaserin for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult female rats were allowed to drink water or alcohol (12%, v/v) using a standard two-bottle choice procedure. Once stable baselines were established, the acute (0, 0.3125, 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg, s.c.), and chronic (0, 0.625 mg/kg, sc for 10 days) effects of lorcaserin on alcohol intake and preference were assessed at different time points. In a separate experiment, the effects of lorcaserin on locomotor activity were determined. Our results show that both 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake at 2, 4 and 6 h. after the drug administration. The chronic administration of 0.625 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake up to 6h every day after the injection and there was no sign of diminished efficacy of the drug during 10-day treatment. To determine the effects of lorcaserin on sucrose intake, rats were put on a two-bottle choice of water vs a solution of 7% sucrose. The high dose of lorcaserin (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced sucrose intake only for up to 2 h. When tested for locomotor activity, lorcaserin injected 20 min before testing significantly reduced locomotor activity at all doses. However, when it was injected 5.5h before the start of the 1-h session, neither dose had a significant effect on locomotor activity. These results show the efficacy of lorcaserin in reducing alcohol intake without a significant effect on water intake and locomotion suggesting the involvement of 5-HT2c receptors in alcohol seeking behavior. Further research is warranted to determine the possible efficacy of lorcaserin or similar drugs as treatments for the treatment of alcoholism.

  20. The acute anti-craving effect of acamprosate in alcohol-preferring rats is associated with modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Michael S; Adams, Cameron; Kraehenbuehl, Tracey; Vengeliene, Valentina; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2005-09-01

    Acamprosate (Campral) is a drug used clinically for the treatment of alcoholism. In order to examine further the time-course and mechanism of action of acamprosate, the effect of acute and repeated acamprosate administration was examined on (i) operant ethanol self-administration and (ii) voluntary home cage ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded, iP and Alko Alcohol (AA) rats. Acutely, acamprosate was shown to cause a significant decrease in operant ethanol self-administration by Fawn-Hooded and alcohol-preferring iP rats in part by decreasing the motivational relevance of a specific ethanol cue; however, repeated injection of acamprosate led to tolerance to this effect. Voluntary alcohol consumption in the home cage in Fawn-Hooded and AA rats was also reduced by an acute acamprosate injection; however, again tolerance developed to repeated injections. In a separate experiment, the effect of acamprosate on markers of the dopaminergic system was examined. Interestingly, acute acamprosate was also shown to cause increased dopamine transporter density and decreased dopamine D2-like receptor density within the nucleus accumbens but not in the caudate-putamen, suggesting a link between the decreased motivational salience of the ethanol cue and altered dopaminergic signalling within the nucleus accumbens. With repeated injections of acamprosate, markers of the dopaminergic system returned to steady state levels with a similar temporal profile to the development of tolerance in the behavioural studies. Along with previous studies, our findings indicate that acamprosate modulates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and may thereby decrease ethanol reinforcement processes; however, these effects undergo tolerance in alcohol-preferring rats and may in part explain the fact why some subjects are non-responders to chronic acamprosate treatment.

  1. The comparative effects of clozapine versus haloperidol on initiation and maintenance of alcohol drinking in male alcohol-preferring P rat.

    PubMed

    Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Dawson, Ree; Ahmed, Jayme; Xie, Haiyi; Green, Alan I

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use disorder, characterized by modest levels of alcohol use, commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsens their course. Recent data indicate that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, but not the typical antipsychotic haloperidol, decreases alcohol drinking both in patients with schizophrenia and also in the Syrian golden hamster, an animal model of moderate alcohol drinking. The present study was designed to assess the comparative effects of clozapine and haloperidol in the alcohol-preferring (P) rat, an animal model of alcoholism. First, the study investigated the comparative effects of clozapine and haloperidol on initiation of alcohol consumption in P rats, which models the early stage of alcoholism. Second, the study assessed the comparative effects of clozapine and haloperidol on maintenance of chronic alcohol consumption in P rats to provide a clue as to whether either drug may also limit alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients. Clozapine attenuated the initiation of alcohol drinking and development of alcohol preference while haloperidol did not. However, neither clozapine nor haloperidol attenuated maintenance of chronic alcohol drinking. Taken together, the current data suggest that clozapine, but not haloperidol, may be effective at reducing alcohol abuse or non-dependent drinking and the P rat, used within an alcohol initiation paradigm, and may differentiate the effects of clozapine and haloperidol on alcohol drinking.

  2. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) -induced reductions in alcohol intake during continuous access and following alcohol deprivation are not altered by restraint stress in alcohol-preferring (P) rats

    PubMed Central

    Bertholomey, Megan L.; Henderson, Angela N.; Badia-Elder, Nancy E.; Stewart, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) reduces anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring rats. The present experiment examined whether the effects of NPY on alcohol drinking are modulated by stress exposure during continuous access or following ethanol deprivation. Female P rats underwent 6 weeks of continuous access to 15% v/v ethanol and water prior to intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula implantation. Deprived rats underwent two cycles of 5 days of ethanol exposure followed by 2 days of ethanol deprivation, while non-deprived rats had uninterrupted access to ethanol. Stressed rats in both ethanol access groups were exposed to restraint stress for 1 hour 4-6 hours after ethanol was removed from the deprived group in both cycles. ICV infusions of 5.0 μg NPY or aCSF were administered 48 hours following the deprivation/stress procedure, after which ethanol was returned. Rats showed increased ethanol intake following ethanol deprivation compared to non-deprived controls. Food and water intake were increased, while ethanol intake was decreased, in rats infused with NPY. Stress did not increase ethanol intake or alter the response to NPY. Although no stress effects were found, the present experiment replicates previous findings regarding the effectiveness of NPY in reducing ethanol consumption. Future studies aimed at determining the extent to which stress may affect relapse to ethanol drinking and response to NPY would benefit from implementing different stress paradigms and varying the pattern of ethanol access. PMID:20937300

  3. Regional central nervous system densities of delta-opioid receptors in alcohol-preferring P, alcohol-nonpreferring NP, and unselected Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Strother, W N; Chernet, E J; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; McBride, W J

    2001-08-01

    The densities of delta-opioid receptors in the central nervous system of alcohol-naive, adult, male, alcohol-preferring P, alcohol-nonpreferring NP, and Wistar rats were examined with the use of quantitative autoradiography. Slides with coronal 20-microm sections through the regions of interest were incubated in 5 nM [3H]-[D-Pen(2),D-Pen(5)]enkephalin (DPDPE) to label delta(1)-opioid receptor sites. Nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of 10 microM naloxone. Significant differences between the P and the NP rat lines were found in numerous cortical regions, the basolateral amygdala, and the posterior hippocampus, with 10%-20% lower [3H]-DPDPE binding found in the P line. In most regions examined, binding levels in the Wistar rats were intermediate between those of the P and the NP rats. Significantly lower [3H]-DPDPE binding levels in the P rat may indicate fewer delta(1)-opioid receptors or decreased binding affinity. The lower binding in certain limbic regions, such as the basolateral amygdala and posterior hippocampus, as well as cortical differences in the P rat may be associated with the divergent alcohol drinking behaviors found between the P and the NP lines.

  4. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5HT, serotonin)-1A receptor in brain areas of alcohol-preferring P and non-preferring NP rats

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, L.R.; Wong, D.T.; Li, T.K.; Lumeng, L. Indiana Univ., Indianapolis )

    1991-03-11

    Binding of {sup 3}H-80HDPAT to 5HT-1A receptor in membranes isolated from cerebral cortex of P and NP rats which had not been exposed to ethanol were equally sensitive to the displacement by nanomolar concentrations of agonists, including 5HT, buspirone and ipsapirone, and of antagonists metergoline and spiperone. Binding with increasing concentrations of {sup 3}H-80HDPAT was saturable in membranes of cerebral cortex from P and NP rats. Scatchard analysis revealed single components of binding sites with dissociation constants of 1.54 and 2.03 nM and maximum density of 177.3 and 129.3 fmol/mg protein, respectively, suggesting higher affinity and density of 5HT-1A receptors in cerebral cortex of P than NP rats. Higher densities are also found in other brain areas, including hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus, of P than NP rats, but not in brainstem. Thus, an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptors in specific brain areas was developed during selective breeding for alcohol preference, or an upregulation of the receptors resulted from the lower concentrations of 5HT in brain areas of P as compared with NP rats.

  5. Alterations in ethanol seeking and self-administration following yohimbine in selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol drinking (HAD-2) rats.

    PubMed

    Bertholomey, Megan L; Verplaetse, Terril L; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2013-02-01

    Evidence suggests that stress increases alcohol drinking and promotes relapse in humans. Animal models that assess related behaviors include the sipper tube ethanol self-administration and the stress-induced reinstatement paradigms. While selectively bred for the same high-ethanol-drinking behavior, alcohol-preferring P rats appear to show greater sensitivity to ethanol reinforcement than high-alcohol-drinking HAD rats. The present experiment tested the effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, on the motivation to seek and consume ethanol implementing a combined sipper tube/reinstatement model using male P and HAD-2 rats. Following training to self-administer ethanol using the sipper tube procedure, rats were tested for the effects of yohimbine (0.625-2.5 mg/kg) on ethanol drinking. Subsequently, rats were tested for the effects of 1.25 mg/kg yohimbine on reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Yohimbine (0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg) increased ethanol self-administration, and the latter dose also decreased latency to complete the response requirement. Yohimbine elicited reinstatement of ethanol seeking in both lines. HAD-2 rats drank more ethanol, but showed similar responding on the ethanol-associated lever compared to P rats. These findings extend both the reinstatement and sipper tube models and justify further exploration of this unique combined paradigm. Despite prior evidence suggesting that P rats are more motivated to seek and consume ethanol, differences in these behaviors between P and HAD-2 rats were not systematic in the present experiment. Further investigation may elucidate whether either selected line may be more sensitive than other selectively bred or outbred rats to stress-related changes in ethanol's reinforcing effects.

  6. Role of a Genetic Polymorphism in the Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor 1 Gene in Alcohol Drinking and Seeking Behaviors of Marchigian Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O.; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, Jose M.; Domi, Esi; Björk, Karl; Ubaldi, Massimo; Heilig, Markus; Roberto, Marisa; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats exhibit innate preference for alcohol, are highly sensitive to stress and stress-induced alcohol seeking. Genetic analysis showed that over-expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system of msP rats is correlated with the presence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in the promoter region (position −1836 and −2097) of the CRF1 receptor (CRF1-R) gene. Here we examined whether these point mutations were associated to the innate alcohol preference, stress-induced drinking, and seeking. We have recently re-derived the msP rats to obtain two distinct lines carrying the wild type (GG) and the point mutations (AA), respectively. The phenotypic characteristics of these two lines were compared with those of unselected Wistar rats. Both AA and GG rats showed similar patterns of voluntary alcohol intake and preference. Similarly, the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.0, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg) elicited increased operant alcohol self-administration under fixed and progressive ratio reinforcement schedules in all three lines. Following extinction, yohimbine (0.0, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg) significantly reinstated alcohol seeking in the three groups. However, at the highest dose this effect was no longer evident in AA rats. Treatment with the CRF1-R antagonist antalarmin (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced alcohol-reinforced lever pressing in the AA line (10 and 20 mg/kg) while a weaker or no effect was observed in the Wistar and the GG group, respectively. Finally, antalarmin significantly reduced yohimbine-induced increase in alcohol drinking in all three groups. In conclusion, these specific SNPs in the CRF1-R gene do not seem to play a primary role in the expression of the msP excessive drinking phenotype or stress-induced drinking but may be associated with a decreased threshold for stress-induced alcohol seeking and an increased sensitivity to the effects

  7. Early Ethanol and Water Consumption: Accumulating Experience Differentially Regulates Drinking Pattern and Bout Parameters in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different origin, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. PMID:24095931

  8. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption.

  9. Early Ethanol and Water Intake: Choice Mechanism and Total Fluid Regulation Operate in Parallel in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol / water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol / water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol / water choice. PMID:24095933

  10. Withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption results in increased packing density of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive astrocytes in the prelimbic cortex of alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2006-01-01

    Excess activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cerebral cortex following ethanol withdrawal is considered to contribute to significant behavioural disturbances, and to alcohol craving. Astrocytes may play a role in these manifestations because astrocytes are essential in the regulation of released glutamate and its conversion to glutamine through the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). However, it is unclear if withdrawal from free-choice ethanol drinking causes changes in the numbers of astrocytes expressing GS or the cytoskeletal protein of astrocytes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed to free-choice ethanol drinking were either maintained without forced interruption of ethanol drinking, subjected to a 3-day withdrawal period at the end of 2 months, or subjected to three 3-day withdrawal periods along 6 months. At 2 months, P rats were also compared with alcohol-naïve alcohol non-preferring rats (NP) rats. Packing density of GS and GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) astrocytes was measured in sections from the prelimbic cortex (PLC) using the optical disector probe. An alcohol deprivation effect was observed in P rats with withdrawals during a 6-month ethanol drinking period. Ethanol withdrawal significantly increased the packing density of GS- and GFAP-IR astrocytes in the PLC of P rats as compared with P rats with continuous access to ethanol. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the pre-withdrawal ethanol consumption and the packing density of GS-IR astrocytes. The present results suggest the involvement of astrocytes in the regulation of the glutamatergic activation associated with withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption and point to differential adaptations of GS and GFAP to prolonged alcohol drinking in the PLC of P rats.

  11. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  12. Ceftriaxone treatment affects the levels of GLT1 and ENT1 as well as ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Sreemantula, Sai N; Lee, Moonnoh R; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that deletion of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is associated with reduced glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) level, and consequently increased ethanol intake. In this study, we measured changes in GLT1 and ENT1 levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell associated with alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We examined, then, whether ceftriaxone (CEF) would affect both GLT1 and ENT1 levels in these brain regions. P rats were given 24-h concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol, water, and food for 5 weeks. On Week 6, P rats received 100 mg/kg CEF (i.p.) or a saline vehicle for five consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured daily for 8 days starting on the first day of injections. We found a significant reduction in daily ethanol intake in CEF-treated group, starting on Day 2 of injections. Western blot for GLT1 and binding assay for ENT1 revealed downregulation of GLT1 level, whereas ENT1 levels were increased in the NAc core and NAc shell, respectively, but not in the PFC in saline vehicle group. Importantly, CEF treatment reversed these effects in both NAc core and shell. These findings provide evidence for potential regulatory effects of CEF on both GLT1 and ENT1 expression in reducing ethanol intake.

  13. Effects of systemic opioid receptor ligands on ethanol- and sucrose seeking and drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) and Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Henderson-Redmond, Angela; Czachowski, Cristine

    2014-11-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in mediating the reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH). Naltrexone (NTX), an opioid antagonist with concentration-dependent selectivity for the mu receptor, naltrindole (NTI), a selective delta receptor antagonist, and U50,488H, a selective kappa receptor agonist were examined in both alcohol-preferring (P) and nonselected (Long Evans (LE)) rats to determine whether they differentially affected the seeking and consumption of EtOH and sucrose. Using the sipper-tube model, rats reinforced with either 2% sucrose or 10% EtOH were injected with vehicle and either NTI (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg), U50 (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg), low-dose NTX (0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg), or high-dose NTX (1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg). Subsequent intakes (consummatory) or lever responses (seeking) were assessed. Overall, NTI, U50, and NTX attenuated intake and responding for sucrose and EtOH, with EtOH-reinforced P rats being the most sensitive to the effects of NTI on intake and seeking. U50 treatment decreased intake and seeking in both P and LE rats but did not selectively reduce EtOH intake or seeking in either line. P rats were more sensitive than LE rats to lower doses of NTX, and these doses more selectively attenuated responding for EtOH than sucrose. Higher doses of NTX suppressed intake and responding across both lines and reinforcers. These results suggest that drugs selective for the opioid receptors may be good pharmacotherapeutic targets, particularly in those with an underlying genetic predisposition for greater EtOH preference/intake.

  14. D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens-shell, but not the core, are involved in mediating ethanol-seeking behavior of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Hauser, S R; Deehan, G A; Dhaher, R; Knight, C P; Wilden, J A; McBride, W J; Rodd, Z A

    2015-06-04

    Clinical and preclinical research suggest that activation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in mediating the rewarding actions of drugs of abuse, as well as promoting drug-seeking behavior. Inhibition of DA D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) can reduce ethanol (EtOH)-seeking behavior of non-selective rats triggered by environmental context. However, to date, there has been no research on the effects of D1 receptor agents on EtOH- seeking behavior of high alcohol-preferring (P) rats following prolonged abstinence. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of microinjecting the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the D1 agonist A-77636 into the Acb shell or Acb core on spontaneous recovery of EtOH-seeking behavior. After 10 weeks of concurrent access to EtOH and water, P rats underwent seven extinction sessions (EtOH and water withheld), followed by 2 weeks in their home cages without access to EtOH or operant sessions. In the 2nd week of the home cage phase, rats were bilaterally implanted with guide cannula aimed at the Acb shell or Acb core; rats were allowed 7d ays to recover before EtOH-seeking was assessed by the Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery (PSR) model. Administration of SCH23390 (1μg/side) into the Acb shell inhibited responding on the EtOH lever, whereas administration of A-77636 (0.125μg/side) increased responding on the EtOH lever. Microinfusion of D1 receptor agents into the Acb core did not alter responding on the EtOH lever. Responses on the water lever were not altered by any of the treatments. The results suggest that activation of D1 receptors within the Acb shell, but not Acb core, are involved in mediating PSR of EtOH-seeking behavior of P rats.

  15. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J

    2014-05-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well.

  16. Effects of ampicillin, cefazolin and cefoperazone treatments on GLT-1 expressions in the mesocorticolimbic system and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S S; Goodwani, S; Bell, R L; Wei, Y; Boddu, S H S; Sari, Y

    2015-06-04

    Chronic ethanol consumption is known to downregulate expression of the major glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), which increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in subregions of the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway. While β-lactam antibiotics were initially identified as potent upregulators of GLT-1 expression, only ceftriaxone has been extensively studied in various drug addiction models. Therefore, in this study, adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed chronically to ethanol were treated with other β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone (100mg/kg) once daily for five consecutive days to assess their effects on ethanol consumption. The results demonstrated that each compound significantly reduced ethanol intake compared to the saline-treated control group. Importantly, each compound significantly upregulated both GLT-1 and pAKT expressions in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex compared to saline-treated control group. In addition, only cefoperazone significantly inhibited hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, these β-lactams exerted only a transient effect on sucrose drinking, suggesting specificity for chronically inhibiting ethanol reward in adult male P rats. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone have been confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings demonstrate that multiple β-lactam antibiotics demonstrate efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and appear to be potential therapeutic compounds for treating alcohol abuse and/or dependence. In addition, these results suggest that pAKT may be an important player in this effect, possibly through increased transcription of GLT-1.

  17. Region-specific down-regulation of Crhr1 gene expression in alcohol-preferring msP rats following ad lib access to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Anita C; Cippitelli, Andrea; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Heilig, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone 1 receptors (CRH-R1) mediate increased behavioral sensitivity to stress and excessive alcohol self-administration following a history of dependence. It was recently demonstrated that the genetically selected alcohol-preferring msP rat line replicates many characteristics of the post-dependent state, due to an innate up-regulation of the Crhr1 transcript in several limbic areas related to alcohol drinking motivation. Here, we examined whether voluntary alcohol consumption might be able to down-regulate Crhr1 transcript levels in msP rats in brain areas where elevated expression previously has been shown. Within central and medial amygdala (CeA, MeA), as well as the Nc. Accumbens, 2 weeks'ad lib access to alcohol led to a highly significant down-regulation of the Crhr1 transcript. Alcohol-induced Crhr1 down-regulation was not seen in cingulate cortex. These data support that recruitment of CRH-R1 signaling within components of the extended amygdala drives excessive alcohol intake, and that alcohol is voluntarily consumed in part for its ability to reduce CRH-R1 activity in this region.

  18. Effects of alcohol and saccharin deprivations on concurrent ethanol and saccharin operant self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Oster, Scott M; Kuc, Kelly A; Pommer, Tylene J; Murphy, James M; Lumeng, Lawrence; Bell, Richard L; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2008-06-01

    Consumption of sweet solutions has been associated with a reduction in withdrawal symptoms and alcohol craving in humans. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of ethanol and saccharin (SACC) deprivations on operant oral self-administration. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were allowed to lever press concurrently self-administer ethanol (15% vol/vol) and SACC (0.0125% g/vol) for 8 weeks. Rats were then maintained on daily operant access (nondeprived), deprived of both fluids (2 weeks), deprived of SACC and given 2 ml of ethanol daily, or deprived of ethanol and given 2 ml of SACC daily. All groups were then given 2 weeks of daily operant access to ethanol and SACC, followed by an identical second deprivation period. P rats responded more for ethanol than SACC. All deprived groups increased responding on the ethanol lever, but not on the SACC lever. Daily consumption of 2 ml ethanol decreased the duration of the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE). Home cage access to 2 ml of SACC also decreased the ADE but to a lesser extent than access to ethanol. A second deprivation period further increased and prolonged the expression of an ADE. These results show ethanol is a more salient reinforcer than SACC. With concurrent access to ethanol and SACC, P rats do not display a saccharin deprivation effect. Depriving P rats of both ethanol and SACC had the most pronounced effect on the magnitude and duration of the ADE, suggesting that there may be some interactions between ethanol and SACC in their CNS reinforcing effects.

  19. Enhanced Extracellular Glutamate and Dopamine in the Ventral Pallidum of Alcohol-Preferring AA and Alcohol-Avoiding ANA Rats after Morphine.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Heidi; Nurmi, Harri; Raivio, Noora; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of ventral pallidal opioidergic mechanisms in the control of ethanol intake by studying the effects of acute administration of morphine on the levels of GABA, glutamate, and dopamine in the ventral pallidum. The study was conducted using the alcohol-preferring Alko Alcohol (AA) and alcohol-avoiding Alko Non-Alcohol (ANA) rat lines that have well-documented differences in their voluntary ethanol intake and brain opioidergic systems. Therefore, examination of neurobiological differences between the lines is supposed to help to identify the neuronal mechanisms underlying ethanol intake, since selection pressure is assumed gradually to lead to enrichment of alleles promoting high or low ethanol intake, respectively. The effects of an acute dose of morphine (1 or 10 mg/kg s.c.) on the extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the ventral pallidum were monitored with in vivo microdialysis. The concentrations of GABA and glutamate in the dialyzates were determined with a high performance liquid chromatography system using fluorescent detection, while electrochemical detection was used for dopamine. The levels of glutamate in the rats injected with morphine 1 mg/kg were significantly above the levels found in the controls and in the rats receiving morphine 10 mg/kg. Morphine 10 mg/kg also increased the levels of dopamine. Morphine could not, however, modify the levels of GABA. The rat lines did not differ in any of the effects of morphine. The data suggest that the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems in the ventral pallidum may mediate some effects of morphine. Since there were no differences between the AA and ANA lines, the basic hypothesis underlying the use of the genetic animal model suggests that the effects of morphine detected probably do not underlie the different intake of ethanol by the lines and contribute to the control of ethanol intake in these animals.

  20. Protein expression changes in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala of inbred alcohol-preferring rats given either continuous or scheduled access to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Bell, R L; Kimpel, M W; Rodd, Z A; Strother, W N; Bai, F; Peper, C L; Mayfield, R D; Lumeng, L; Crabb, D W; McBride, W J; Witzmann, F A

    2006-08-01

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) drinking produces neuronal alterations within the limbic system. To investigate changes in protein expression levels associated with EtOH drinking, inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats were given one of three EtOH access conditions in their home-cages: continuous ethanol (CE: 24h/day, 7days/week access to EtOH), multiple scheduled access (MSA: four 1-h sessions during the dark cycle/day, 5 days/week) to EtOH, or remained EtOH-naïve. Both MSA and CE groups consumed between 6 and 6.5g of EtOH/kg/day after the 3rd week of access. On the first day of EtOH access for the seventh week, access was terminated at the end of the fourth MSA session for MSA rats and the corresponding time point (2300h) for CE rats. Ten h later, the rats were decapitated, brains extracted, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and amygdala (AMYG) microdissected, and protein isolated for 2-dimensional gel electrophoretic analyses. In the NAcc, MSA altered expression levels for 12 of the 14 identified proteins, compared with controls, with six of these proteins altered by CE access, as well. In the AMYG, CE access changed expression levels for 22 of the 27 identified proteins, compared with controls, with 8 of these proteins altered by MSA, as well. The proteins could be grouped into functional categories of chaperones, cytoskeleton, intracellular communication, membrane transport, metabolism, energy production, or neurotransmission. Overall, it appears that EtOH drinking and the conditions under which EtOH is consumed, differentially affect protein expression levels between the NAcc and AMYG. This may reflect differences in neuroanatomical and/or functional characteristics associated with EtOH self-administration and possibly withdrawal, between these two brain structures.

  1. Alcohol drinking and deprivation alter basal extracellular glutamate concentrations and clearance in the mesolimbic system of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Bailey, Jason A; Lahiri, Debomoy K; McBride, William J

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the effects of voluntary ethanol drinking and deprivation on basal extracellular glutamate concentrations and clearance in the mesolimbic system and tested the hypothesis that chronic ethanol drinking would persistently increase basal glutamate neurotransmission. Three groups of alcohol-preferring (P) rats were used: 'water group (WG),' 'ethanol maintenance group (MG; 24-hour free choice water versus 15% ethanol)' and 'ethanol deprivation group (DG; 2 weeks of deprivation).' Quantitative microdialysis and Western blots were conducted to measure basal extracellular glutamate concentrations, clearance and proteins associated with glutamate clearance. Chronic alcohol drinking produced a 70-100% increase of basal extracellular glutamate concentrations in the posterior ventral tegmental area (4.0 versus 7.0 μM) and nucleus accumbens shell (3.0 versus 6.0 μM). Glutamate clearances were reduced by 30-40% in both regions of MG rats compared with WG rats. In addition, Western blots revealed a 40-45% decrease of excitatory amino transporter 1 (EAAT1) protein, but no significant changes in the levels of EAAT2 or cystine-glutamate antiporter in these regions of MG versus WG rats. The enhanced glutamate concentrations returned to control levels, accompanied by a recovery of glutamate clearance following deprivation. These results indicated that chronic alcohol drinking enhanced extracellular glutamate concentrations in the mesolimbic system, as a result, in part, of reduced clearance, suggesting that enhanced glutamate neurotransmission may contribute to the maintenance of alcohol drinking. However, because the increased glutamate levels returned to normal after deprivation, elevated glutamate neurotransmission may not contribute to the initiation of relapse drinking.

  2. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood.

  3. Alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) lines of rats after introgression of alien genes.

    PubMed

    Hyytiä, P; Halkka, O; Sarviharju, M; Eriksson, K

    1987-01-01

    Outcrossing has been used as a method for introducing new genetic variability into the high-drinking AA and low-drinking ANA rat lines that had reached their selection limits and were suffering of poor fertility and decreased litter size. The response to the renewed selection for differential alcohol consumption, and the effect of outcrossing upon the components of productivity are reported.

  4. Effects of ceftriaxone on ethanol, nicotine or sucrose intake by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and its association with GLT-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Toalston, Jamie E; Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L

    2016-06-21

    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We have shown that administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, reduced EtOH intake and increased glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in mesocorticolimbic regions of male and female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce nicotine (NIC) and/or EtOH intake by adult female P rats. P rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (a) 5% sucrose (SUC) or 10% SUC [SUC], (b) 5% SUC+0.07mg/ml NIC and 10% SUC+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-SUC], 15% EtOH and 30% EtOH [EtOH] and (d) 15% EtOH+0.07mg/ml NIC and 30% EtOH+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-EtOH]. After achieving stable intakes (4weeks), the rats were administered 7 consecutive, daily i.p. injections of either saline or 200mg/kg CEF. The effects of CEF on intake were significant but differed across the reinforcers; such that ml/kg/day SUC was reduced by ∼30%, mg/kg/day NIC was reduced by ∼70% in the NIC-SUC group and ∼40% in the EtOH-NIC group, whereas g/kg/day EtOH was reduced by ∼40% in both the EtOH and EtOH-NIC group. The effects of CEF on GLT-1 expression were also studied. We found that CEF significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the NIC and NIC-EtOH rats as compared to NIC and NIC-EtOH saline-treated rats. These findings provide further support for GLT-1-associated mechanisms in EtOH and/or NIC abuse. The present results along with previous reports of CEF's efficacy in reducing cocaine self-administration in rats suggest that modulation of GLT-1 expression and/or activity is an important pharmacological target for treating polysubstance abuse and dependence.

  5. Effects of forced alcohol drinking on alcohol-water choice in three pairs of rat lines selectively bred for differences in alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, William; Leffel, Joseph K; Chester, Julia A; Froehlich, Janice C

    2009-03-01

    Three pairs of Indiana University rat lines (inbred alcohol-preferring and nonpreferring rat lines [P/NPs], high- and low-alcohol-drinking rat lines [HAD/LAD1s and HAD/LAD2s]) were bred in the School of Medicine colony to drink high versus low daily amounts of a 10% vol/vol alcohol test solution (>5.0 g/kg body weight vs. <1.5 g/kg body weight), and a high versus low proportion of alcohol to water (>2:1 vs. <0.5:1) by the end of a 3-week alcohol-water choice condition. This choice phase was always preceded by four days of a forcing procedure with alcohol as the only fluid. The present study examined the contribution of the forcing procedure to the alcohol intake of animals in each pair of lines by comparing daily alcohol intake of rats housed in experimental chambers in a forced group (4 days with only alcohol solution to drink followed by 22 choice days) versus a choice group (both alcohol and water available all 26 days). As expected, under the initial alcohol exposure, high-drinking line rats drank more alcohol than low-drinking line rats, and all forced groups drank more alcohol than choice groups. At the start of the choice phase, all low-drinking line forced groups immediately dropped their alcohol intake to the level of their choice groups. In contrast, all high-drinking line forced groups maintained a high level of alcohol intake under choice, whereas all high-drinking line choice groups slowly increased average alcohol intake across the 22-day choice phase, ending near the average intake of their forced groups. However, a small subset of each high-drinking line choice animals failed to increase alcohol intake until subsequently forced with alcohol for 4 days and tested again in choice. These results indicate that the alcohol-forcing procedure used in deriving these lines resulted in the selection of more than one pathway to a high-drinking phenotype. In addition, high-drinking line animals appeared more sensitive to the differences between laboratory- and

  6. Lifelong ethanol consumption and brain regional GABAA receptor subunit mRNA expression in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sarviharju, Maija; Hyytiä, Petri; Hervonen, Antti; Jaatinen, Pia; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R

    2006-11-01

    Brain regional gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit mRNA expression was studied in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats after moderate ethanol drinking for up to 2 years of age. In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes specific for 13 different subunits was used with coronal cryostat sections of the brains. Selective alterations were observed by ethanol exposure and/or aging in signals for several subunits. Most interestingly, the putative highly ethanol-sensitive alpha4 and beta3 subunit mRNAs were significantly decreased in several brain regions. The age-related alterations in alpha4 subunit expression were parallel to those caused by lifelong ethanol drinking, whereas aging had no significant effect on beta3 subunit expression. The results suggest that prolonged ethanol consumption leading to blood concentrations of about 10 mM may downregulate the mRNA expression of selected GABAA receptor subunits and that aging might have partly similar effects.

  7. Changes in gene expression within the extended amygdala following binge-like alcohol drinking by adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J; Kimpel, Mark W; McClintick, Jeanette N; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Edenberg, Howard J; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine changes in gene expression within the extended amygdala following binge-like alcohol drinking by male adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Starting at 28 days of age, P rats were given concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol for 3 one-h sessions/day for 5 consecutive days/week for 3 weeks. Rats were killed by decapitation 3 h after the first ethanol access session on the 15th day of drinking. RNA was prepared from micropunch samples of the nucleus accumbens shell (Acb-sh) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Ethanol intakes were 2.5-3.0 g/kg/session. There were 154 and 182 unique named genes that significantly differed (FDR=0.2) between the water and ethanol group in the Acb-sh and CeA, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses indicated that adolescent binge drinking produced changes in biological processes involved with cell proliferation and regulation of cellular structure in the Acb-sh, and in neuron projection and positive regulation of cellular organization in the CeA. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that, in the Acb-sh, there were several major intracellular signaling pathways (e.g., cAMP-mediated and protein kinase A signaling pathways) altered by adolescent drinking, with 3-fold more genes up-regulated than down-regulated in the alcohol group. The cAMP-mediated signaling system was also up-regulated in the CeA of the alcohol group. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis indicated significant G-protein coupled receptor signaling and transmembrane receptor protein kinase signaling categories in the Acb-sh and CeA, respectively. Overall, the results of this study indicated that binge-like alcohol drinking by adolescent P rats is differentially altering the expression of genes in the Acb-sh and CeA, some of which are involved in intracellular signaling pathways and may produce changes in neuronal function.

  8. Effects of Chronic Alcohol and Repeated Deprivations on Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Levels in the Extended Amygdala of Inbred Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Zhou, Feng C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic (DA) activity in the extended amygdala (EA) has been known to play a pivotal role in mediating drug and alcohol addiction. Alterations of DA activity within the EA after chronic exposure to alcohol or substances of abuse are considered a major mechanism for the development of alcoholism and addiction. To date, it is not clear how different patterns of chronic alcohol drinking affect DA receptor levels. Therefore, the current studies investigated the effects of chronic ethanol consumption, with or without deprivations, on D1 and D2 receptor densities within the EA. Methods Inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats were divided into 3 groups with the following treatments: (1) water for 14 weeks; (2) continuous alcohol (C-Alc) for 14 weeks [24-hour concurrent access to 15 and 30% (v/v) ethanol]; or (3) repeatedly deprived of alcohol (RD-Alc) (24-hour concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol for 6 weeks, followed by 2 cycles of 2 weeks of deprivation of and 2 weeks of reexposure to ethanol access). At the end of 14 weeks, the rats were killed for autoradiographic labeling of D1 and D2 receptors. Results Compared with the water control group, both the C-Alc and the RD-Alc groups displayed increases in D1 receptor binding density in the anterior region of the Acb core, whereas the RD-Alc group displayed additional increases in D1 receptor binding density in anterior regions of the lateral and intercalated nuclei of the amygdala. Additionally, both C-Alc and RD-Alc rats displayed increases in D2 receptor binding density in anterior regions of the Acb shell and core, whereas RDAlc rats displayed additional increases in D2 receptor binding density in the dorsal striatum. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that 14-week extended alcohol drinking with continuous chronic or repeated deprivations increase binding sites of D1 and D2 receptors in specific regions of the EA with greater sensitivity in the anterior regions. The repeated deprivation has

  9. Acute and chronic administration of a low-dose combination of topiramate and ondansetron reduces ethanol's reinforcing effects in male alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Catherine F; Lycas, Matthew D; Bond, Colin W; Johnson, Bankole A; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-02-01

    Topiramate (a GABA/glutamate modulator) and ondansetron (a serotonin-3 antagonist) have shown promise as treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), although efficacy is modest/variable for both medications. We recently showed in animal models of consumption and relapse that acute treatment with a combination of these medications was more efficacious than either alone. To determine whether the mechanism for its beneficial effects is through modulation of ethanol's reinforcing effects, we measured the effect of this combination in male alcohol preferring (P) rats (N = 22) responding for ethanol under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule. Low doses, which either do not affect (ondansetron; 0.001 mg/kg) or only modestly affect (topiramate; 10 mg/kg) alcohol-related behaviors on their own, were selected in an attempt to maximize their combined efficacy while minimizing potential side effects. In addition to acute treatment (1 day), the effects of chronic administration (10 days) were examined in an attempt to model human treatment approaches. The effects of the combination were compared with the low dose of topiramate alone hypothesizing that the combination would be more efficacious than topiramate alone. Although both topiramate and the combination similarly reduced PR responding for ethanol following acute treatment and during the initial phase of chronic treatment (Days 1-5), after repeated administration (Days 6-10), only the combination produced a sustained reduction in ethanol-maintained responding. These results suggest an advantage of the combination over topiramate alone at producing a sustained reduction in ethanol's reinforcing effects following prolonged treatment, and lend further support for its use as a potential treatment for AUDs.

  10. Quantitative trait locus for body weight identified on rat chromosome 4 in inbred alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring rats: potential implications for neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin releasing hormone 2.

    PubMed

    Spence, John Paul; Lai, Dongbing; Shekhar, Anantha; Carr, Lucinda G; Foroud, Tatiana; Liang, Tiebing

    2013-02-01

    The alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rat lines were developed using bidirectional selective breeding for alcohol consumption (g/kg/day) and alcohol preference (water:ethanol ratio). During a preliminary study, we detected a difference in body weight between inbred P (iP) and inbred NP (iNP) rats that appeared to be associated with the transfer of the Chromosome 4 quantitative trait locus (QTL) seen in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains. After the initial confirmation that iP rats displayed lower body weight when compared to iNP rats (data not shown), body weight and growth rates of each chromosome 4 reciprocal congenic rat strain (P.NP and NP.P) were measured, and their body weight was consistent with their respective donor strain phenotype, confirming that a quantitative trait locus for body weight mapped to the chromosome 4 interval. Utilizing the newly developed interval-specific congenic strains (ISCS-A and ISCS-B), the QTL interval was further narrowed identifying the following candidate genes of interest: neuropeptide Y (Npy), juxtaposed with another zinc finger gene 1 (Jazf1), corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 2 (Crfr2) and LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 2 (Lancl2). These findings indicate that a biologically active variant(s) regulates body weight on rat chromosome 4 in iP and iNP rats. This QTL for body weight was successfully captured in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains, and interval-specific congenic strains (ISCSs) were subsequently employed to fine-map the QTL interval identifying the following candidate genes of interest: Npy, Jazf1, Crfr2 and Lancl2. Both Npy and Crfr2 have been previously identified as candidate genes of interest underlying the chromosome 4 QTL for alcohol consumption in iP and iNP rats.

  11. Differences in basal and morphine-induced FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB immunoreactivities in dopaminergic brain regions of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Kaste, Kristiina; Kivinummi, Tanja; Piepponen, T Petteri; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    Besides alcohol, alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats differ also with respect to other abused drugs. To study the molecular basis of these differences, we examined the expression of two transcription factors implicated in addiction, DeltaFosB and pCREB, in brain dopaminergic regions of AA and ANA rats. The effects of morphine and nicotine were studied to relate the behavioral and molecular changes induced by these drugs. Baseline FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens core and pCREB IR in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were elevated in AA rats. Morphine increased DeltaFosB-like IR more readily in the caudate-putamen of AA rats than in ANA rats. In the PFC morphine decreased pCREB IR in AA rats, but increased it in ANA rats. In addition to enhanced locomotor response, the development of place preference to morphine was enhanced in AA rats. The enhanced nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization found in AA compared with ANA rats seems to depend in addition to dopamine and DeltaFosB on other mechanisms. These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity of AA rats to morphine is related to augmented morphine-induced expression of FosB/DeltaFosB and morphine-induced reduction of pCREB levels. Moreover, altered innate expression of FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB in AA rats is likely to affect the sensitivity of these rats to abused drugs.

  12. Effects of (R)-(-)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline on glutamate transporter 1 and cysteine/glutamate exchanger as well as ethanol drinking behavior in male, alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Aal-Aaboda, Munaf; Alhaddad, Hasan; Osowik, Francis; Nauli, Surya M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is largely associated with alterations in the extracellular glutamate concentrations in several brain reward regions. We recently showed that glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is downregulated following chronic exposure to ethanol for 5 weeks in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and that upregulation of the GLT-1 levels in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex results, in part, in attenuating ethanol consumption. Cystine glutamate antiporter (xCT) is also downregulated after chronic ethanol exposure in P rats, and its upregulation could be valuable in attenuating ethanol drinking. This study examines the effect of a synthetic compound, (R)-(-)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline (MS-153), on ethanol drinking and expressions of GLT-1 and xCT in the amygdala and the hippocampus of P rats. P rats were exposed to continuous free-choice access to water, 15% and 30% ethanol, and food for 5 weeks, after which they received treatments of MS-153 or vehicle for 5 days. The results show that MS-153 treatment significantly reduces ethanol consumption. It was revealed that GLT-1 and xCT expressions were downregulated in both the amygdala and the hippocampus of ethanol-vehicle-treated rats (ethanol-vehicle group) compared with water-control animals. MS-153 treatment upregulated GLT-1 and xCT expressions in these brain regions. These findings demonstrate an important role for MS-153 in these glutamate transporters for the attenuation of ethanol-drinking behavior.

  13. Polymorphism in the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1-R) gene plays a role in shaping the high anxious phenotype of Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats

    PubMed Central

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Ayanwuyi, Lydia O.; Barbier, Estelle; Domi, Esi; Lerma-Cabrera, Jose M.; Carvajal, Francisca; Scuppa, Giulia; Li, Hongwu; Ubaldi, Massimo; Heilig, Markus; Roberto, Marisa; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Marchigian-Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats exhibit innate preference for alcohol along with anxious phenotype. In these animals, two single nucleotide polymorphisms in position −1836 and −2097 from the first start codon of the CRF1-R transcript have been found. Here we examined whether these point mutations account for the heightened anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness of msP rats. We re-derived the msP rats to obtain two distinct lines carrying the wild type (GG) and point mutations (AA), respectively. CRF1-R gene expression analysis revealed significant dysregulation of the system in the extended amygdala of AA rats. At the behavioral level, using the elevated plus maze, we found that both AA and GG lines had higher basal anxiety compared to Wistar rats. In the defensive burying test, AA rats showed decreased burying behavior compared to the GG and the unselected Wistar lines. Freezing/immobility did not differ among AA and GG but was higher than that of Wistars. The selective CRF1-R antagonist antalarmin (0, 10, 20 mg/kg) reduced burying behavior in Wistar animals. However, antalarmin (10 mg/kg) tended to increase rather than reducing this behavior when tested in the msP lines, an effect that appeared more marked in the GG as compared to the AA line. The present data suggest that rats with msP genetic background are more anxious and show different sensitivity to stress and CRF1-R blockade than Wistars. The point mutations occurring in the CRF1-R gene do not seem to influence basal anxiety while they appear to affect active responses to stress. PMID:25260340

  14. The long-lasting effects of JDTic, a kappa opioid receptor antagonist, on the expression of ethanol-seeking behavior and the relapse drinking of female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Deehan, Gerald A; McKinzie, David L; Carroll, F Ivy; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2012-06-01

    The current study assessed the effects of the selective kappa opioid antagonist JDTic on alcohol (EtOH)-seeking behavior, EtOH relapse, and maintenance responding for EtOH. Adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained in 2-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% EtOH (v/v) on a fixed-ratio 5 (FR-5) and water on a FR-1 schedule of reinforcement during 1-hr sessions. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training for seven sessions. Rats were then maintained in their home cages for 3 weeks without EtOH access. All rats received an injection (s.c.) of 0, 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg JDTic (n=11-14/group) after the first week of the home cage period. Rats were then tested using the Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery paradigm (PSR; an animal model of alcohol-seeking) for four sessions during which, responses on the EtOH and water levers were recorded but did not produce their respective reinforcer. Following PSR testing rats were returned to their home cages without access to EtOH for one week prior to the start of EtOH relapse testing. To examine EtOH relapse responding, rats were returned to the operant chambers and the EtOH (FR5) and water (FR1) levers were active. Finally, rats were then tested over 17 operant sessions to assess the effects of JDTic on maintenance responding for EtOH. Rats received 0, 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg JDTic (counterbalanced from the initial experiment) 30 minutes prior to the initial maintenance session. JDTic administered 14 and 25 days prior to testing dose-dependently reduced the expression of an EtOH PSR and relapse responding. In contrast, JDTic did not alter EtOH responding under maintenance conditions. Overall, the results of this study indicate that different mechanisms mediate EtOH self-administration under relapse and maintenance conditions and kappa opioid receptors are involved in mediating EtOH-seeking behavior and relapse responding but not on-going EtOH self-administration.

  15. Effects of periadolescent ethanol exposure on alcohol preference in two BALB substrains.

    PubMed

    Blizard, David A; Vandenbergh, David J; Jefferson, Akilah L; Chatlos, Cynthia D; Vogler, George P; McClearn, Gerald E

    2004-01-01

    alcohol preference and fit within a body of literature, showing substantial individual differences in the effects of ethanol exposure among genetically undefined rats and differences in response to ethanol exposure among inbred rat strains. Exploration of the mechanisms underlying this gene by environment interaction in a mouse model may help elucidate individual differences in the effects of ethanol exposure in human beings and contribute to the understanding of the causes of alcoholism.

  16. Gene expression changes in serotonin, GABA-A receptors, neuropeptides and ion channels in the dorsal raphe nucleus of adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats following binge-like alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    McClintick, Jeanette N; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard J

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol binge-drinking during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of excessive adolescent ethanol binge-drinking on gene expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of alcohol preferring (P) rats. Repeated binges across adolescence (three 1h sessions across the dark-cycle per day, 5 days per week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session) significantly altered the expression of approximately one-third of the detected genes. Multiple neurotransmitter systems were altered, with the largest changes in the serotonin system (21 of 23 serotonin-related genes showed decreased expression) and GABA-A receptors (8 decreased and 2 increased). Multiple neuropeptide systems were also altered, with changes in the neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone systems similar to those associated with increased drinking and decreased resistance to stress. There was increased expression of 21 of 32 genes for potassium channels. Expression of downstream targets of CREB signaling was increased. There were also changes in expression of genes involved in inflammatory processes, axonal guidance, growth factors, transcription factors, and several intracellular signaling pathways. These widespread changes indicate that excessive binge drinking during adolescence alters the functioning of the DRN and likely its modulation of many regions of the central nervous system, including the mesocorticolimbic system.

  17. Ceftriaxone attenuates ethanol drinking and restores extracellular glutamate concentration through normalization of GLT-1 in nucleus accumbens of male alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujan C; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Hristov, Alexandar M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Alteration of glutamatergic-neurotransmission is a hallmark of alcohol dependence. We have previously reported that chronic ethanol-drinking downregulated glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in male P rats in a manner that was reversed by ceftriaxone treatment. However, the effect of ceftriaxone on extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc after chronic ethanol-drinking has not yet been studied. In the present study, male P rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five consecutive days following five-weeks of free choice ethanol (15% and 30%) drinking. In vivo microdialysis was performed to measure the extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc and the effect of blockade of GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid (DHK) on extracellular glutamate in NAc of ceftriaxone-treated rats was determined. Ceftriaxone treatment attenuated ethanol intake as well as ethanol preference. Extracellular glutamate was significantly higher in NAc after five-weeks of ethanol drinking in saline-treated compared to water control rats. Ceftriaxone treatment blocked the increase extracellular glutamate produced by ethanol intake. Blockade of GLT-1 by DHK reversed the effects of ceftriaxone on glutamate and implicated the role of GLT-1 in the normalization of extracellular glutamate by ceftriaxone. In addition, GLT-1 protein was decreased in ethanol exposed animals and ceftriaxone treatment reversed this deficit. Ceftriaxone treatment also increased glutamine synthetase activity in NAc but not in PFC as compared to ethanol drinking saline-treated rats. Our present study demonstrates that ceftriaxone treatment prevents ethanol drinking in part through normalization of extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc of male P rats via GLT-1.

  18. Effects of beta-lactam Compounds on GLT1 and xCT Expression levels as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakami, Alqassem

    Drug abuse is associated with deficits in glutamate uptake and impairment of glutamate homeostasis. Glutamate transporters are the key players in regulating extracellular glutamate concentrations. Considering the importance of glutamate transporters, pharmacological management of the transporter functions can be used as very promising therapeutic targets. Ceftriaxone (beta-lactam antibiotic) has been shown to attenuate ethanol consumption and cocaine-seeking behavior in part by restoring glutamate homeostasis in mesocorticolimbic regions. Furthermore, recent studies from our lab have demonstrated the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on upregulating GLT-1 expression level as well as reducing ethanol consumption in male P rats. Therefore, in this project, we examined the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on other glutamate transporters (xCT and GLAST) expression levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Furthermore, we also investigated the effects of clavulanic acid administration on alcohol consumption as well as GLT-1 and xCT expression levels in NAc. Additionally, we also determined whether oral Augmentin have any effect in reducing alcohol intake in male P rats. Rats were exposed to free choice of ethanol (15% and 30%), water, and food for a period of five weeks. During week six, rats were given five consecutive daily i.p. injections of saline vehicle, 100 mg/kg amoxicillin injections or 100 mg/kg Augmentin injections. Both compounds significantly increased xCT expression level in NAc. Augmentin also increased xCT expression level in PFC. In the clavulanic acid study, rats were given five consecutive i.p. injections of 5 mg/kg clavulanic acid for the treatment group and the saline injections for the saline group. Clavulanic acid significantly reduced ethanol consumption and significantly upregulated GLT-1 and xCT expression levels in NAc. In oral Augmentin study, oral gavage of Augmentin (100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated

  19. Effects of Amoxicillin and Augmentin on Cystine-Glutamate Exchanger and Glutamate Transporter 1 Isoforms as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Alqassem Y.; Hammad, Alaa M.; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with alteration of glutamate transport and glutamate neurotransmission. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a major transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate concentration, which is also regulated by cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT). Importantly, we recently reported that amoxicillin and Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate) upreglulated GLT-1 expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) as well as reduced ethanol consumption in male P rats. In this study, we examined the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on GLT-1 isoforms (GLT-1a and GLT-1b), xCT, and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) expression in NAc and PFC as well as ethanol intake in male P rats. We found that both compounds significantly reduced ethanol intake, and increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in NAc. However, only Augmentin increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in PFC. There were no effects of these compounds on GLAST expression in NAc and PFC. These findings demonstrated that Augmentin and amoxicillin have the potential to upregulate GLT-1 isoforms and xCT expression, and consequently attenuate ethanol dependence. PMID:27199635

  20. Modulation of nucleus accumbens connectivity by alcohol drinking and naltrexone in alcohol-preferring rats: A manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2016-03-01

    The nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone is now used for the treatment of alcoholism, yet naltrexone's central mechanism of action remains poorly understood. One line of evidence suggests that opioid antagonists regulate alcohol drinking through interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine system. Hence, our goal here was to examine the role of the nucleus accumbens connectivity in alcohol reinforcement and naltrexone's actions using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Following long-term free-choice drinking of alcohol and water, AA (Alko Alcohol) rats received injections of MnCl2 into the nucleus accumbens for activity-dependent tracing of accumbal connections. Immediately after the accumbal injections, rats were imaged using MEMRI, and then allowed to drink either alcohol or water for the next 24h. Naltrexone was administered prior to the active dark period, and the second MEMRI was performed 24h after the first scan. Comparison of signal intensity at 1 and 24h after accumbal MnCl2 injections revealed an ipsilateral continuum through the ventral pallidum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, globus pallidus, and lateral hypothalamus to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Activation was also seen in the rostral part of the insular cortex and regions of the prefrontal cortex. Alcohol drinking resulted in enhanced activation of these connections, whereas naltrexone suppressed alcohol-induced activity. These data support the involvement of the accumbal connections in alcohol reinforcement and mediation of naltrexone's suppressive effects on alcohol drinking through their deactivation.

  1. Alcohol drinking increases the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol and reduces D2 auto-receptor and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor function within the posterior ventral tegmental area of alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Ingraham, Cynthia M; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J

    2016-10-01

    Repeated local administration of ethanol (EtOH) sensitized the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to the local dopamine (DA)-stimulating effects of EtOH. Chronic alcohol drinking increased nucleus accumbens (NAC) DA transmission and pVTA glutamate transmission in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of chronic alcohol drinking by P rats on the (a) sensitivity and response of the pVTA DA neurons to the DA-stimulating actions of EtOH, and (b) negative feedback control of DA (via D2 auto-receptors) and glutamate (via group II mGlu auto-receptors) release in the pVTA. EtOH (50 or 150 mg%) or the D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride (100 or 200 μM) was microinjected into the pVTA while DA was sampled with microdialysis in the NAC shell (NACsh). The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 (1 or 10 μM) was perfused through the pVTA via reverse microdialysis and local extracellular glutamate and DA levels were measured. EtOH produced a more robust increase of NACsh DA in the 'EtOH' than 'Water' groups (e.g., 150 mg% EtOH: to ∼ 210 vs 150% of baseline). In contrast, sulpiride increased DA release in the NACsh more in the 'Water' than 'EtOH' groups (e.g., 200 μM sulpiride: to ∼ 190-240 vs 150-160% of baseline). LY341495 (at 10 μM) increased extracellular glutamate and DA levels in the 'Water' (to ∼ 150-180% and 180-230% of baseline, respectively) but not the 'EtOH' groups. These results indicate that alcohol drinking enhanced the DA-stimulating effects of EtOH, and attenuated the functional activities of D2 auto-receptors and group II mGluRs within the pVTA.

  2. Relaxin-3 Receptor (RXFP3) Signalling Mediates Stress-Related Alcohol Preference in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Andrew W.; Smith, Craig M.; Chua, Berenice E.; Krstew, Elena V.; Zhang, Cary; Gundlach, Andrew L.; Lawrence, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are causally linked with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), providing support for a hypothesis that alcohol consumption is aimed at stress reduction. We have previously shown that expression of relaxin-3 mRNA in rat brain correlates with alcohol intake and that central antagonism of relaxin-3 receptors (RXFP3) prevents stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking. Therefore the objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Rxfp3 gene deletion in C57BL/6J mice on baseline and stress-related alcohol consumption. Male wild-type (WT) and Rxfp3 knockout (KO) (C57/B6JRXFP3TM1/DGen) littermate mice were tested for baseline saccharin and alcohol consumption and preference over water in a continuous access two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Another cohort of mice was subjected to repeated restraint followed by swim stress to examine stress-related alcohol preference. Hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was assessed in mice following chronic alcohol intake and in naive controls. WT and Rxfp3 KO mice had similar baseline saccharin and alcohol preference, and hepatic alcohol processing. However, Rxfp3 KO mice displayed a stress-induced reduction in alcohol preference that was not observed in WT littermates. Notably, this phenotype, once established, persisted for at least six weeks after cessation of stress exposure. These findings suggest that in mice, relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is involved in maintaining high alcohol preference during and after stress, but does not appear to strongly regulate the primary reinforcing effects of alcohol. PMID:25849482

  3. Selective breeding for high alcohol preference increases the sensitivity of the posterior VTA to the reinforcing effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Bracken, Amy L; Deehan, Gerald A; Toalston, Jamie E; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Truitt, William A; Bell, Richard L; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2014-09-01

    The rate of codependency for alcohol and nicotine is extremely high. Numerous studies have indicated that there is a common genetic association for alcoholism and nicotine dependency. The current experiments examined whether selective breeding for high alcohol preference in rats may be associated with increased sensitivity of the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to the reinforcing properties of nicotine. In addition, nicotine can directly bind to the serotonin-3 (5-HT3 ) receptor, which has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of other drugs of abuse within the pVTA Wistar rats were assigned to groups that were allowed to self-infuse 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 400 or 800 μM nicotine in two-lever (active and inactive) operant chambers. P rats were allowed to self-infuse 0, 1, 10, 50 or 100 μM nicotine. Co-infusion of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with nicotine into the pVTA was also determined. P rats self-infused nicotine at lower concentrations than required to support self-administration in Wistar rats. In addition, P rats received more self-infusions of 50 and 100 μM nicotine than Wistar rats; including a 5HT3 receptor antagonist (LY-278,584 or zacopride) with nicotine reduced responding on the active lever. Overall, the data support an association between selective breeding for high alcohol preference and increased sensitivity of the pVTA to the reinforcing properties of nicotine. In addition, the data suggest that activation of 5HT3 receptors may be required to maintain the local reinforcing actions of nicotine within the pVTA.

  4. Anxiety-like behaviors at the end of the nocturnal period in sP rats with a "history" of unpredictable, limited access to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Giancarlo; Lobina, Carla; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Lorrai, Irene; Zaru, Alessandro; Contini, Andrea; Mugnaini, Claudia; Corelli, Federico; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2015-11-01

    Recent research found that exposure of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats to multiple alcohol concentrations (10%, 20%, and 30%, v/v), under the 4-bottle "alcohol vs. water" choice regimen, in daily 1-h drinking sessions with an unpredictable time schedule, promoted high intakes of alcohol (≥2 g/kg) when the drinking session occurred over the final hours of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. The present study investigated whether these high intakes of alcohol (a) were associated with alterations in rats' emotional state (Experiment 1) and (b) were pharmacologically manipulable (Experiment 2). In both experiments, over a period of 12 days, sP rats were initially exposed daily to a 1-h drinking session during the dark phase; time of alcohol exposure was changed each day and was unpredictable to rats. The day after this 12-day drinking phase, rats were (a) exposed to the Social Interaction (SI) test at the 1st or 12th hour of the dark phase with no alcohol available (Experiment 1) or (b) treated with the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783 (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, intragastrically [i.g.]), and exposed to a drinking session at the 12th hour of the dark phase (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, rats exposed to the SI test during the 12th hour spent approximately 35% less time in "social" behaviors than rats exposed to the SI test during the 1st hour. No difference in "social" behaviors was observed between alcohol-naive sP rats exposed to the SI test at the 1st and 12th hour. In Experiment 2, all doses of GS39783 selectively reduced alcohol intake. These results suggest that (a) expectation of alcohol availability likely exacerbated the anxiety-like state of sP rats and (b) the GABAB receptor is part of the neural substrate underlying these exceptionally high intakes of alcohol in sP rats.

  5. Anxiety-like behaviors at the end of the nocturnal period in sP rats with a “history” of unpredictable, limited access to alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giancarlo; Lobina, Carla; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A.M.; Lorrai, Irene; Zaru, Alessandro; Contini, Andrea; Mugnaini, Claudia; Corelli, Federico; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Recent research found that exposure of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats to multiple alcohol concentrations (10%, 20%, and 30%, v/v), under the 4-bottle “alcohol vs. water” choice regimen, in daily 1-h drinking sessions with an unpredictable time schedule, promoted high intakes of alcohol (≥2 g/kg) when the drinking session occurred over the final hours of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. The present study was aimed at investigating whether these high intakes of alcohol (a) were associated with alterations in rats’ emotional state (Experiment 1) and (b) were pharmacologically manipulable (Experiment 2). In both experiments, over a period of 12 days, sP rats were initially exposed daily to a1-h drinking session performed during the 12-h duration of the dark phase; time of alcohol exposure was changed each day and was unpredictable to rats. The day after this 12-day drinking phase, rats were (a) exposed to the Social Interaction (SI) test at the 1st or 12th hour of the dark phase with no alcohol available (Experiment 1) or (b) treated acutely with the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783 (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, intragastrically [i.g.]), and exposed to a drinking session at the 12th hour of the dark phase (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, rats exposed to the SI test during the 12th hour spent approximately 35% less time in “social” behaviors than rats exposed to the SI test during the 1st hour. No difference in “social” behaviors was observed between alcohol-naive sP rats exposed to the SI test at the 1st and 12th hour. In Experiment 2, all doses of GS39783 selectively reduced alcohol intake. These results suggest that (a) expectation of alcohol availability likely exacerbated the anxiety-like state of sP rats and (b) the GABAB receptor is part of the neural substrate underlying these exceptionally high intakes of alcohol in sP rats. PMID:26254964

  6. Effects of alcohol on the acquisition and expression of fear-potentiated startle in mouse lines selectively bred for high and low alcohol preference

    PubMed Central

    Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Coon, Laran E.; Chester, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders frequently co-occur in humans perhaps because alcohol relieves anxiety. Studies in humans and rats indicate that alcohol may have greater anxiolytic effects in organisms with increased genetic propensity for high alcohol consumption. Objectives and methods The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate doses of alcohol (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg) on the acquisition and expression of anxiety-related behavior using a fear-potentiated startle (FPS) procedure. Experiments were conducted in two replicate pairs of mouse lines selectively bred for high- (HAP1 and HAP2) and low- (LAP1 and LAP2) alcohol preference; these lines have previously shown a genetic correlation between alcohol preference and FPS (HAP>LAP; Barrenha and Chester, Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:1081–1088, 2007). In a control experiment, the effect of diazepam (4.0 mg/kg) on the expression of FPS was tested in HAP2 and LAP2 mice. Results The 1.5 g/kg alcohol dose moderately decreased the expression of FPS in both HAP lines but not LAP lines. Alcohol had no effect on the acquisition of FPS in any line. Diazepam reduced FPS to a similar extent in both HAP2 and LAP2 mice. Conclusions HAP mice may be more sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of alcohol than LAP mice when alcohol is given prior to the expression of FPS. These data collected in two pairs of HAP/LAP mouse lines suggest that the anxiolytic response to alcohol in HAP mice may be genetically correlated with their propensity toward high alcohol preference and robust FPS. PMID:21487654

  7. Genetics of gene expression characterizes response to selective breeding for alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P L; Saba, L M; Flink, S; Grahame, N J; Kechris, K; Tabakoff, B

    2014-11-01

    Numerous selective breeding experiments have been performed with rodents, in an attempt to understand the genetic basis for innate differences in preference for alcohol consumption. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has been used to determine regions of the genome that are associated with the behavioral difference in alcohol preference/consumption. Recent work suggests that differences in gene expression represent a major genetic basis for complex traits. Therefore, the QTLs are likely to harbor regulatory regions (eQTLs) for the differentially expressed genes that are associated with the trait. In this study, we examined brain gene expression differences over generations of selection of the third replicate lines of high and low alcohol-preferring (HAP3 and LAP3) mice, and determined regions of the genome that control the expression of these differentially expressed genes (de eQTLs). We also determined eQTL regions (rv eQTLs) for genes that showed a decrease in variance of expression levels over the course of selection. We postulated that de eQTLs that overlap with rv eQTLs, and also with phenotypic QTLs, represent genomic regions that are affected by the process of selection. These overlapping regions controlled the expression of candidate genes (that displayed differential expression and reduced variance of expression) for the predisposition to differences in alcohol consumption by the HAP3/LAP3 mice.

  8. Genetic correlation between alcohol preference and conditioned fear: Exploring a functional relationship.

    PubMed

    Chester, Julia A; Weera, Marcus M

    2017-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders have a high rate of co-occurrence, possibly because they are regulated by common genes. In support of this idea, mice selectively bred for high (HAP) alcohol preference show greater fear potentiated startle (FPS), a model for fear-related disorders such as PTSD, compared to mice selectively bred for low (LAP) alcohol preference. This positive genetic correlation between alcohol preference and FPS behavior suggests that the two traits may be functionally related. This study examined the effects of fear conditioning on alcohol consumption and the effects of alcohol consumption on the expression of FPS in male and female HAP2 and LAP2 mice. In experiment 1, alcohol consumption (g/kg) under continuous-access conditions was monitored daily for 4 weeks following a single fear-conditioning or control treatment (foot shock and no shock). FPS was assessed three times (once at the end of the 4-week alcohol access period, once at 24 h after removal of alcohol, and once at 6-8 days after removal of alcohol), followed by two more weeks of alcohol access. Results showed no change in alcohol consumption, but alcohol-consuming, fear-conditioned, HAP2 males showed increased FPS at 24 h during the alcohol abstinence period compared to control groups. In experiment 2, alcohol consumption under limited-access conditions was monitored daily for 4 weeks. Fear-conditioning or control treatments occurred four times during the first 12 days and FPS testing occurred four times during the second 12 days of the 4-week alcohol consumption period. Results showed that fear conditioning increased alcohol intake in both HAP2 and LAP2 mice immediately following the first conditioning session. Fear-conditioned HAP2 but not LAP2 mice showed greater alcohol intake compared to control groups on drinking days that occurred between fear conditioning and FPS test sessions. FPS did not change as a function of alcohol consumption in either

  9. "Queasy does it": false alcohol beliefs and memories may lead to diminished alcohol preferences.

    PubMed

    Clifasefi, Seema L; Bernstein, Daniel M; Mantonakis, Antonia; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-05-01

    Studies have shown that false memories can be implanted via innocuous suggestions, and that these memories can play a role in shaping people's subsequent attitudes and preferences. The current study explored whether participants (N=147) who received a false suggestion that they had become ill drinking a particular type of alcohol would increase their confidence that the event had occurred, and whether their new-found belief would subsequently affect their alcohol preferences. Results indicated that participants who received a suggestion that they had gotten sick drinking rum or vodka before the age of 16 reported increased confidence that the suggested experience had occurred. Moreover, participants who received a false alcohol suggestion also showed a strong trend to report diminished preference for the specified type of alcohol after the false suggestion. Implantation of a false memory related to one's past drinking experiences may influence current drink preferences and could be an important avenue for further exploration in the development of alcohol interventions.

  10. “Queasy does it”: False alcohol beliefs and memories may lead to diminished alcohol preferences

    PubMed Central

    Clifasefi, Seema L.; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Mantonakis, Antonia; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that false memories can be implanted via innocuous suggestions, and that these memories can play a role in shaping people’s subsequent attitudes and preferences. The current study explored whether participants (N=147) who received a false suggestion that they had become ill drinking a particular type of alcohol would increase their confidence that the event had occurred, and whether their new-found belief would subsequently affect their alcohol preferences. Results indicated that participants who received a suggestion that they had gotten sick drinking rum or vodka before the age of 16 reported increased confidence that the suggested experience had occurred. Moreover, participants who received a false alcohol suggestion also showed a strong trend to report diminished preference for the specified type of alcohol after the false suggestion. Implantation of a false memory related to one’s past drinking experiences may influence current drink preferences and could be an important avenue for further exploration in the development of alcohol interventions. PMID:23500110

  11. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  12. Endomorphins interact with the substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP(1-7) binding in the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Botros, Milad; Johansson, Tobias; Zhou, Qin; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Tömböly, Csaba; Tóth, Géza; Le Grevès, Pierre; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2008-10-01

    We have recently identified a specific binding site for the tachykinin peptide substance P (SP) fragment SP(1-7) in the rat spinal cord. This site appeared very specific for SP(1-7) as the binding affinity of this compound highly exceeded those of other SP fragments. We also observed that endomorphin-2 (EM-2) exhibited high potency in displacing SP(1-7) from this site. In the present work using a [(3)H]-labeled derivative of the heptapeptide we have identified and characterized [(3)H]-SP(1-7) binding in the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA). Similarly to the [(3)H]-SP(1-7) binding in the spinal cord the affinity of unlabeled SP(1-7) to the specific site in VTA was significantly higher than those of other SP fragments. Further, the tachykinin receptor NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 ligands showed no or negligible binding to the identified site. However, the mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonists DAMGO, EM-1 and EM-2 did, and significant difference was observed in the binding affinity between the two endomorphins. As recorded from displacement curves the affinity of EM-2 for the SP(1-7) site was 4-5 times weaker than that for SP(1-7) but about 5 times higher than that of EM-1. The opioid receptor antagonists naloxone and naloxonazine showed weak or negligible binding. It was concluded that the specific site identified for SP(1-7) binding in the rat VTA is distinct from the MOP receptor although it exhibits high affinity for EM-2.

  13. Identification of sex-specific quantitative trait loci controlling alcohol preference in C57BL/ 6 mice.

    PubMed

    Melo, J A; Shendure, J; Pociask, K; Silver, L M

    1996-06-01

    Mice from various inbred strains consume alcoholic beverages at highly reproducible and strain-specific levels. While most mice consume alcohol in moderate amounts, C57BL/6J animals exhibit sustained oral ingestion of high levels of alcohol in the presence of competing water and food. We now report a genetic investigation of this phenotype as one potential model for alcoholism. An intercross-backcross breeding protocol was used to identify two recessive alcohol preference quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that are both sex-restricted in expression. A comparison of our results with those of an earlier morphine preference study argues against the hypothesis of a single unified phenotype defined by a preference for all euphoria-producing drugs.

  14. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  15. Effects of Chronic Stress on Alcohol Reward- and Anxiety-Related Behavior in High- and Low-Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Breit, Kristen R.; Chester, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress exposure (SE) during adolescence is associated with an increased risk for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Past research has shown that SE during adolescence increases voluntary alcohol consumption in mice during adulthood; however, little is known about the positive or negative motivational aspects of this relationship. Methods High-alcohol preferring (HAP2) and low-alcohol preferring (LAP2) male mice were exposed to stress during adolescence, stress during adulthood, or no stress. After a 30-day interim, subjects were exposed to alcohol-induced place and footshock-induced fear conditioning procedures to measure stress-induced behavioral alterations during adulthood. Results SE during adolescence did not increase the magnitude of alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as hypothesized, but increased the magnitude of conditioned fear, as measured by fear-potentiated startle (FPS), in HAP2 subjects only. Regardless of stress treatment group, LAP2 subjects showed greater alcohol-induced CPP expression than HAP2 mice. HAP2 mice also showed greater FPS than LAP2 mice, as previously shown. Conclusions These results in mice, taken together with past research, suggest that mice exposed to stress during adolescence do not increase alcohol consumption during adulthood because of a greater sensitivity to the rewarding effects of alcohol, as measured via place conditioning. These results in mice also suggest that humans exposed to stress during adolescence may be more susceptible to developing anxiety during adulthood. The findings may be particularly relevant for humans with a familial history of AUDs. PMID:26876975

  16. Extraintestinal migration of Centrorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Jin; Lee, Hye-Jung; Go, Jai-Hyang; Park, Yun-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2010-06-01

    Reptiles were known to serve as paratenic hosts for Centrorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) in Korea, but the infection course in experimental animals was not elucidated yet. In this study, the tiger keelback snakes (Rhabdophis tigrinus) were collected and digested with artificial pepsin solution, and the larvae of Centrorhynchus were recovered from them. Then, the collected larvae were orally infected to rats for developmental observations. In rats, all the larvae were observed outside the intestine on day 3 post-infection (PI), including the mesentery and abdominal muscles. As for the development in rats, the ovary of Centrorhynchus sp. was observed at day 15 PI, and the cement glands were 3 in number. Based on the morphological characteristics, including the arrangement of proboscis hooks, these larvae proved to be a species of Centrorhynchus, and more studies were needed for species identification.

  17. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of an Australasian box jellyfish (Chiropsalmus sp.) venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2005-03-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts of jellyfish, the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chiropsalmus sp. venom were investigated in anaesthetized rats. Chiropsalmus sp. venom (150 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response (44+/-4 mmHg; n=6) followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. Concurrent artificial respiration or pretreatment with Chironex fleckeri antivenom (AV, 3000 U/kg, i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced hypertensive response nor the subsequent cardiovascular collapse. The cardiovascular response of animals receiving venom after the infusion of MgSO4 (50-70 mM @ 0.25 ml/min, i.v.; n=5) alone, or in combination with AV (n=5), was not significantly different from rats receiving venom alone. Prior administration of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.; n=4) or ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.; n=4) did not significantly attenuate the hypertensive response nor prevent the cardiovascular collapse induced by venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.). In contrast to previous work examining C. fleckeri venom, administration of AV alone, or in combination with MgSO4, was not effective in preventing cardiovascular collapse following the administration of Chiropsalmus sp. venom. This indicates that the venom of the two related box jellyfish contain different lethal components and highlights the importance of species identification prior to initiating treatment regimes following jellyfish envenoming.

  18. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  19. Emotional Reactivity to Incentive Downshift as a Correlated Response to Selection of High and Low Alcohol Preferring Mice and an Influencing Factor on Ethanol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Liana M.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes et al., 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption, or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that alcohol intake either doesn’t provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, that high drinking and emotional intensity following incentive

  20. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure.

  1. Reduced expression of CRHR2 and Sp-1 in myocardium of ovariectomized rats is improved by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiping; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin; Cong, Binhai; Lu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has been looked on as a non-pharmacologic approach to treating ovariectomy (OVX)-induced dysfunctions. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise impacts on expression of urocortins (UCNs) and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 (CRHR2) in myocardium of OVX rats. Bilateral OVX or sham-operation was performed under anesthesia. Both groups were then divided into two subgroups, with or without treadmill training for 8 weeks. It was found that OVX as well as exercise did not affect the mRNA levels of UCN, UCN2 and UCN3 in myocardium. OVX caused down-regulation of CRHR2 in myocardium. Exercise training reversed the OVX-induced reduction of CRHR2, but had no influence on CRHR2 level in sham rats. OVX resulted in a decrease in estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in myocardium, which was restored by exercise. Moreover, exercise training also reversed OVX-induced down-regulation of specific protein-1 (Sp-1) expression in myocardium. CRHR2 expression level correlated with Sp-1 and ERα level in myocardium. These results indicate that exercise training can restore the CRHR2 level in myocardium of OVX rats, which is associated with ERα and Sp-1 expression.

  2. KLB is associated with alcohol drinking, and its gene product β-Klotho is necessary for FGF21 regulation of alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Gunter; Liu, Chunyu; O'Reilly, Paul; Gao, He; Song, Parkyong; Xu, Bing; Ruggeri, Barbara; Amin, Najaf; Jia, Tianye; Preis, Sarah; Segura Lepe, Marcelo; Akira, Shizuo; Barbieri, Caterina; Baumeister, Sebastian; Cauchi, Stephane; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Enroth, Stefan; Fischer, Krista; Hällfors, Jenni; Harris, Sarah E; Hieber, Saskia; Hofer, Edith; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Åsa; Joshi, Peter K; Kaartinen, Niina; Laitinen, Jaana; Lemaitre, Rozenn; Loukola, Anu; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mangino, Massimo; Manichaikul, Ani; Mbarek, Hamdi; Milaneschi, Yuri; Moayyeri, Alireza; Mukamal, Kenneth; Nelson, Christopher; Nettleton, Jennifer; Partinen, Eemil; Rawal, Rajesh; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda; Sala, Cinzia; Satoh, Takashi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schraut, Katharina; Scott, Robert; Smith, Albert Vernon; Starr, John M; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; Uitterlinden, André G; Venturini, Cristina; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Verweij, Niek; Vitart, Veronique; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wedenoja, Juho; Yengo, Loic; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Boomsma, Dorret I; Chambers, John; Chasman, Daniel I; Daniela, Toniolo; de Geus, Eco; Deary, Ian; Eriksson, Johan G; Esko, Tõnu; Eulenburg, Volker; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Harris, Tamara B; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Andrew C; Hocking, Lynne; Hofman, Albert; Huth, Cornelia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lahti, Jari; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liu, Yongmei; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas; Morrison, Alanna; Penninx, Brenda; Pirastu, Nicola; Psaty, Bruce; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul; Rose, Richard; Rotter, Jerome I; Samani, Nilesh J; Schmidt, Helena; Spector, Tim D; Stott, David; Strachan, David; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; van der Harst, Pim; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wilson, James; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce; Bakalkin, Georgy; Evangelou, Evangelos; Liu, Yun; Rice, Kenneth M; Desrivières, Sylvane; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J; Müller, Christian P; Levy, Daniel; Elliott, Paul

    2016-12-13

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem worldwide. Although drinking habits are known to be inherited, few genes have been identified that are robustly linked to alcohol drinking. We conducted a genome-wide association metaanalysis and replication study among >105,000 individuals of European ancestry and identified β-Klotho (KLB) as a locus associated with alcohol consumption (rs11940694; P = 9.2 × 10(-12)). β-Klotho is an obligate coreceptor for the hormone FGF21, which is secreted from the liver and implicated in macronutrient preference in humans. We show that brain-specific β-Klotho KO mice have an increased alcohol preference and that FGF21 inhibits alcohol drinking by acting on the brain. These data suggest that a liver-brain endocrine axis may play an important role in the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior and provide a unique pharmacologic target for reducing alcohol consumption.

  3. Effects of the novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on fear-potentiated startle and alcohol-seeking behaviors in mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Matthew S.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Mlinac, Nate S.; Barker, Eric L.; Chester, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol-use disorders often occur together with anxiety disorders in humans which may be partly due to common inherited genetic factors. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of individuals with anxiety and/or alcohol-use disorders. Objectives The present study assessed the effects of a novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on anxiety- and alcohol-seeking behaviors in a unique animal model that may represent increased genetic risk to develop comorbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders in humans. Mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference (HAP) show greater fear-potentiated startle (FPS) than mice selectively bred for low alcohol preference (LAP). We examined the effects of LY2183240 on the expression of FPS in HAP and LAP mice and on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and limited-access alcohol drinking behavior in HAP mice. Results Repeated administration of LY2183240 (30 mg/kg) reduced the expression of FPS in HAP but not LAP mice when given prior to a second FPS test 48 h after fear conditioning. Both the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of LY2183240 enhanced the expression of alcohol-induced CPP and this effect persisted in the absence of the drug. LY2183240 did not alter limited-access alcohol drinking behavior, unconditioned startle responding, or locomotor activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that ECS modulation influences both conditioned fear and conditioned alcohol reward behavior. LY2183240 may be an effective pharmacotherapy for individuals with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, but may not be appropriate for individuals with co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders. PMID:20838777

  4. Thrombus Degradation by Fibrinolytic Enzyme of Stenotrophomonas sp. Originated from Indonesian Soybean-Based Fermented Food on Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate thrombus degrading effect of a fibrinolytic enzyme from food origin Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesia. Methods. Prior to animal study, the enzyme safety was tested using cell culture. The effect on expression of tissue plasminogen activator was also analysed in the cell culture. For in vivo studies, 25 Wistar rats were used: normal control, negative control, treatment groups with crude and semipurified enzyme given orally at 25 mg/kg, and positive control group which received Lumbrokinase at 25 mg/kg. Blood clot in the tail was induced by kappa carrageenan injection at 1 mg/kg BW. Results. Experiment with cell culture confirmed the enzyme safety at the concentration used and increased expression of tPA. Decreasing of thrombus was observed in the positive group down to 70.35 ± 23.11% of the negative control animals (100%). The thrombus observed in the crude enzyme treatment was down to 56.99 ± 15.95% and 71.5 ± 15.7% for semipurified enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy showed clearly that bood clots were found in the animals injected with kappa carrageenan; however, in the treatment and positive groups, the clot was much reduced. Conclusions. Oral treatment of enzyme from Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesian fermented food was capable of degrading thrombus induced in Wistar rats. PMID:27635131

  5. miR-375 Negatively Regulates the Synthesis and Secretion of Catecholamines by Targeting Sp1 in Rat Adrenal Medulla.

    PubMed

    Gai, Yedan; Zhang, Jinglin; Wei, Chao; Cao, Wei; Cui, Yan; Cui, Sheng

    2017-03-29

    Adrenal gland is a crucial endocrine gland, and the most important function is to synthesize and secrete catecholamines (CATs) which play crucial roles in balancing homeostasis and the responding to stress. microRNA-375 (miR-375) has been detected to highly express in the adrenal, however its role and underlying mechanism are currently unclear. Herein, our results showed that miR-375 was specifically localized to the rat adrenal medulla chromaffin cells, and miR-375 expressing level decreased, when the rats were exposed to stress. The further functional studies demonstrated that the inhibition of endogenous miR-375 induced the secretion of CATs in primary rat medulla chromaffin cells and in PC12 cells, and over-expression of miR-375 resulted in decline of the CATs secretion. Furthermore, the results showed that miR-375 negatively regulated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and mediated adrenomedullary CATs biosynthesis. Sp1(a transcriptional activator of TH and DBH) was involved in mediating the regulation of TH and DBH as miR-375 direct target gene. These novel findings suggest that miR-375 acts as a potent negative mediator in regulating the synthesis and secretion of CATs in the adrenal medulla during the maintenance of homeostasis under stress.

  6. Chlorpyrifos pollution: its effect on brain acetylcholinesterase activity in rat and treatment of polluted soil by indigenous Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shelly; Singh, Partap Bir; Chadha, Pooja; Saini, Harvinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the levels of chlorpyrifos (CPF) pollution in agricultural soil of Punjab, India, its detrimental effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rat brain and bioremediation of soils polluted with CPF using indigenous and adapted bacterial lab isolate. The analysis revealed that soil samples of Bathinda and Amritsar regions are highly contaminated with chlorpyrifos showing 19 to 175 mg/kg concentrations of CPF. The non-targeted animals may get poisoned with CPF by its indirect dermal absorption, inhalation of toxic fumes and regular consumption of soiled food grains. The study indicated that even the lowermost concentrations of CPF, 19 and 76 mg/kg of soil found in the Amritsar and Bathinda regions respectively can significantly inhibit the AChE activity in rat brain within 24 h of its treatment. This represents the antagonistic effect of CPF on AChE which is a prime neurotransmitter present in all living beings including humans. In light of this, an attempt was made to remediate the polluted soil, a major reservoir of CPF, using Pseudomonas sp. (ChlD), an indigenous bacterial isolate. The culture efficiently degraded 10 to 100 mg/kg chlorpyrifos supplemented in the soil and utilized it as sole source of carbon and energy for its growth. Thus, this study provides a detailed insight regarding the level of CPF pollution in Punjab, its detrimental effects on mammals and bio-based solution to remediate the sites polluted with CPF.

  7. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Nutraceuticals Produced from the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dvir, Irit; Stark, Aliza Hannah; Chayoth, Reuven; Madar, Zecharia; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2009-01-01

    Red microalgae contain functional sulfated polysaccharides (containing dietary fibers), polyunsaturated fatty acids, zeaxanthin, vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Studies in rat models support the therapeutic properties of algal biomass and isolated polysaccharides. Algal products incorporated into rat diets were found to significantly improve total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, hepatic cholesterol levels, HDL/LDL ratios and increased fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids. Morphological and metabolic changes were induced by consumption of algal products. These results suggest that red microalgae can be used as potent hypocholesterolemic agents, and they support the potential use of red microalgae as novel nutraceuticals. PMID:22253975

  8. Benefits of Preventive Administration of Chlorella sp. on Visceral Pain and Cystitis Induced by a Single Administration of Cyclophosphamide in Female Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Violle, Nicolas; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Hélène; Bisson, Jean-François

    2016-05-01

    Chlorella sp. is a green microalgae containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella sp. is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. In a rat model, ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) benefits were investigated on visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). RCs was orally administered every day from day 1-16 (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Six hours after an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg body weight of CYP, body temperature, general behavior, food intake, and body weight were recorded. Twenty-four hours after CYP injection, rats were tested in two behavioral tests, an open field and the aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning test, to evaluate the influence of pain on general activity and learning ability of rats. After euthanasia, bladders were weighed, their thickness was scored, and the urinary hemoglobin was measured. RCs orally administered at the two dosages significantly reduced visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by CYP injection, and improved rat behavior. To conclude, RCs demonstrated beneficial effects against visceral pain and cystitis.

  9. Age- and Sex-Dependent Effects of Footshock Stress on Subsequent Alcohol Drinking and Acoustic Startle Behavior in Mice Selectively Bred for High-Alcohol Preference

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Julia A.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Hughes, Matthew L.; Keuneke, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress during adolescence is known to be a risk factor for alcohol-use and anxiety disorders. This study examined the effects of footshock stress during adolescence on subsequent alcohol drinking in male and female mice selectively bred for high-alcohol preference (HAP1 lines). Acoustic startle responses and prepulse inhibition (PPI) were also assessed in the absence of, and immediately following, subsequent footshock stress exposures to determine whether a prior history of footshock stress during adolescence would produce enduring effects on anxiety-related behavior and sensorimotor gating. Methods Alcohol-nav̈ve, adolescent (male, n = 27; female, n = 23) and adult (male, n = 30; female, n = 30) HAP1 mice were randomly assigned to a stress or no stress group. The study consisted of 5 phases: (1) 10 consecutive days of exposure to a 30-minute footshock session, (2) 1 startle test, (3) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test, (4) 30 days of free-choice alcohol consumption, and (5) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test. Results Footshock stress exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood, robustly increased alcohol drinking behavior in both male and female HAP1 mice. Before alcohol drinking, females in both the adolescent and adult stress groups showed greater startle in phases 2 and 3; whereas males in the adolescent stress group showed greater startle only in phase 3. After alcohol drinking, in phase 5, enhanced startle was no longer apparent in any stress group. Males in the adult stress group showed reduced startle in phases 2 and 5. PPI was generally unchanged, except that males in the adolescent stress group showed increased PPI in phase 3 and females in the adolescent stress group showed decreased PPI in phase 5. Conclusions Adolescent HAP1 mice appear to be more vulnerable to the effects of footshock stress than adult mice, as manifested by increased alcohol drinking

  10. Effect of the acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on intestinal myoelectric activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tabosa, A; Yamamura, Y; Forno, E R; Mello, L E A M

    2002-06-01

    Despite its ancient use as a therapeutic tool to treat several ailments, acupuncture still faces the challenge of scrutiny by Western science both in terms of its efficacy and in terms of the characterization of its effects and mechanisms of actions underlying these effects. We investigated under well-controlled and carefully characterized conditions the influence of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on the myoelectric activity of the small intestine of 38 adult male Wistar rats. Electrical recordings obtained by means of four electrodes chronically implanted in the small intestine were used to assess the effects of acupuncture (electroacupuncture stimulation set at 2 Hz, intermittent stimulation, 1 V, for 30 min). Immobilization of the animals was associated with a consistent decrease (-8 +/- 7%) in the myoelectric activity of the small intestine as measured by means of the root mean square. Conversely, acupuncture was able to significantly increase (overshoot) this activity compared to baseline (+44 +/- 7%). In contrast, immobilized animals subjected to sham acupuncture had only modest (nonsignificant) increases in myoelectric activity (+9 +/- 6%). Using carefully controlled conditions we confirmed previous noncontrolled studies on the ability of acupuncture to alter intestinal motility. The characterization of the topographic and temporal profiles of the effects observed here represents a basis for future dissection of the physiological and pharmacological systems underlying these effects.

  11. Atrophy of submandibular gland by the duct ligation and a blockade of SP receptor in rats.

    PubMed

    Hishida, Sumiyo; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Honda, Takashi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    To clarify the mechanisms underlying the submandibular gland atrophies associated with ptyalolithiasis, morphological changes were examined in the rat submandibular gland following either surgical intervention of the duct or functional blockade at substance P receptors (SPRs). Progressive acinar atrophy was observed after duct ligation or avulsion of periductal tissues. This suggested that damage to periductal tissue involving nerve fibers might contribute to ligation-associated acinar atrophy. Immunohistochemically labeled-substance P positive nerve fibers (SPFs) coursed in parallel with the main duct and were distributed around the interlobular, striated, granular and intercalated duct, and glandular acini. Strong SPR immunoreactivity was observed in the duct. Injection into the submandibular gland of a SPR antagonist induced marked acinar atrophy. The results revealed that disturbance of SPFs and SPRs might be involved in the atrophy of the submandibular gland associated with ptyalolithiasis.

  12. Atrophy of submandibular gland by the duct ligation and a blockade of SP receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hishida, Sumiyo; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Honda, Takashi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the mechanisms underlying the submandibular gland atrophies associated with ptyalolithiasis, morphological changes were examined in the rat submandibular gland following either surgical intervention of the duct or functional blockade at substance P receptors (SPRs). Progressive acinar atrophy was observed after duct ligation or avulsion of periductal tissues. This suggested that damage to periductal tissue involving nerve fibers might contribute to ligation-associated acinar atrophy. Immunohistochemically labeled-substance P positive nerve fibers (SPFs) coursed in parallel with the main duct and were distributed around the interlobular, striated, granular and intercalated duct, and glandular acini. Strong SPR immunoreactivity was observed in the duct. Injection into the submandibular gland of a SPR antagonist induced marked acinar atrophy. The results revealed that disturbance of SPFs and SPRs might be involved in the atrophy of the submandibular gland associated with ptyalolithiasis. PMID:27303108

  13. Musserakis sulawesiensis gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) collected from Echiothrix centrosa (Rodentia: Muridae), an old endemic rat of Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Dewi, Kartika; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2014-11-04

    Musserakis sulawesiensis gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) is described from the large-bodied shrew rat, Echiothrix centrosa, one of the old endemic rats of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Musserakis is readily distinguished from other heterakid genera by having non-recurrent and non-anastomosing cephalic cordons, by lacking papillae between papillae groups around precloacal sucker and cloacal aperture and by lacking teeth in the pharyngeal portion. The spicules are equal but with marked dimorphism among individuals. Heterakids collected from other old endemic murids examined, i.e., Crunomys celebensis, Tateomys macrocercus and Tateomys rhinogradoides, and the new endemic rats of Sulawesi, were Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866, a cosmopolitan nematode of various murids. It is suggested that M. sulawesiensis is specific to Echiothrix.

  14. Altered Expression of NF- κ B and SP1 after Exposure to Advanced Glycation End-Products and Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in AGEs Exposed Rat Retinas.

    PubMed

    Bikbova, Guzel; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Baba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on neurite regeneration, and also to determine the regenerative effects of different neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on rat retinal explants, the retinas of SD rats were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels and incubated in 6 types of media: (1) serum-free control culture media; (2) 100 μg/mL AGEs-BSA media; (3) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) media; (4) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL hepatocyte growth factor media; (5) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor media; or (6) AGEs-BSA + 100 µM tauroursodeoxycholic acid media. After 7 days, the number of regenerating neurites was counted. The explants were immunostained for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA. In retinas incubated with AGEs, the numbers of neurites were fewer than in control. All of the NTFs increased the number of neurites, and the increase was more significant in the NT-4 group. The number of NF-κB and SP1 immunopositive cells was higher in retinas exposed to AGEs than in control. All of the NTFs decreased the number of NF-κB immunopositive cells but did not significantly affect SP1 expression. These results demonstrate the potential of the NTFs as axoprotectants in AGEs exposed retinal neurons.

  15. Life cycle of Brachylaima mascomai n. sp. (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae), a parasite of rats in the Llobregat delta (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gracenea, Mercedes; González-Moreno, Olga

    2002-02-01

    The terrestrial triheteroxenous life cycle of Brachylaima mascomai n. sp. (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) is elucidated. Operculated, assymetric, embryonated eggs (25.4 x 12.7 microm) are passed with feces of the natural (Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus) and experimental (albino and wild mice, albino rats, Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus spretus [Muridae] and the golden gerbil) definitive hosts and ingested by the helicid gastropod Pseudotachea splendida, the only natural and experimental first intermediate host. Microcaudate cercariae harbored in branched sporocysts in the digestive gland emerge from this snail and contact P. splendida, Otala punctata, Theba pisana, and Helix (C.) aspersa snails developing into unencysted infective metacercariae in the kidney. Definitive hosts are infected by ingestion of infected snails; the adult parasites inhabit the small intestine. Chaetotaxic cercarial pattern specific at acetabular (S(II) 8-10 papillae) and cephalic (C(III) 13-15 papillae, H 16 papillae) levels. Three types of cercarial papillae are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their arrangement is correlated with chaetotaxy for the first time in trematodes: argentophilic papillae with fingerlike process (cephalic, body, and acetabular levels), argentophilic papillae with opening (2 papillae in the M body level), and nonargentophilic dome-shaped papillae (alternated with argentophilic S(II) papillae on the ventral sucker). SEM detected interlacing network of ridges covering the metacercarial body. Adults with multidigitate tegumentary spines were observed by SEM. Subequal suckers; the acetabulum located in the posterior part of anterior fifth of body. Vitellaria extend from between middle level and anterior margin of anterior testis to between middle level and posterior margin of acetabulum. Uterus almost reaches the intestinal bifurcation.

  16. Effects of substance P and Sar-Met-SP, a NK1 agonist, in distinct amygdaloid nuclei on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; de Carvalho, Milene Cristina; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2014-05-21

    The amygdala, together with the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), medial hypothalamus, and deep layers of the superior and inferior colliculi, constitutes the encephalic aversion system, which has been considered the main neural substrate for the organization of fear and anxiety. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) acts as a filter for aversive stimuli to higher structures while the central (CeA) and the medial (MeA) nuclei constitute the output for the autonomic and somatic components of the emotional reaction through major projections to the limbic and brainstem regions. Although some findings point to the distinct participation of the substance P (SP) and the NK1 receptors system in the different nuclei of the amygdala on the expression of emotional behaviors, it is not clear if this system modulates anxiety-like responses in the distinct nuclei of the amygdala as well as the dPAG. Thus, it was investigated if the injection of SP into the BLA, CeA, or MeA affects the expression of anxiety-like responses of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and, if the effects are mediated by NK1 receptors. The results showed that SP and Sar-Met-SP (NK1 receptor selective agonist) injected into the CeA and MeA, but not into the BLA, caused anxiogenic-like effects in the EPM. Altogether, the data indicates that the SP may mimic the effects of anxiogenic stimuli via NK1 receptor activation only in the CeA and MeA (amygdala's nuclei output) and may activate the neural mechanisms involved in the defensive reaction genesis. The SP/NK1 receptors system activation may be phasically involved in very specific aspects of anxiety behaviors.

  17. HALOACID INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN FERTILITY AND THE SPERM BIOMARKER SP22 IN THE RAT ARE ADDITIVE: VALIDATION OF AN ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) and bromochloroacetic acid (BCA) are prevalent disinfection by-products of drinking water that produce defects in spermatogenesis and fertility in adult rats. Previously we demonstrated that BCA compromises the fertility of cauda epididymal rat sperm an...

  18. The lung enriched transcription factor TTF-1 and the ubiquitously expressed proteins Sp1 and Sp3 interact with elements located in the minimal promoter of the rat Clara cell secretory protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, R F; Gowan, S; Bingle, C D

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms that direct expression of the Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) gene to the bronchiolar epithelial cells of the lung remain to be elucidated. Previous studies have identified a number of proteins which bind to a functionally important region (Region 1) located -132 to -76 bp from the transcription start site in the rat CCSP gene. Subsequently we have shown that while Region 1 is an important positive regulator of CCSP gene expression, sequences 3' of this region (-75 to +38) are sufficient to confer tissue-specific expression of a reporter gene. In the present study we have used transient transfections with a deletion series of CCSP-CAT reporter plasmids (where CAT is chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) and gel mobility shift assays with a series of overlapping oligonucleotides covering the whole minimal promoter region to study protein-DNA interactions within this region. These studies have identified a conserved functional binding site for the lung and thyroid enriched homeodomain transcription factor TTF-1, located between positions -51 and -42 from the transcription start site. CCSP-CAT chimaeric reporters containing this region are specifically activated by TTF-1 in co-transfection assays, and nuclear extracts from cells which express TTF-1 bind to this region, as does in vitro translated rat TTF-1. Three additional conserved regions were identified, and in further gel mobility shift studies with an oligonucleotide spanning the conserved region immediately 5' to the TTF-1 site we identified a binding site for the ubiquitously expressed zinc-finger-containing proteins Sp1 and Sp3. These studies suggest that cell-type-restricted and ubiquitous nuclear proteins may play a combined role in the regulation of the CCSP gene within the bronchiolar epithelium by interacting with the minimal promoter region. PMID:8687389

  19. Expression of the rat sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c gene in response to insulin is mediated by increased transactivating capacity of specificity protein 1 (Sp1).

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiong; Yellaturu, Chandrahasa; Cagen, Lauren; Wilcox, Henry G; Park, Edwards A; Raghow, Rajendra; Elam, Marshall B

    2007-06-15

    The induction of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis by insulin is mediated in part by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). SREBP-1c is directly regulated by insulin by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Previously, we have demonstrated that the insulin-responsive cis-acting unit of the rat SREBP-1c promoter is composed of several elements that include a sterol regulatory element, two liver X receptor elements, and a number of conserved GC boxes. Here we systematically dissected the role of these GC boxes and report that five bona fide Sp1-binding elements of the SREBP-1c promoter determine its basal and insulin-induced activation. Luciferase expression driven by the rat SREBP-1c promoter was accelerated by ectopic expression of Sp1, and insulin further enhanced the transactivation potential of Sp1. Introduction of a small interfering RNA against Sp1 reduced both basal and insulin-induced activation of the SREBP-1c promoter. We also found that Sp1 interacted with both SREBP-1c and LXRalpha proteins and that insulin promoted these interactions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that insulin facilitated the recruitment of the steroid receptor coactivator-1 to the SREBP-1c promoter. These studies identify a novel mechanism by which maximal activation of the rat SREBP-1c gene expression by insulin is mediated by Sp1 and its enhanced ability to interact with other transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  20. CO Induces Nrf2-Dependent Heme Oxygenase-1 Transcription by Cooperating with Sp1 and c-Jun in Rat Brain Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Pei-Ling; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-08-01

    Upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by carbon monoxide (CO) delivered by CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) may be utilized as a therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative diseases. This study was to delineate the two putative anti-oxidant response elements (AREs) in modulating HO-1 gene by participating with its promoter elements in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). CORM-2-induced HO-1 expression was mediated through superoxide, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2), protein tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K/Akt), revealed by the pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown of these signaling molecules. CORM-2-enhanced HO-1 promoter activity was inhibited by co-transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) of c-Jun, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), or nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Immunoprecipitation assay showed that CORM-2 increased the association of nuclear Nrf2 with Sp1 and c-Jun. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that Nrf2, Sp1, and c-Jun are associated with the proximal ARE binding site on HO-1 promoter, suggesting that Nrf2/Sp1/c-Jun cooperations are key transcription factors modulating HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, CORM-2-induced ARE promoter activity was reduced by the inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS), p38 MAPK, Pyk2, MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1/2), PDGFR, and PI3K/Akt or the siRNAs of c-Jun, SP1, and Nrf2. These findings suggested that CORM-2 increases formation of c-Jun, Sp1, and Nrf2 complex and binding with ARE1 binding site, which is mediated through both ROS/p38 MAPK and Pyk2-dependent PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/Erk1/2 pathways, resulting in HO-1 expression in RBA-1 cells.

  1. Comparison of rSP-C surfactant with natural and synthetic surfactants after late treatment in a rat model of the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Häfner, D; Germann, P G; Hauschke, D

    1998-07-01

    1. In a previous paper we showed that an SP-C containing surfactant preparation has similar activity as bovine-derived surfactants in a rat lung lavage model of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. In this study surfactant was given ten minutes after the last lavage (early treatment). In the present investigation we were interested how different surfactant preparations behave when they are administered 1 h after the last lavage (late treatment). 2. Four protein containing surfactants (rSP-C surfactant, bLES, Infasurf and Survanta) were compared with three protein-free surfactants (ALEC, Exosurf and the phospholipid (PL) mixture of the rSP-C surfactant termed PL surfactant) with respect to their ability to improve gas exchange in this more stringent model when surfactant is given one hour after the last lavage. For better comparison of the surfactants the doses were related to phospholipids. The surfactants were given at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight. The surfactants were compared to an untreated control group that was only ventilated for the whole experimental period. 3. Tracheotomized rats (8-12 per dose and surfactant) were pressure-controlled ventilated (Siemens Servo Ventilator 900C) with 100% oxygen at a respiratory rate of 30 breaths min(-1), inspiration expiration ratio of 1:2, peak inspiratory pressure of 28 cmH2O at positive endexpiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cmH2O. Animals were ventilated for one hour after the last lavage and thereafter the surfactants were intratracheally instilled. During the whole experimental period the ventilation was not changed. 4. Partial arterial oxygen pressures (PaO2, mmHg) at 30 min and 120 min after treatment were used for statistical comparison. All protein containing surfactants caused a dose-dependent increase of the reduced PaO2 values at 30 min after treatment. The protein-free surfactants showed only weak dose-dependent increase in PaO2 values at this time. This difference between the protein

  2. Effects of Electroacupuncture with Dominant Frequency at SP 6 and ST 36 Based on Meridian Theory on Pain-Depression Dyad in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuan-yuan; He, Xiao-fen; Zhao, Xiao-yun; Shao, Xiao-mei; Du, Jun-ying; Fang, Jian-qiao

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic investigations reveal an intimate interrelationship between pain and depression. The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on pain or depression has been demonstrated individually, but its effect on pain-depression dyad is unknown. Our study aimed to screen a dominant EA frequency on pain-depression dyad and determine the validity of acupoint selection based on meridian theory. The pain-depression dyad rat model was induced by reserpine and treated using EA with different frequencies at identical acupoints to extract a dominant frequency and then administrated dominant-frequency EA at different acupoints in the above models. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL), emotional behavior of elevated zero maze (EZM) test, and open field (OF) test were conducted. We found that 100 Hz EA at Zusanli (ST 36) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) (classical acupoints for spleen-deficiency syndrome) were the most effective in improving PWL, travelling distance in the EZM, and maximum velocity in OF compared to EA with other frequencies; ST 36 and SP 6 were proved more effective than other acupoints beyond the meridian theory and nonacupoints under the same administration of EA. Therefore, we concluded that 100 Hz is the dominant frequency for treating the pain-depression dyad with EA, and acupoints on spleen and stomach meridians are preferable choices. PMID:25821498

  3. Gene environment interaction in periphery and brain converge to modulate behavioral outcomes: Insights from the SP1 transient early in life interference rat model

    PubMed Central

    Asor, Eyal; Ben-Shachar, Dorit

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that behavior results from an interaction between susceptible genes and environmental stimuli during critical life stages. The present article reviews the main theoretical and practical concepts in the research of gene environment interaction, emphasizing the need for models simulating real life complexity. We review a novel approach to study gene environment interaction in which a brief post-natal interference with the expression of multiple genes, by hindering the activity of the ubiquitous transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is followed by later-in-life exposure of rats to stress. Finally, this review discusses the role of peripheral processes in behavioral responses, with the Sp1 model as one example demonstrating how specific behavioral patterns are linked to modulations in both peripheral and central physiological processes. We suggest that models, which take into account the tripartite reciprocal interaction between the central nervous system, peripheral systems and environmental stimuli will advance our understanding of the complexity of behavior. PMID:27679768

  4. DELAYED PREPUTIAL SEPARATION (PPS) AND SP22 MEASUREMENT IN RATS ADMINISTERED BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive effects of BCA were determined in a dose range finding study (DRFS) and definitive two-generational study. Adult male and female CD� (SD) rats were administered BCA in drinking water for two weeks in the DRFS (10/sex/group) and ten weeks in the definitive study (25/s...

  5. Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Shobha, Mysore S; Sambaiah, Kari; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic health problem and major cause of death in most of the countries. Diet management plays an important role in controlling diabetes and its complications along with insulin and drugs. We have examined the effect of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Our results indicated that banana flower and pseudostem have low glycemic index and have a high content of dietary fiber and antioxidants. Diabetic symptoms like hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight were ameliorated in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats. Increased glomerular filtration rate in the diabetic group (5.1 ± 0.22 ml/min) was decreased in banana flower-fed (2.5 ± 0.37 ml/min) and pseudostem-fed (3.0 ± 0.45 ml/min) groups and were significant at P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively. Fructosamine and AGEs formed during diabetes were inhibited in treated groups when compared with the diabetic group. The diabetic group showed 11.5 ± 0.64 μg of AGEs/mg protein in kidney, whereas, in banana flower- and pseudostem-fed groups, it was reduced to 9.21 ± 0.32 and 9.29 ± 0.24 μg/mg protein, respectively, and were significant at P < 0.01. These findings suggest that banana flower and pseudostem have anti-diabetic and anti-AGEs properties and are beneficial as food supplements for diabetics.

  6. Use-dependent shift from inhibitory to excitatory GABAA receptor action in SP-O interneurons in the rat hippocampal CA3 area.

    PubMed

    Lamsa, Karri; Taira, Tomi

    2003-09-01

    Cortical inhibitory interneurons set the pace of synchronous neuronal oscillations implicated in synaptic plasticity and various cognitive functions. The hyperpolarizing nature of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in interneurons has been considered crucial for the generation of oscillations at beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma (30-100 Hz) frequency. Hippocampal basket cells and axo-axonic cells in stratum pyramidale-oriens (S-PO) play a central role in the synchronization of the local interneuronal network as well as in pacing of glutamatergic principal cell firing. A lack of conventional forms of plasticity in excitatory synapses onto interneurons facilitates their function as stable neuronal oscillators. We have used gramicidin-perforated and whole cell clamp recordings to study properties of GABAAR-mediated transmission in CA3 SP-O interneurons and in CA3 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slices during electrical 5- to 100-Hz stimulation and during spontaneous activity. We show that GABAergic synapses onto SP-O interneurons can easily switch their mode from inhibitory to excitatory during heightened activity. This is based on a depolarizing shift in the GABAA reversal potential (EGABA-A), which is much faster and more pronounced in interneurons than in pyramidal cells. We also found that the shift in interneuronal function was frequency dependent, being most prominent at 20- to 40-Hz activation of the GABAergic synapses. After 40-Hz tetanic stimulation (100 pulses), GABAA responses remained depolarizing for approximately 45 s in the interneurons, promoting bursting in the GABAergic network. Hyperpolarizing EGABA-A was restored >60 s after the stimulus train. Similar but spontaneous GABAergic bursting was induced by application of 4-aminopyridine (100 microM) to slices. A shift to depolarizing IPSPs by the GABAAR permeant weak acid anion formate provoked interneuronal population bursting, supporting the role of GABAergic excitation in burst generation

  7. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  8. The orexin system regulates alcohol-seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Andrew J; Cowen, Michael S; Yang, Hong-Ju; Chen, Feng; Oldfield, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Orexin-containing neurons have been implicated in feeding, sleep–wake cycles and more recently in drug-seeking behaviour. Pretreatment of alcohol-preferring (iP) rats with an orexin1 receptor antagonist (SB-334867, 20 mg kg−1, intraperitoneally) completely abolished an olfactory cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behaviour, and also attenuated alcohol responding under an operant fixed ratio regimen without affecting water responding. The mRNA encoding orexin within the hypothalamus was expressed at a similar density in iP and non-preferring (NP) rats; chronic consumption of ethanol in iP rats did not significantly regulate the density of this expression, but did increase the area of expression within the lateral, but not medial, hypothalamus. These data indicate that while orexin may not be implicated in the development of an alcohol preference, re-exposure of cues previously associated with alcohol availability is sufficient and adequate to activate orexin-containing neurons and drive reinstatement of alcohol-seeking. PMID:16751790

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CLONING OF XENOPUS LAEVIS SP22, A PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILIZATION IN MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    SP22 is a protein that has been characterized in rats where it has been related with fertility. SP22 homologues have been studied in mouse and man and a definitive role for the protein has not been assigned yet. By means of a polyclonal IgG to recombinant rat SP22...

  10. Operant self-administration models for testing the neuropharmacological basis of ethanol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    June, Harry L; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2010-04-01

    Operant self-administration procedures are used to assess the neural basis of ethanol-seeking behavior under a wide range of experimental conditions. In general, rats do not spontaneously self-administer ethanol in pharmacologically meaningful amounts. This unit provides a step-by-step guide for training rats to self-administer quantities of ethanol that produce moderate to high blood-alcohol content. Different protocols are used for rats that are genetically heterogeneous versus rats that are selectively bred for high alcohol preference. Also, these protocols have different sets of advantages and disadvantages in terms of the ability to control for caloric intake and taste of solutions in operant testing. Basic self-administration protocols can also be altered to focus on different aspects of the motivational properties of ethanol (for example, those related to dependence). This unit provides multiple protocols that lead to alcohol intake in rats, which can be pharmacologically probed relative to a variety of control conditions.

  11. Effects of isoflavones on alcohol pharmacokinetics and alcohol-drinking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Li, T K

    1998-12-01

    Puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein are 3 major isoflavonoid compounds isolated from Pueraria lobata, an edible vine used widely in China for various medicinal purposes. We studied the antiinebriation and the antidipsotropic effects of these antioxidants in rats. Daidzin and daidzein shortened alcohol-induced sleep time (loss of righting reflex) in rats that were given ethanol intragastrically but not in those given ethanol intraperitoneally. When daidzin was given to animals intragastrically with the ethanol solution, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was found to peak later and be lower than in control rats that were given only the ethanol solution. BACs also receded more slowly if daidzin was fed to the animals. None of the 3 isoflavonoid compounds administered orally affected liver alcohol dehydrogenase or aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, as was reported for intraperitoneal administration. Further experiments indicated that the suppression of the BAC by daidzin was due mainly to delay of stomach emptying. All 3 compounds suppressed voluntary alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total volume of liquid consumed daily remained unchanged. Daily food consumption and body weight gain were not affected. Alcohol preference returned to baseline levels after the isoflavonoids were discontinued. We postulate that the suppression of alcohol reinforcement produced by these compounds is mediated centrally in the brain reward pathway.

  12. The multivariate concentric square field test reveals different behavioural profiles in male AA and ANA rats with regard to risk taking and environmental reactivity.

    PubMed

    Roman, Erika; Meyerson, Bengt J; Hyytiä, Petri; Nylander, Ingrid

    2007-11-02

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the behavioural profiles in alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, alcohol) and alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, non-alcohol) rats. Twelve adult, alcohol-naïve male AA and ANA rats were tested in the recently established multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The more traditional open field and elevated plus-maze tests were used as reference tests. Six weeks after the initial MCSF test, a repeated testing was used to explore differences in acquired recognition after a previous experience. The results revealed distinct differences between the two lines. The ANA rats were generally more active in the three tests. In the MCSF, parameters of risk taking and shelter seeking indicated differences between the two lines. The ANA rats had higher shelter seeking behaviour and less risk taking behaviour than the AA rats. Repeated exposure to the MCSF caused a general decrease in activity and reduction in the number of visits to the various zones, especially evident in the ANA rats. The ANA rats showed more shelter seeking than the AA rats and also more shelter seeking than in the first trial, supporting an "anxiety-like" profile in these rats. In conclusion, the parameters related to risk taking and shelter seeking revealed obvious differences between AA and ANA rats. The higher risk taking behaviour seen in the AA rats might relate to their innate propensity for high voluntary alcohol intake. The results are discussed in relation to the reported neurobiological differences and in relation to other alcohol-preferring and alcohol-avoiding rat lines.

  13. Analysis of alcohol-related phenotypes in F2 progeny derived from FH/Wjd and ACI/N rat strains reveals independent measures and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Patra, Biswanath; Overstreet, David H; Rezvani, Amir H; Cleves, Mario; Parsian, Abbas

    2007-02-12

    Ethanol associated addictive behaviors are governed by a combination of multiple gene action (polygenic or quantitative trait) and environmental factors. We produced F2 progeny from F1 crosses derived from the alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rat strain and the alcohol-nonpreferring ACI/N strain. We compared different phenotypes related to alcohol intake in more than 600 F2 progeny. We found that female rats had significantly higher mean voluntary and forced ethanol, water, saccharin and total fluid intakes than male rats. Therefore, we compared these measures in the top 15th percentile with those in bottom 15th percentile of the F2 total ethanol intake distribution separately for males and females. The two tail comparison of means showed that only the trait of alcohol preference differed significantly in both males and females, suggesting that alcohol preference is closely related to alcohol intake. Because of the detailed information about the F1 parents of the F2 progeny, it was possible to determine parental effects. For swim test immobility, for example, the F2 progeny derived from FA(m)/FA(f) parents (ACI maternal inheritance) had the lowest mean value of 130s while the F2 progeny from AF/AF parents (FH maternal inheritance) had the highest mean value of 157s (p<0.005). The F2 progeny derived from FA/AF parents (FH maternal inheritance) showed higher mean values of forced alcohol intake than FA/FA parents (FH paternal inheritance) (6.58 and 6.36g/kg/day, respectively) suggesting that the FH mother had a significantly (p<0.0001) greater effect on forced alcohol intake than the FH father. It is concluded from these analyses that alcohol-related phenotypes are segregating independently and may be influenced by maternal and sex factors.

  14. Inflammatory oedema induced by phospholipases A2 isolated from Crotalus durissus sp. in the rat dorsal skin: a role for mast cells and sensory C-fibers.

    PubMed

    Câmara, Paula R S; Esquisatto, Laura C M; Camargo, Enilton A; Ribela, Maria Teresa C P; Toyama, Marcos H; Marangoni, Sergio; De Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2003-06-01

    The ability of the phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) from Crotalus durissus cascavella, Crotalus durissus collilineatus and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms and crotapotin to increase the vascular permeability in the rat skin as well as the contribution of both mast cells and sensory C-fibers have been investigated in this study. Vascular permeability was measured as the plasma extravascular accumulation at skin sites of intravenously injected 125I-human serum albumin. Intradermal injection of crotalic PLA(2)s (0.05-0.5 microg/site) in the rat skin resulted in dose-dependent increase in plasma extravascular whereas crotapotin (1 microg/site) failed to affect this response. Co-injection of crotapotin (1 microg/site) did not modify the increased vascular permeability induced by the PLA(2)s (0.05-0.5 microg/site). Previous treatment (30 min) of the animals with cyproheptadine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) markedly reduced PLA(2) (0.5 microg/site)-induced oedema. In rats treated neonatally with capsaicin to deplete neuropeptides, the plasma extravasation induced by all PLA(2)s (0.5 microg/site) was also significantly reduced. Similarly, the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist SR140333 (1nmol/site) significantly reduced the PLA(2)-induced oedema. In addition, the combination of SR140333 with cyproheptadine further reduced the increased plasma extravasation by PLA(2) from C. d. cascavella venom, but not by PLA(2) from C. d. terrificus and C. d. collilineatus venoms. Our results suggest that increase in skin vascular permeability by crotalic PLA(2)s is mediated by activation of sensory C-fibers culminating in the release of substance P, as well as by activation of mast cells which in turn release amines such as histamine and serotonin.

  15. Comparative analysis of the central CCK system in Fawn Hooded and Wistar Kyoto rats: extended localisation of CCK-A receptors throughout the rat brain using a novel radioligand.

    PubMed

    Lodge, D J; Lawrence, A J

    2001-06-15

    The neuropeptide cholecystokinin has been implicated in the actions of a number of central processes including anxiety and reward. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to compare the density of CCK-A and -B receptors and the mRNA encoding preproCCK throughout the brains of an alcohol-preferring (Fawn Hooded) rat strain with that of a non-alcohol-preferring (Wistar Kyoto) strain of rat. Our study revealed significant differences with regard to the central CCK system of the FH compared to the WKY rat, including differences in CCK-A receptor binding throughout the dorsal medulla, and altered CCK-B binding density throughout the cerebral cortex and reticular nucleus of the thalamus. The most striking result, given the altered behavioural phenotype of the FH rat, was the 33% lower density of CCKmRNA measured throughout the ventral tegmental area of the FH rat when compared to the WKY. This study also reports on a protocol to utilise a novel radioligand, [125I]-D-Tyr-Gly-A-71378, for autoradiographic detection of CCK-A receptors throughout the rat brain. As previously reported, CCK-A receptors were located throughout the area postrema, interpeduncular nucleus and nucleus tractus solitarii; however, binding to CCK-A receptors was also visualised throughout the medial pre-optic area, the arcuate nucleus and the circumventricular regions of the ventral hypothalamus, regions known to contain CCK-A receptors but which were previously undetectable using autoradiography in rat brain.

  16. [The influence of Spirulina and Selen-Spirulina on some indexes of rat's immune status].

    PubMed

    Trushina, E N; Gladkikh, Ol; Gadzhieva, Z M; Mustafina, O K; Pozdniakov, A L

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence for the immune-enhancing effect of Spirulina (Sp) and Selen-Spirulina (Se-Sp) in male Wistar rats. The rats of control group fed half-synthetic diet. Rats of experimental groups consumed the half-synthetic diets with Sp (10 g/kg diet) or Se-Sp (350 microg Se/kg diet) for 2 weeks. Using rats lymphocytes in vitro after phytohemagglutinin stimulation was demonstrated that lymphocytes from Sp and Se-Sp groups secreted of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma more control group. Induction of interleukin-4 was comparable with once of control group. We believed that Sp and Se-Sp are more effective in stimulating a Th-1--type response and hence potentiates cell-mediated immunity. The immunostimulatory effect of Sp and Se-Sp was confirmed by morphologic and morphometric investigation of rats spleen, also with by NBT-test of peritoneal macrophages.

  17. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Associations of corticosterone and testosterone with alcohol drinking in F2 populations derived from AA and ANA rat lines.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, Tiina J; Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Eriksson, C J Peter

    2011-08-01

    In our previous studies on alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) and nonpreferring ANA (Alko nonalcohol) rats, we have observed that the AA rats exhibit lower endogenous levels of corticosterone, higher testosterone levels, and more frequent alcohol-induced testosterone elevations when compared with ANA rats. The objective of the present study was to get more conclusive evidence for the potential role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes in alcohol drinking by using the F2 experimental design. Alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-nonpreferring ANA rat lines were crossbred to form a F1 population from which the final F2 population was derived. Male animals were challenged with a priming alcohol dose after which a 3 weeks' voluntary alcohol drinking period took place. After a washout period of 1 week, one-half of the 40 highest and 40 lowest alcohol drinkers were challenged with a second dose of alcohol and the other half with saline. Serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were measured before and during the test. Higher endogenous testosterone levels were detected in the rats of the high alcohol consumption group compared with the low consumption group. Also supporting the original AA/ANA line differences, a trend for lower endogenous corticosterone levels were measured in the high alcohol consumption group compared with the low consumption group. The alcohol challenge test after the drinking period resulted in a higher frequency (38%) of testosterone elevations in the high drinkers compared with the low drinkers (5%). The present data confirms the validity of the positive connections between testosterone elevation and increased alcohol drinking, as well as between testosterone reduction and decreased alcohol drinking, in AA and ANA rats.

  19. Localization of fertility factor SP22 to specific cell types within the anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Allison M; McCoy, George L; Blake, Charles A

    2005-11-01

    Sperm protein 22 (SP22) was recently identified in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of male Golden Syrian hamsters using ion trap mass spectrometry. SP22 has been implicated in apoptosis, androgen receptor function, fertility, and ontogeny of early-onset Parkinson's disease. However, the role of SP22 in the pituitary has not been investigated. We cloned the cDNA for full-length SP22 from AP and posterior lobe (posterior pituitary and intermediate lobe) of the pituitary gland in adult male rats and Golden Syrian hamsters, confirming the presence of SP22 mRNA in the AP and posterior lobe. Because gonadal steroids are important regulators of AP function, and SP22 is associated with androgen receptor function, we used Western blots to compare SP22 in the AP of intact and orchidectomized male rats given placebo or a low or high dose of testosterone. SP22 did not differ with treatment, indicating that AP SP22 concentration was not regulated by testosterone. To localize SP22 to specific cells of the AP, mirror-image paraffin sections were labeled against SP22 and either luteinizing hormone (LH)beta, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)beta, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or growth hormone (GH) using peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody. Additional sections were colabeled with SP22 and one of the AP hormones using fluorescent secondary antibodies. SP22 colocalized in somatotropes and thyrotropes in rat and hamster. We identified SP22 in a small percentage of corticotropes, gonadotropes, and lactotropes. This is the first report that SP22 mRNA is present specifically in the AP, and SP22 is localized primarily in somatotropes and thyrotropes. SP22 may help regulate AP function and be particularly important for the control of GH and TSH secretion.

  20. Actinobacteria Associated with the Marine Sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and Their Culturability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp. PMID:22214828

  1. [Early social isolation increases alcohol preference in experiment].

    PubMed

    Kucher, E O; Egorov, A Yu; Chernikova, N A

    2016-01-01

    Цель исследования. Изучали формирование предпочтения к алкоголю у крыс, подвергшихся одной из возможных моделей шизофрении — модели ранней социальной изоляции. Материал и методы. Работа выполнена на 45 крысах-самцах линии Wistar. В возрасте 21—24 дней животные были высажены из родительских клеток в индивидуальные (изоляция) на 35 сут. Крысы из группы контроля содержались по 5 особей в клетке. Все животные подвергались принудительному спаиванию в течение 3,5 мес в режиме: понедельник, среда, пятница — доступ только к 15% раствору этанола, вторник, четверг — питьевая депривация, суббота, воскресение — доступ только к воде. Предпочтение алкоголя оценивали в тесте «двустаканная проба», поведение — «открытое поле» и «отчаяния». Результаты и заключение. Крысы, подвергшиеся изоляции, достоверно больше предпочитали алкоголь в тесте «двустаканная проба» через 0,5, 2 и 3 мес спаивания. После окончания изоляции и до начала спаивания крысы обнаруживали бóльшую двигательную активность в тесте «открытое поле». По исследовательской активности и эмоциональности крысы обеих групп не различались. При этом крысы, подвергшиеся изоляции, были достоверно более чувствительны к звуковому раздражителю и дольше задерживались в стартовой зоне «открытого поля». Таким образом, сочетание ранней социальной изоляции и полупринудительного спаивания приводит к большему предпочтению алкоголя животными. Достоверные различия в предпочтении алкоголя наблюдаются уже после начала спаивания, а непосредственно после изоляции крысы обеих групп ведут себя одинаково. После 3,5 мес спаивания крысы, подвергшиеся социальной изоляции, демонстрируют меньше проявлений отчаяния.

  2. Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1990-04-01

    Evidence from numerical taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization supports the proposal of new species in the genera Actinobacillus and Pasteurella. The following new species are proposed: Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., from the vaginas of postparturient sows; Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., associated with epididymitis of sheep; Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., associated with human Bartholin gland abscess and finger infections; Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov. (the BLG group), which causes bovine lymphangitis; Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., which causes abortion in sows; and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov., formerly biovar T of Pasteurella haemolytica, which causes septicemia in older lambs.

  3. Conditioned place aversion induced by intragastric administration of ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Tara L; Bakner, Lee; Cunningham, Christopher L

    2004-04-01

    Most experiments investigating ethanol-induced place conditioning in rats have produced conditioned place aversion (CPA). In one of the few reports of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats, selectively bred alcohol-preferring (msP) rats showed CPP in a biased procedure when ethanol was administered via intragastric (IG) catheter but not when ethanol was administered via intraperitoneal injection or by gavage. This finding suggests the importance of both route of administration and genetic variables to the outcome of place conditioning studies. We conducted three experiments examining place conditioning induced by IG ethanol in genetically heterogeneous rats to test the generality of the earlier finding. We employed an unbiased procedure that is more sensitive to detecting preference changes in either direction (preference or aversion). Ethanol-naive (Experiment 1) and ethanol-experienced Sprague-Dawley rats (Experiment 2) showed robust CPA. In Experiment 3, infusion rate was varied to see if the CPA observed in Experiments 1 and 2 was a result of the rapidity of the transition from the sober to the intoxicated states. Both groups showed strong CPA. Overall, the present findings are consistent with previous findings of CPA in heterogeneous rats, suggesting that the aversive postabsorptive effects of ethanol produce CPA.

  4. LOCALIZATION OF THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22 AND INHIBITION OF FERTILITY IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously established that the levels sperm membrane protein SP22 are highly correlated with the fertility of sperm from the cauda epididymidis of rats exposed to both epididymal and testicular toxicants, and that a testis-specific SP22 transcript is expressed in post-meiotic...

  5. Transcription factor Sp1 is necessary for basal calmodulin gene transcription and for its selective stimulation by insulin.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S S; Palazzolo, M R; Takahashi, T; Raghow, R

    1997-11-01

    Insulin positively regulates transcription of rat calmodulin (CaM) I gene and activates the low Km cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE). To elucidate the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, rat hepatoma (H-411E) cells were transfected with DNA constructs containing the putative CaM promoters coupled to a luciferase reporter and challenged with insulin. Activation of the full length 1835 bp rat CaM I promoter containing all three Sp1 sites or truncated promoters with combinations of one to three of the Sp1 sites was studied in Sp1 deficient Drosophilia SL2 cells and in SL2 cells co-transfected with an Sp1 expression vector and re-challenged with insulin. Our results demonstrate that Sp1 is obligatory for basal activation of the CaM promoter. The maximal insulin stimulation of CaM promoter is elicited only if it contains at least two Sp1 sites.

  6. Neuropeptide Y suppresses ethanol drinking in ethanol-abstinent, but not non-ethanol-abstinent, Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Stewart, Robert B; Badia-Elder, Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on two-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exposure, cycles of ethanol abstinence, or both. Ethanol-drinking Wistar rats were given 6 weeks of access to 15% (vol/vol) ethanol and water followed by either: two cycles of 1 week ethanol vapor exposure and 2 weeks with no ethanol; two cycles of 1 week ethanol bottle availability and 2 weeks with no ethanol; or 2 weeks of ethanol vapor exposure. Rats were infused intracerebroventricularly with one of four NPY doses (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 microg) following the ethanol exposure patterns described above, and tested for ethanol drinking and feeding in a two-bottle choice situation. NPY dose dependently increased food intake regardless of ethanol exposure history, but suppressed ethanol drinking only in rats that underwent cycles of ethanol access and ethanol abstinence. These results support the notion that dysregulation of brain NPY systems during chronic intermittent ethanol exposure is important in the motivational drive for subsequent relapse to ethanol drinking.

  7. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  8. SP-303, an antiviral oligomeric proanthocyanidin from the latex of Croton lechleri (Sangre de Drago).

    PubMed

    Ubillas, R; Jolad, S D; Bruening, R C; Kernan, M R; King, S R; Sesin, D F; Barrett, M; Stoddart, C A; Flaster, T; Kuo, J; Ayala, F; Meza, E; Castañel, M; McMeekin, D; Rozhon, E; Tempesta, M S; Barnard, D; Huffman, J; Smee, D; Sidwell, R; Soike, K; Brazier, A; Safrin, S; Orlando, R; Kenny, P T; Berova, N; Nakanishi, K

    1994-09-01

    SP-303, a large proanthocyanidin oligomer isolated from the latex of the plant species Croton lechleri (Eupborbiaceae) has demonstrated broad activity against a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. In cell culture, SP-303 exhibits potent activity against isolates and laboratory strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (FLU-A) and parainfluenza virus (PIV). Parallel assays of SP-303 and ribavirin showed comparable activity against these viruses. SP-303 also exhibits significant inhibitory activity against herpesvirus (HSV) types 1 and 2, including herpesviruses resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet. Inhibition was also observed against hepatitis A and B viruses. The antiviral mechanism of SP-303 seems to derive from its direct binding to components of the viral envelope, resulting in inhibition of viral attachment and penetration of the plasma membrane. Antiviral effects of SP-303 were measured by three distinct methods: CPE, MTT and precursor uptake/incorporation. Cytotoxicity endpoints were markedly greater than the respective antiviral endpoints. SP-303 exhibited activity in RSV-infected cotton rats and African green monkeys, PIV-3-infected cotton rats, HSV-2 infected mice and guinea pigs and FLU-A-infected mice. The most successful routes of SP-303 administration for producing efficacy were: topical application to HSV-2- genital lesions in mice and guinea pigs, aerosol inhalation to FLU-A-infected mice and PIV-3-infected cotton rats, and oral dosage to RSV-infected cotton rats. A variety of toxicological evaluations demonstrated the safety of SP-303, particularly orally, which was predictable, since condensed tannins are a common dietary component. It is notable that the larger proanthocyanidins as a class have high antiviral activity, whereas most of the monomers are inactive. Clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate SP-303 as a therapeutic antiviral agent.

  9. Oxidative stress and protein oxidation in the brain of water drinking and alcohol drinking rats administered the HIV envelope protein, gp120.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Gupta, Shveta; Jiang, Yin

    2008-03-01

    Possible roles of oxidative stress and protein oxidation on alcohol-induced augmentation of cerebral neuropathy in gp120 administered alcohol preferring rats drinking either pure water (W rats) or a free-choice ethanol and water (E rats) for 90 days. This study showed that peripherally administered gp120 accumulated into the brain, liver, and RBCs samples from water drinking - gp120 administered rats (Wg rats) and ethanol drinking - gp120 administered rats (Eg rats), although gp120 levels in samples from Eg rats were significantly greater than the levels in samples from Wg rats. The brain samples from ethanol drinking-saline administered (EC) and Wg rats exhibited comparable levels of free radicals that were significantly lower than the levels in Eg rats. Peroxiredoxin-I (PrxI) activity in the brain samples exhibited the following pattern: Wg > > WC > EC > Eg. Total protein-carbonyl and carbonylated hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide precursor protein levels, but not N-acetylaspartate or N-acetyl aspartylglutamate or total protein-thiol levels, paralleled the free radical levels in the brain of all four groups. This suggests PrxI inhibition may be more sensitive indicator of oxidative stress than measuring free radicals or metabolites. As PrxI oxidation in WC, Wg, and EC rats was reversible, while PrxI oxidation in Eg rats was not, we suggest that alcohol drinking and gp120 together hyperoxidized and inactivated PrxI that suppressed free radical neutralization in the brain of Eg rats. In conclusion, chronic alcohol drinking, by carbonylating and hyperoxidizing free radical neutralization proteins, augmented the gp120-induced oxidative stress that may be associated with an increase in severity of the brain neuropathy.

  10. Effects of MS-153 on glutamate transporter 1 and cysteine/glutamate exchanger as well as ethanol drinking behavior in male P rats

    PubMed Central

    Aal-Aaboda, Munaf; Alhaddad, Hasan; Osowik, Francis; Nauli, Surya M.; Sari, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is largely associated with alterations in the extracellular glutamate concentrations in several brain reward regions. We have recently found that glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is downregulated following chronic exposure to ethanol for five weeks in alcohol-preferring rats, and upregulation of the GLT-1 levels in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex resulted, in part, in attenuating ethanol consumption. Cysteine glutamate antiporter (xCT) was also found to be downregulated after chronic ethanol exposure in P rats, and its upregulation could be valuable in attenuating ethanol drinking. In this study, we examined the effect of a synthetic compound, (R)-(−)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline (MS-153), on ethanol drinking and expression of GLT-1 and xCT in the amygdala and hippocampus of P rats. P rats were exposed to continuous free-choice access to water, 15% and 30% ethanol, and food for five weeks, and then after which they received treatments of MS-153 or vehicle for five days. The results showed that MS-153 treatment significantly reduced ethanol consumption in P rats. It was revealed that GLT-1 and xCT expressions were downregulated in both the amygdala and hippocampus of ethanol-vehicle treated rats (ethanol vehicle group) as compared to water control animals. Importantly, MS-153 treatment upregulated GLT-1 and xCT expression in these brain regions. These findings provide important role of MS-153 on these glutamate transporters for the attenuation of ethanol drinking behavior. PMID:25601490

  11. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-A-derived peptide attenuate chemotaxis of mast cells induced by human β-defensin 3.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Motoko; Murata, Masaki; Saito, Atsushi; Takamiya, Rina; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kuronuma, Koji; Chiba, Hirofumi; Hashimoto, Jiro; Sawada, Norimasa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Kuroki, Yoshio; Ariki, Shigeru

    2017-02-08

    Human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) is known to be involved in mast cell activation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hBD3-induced mast cell activation have been poorly understood. We previously reported that SP-A and SP-A-derived peptide 01 (SAP01) regulate the function of hBD3. In this study, we focused on the effects of SP-A and SAP01 on the activation of mast cells induced by hBD3. SAP01 directly bound to hBD3. Mast cell-mediated vascular permeability and edema in hBD3 administered rat ears were decreased when injected with SP-A or SAP01. Compatible with the results in rat ear model, both SP-A and SAP01 inhibited hBD3-induced chemotaxis of mast cells in vitro. Direct interaction between SP-A or SAP01 and hBD3 seemed to be responsible for the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis. Furthermore, SAP01 attenuated hBD3-induced accumulation of mast cells and eosinophils in tracheas of the OVA-sensitized inflammatory model. SP-A might contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses mediated by mast cells during infection.

  12. SP-100 program developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnyer, A. D.; Sholtis, J. A., Jr.; Wahlquist, E. J.; Verga, R. L.; Wiley, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    An update is provided on the status of the Sp-100 Space Reactor Power Program. The historical background that led to the program is reviewed and the overall program objectives and development approach are discussed. The results of the mission studies identify applications for which space nuclear power is desirable and even essential. Results of a series of technology feasibility experiments are expected to significantly improve the earlier technology data base for engineering development. The conclusion is reached that a nuclear reactor space power system can be developed by the early 1990s to meet emerging mission performance requirements.

  13. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  14. Cell confluency-induced Stat3 activation regulates NHE3 expression by recruiting Sp1 and Sp3 to the proximal NHE3 promoter region during epithelial dome formation.

    PubMed

    Su, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Ghishan, Fayez K; Kiela, Pawel R; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2009-01-01

    Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) during cell confluency is related to its regulatory roles in cell growth arrest- or survival-related physiological or developmental processes. We previously demonstrated that this signaling event triggers epithelial dome formation by transcriptional augmentation of sodium hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3) expression. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remained unclear. By using serial deletions, site-directed mutagenesis, and EMSA analysis, we now demonstrate Stat3 binding to an atypical Stat3-response element in the rat proximal NHE3 promoter, located adjacent to a cluster of Sp cis-elements (SpA/B/C), within -77/-36 nt of the gene. SpB (-58/-55 nt) site was more effective than SpA (-72/-69 nt) site for cooperative binding of Sp1/Sp3. Increasing cell density had no effect on Sp1/Sp3 expression but resulted in their increased binding to the SpA/B/C probe along with Stat3 and concurrently with enhanced nuclear pTyr705-Stat3 level. Immunoprecipitation performed with the nuclear extracts demonstrated physical interaction of Stat3 and Sp1/Sp3 triggered by cell confluency. Stat3 inhibition by overexpression of dominant-negative Stat3-D mutant in MDCK cells or by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in Caco-2 cells resulted in inhibition of the cell density-induced NHE3 expression, Sp1/Sp3 binding, and NHE3 promoter activity and in decreased dome formation. Thus, during confluency, ligand-independent Stat3 activation leads to its interaction with Sp1/Sp3, their recruitment to the SpA/B/C cluster in a Stat3 DNA-binding domain-dependent fashion, increased transcription, and expression of NHE3, to coordinate cell density-mediated epithelial dome formation.

  15. Gap junctional communication modulates gene transcription by altering the recruitment of Sp1 and Sp3 to connexin-response elements in osteoblast promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stains, Joseph P.; Lecanda, Fernando; Screen, Joanne; Towler, Dwight A.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of gap junction proteins, connexins, represent a mechanism of disease in a variety of tissues. We have shown that recessive (gene deletion) or dominant (connexin45 overexpression) disruption of connexin43 function results in osteoblast dysfunction and abnormal expression of osteoblast genes, including down-regulation of osteocalcin transcription. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gap junction-sensitive transcriptional regulation, we systematically analyzed the rat osteocalcin promoter for sensitivity to gap junctional intercellular communication. We identified an Sp1/Sp3 containing complex that assembles on a minimal element in the -70 to -57 region of the osteocalcin promoter in a gap junction-dependent manner. This CT-rich connexin-response element is necessary and sufficient to confer gap junction sensitivity to the osteocalcin proximal promoter. Repression of osteocalcin transcription occurs as a result of displacement of the stimulatory Sp1 by the inhibitory Sp3 on the promoter when gap junctional communication is perturbed. Modulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment also occurs on the collagen Ialpha1 promoter and translates into gap junction-sensitive transcriptional control of collagen Ialpha1 gene expression. Thus, regulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment to the promoter may represent a potential general mechanism for transcriptional control of target genes by signals passing through gap junctions.

  16. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  17. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition.

  18. SP-100 space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

  19. Yersinia nurmii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Johansson, Per; Rahkila, Riitta; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    This study was set up to identify three Gram-negative, rod-shaped strains originating from broiler meat packaged under a modified atmosphere. A polyphasic taxonomic approach, including multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five genes (16S rRNA, glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60), DNA-DNA reassociation between the closest phylogenetic neighbours and determination of relevant phenotypic properties, was applied. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences grouped these strains together and within the genus Yersinia. MLSA of the 16S rRNA gene and four housekeeping genes showed that the strains formed a monophyletic group separate from other Yersinia species in all phylogenetic trees constructed. The strains had a phenotypic profile different from those of other representatives of the genus Yersinia, but most similar to that of Yersinia ruckeri. Typical virulence markers for pathogenic Yersinia were not detected. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA reassociation data, a novel species, Yersinia nurmii sp. nov., is proposed for the isolated strains. The type strain is APN3a-c(T) ( = DSM 22296(T)  = LMG 25213(T)).

  20. Effects of short deprivation and re-exposure intervals on the ethanol drinking behavior of selectively bred high alcohol-consuming rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Schultz, Jonathon A; Peper, Caron L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2008-08-01

    Alcoholics generally display cycles of excessive ethanol intake, abstinence and relapse behavior. Using an animal model of relapse-like drinking, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), our laboratory has shown that repeated 2-week cycles of ethanol deprivation and re-exposure, following an initial 6-week access period, result in a robust ADE by alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol-drinking (HAD-1 and HAD-2) rats. These rat lines have been selectively bred to prefer a 10% ethanol solution over water. The present study examined whether P and HAD rats would display an ADE using much shorter ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals. Rats were given either continuous or periodic concurrent access to multiple concentrations (10%, 20%, and 30% [vol/vol]) of ethanol. The periodic protocol involved access to ethanol for 12 days followed by four cycles of 4 days of deprivation and 4 days of re-exposure to ethanol access. High-alcohol-drinking rats displayed a robust 24-h ADE upon first re-exposure (HAD-1: approximately 5 vs. 8g/kg/day; HAD-2: approximately 6 vs. 9g/kg/day, baseline vs. re-exposure), whereas P rats ( approximately 7 vs. 8g/kg/day) displayed a modest, nonsignificant, increase in 24-h intake. In a separate group of rats, ethanol intake and blood alcohol concentrations after the first hour of the fourth re-exposure cycle were HAD-1: 2.0g/kg and 97 mg%, HAD-2: 2.3g/kg and 73 mg%, and P: 1.2g/kg and 71 mg%; with all three lines displaying a robust first hour ADE. These findings suggest that (a) an ADE may be observed with short ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals in HAD rats, and (b) the genetic make-up of the P and HAD rats influences the expression of this ADE.

  1. Acute oral 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) decreases both alcohol intake and IV nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty C; Slade, Susan; Wells, Corinne; Glick, Stanley; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    The ibogaine derivative 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) has been found to decrease self-administration of morphine, nicotine and alcohol in rats after systemic injection. However oral dosing is the preferred route clinically. The current study evaluated the effect of oral 18-MC dosing in rats on alcohol and nicotine self-administration. For the nicotine study, young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with IV jugular infusion catheters and trained for nicotine self-administration in 45min. sessions. At weekly intervals they were administered by oral gavage doses of 18-MC (0, 10, 20 and 40mg/kg) following a repeated measures counterbalanced design twice. Acute oral 18-MC, at the 40mg/kg dosage, significantly reduced nicotine self-administration. There was a differential effect of 18-MC with rats above or below the median level of nicotine self-administration during the pretreatment baseline performance. Rats with lower baseline performance showed a significant reduction in nicotine self-administration with the 40mg/kg dosage, while those in the higher baseline group did not show a significant effect of 18-MC. In alcohol studies, the effects of the same doses of 18-MC were tested in both male and female alcohol preferring (P) rats that had free access to water and alcohol (10% v/v) 6h/day. The results show that 18-MC dose-dependently reduced alcohol intake in both male and female rats. All doses caused significant reductions in alcohol self-administration. These data reinforce previous findings that 18-MC is significantly effective in reducing alcohol intake and nicotine self-administration. The finding that 18-MC is also effective orally makes it advantageous for further development as a possible new therapy for treating alcoholism as well as smoking addiction.

  2. Ethanol conditioned place preference and alterations in ΔFosB following adolescent nicotine administration differ in rats exhibiting high or low behavioral reactivity to a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Rex M; Engberg, Melanie E; Wecker, Lynn

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the effects of adolescent nicotine administration on adult alcohol preference in rats exhibiting high or low behavioral reactivity to a novel environment, and ascertained whether nicotine altered ΔFosB in the ventral striatum (vStr) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) immediately after drug administration or after rats matured to adulthood. Animals were characterized as exhibiting high (HLA) or low (LLA) locomotor activity in the novel open field on postnatal day (PND) 31 and received injections of saline (0.9%) or nicotine (0.56 mg free base/kg) from PND 35 to 42. Ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was assessed on PND 68 following 8 days conditioning in a biased paradigm; ΔFosB was measured on PND 43 or PND 68. Following adolescent nicotine exposure, HLA animals demonstrated a CPP when conditioned with ethanol; LLA animals were unaffected. Further, adolescent nicotine exposure for 8 days increased levels of ΔFosB in limbic regions in both HLA and LLA rats, but this increase persisted into adulthood only in LLA animals. Results indicate that adolescent nicotine exposure facilitates the establishment of an ethanol CPP in HLA rats, and that sustained elevations in ΔFosB are not necessary or sufficient for the establishment of an ethanol CPP in adulthood. These studies underscore the importance of assessing behavioral phenotype when determining the behavioral and cellular effects of adolescent nicotine exposure.

  3. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)).

  4. ADP is a vasodilator component from Lasiodora sp. mygalomorph spider venom.

    PubMed

    Horta, C C; Rezende, B A; Oliveira-Mendes, B B R; Carmo, A O; Capettini, L S A; Silva, J F; Gomes, M T; Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Bravo, C E S; Lemos, V S; Kalapothakis, E

    2013-09-01

    Members of the spider genus Lasiodora are widely distributed in Brazil, where they are commonly known as caranguejeiras. Lasiodora spider venom is slightly harmful to humans. The bite of this spider causes local pain, edema and erythema. However, Lasiodora sp. spider venom may be a source of important pharmacological tools. Our research group has described previously that Lasiodora sp. venom produces bradycardia in the isolated rat heart. In the present work, we sought to evaluate the vascular effect of Lasiodora sp. venom and to isolate the vasoactive compounds from the venom. The results showed that Lasiodora spider venom induced a concentration-dependent vasodilation in rat aortic rings, which was dependent on the presence of a functional endothelium and abolished by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME. Western blot experiments revealed that the venom also increased endothelial NOS function by increasing phosphorylation of the Ser¹¹⁷⁷ residue. Assay-directed fractionation isolated a vasoactive fraction from Lasiodora sp. venom. Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays identified a mixture of two compounds: adenosine diphosphate (ADP, approximately 90%) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP, approximately 10%). The vasodilator effects of Lasiodora sp. whole venom, as well as ADP, were significantly inhibited by suramin, which is a purinergic P2-receptor antagonist. Therefore, the results of the present work indicate that ADP is a main vasodilator component of Lasiodora sp. spider venom.

  5. β-endorphin neuronal transplantation into the hypothalamus alters anxiety-like behaviors in prenatal alcohol exposed rats and non-preferring and preferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan; Wynne, Olivia; Maglakelidze, George; Zhang, Changqing; O’Connell, Stephanie; Boyadjieva, Nadka I.; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol exposure has adverse effects on stress physiology and behavioral reactivity. This is suggested to be due, in part, to the effect of alcohol on β-endorphin (β-EP) producing neurons in the hypothalamus. In response to stress, β-EP normally provides negative feedback to the HPA axis and interacts with other neurotransmitter systems in the amygdala to regulate behavior. We examined whether β-EP neuronal function in the hypothalamus reduces the corticosterone response to acute stress, attenuates anxiety-like behaviors, and modulates alcohol drinking in rats. Methods To determine if β-EP neuronal transplants modulate the stress response, anxiety behavior and alcohol drinking, we implanted differentiated β-EP neurons into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of normal, prenatal alcohol exposed, and alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) rats. We then assessed corticosterone levels in response to acute restraint stress and other markers of stress response in the brain, and anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and open-field assays. Results We showed that β-EP neuronal transplants into the PVN reduced the peripheral corticosterone response to acute stress and attenuated anxiety-like behaviors. Similar transplants completely reduced the hyper-corticosterone response and elevated anxiety behaviors in prenatal alcohol exposed adult rats. Moreover, we showed that β-EP reduced anxiety behavior in P rats with minimal effects on alcohol drinking during and following restraint stress. Conclusions These data further establish a role of β-EP neurons in the hypothalamus for regulating physiological stress response and anxiety behavior, and resembles a potential novel therapy for treating stress-related psychiatric disorders in prenatal alcohol exposed children and those genetically predisposed to increased alcohol consumption. PMID:25623413

  6. The bioavailability of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Kikunaga, S; Arimori, M; Takahashi, M

    1988-04-01

    We estimated the utilization of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats, and the effect of oxalic acid on absorption of dietary calcium by using calcium-deficient rats. The body weight gain of the calcium-deficient rats for 8 days receiving a calcium-deficient diet supplemented with raw-powdered spinach (R-sp), boiled-powdered spinach (B-sp), or calcium-oxalate (Ca-ox), and a control diet supplemented with oxalic acid (OX-C) were 4.8, 2.8, 4.9, and 5.1 g, respectively. The calcium content in the liver and kidney of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets significantly increased as compared with the calcium-deficient rats. Significant differences in the liver calcium levels were not observed among the rats receiving various additional diets, though the content in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets were 28.0, 21.5, 0.11, and 0.59 mg, respectively. An especially large amount of calcium was accumulated in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The calcium concentration in the serum of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than the calcium concentration in the serum of the R-sp, B-sp, and calcium-deficient rats. The calcium content in the left tibiae of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than that of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats was highest in the OX-C group, and higher in the R-sp and Ca-ox groups than the breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats fed on B-sp diet. The alkaline phosphatase activity in the small intestines of the rats rose in the order of the R-sp, B-sp, and Ca-ox groups, although significant differences of the activity were not observed between the Ca-ox and the OX-C groups. The calcium retention of the rats receiving the calcium-deficient, R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets was -18.5, 35.2, 25.6, 41.6, and 45.8%, respectively. About 35% of the calcium in the spinach was

  7. Evaluating the ameliorative efficacy of Spirulina platensis on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in cadmium-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mayada R; Abd El-Aziz, R M; Ali, H A; Ahmed, Sahar A

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative efficacy of Spirulina platensis (SP) on reproductive dysfunctions induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in male rats. Rats (n = 40) were divided into five groups (eight rats/each). Group 1: served as control without any treatment. Group 2: Rats were administered SP (150 mg/kg body weight (BW)) in drinking water for 10 days. Group 3: Rats were subcutaneously injected with CdCl2 (2 mg/kg BW) daily for 10 days. Group 4: Rats were co-treated with both CdCl2 (2 mg/kg BW) and SP (150 mg/kg BW) daily for 10 days (SP prophylactic group). Group 5: Rats received CdCl2 for 10 days followed by administration of SP alone in drinking water daily for another 30 days with the same mentioned routes and doses (SP treatment group). From our findings, the administration of SP alone or co-administration with Cd significantly attenuated the harmful effects of Cd, suggesting its beneficial role in improving spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis after Cd exposure.

  8. Reduced limbic metabolism and fronto-cortical volume in rats vulnerable to alcohol addiction

    PubMed Central

    Gozzi, Alessandro; Agosta, Federica; Massi, Maurizio; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Bifone, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with long-term reductions in fronto-cortical volume and limbic metabolism. However, an unanswered question in alcohol research is whether these alterations are the sole consequence of chronic alcohol use, or contain heritable contributions reflecting biological propensity toward ethanol addiction. Animal models of genetic predisposition to alcohol dependence can be used to investigate the role of inborn brain abnormalities in the aetiology of alcoholism. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in e Marchigian Sardinian (msP) alcohol-preferring rats to assess the presence of inherited structural or functional brain alterations. Alcohol-naïve msP (N=22) and control rats (N=26) were subjected to basal cerebral blood volume (bCBV) mapping followed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray matter and tract-based spatial statistics mapping of white matter fractional anisotropy. msP rats exhibited significantly reduced bCBV, an established marker of resting brain function, in focal cortico-limbic and thalamic areas, together with reduced gray matter volume in the thalamus, ventral tegmental area, insular and cingulate cortex. No statistically significant differences in fractional anisotropy were observed between groups. These findings highlight the presence of inborn gray matter and metabolic abnormalities in alcohol-naïve msP rats, the localization and sign of which are remarkably similar to those mapped in abstinent alcoholics and subjects at high risk for alcohol dependence. Collectively, these results point for a significant role of heritable neurofunctional brain alterations in biological propensity toward ethanol addiction, and support the translational use of advanced imaging methods to describe the circuital determinants of vulnerability to drug addiction. PMID:23261637

  9. Using Gelatin Nanoparticle Mediated Intranasal Delivery of Neuropeptide Substance P to Enhance Neuro-Recovery in Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Qi; Yu, Wen-Ze; Lin, Qian; Tian, Fu-Rong; Mao, Kai-Li; Lv, Chuan-Zhu; Wáng, Yi-Xiáng J.; Lu, Cui-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intranasal administration of phospholipid-based gelatin nanoparticles (GNP) was prepared to investigate the neuro-recovery effects of neuropeptide Substance P (SP) on hemiparkinsonian rats. Methods The SP-loaded gelatin nanoparticles (SP-GNP) were prepared by a water-in-water emulsion method and possessed high stability, encapsulating efficiency and loading capacity. PC-12 cells were used to examine the growth enhancement of SP-GNP in vitro by MTT assays and flow cytometry (FCM). The therapeutic effects of SP-GNP on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced hemiparkinsonian rats were assessed by quantifying rotational behavior and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated c-Jun protein (p-c-Jun) and Caspase-3 (Cas-3) expressed in substantia nigra (SN) region of hemiparkinsonian rats. Results PC-12 cells under SP-GNP treatment showed better cell viability and lower degree of apoptosis than those under SP solution treatment. Hemiparkinsonian rats under intranasal SP-GNP administration demonstrated better behavioral improvement, higher level of TH in SN along with much lower extent of p-c-Jun and Cas-3 than those under intranasal SP solution administration and intravenous SP-GNP administration. Conclusions With the advantages of GNP and nose-to-brain pathway, SP can be effectively delivered into the damaged SN region and exhibit its neuro-recovery function through the inhibition on JNK pathway and dopaminergic neuron apoptosis. PMID:26894626

  10. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  11. p38/Sp1/Sp4/HDAC4/BDNF Axis Is a Novel Molecular Pathway of the Neurotoxic Effect of the Methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Mascolo, Luigi; Valsecchi, Valeria; Sirabella, Rossana; Selleri, Carmine; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M. T.; Formisano, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The molecular pathways involved in methylmercury (MeHg)-induced neurotoxicity are not fully understood. Since pan-Histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibition has been found to revert the neurodetrimental effect of MeHg, it appeared of interest to investigate whether the pattern of HDACs isoform protein expression is modified during MeHg-induced neurotoxicity and the transcriptional/transductional mechanisms involved. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with MeHg 1 μM for 12 and 24 h showed a significant increase of HDAC4 protein and gene expression, whereas the HDACs isoforms 1–3, 5, and 6 were unmodified. Furthermore, MeHg-induced HDAC4 increase was reverted when cells were transfected with siRNAs against specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Sp4, that were both increased during MeHg exposure. Next we studied the role of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MeHg—induced increase of Sp1, Sp4, and HDAC4 expression. As shown by Western Blot analysis MeHg exposure increased the phosphorylation of p38, but not of ERK and JNK. Notably, when p38 was pharmacologically blocked, MeHg-induced Sp1, Sp4 protein expression, and HDAC4 protein and gene expression was reverted. In addition, MeHg exposure increased the binding of HDAC4 to the promoter IV of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, determining its mRNA reduction, that was significantly counteracted by HDAC4 knocking down. Furthermore, rat cortical neurons exposed to MeHg (1 μM/24 h) showed an increased phosphorylation of p38, in parallel with an up-regulation of Sp1, Sp4, and HDAC4 and a down-regulation of BDNF proteins. Importantly, transfection of siRNAs against p38, Sp1, Sp4, and HDAC4 or transfection of vector overexpressing BDNF significantly blocked MeHg-induced cell death in cortical neurons. All these results suggest that p38/Sp1-Sp4/HDAC4/BDNF may represent a new pathway involved in Me

  12. SP-100 control system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. A.; Halfen, F. J.; Alley, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    SP-100 Control Systems modeling was done using a thermal hydraulic transient analysis model called ARIES-S. The ARIES-S Computer Simulation provides a basis for design, integration and analysis of the reactor including the control and protection systems. It is a modular digital computer simulation written in FORTRAN that operates interactively in real time on a VAX minicomputer.

  13. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema

    Harper, Jason

    2016-07-12

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  14. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed.

  15. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  16. The role of Sp1 and Sp3 in the constitutive DPYD gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Lin; Fourie, Jeanne; Davie, James R; Guarcello, Vincenzo; Diasio, Robert B

    2006-05-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolic pathway, has been implicated as one of the factors determining the efficacy and toxicity of the anticancer agent 5-FU. Studies have attributed variation in DPD activity partially to alterations at the transcriptional level of DPYD gene. We investigated the transcription factors implicated in the constitutive expression of DPYD by utilizing a 174-bp fragment of the DPYD promoter region in which three consensus Sp protein binding sites (SpA, SpB and SpC) were predicted. The binding of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors to this region was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. By ectopically expressing human Sp1 and Sp3 in Sp-deficient Drosophila S2 cells, we demonstrated that Sp1 is a strong activator, while Sp3 by its own is a weak activator of the DPYD promoter. Moreover, Sp3 may serve as a competitor of Sp1, thus decreasing the Sp1 induced promoter activity. SpA, SpB and SpC sites are all Sp1 inducible. In the full activation of the DPYD promoter in human cell lines, the SpB site is essential; the SpC site works cooperatively with SpB, while SpA has minor promoter activity. These studies provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of DPD activity, and may facilitate the efficacy and safety of 5-FU-based chemotherapy.

  17. Topical application of substance P promotes wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kant, Vinay; Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Dhirendra; Prasad, Raju; Gopal, Anu; Pathak, Nitya N; Kumar, Pawan; Tandan, Surender K

    2015-05-01

    Substance P (SP) is known to stimulate angiogenesis, fibroblasts proliferation and expressions of cytokines and growth factors involved in wound healing. However, SP level reduces in dermis in diabetics and, hence, it was hypothesized that exogenously applied SP could be helpful in improving wound healing in diabetic rats. Excision skin wound was created on the back of diabetic rats and rats were divided into three groups i.e. (i) saline-, (ii) gel- and (iii) SP-treated. Normal saline, pluronic gel and SP (10(-6)M) in gel were topically applied once daily for 19days. SP treatment significantly increased the wound closure, levels of interleukin-10, and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, heme oxygenase-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, whereas it significantly decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta and matrix metalloproteinases-9 in the granulation/healing tissue. The inflammatory cells were present for long time in normal saline-treated group. Histological evaluation revealed better extracellular matrix formation with marked fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition in SP-treated group. Early epithelial layer formation, increased microvessel density and greater growth associated protein-43 positive nerve fibers were also evidenced in SP-treated group. In conclusion, SP treatment markedly accelerated cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats.

  18. Transcription factor SP4 phosphorylation is altered in the postmortem cerebellum of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia subjects

    PubMed Central

    Meana, J. Javier; Gill, Grace; Ramos, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors play important roles in the control of neuronal function in physiological and pathological conditions. We previously reported reduced levels of transcription factor SP4 protein, but not transcript, in the cerebellum in bipolar disorder and associated with more severe negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We have recently reported phosphorylation of Sp4 at S770, which is regulated by membrane depolarization and NMDA receptor activity. The aim of this study was to investigate SP4 S770 phosphorylation in bipolar disorder and its association with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and to explore the potential relationship between phosphorylation and protein abundance. Here we report a significant increase in SP4 phosphorylation in the cerebellum, but not the prefrontal cortex, of bipolar disorder subjects (n=10) (80% suicide) compared to matched controls (n=10). We found that SP4 phosphorylation inversely correlated with SP4 levels independently of disease status in both areas of the human brain. Moreover, SP4 phosphorylation in the cerebellum positively correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia subjects (n=15). Further, we observed that a phospho-mimetic mutation in truncated Sp4 was sufficient to significantly decrease Sp4 steady-state levels, while a non-phosphorylatable mutant showed increased stability in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Our results indicate that SP4 S770 phosphorylation is increased in the cerebellum in bipolar disorder subjects that committed suicide and in severe schizophrenia subjects, and may be part of a degradation signal that controls Sp4 abundance in cerebellar granule neurons. This opens the possibility that modulation of SP4 phosphorylation may contribute to the molecular pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. PMID:26049820

  19. Effect of substance P on the retention of a brightness discrimination task in rats.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, W; Matthies, H

    1982-01-01

    The effect of substance P (SP) on acquisition and retention of a footshock-motivated brightness discrimination was investigated in rats, 250 micrograms SP/kg were injected intraperitoneally either 30 min before or immediately after the training session. Acquisition of the brightness discrimination was not affected by SP administered 30 min before training. However, both the pre-training and post-training injections of SP resulted in a significant improvement of retention tested 24 h after training. The effect of SP on memory consolidation is discussed.

  20. Characterization of Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat, and proposal for the reclassification of five closely related members of the genus Clostridium into the genera Romboutsia gen. nov., Intestinibacter gen. nov., Terrisporobacter gen. nov. and Asaccharospora gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Jacoline; Fuentes, Susana; Grievink, Wieke; van Niftrik, Laura; Tindall, Brian J; Timmerman, Harro M; Rijkers, Ger T; Smidt, Hauke

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-positive staining, rod-shaped, non-motile, spore-forming obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated CRIBT, was isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat and characterized. The major cellular fatty acids of strain CRIBT were saturated and unsaturated straight-chain C12-C19 fatty acids, with C16:0 being the predominant fatty acid. The polar lipid profile comprised six glycolipids, four phospholipids and one lipid that did not stain with any of the specific spray reagents used. The only quinone was MK-6. The predominating cell-wall sugars were glucose and galactose. The peptidoglycan type of strain CRIBT was A1σ lanthionine-direct. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CRIBT was 28.1 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CRIBT was most closely related to a number of species of the genus Clostridium, including Clostridium lituseburense (97.2%), Clostridium glycolicum (96.2%), Clostridium mayombei (96.2%), Clostridium bartlettii (96.0%) and Clostridium irregulare (95.5%). All these species show very low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (<85%) to the type strain of Clostridium butyricum, the type species of the genus Clostridium. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related reference strains indicated reassociation values below 32%. On the basis of phenotypic and genetic studies, a novel genus, Romboutsia gen. nov., is proposed. The novel isolate CRIBT (=DSM 25109T=NIZO 4048T) is proposed as the type strain of the type species, Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., of the proposed novel genus. It is proposed that C. lituseburense is transferred to this genus as Romboutsia lituseburensis comb. nov. Furthermore, the reclassification into novel genera is proposed for C. bartlettii, as Intestinibacter bartlettii gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species of the genus), C. glycolicum, as Terrisporobacter glycolicus gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species of the genus), C. mayombei, as Terrisporobacter mayombei gen. nov., comb. nov., and C

  1. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in human subjects.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria N; Ramírez, José; Leets, Irene; Pereira, Ana C; Quiroga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Marine algae are easily produced and are good sources of Fe. If this Fe is bioavailable, algae consumption could help to combat Fe deficiency and anaemia worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Fe bioavailability, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from three species of marine algae distributed worldwide. A total of eighty-three subjects received maize- or wheat-based meals containing marine algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in different proportions (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) added to the water to prepare the dough. All meals administered contained radioactive Fe. Absorption was evaluated calculating radioactive Fe incorporation in subjects' blood. The three species of marine algae were analysed for polyphenol content and reducing power. Algae significantly increased Fe absorption in maize- or wheat-based meals, especially Sargassum sp., due to its high Fe content. Increases in absorption were dose-dependent and higher in wheat- than in maize-based meals. Total polyphenol content was 10.84, 18.43 and 80.39 gallic acid equivalents/g for Ulva sp., Porphyra sp. and Sargassum sp., respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also significantly higher in Sargassum sp. compared with the other two species analysed. Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp. are good sources of bioavailable Fe. Sargassum sp. resulted in the highest Fe intake due to its high Fe content, and a bread containing 7.5 g Sargassum sp. covers daily Fe needs. The high polyphenol content found in Sargassum sp. could be partly responsible for the antioxidant power reported here, and apparently did not affect Fe absorption.

  2. Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp. nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands.

    PubMed

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanparys, Bram; Logan, Niall A; Balcaen, An; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Felske, Andreas; De Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A group of 42 isolates were isolated from the soil of several disused hay fields, in the Drentse A agricultural research area (The Netherlands), that were taken out of production at different times. The group represents hitherto-uncultured Bacillus lineages that have previously been found, by a non-cultural method, to be predominant in soil. The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base-ratio determination, fatty acid analysis and morphological and biochemical characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained by (GTG)5-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, six clusters of similar strains could be recognized. A DNA-DNA relatedness study showed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies. Further analysis supported the proposal of five novel species in the genus Bacillus, namely Bacillus novalis sp. nov. (type strain IDA3307T=R-15439T=LMG 21837T=DSM 15603T), Bacillus vireti sp. nov. (type strain IDA3632T=R-15447T=LMG 21834T=DSM 15602T), Bacillus soli sp. nov. (type strain IDA0086T=R-16300T=LMG 21838T=DSM 15604T), Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1115T=R-16315T=LMG 21833T=DSM 15601T) and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1967T=R-16337T=LMG 21831T=DSM 15600T).

  3. Sp1 and the 'hallmarks of cancer'.

    PubMed

    Beishline, Kate; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2015-01-01

    For many years, transcription factor Sp1 was viewed as a basal transcription factor and relegated to a role in the regulation of so-called housekeeping genes. Identification of Sp1's role in recruiting the general transcription machinery in the absence of a TATA box increased its importance in gene regulation, particularly in light of recent estimates that the majority of mammalian genes lack a TATA box. In this review, we briefly consider the history of Sp1, the founding member of the Sp family of transcription factors. We review the evidence suggesting that Sp1 is highly regulated by post-translational modifications that positively and negatively affect the activity of Sp1 on a wide array of genes. Sp1 is over-expressed in many cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Targeting Sp1 in cancer treatment has been suggested; however, our review of the literature on the role of Sp1 in the regulation of genes that contribute to the 'hallmarks of cancer' illustrates the extreme complexity of Sp1 functions. Sp1 both activates and suppresses the expression of a number of essential oncogenes and tumor suppressors, as well as genes involved in essential cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, the DNA damage response, apoptosis, senescence and angiogenesis. Sp1 is also implicated in inflammation and genomic instability, as well as epigenetic silencing. Given the apparently opposing effects of Sp1, a more complete understanding of the function of Sp1 in cancer is required to validate its potential as a therapeutic target.

  4. Pantoea rodasii sp. nov., Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov., isolated from Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van der Westhuizen, Lorinda; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Several Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from Eucalyptus seedlings showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Colombia, Rwanda and South Africa. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, together with partial gyrB sequencing, placed the isolates in the genus Pantoea and indicated that they constituted three novel species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD revealed Pantoea dispersa, Pantoea eucrina and Pantoea cypripedii as their closest phylogenetic relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of the new isolates as three novel species and phenotypic tests allowed them to be differentiated from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The names Pantoea rodasii sp. nov. [type strain LMG 26273(T)=BD 943(T) (deposited with the Plant Pathogenic and Plant Protecting Bacteria Collection, South Africa)=BCC 581(T) (deposited with the Bacterial Culture Collection, Forestry and Agricultural Institute, South Africa)], Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26275(T)=BD 944(T)=BCC 571(T)) and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26277(T)=BD 946(T)=BCC 682(T)) are proposed.

  5. Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

    2014-06-01

    Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (μ'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher μ' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced.

  6. An ultrastructural study of the spermatozoa of Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoa of four polychaetes is described: Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae). All the sperm show features typical of externally fertilizing sperm in having a rounded nucleus, a short unmodified midpiece, and a simple flagellum with a 9+2 axoneme. Owenia fusiformis and Lepidonotus sp. have a nuclear cone extending into the subacrosomal space that may act to present the inner acrosomal membrane to the egg during fertilization. The acrosome of Lumbrineris sp. is flattened and crenulated. The sperm of Eulalia sp. is unusual in having the four mitochondria of the midpiece ensheathed by a membrane. Comparisons are made with other polychaete sperm, and the use of sperm ultrastructure as a taxonomic tool within the Polychaeta is discussed.

  7. [The correlation between postsynaptic inhibition and GABA, opioid peptides, SP in electroacupuncture].

    PubMed

    Fang, Z; Yu, Q; Li, Y

    1993-01-01

    Identified tract cells in lumbar enlargement were recorded from intact anaesthetized rats. The prolongation of the latency of antidromic action potential was a measure of postsynaptic inhibition. Both ST 36 and SP 6 were stimulated electrically. In EA group (N = 12) EA prolonged the latency for 0.111 +/- 0.022 ms (P < 0.001). In bicuculline group (N = 12) the prolongation of the latency for 0.010 +/- 0.004 ms (P < 0.05) by EA was less than that of EA group with statistical significance. In naloxone group (N = 12) and SP antiserum group (N = 12) EA did not induce a significant prolongation of the latency. It suggested that GABA, opioides and SP might be involved in postsynaptic inhibition induced by EA.

  8. Alcohol preference drinking in a mouse line selectively bred for high drinking in the dark.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C; Spence, Stephanie E; Brown, Lauren L; Metten, Pamela

    2011-08-01

    We have selectively bred mice that reach very high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after drinking from a single bottle of 20% ethanol. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice drink nearly 6g/kg ethanol in 4h and reach average BECs of more than 1.0mg/mL. Previous studies suggest that DID and two-bottle preference for 10% ethanol with continuous access are influenced by many of the same genes. We therefore asked whether HDID-1 mice would differ from the HS/Npt control stock on two-bottle preference drinking. We serially offered mice access to 3-40% ethanol in tap water versus tap water. For ethanol concentrations between 3 and 20%, HDID-1 and HS/Npt controls did not differ in two-bottle preference drinking. At the highest concentrations, the HS/Npt mice drank more than the HDID-1 mice. We also tested the same mice for preference for two concentrations each of quinine, sucrose, and saccharin. Curiously, the mice showed preference ratios (volume of tastant/total fluid drunk) of about 50% for all tastants and concentrations. Thus, neither genotype showed either preference or avoidance for any tastant after high ethanol concentrations. Therefore, we compared naive groups of HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice for tastant preference. Results from this test showed that ethanol-naive mice preferred sweet fluids and avoided quinine but the genotypes did not differ. Finally, we tested HDID-1 and HS mice for an extended period for preference for 15% ethanol versus water during a 2-h access period in the dark. After several weeks, HDID-1 mice consumed significantly more than HS. We conclude that drinking in the dark shows some genetic overlap with other tests of preference drinking, but that the degree of genetic commonality depends on the model used.

  9. Epidemiology of blood parasitic infections in the urban rat population in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Alias, S N; Sahimin, N; Edah, M A; Mohd-Zain, S N

    2014-06-01

    A total of 719 wild rats were captured from four localities representing the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) to determine the diversity of blood protozoan from the urban wild rat population in peninsular Malaysia. Five rat species were recovered with Rattus rattus diardii being the most dominant species, followed by Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans, Rattus annandalei and Rattus argentiventer. Two blood protozoan species were found infecting the rodent population namely, Plasmodium sp. (42.1%) and Trypanosoma lewisi (25.0%). This study reports the presence of Plasmodium sp. for the first time in the rodent population in Malaysia. Two main intrinsic factors were identified affecting the parasitic infections. Trypanosoma lewisi infections were influenced by host age and sex with infections observed higher in male and juvenile rats meanwhile Plasmodium sp. infections were observed almost similar in both sexes. However, infections were higher in sub-adult rats.

  10. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  11. Intravenous alcohol self-administration in the P rat.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Kyle A; Kosobud, Ann E K; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption produces a complex array of effects that can be divided into two types: the explicit pharmacological effects of ethanol (which can be temporally separate from time of intake) and the more temporally "relevant" effects (primarily olfactory and taste) that bridge the time from intake to onset of the pharmacological effects. Intravenous (IV) self-administration of ethanol limits the confounding "non-pharmacological" effects associated with oral consumption, allows for controlled and precise dosing, and bypasses first order absorption kinetics, allowing for more direct and better-controlled assessment of alcohol's effect on the brain. IV ethanol self-administration has been reliably demonstrated in mouse and human experimental models; however, models of IV self-administration have been historically problematic in the rat. An operant multiple-schedule study design was used to elucidate the role of each component of a compound IV-ethanol plus oral-sucrose reinforcer. Male alcohol-preferring P rats had free access to both food and water during all IV self-administration sessions. Animals were trained to press a lever for orally delivered 1% sucrose (1S) on a fixed ratio 4 schedule, and then surgically implanted with an indwelling jugular catheter. Animals were then trained to respond on a multiple FR4-FR4 schedule composed of alternating 2.5-min components across 30-min sessions. For the multiple schedule, two components were used: an oral 1S only and an oral 1S plus IV 20% ethanol (25 mg/kg/injection). Average total ethanol intake was 0.47 ± 0.04 g/kg. We found significantly higher earning of sucrose-only reinforcers and greater sucrose-lever error responding relative to the compound oral-sucrose plus IV-ethanol reinforcer. These response patterns suggest that sucrose, not ethanol, was responsible for driving overall responding. The work with a compound IV ethanol-oral sucrose reinforcer presented here suggests that the existing intravenous ethanol

  12. Effect of food training and training dose on nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Kristine L P; Lê, Anh Dzung; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-11-01

    Few studies investigate factors that influence acquisition in nicotine self-administration (NSA), such as food training and training dose. Most have utilized peak doses along nicotine's dose-response curve (15 and 30μg/kg) that establish NSA in the majority of animals. To investigate the specific and combined effects of training and dose on NSA acquisition, separate and head-to-head experiments using food training (FT) or spontaneous acquisition (SP) at multiple doses on the ascending limb of the dose-response curve were tested. First, rats underwent FT or SP under fixed ratio (FR1 and FR2) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules using 7.5-30μg/kg nicotine. More rats acquired NSA with FT vs. SP at 3.75μg/kg (56% vs. 38%) and 7.5μg/kg (88% vs. 40%, p<0.05) and FT rats responded higher under PR. Based on these findings, rats then underwent identical NSA acquisition and PR (with and without nicotine), extinction and reinstatement induced by cue exposure and nicotine in a head-to-head comparison of FT and SP using 7.5μg/kg. Acquisition differences were replicated: 100% FT and 60% SP rats met criteria (p<0.05). Without nicotine (cue only), no FT rats and 8% SP rats met criteria. FR and PR responding, extinction, and cue and nicotine-induced reinstatement did not differ between FT and SP. FT versus SP enhances acquisition at lower nicotine doses but does not alter subsequent behaviours. Lower doses can reinforce NSA and be used, in the absence of FT, to study influences on acquisition more closely modelling the initial phases of human smoking.

  13. MiR-22/Sp-1 Links Estrogens With the Up-Regulation of Cystathionine γ-Lyase in Myocardium, Which Contributes to Estrogenic Cardioprotection Against Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Tang, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Cong, Bing-Hai; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Tang, Xiao-Lu; Li, Xiao-Han; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Ni, Xin

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, generated in the myocardium predominantly via cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), is cardioprotective. Our previous study has shown that estrogens enhance CSE expression in myocardium of female rats. The present study aims to explore the mechanisms by which estrogens regulate CSE expression, in particular to clarify the role of estrogen receptor subtypes and the transcriptional factor responsible for the estrogenic effects. We found that either the CSE inhibitor or the CSE small interfering RNA attenuated the protective effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) against H2O2- and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in primary cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. E2 stimulates CSE expression via estrogen receptor (ER)-α both in cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro and in the myocardium of female mice in vivo. A specificity protein-1 (Sp-1) consensus site was identified in the rat CSE promoter and was found to mediate the E2-induced CSE expression. E2 increases ERα and Sp-1 and inhibits microRNA (miR)-22 expression in myocardium of ovariectomized rats. In primary cardiomyocytes, E2 stimulates Sp-1 expression through the ERα-mediated down-regulation of miR-22. It was confirmed that both ERα and Sp-1 were targeted by miR-22. In the myocardium of ovariectomized rats, the level of miR-22 inversely correlated to CSE, ERα, Sp-1, and antioxidant biomarkers and positively correlated to oxidative biomarkers. In summary, this study demonstrates that estrogens stimulate Sp-1 through the ERα-mediated down-regulation of miR-22 in cardiomyocytes, leading to the up-regulation of CSE, which in turn results in an increase of antioxidative defense. Interaction of ERα, miR-22, and Sp-1 may play a critical role in the control of oxidative stress status in the myocardium of female rats.

  14. Promoter analysis of intestinal genes induced during iron-deprivation reveals enrichment of conserved SP1-like binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James F; Hu, Zihua

    2007-01-01

    Background Iron-deficiency leads to the induction of genes related to intestinal iron absorption and homeostasis. By analyzing a large GeneChip® dataset from the rat intestine, we identified a large cluster of 228 genes that was induced by iron-deprivation. Only 2 of these genes contained 3' iron-response elements, suggesting that other regulation including transcriptional may be involved. We therefore utilized computational methods to test the hypothesis that some of the genes within this large up-regulated cluster are co-ordinately regulated by common transcriptional mechanisms. We thus identified promoters from the up-regulated gene cluster from rat, mouse and human, and performed enrichment analyses with the Clover program and the TRANSFAC database. Results Surprisingly, we found a strong statistical enrichment for SP1 binding sites in our experimental promoters as compared to background sequences. As the TRANSFAC database cannot distinguish among SP/KLF family members, many of which bind similar GC-rich DNA sequences, we surmise that SP1 or an SP1-like factor could be involved in this response. In fact, we detected induction of SP6/KLF14 in the GeneChip® studies, and confirmed it by real-time PCR. Additional computational analyses suggested that an SP1-like factor may function synergistically with a FOX TF to regulate a subset of these genes. Furthermore, analysis of promoter sequences identified many genes with multiple, conserved SP1 and FOX binding sites, the relative location of which within orthologous promoters was highly conserved. Conclusion SP1 or a closely related factor may play a primary role in the genetic response to iron-deficiency in the mammalian intestine. PMID:18005439

  15. Sodium cromoglycate on plasma protein exudation to topically-applied substance P in the tracheal airways of rats or guinea-pigs in vivo.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, S R; Coulson, F R; Bigg, C S

    2000-01-01

    Sodium cromoglycate (SCG) was examined against substance P(SP)-induced plasma protein exudation in the trachea of anaesthetized rats and guinea-pigs in vivo to determine whether SCG is a tachykinin receptor antagonist in the airways. A segment of trachea was prepared in situ for continuous perfusion with normal saline. Plasma-derived protein in the perfusion fluid (airway lumen) was increased after topical application of SP (1 microM, 5 min contact). In rats, the SP response was not attenuated by iv SCG but was inhibited (29%) by topical SCG under certain experimental conditions and using a high concentration of SCG (500 microM, 5 min contact, 30 min before SP and with SP). The NK(1)receptor antagonist, RP 67 580 (67 microM) abolished the SP response in rats. Sodium cromoglycate did not inhibit the SP response in guinea-pigs (same protocol as in rats). Thus, SCG attenuates plasma protein exudation (and presumably microvascular leak) induced by SP in rat tracheal airways but, if SCG is a tachykinin receptor (NK(1)) antagonist, it not only lacks potency but is species-selective, i.e. more effective in rats than in guinea-pigs.

  16. Brain activation induced by voluntary alcohol and saccharin drinking in rats assessed with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Hermann, Derik; Brown, Matthew; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of alcohol reward has been studied extensively, but global alterations of neural activity in reward circuits during chronic alcohol use remain poorly described. Here, we measured brain activity changes produced by long-term voluntary alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) rats using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MEMRI is based on the ability of paramagnetic manganese ions to accumulate in excitable neurons and thereby enhance the T1-weighted signal in activated brain areas. Following 6 weeks of voluntary alcohol drinking, AA rats were allowed to drink alcohol for an additional week, during which they were administered manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps before MEMRI. A second group with an identical alcohol drinking history received MnCl2 during the abstinence week following alcohol drinking. For comparing alcohol with a natural reinforcer, MEMRI was also performed in saccharin-drinking rats. A water-drinking group receiving MnCl2 served as a control. We found that alcohol drinking increased brain activity extensively in cortical and subcortical areas, including the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and their afferents. Remarkably similar activation maps were seen after saccharin ingestion. Particularly in the prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus, activation persisted into early abstinence. These data show that voluntary alcohol recruits an extensive network that includes the ascending dopamine systems and their afferent connections, and that this network is largely shared with saccharin reward. The regions displaying persistent alterations after alcohol drinking could participate in brain networks underlying alcohol seeking and relapse.

  17. Effects of Brown Seaweed (Sargassum polycystum) Extracts on Kidney, Liver, and Pancreas of Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Motshakeri, Mahsa; Goh, Yong Meng; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2014-01-01

    The edible seaweed Sargassum polycystum (SP) is traditionally used against several human diseases. This investigation evaluated the effects of two dietary doses of SP ethanolic and aqueous extracts on the pancreatic, hepatic, and renal morphology of type 2 diabetic rats (T2DM). T2DM was induced by feeding rats on high calorie diet followed by a low dose streptozotocin. Changes in the diabetic rat organs in SP treated groups with different doses of extracts were compared with normal rats, diabetic control rats, and metformin treated rats. After 22 days of treatment, the pathological lesions of the livers and kidneys in the diabetic rats were quantitatively and qualitatively alleviated (P < 0.05) by both the SP extracts at 150 mg/kg body weight and by metformin. All the treated diabetic groups revealed marked improvement in the histopathology of the pancreas compared with the control diabetic group. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of SP and metformin revealed pancreas protective or restorative effects. The seaweed extracts at 150 mg/kg body weight reduced the liver and kidney damages in the diabetic rats and may exert tissue repair or restoration of the pancreatic islets in experimentally induced diabetes to produce the beneficial homeostatic effects. PMID:24516503

  18. Precursor forms of substance P (SP) in nervous tissue: detection with antisera to SP, SP-Gly, and SP-Gly-Lys

    SciTech Connect

    Kream, R.M.; Schoenfeld, T.A.; Mancuso, R.; Clancy, A.N.; El-Bermani, W.; Macrides, F.

    1985-07-01

    Antisera generated to substance P-Gly (SP-G) and substance P-Gly-Lys (SP-G-K), the likely unamidated COOH-terminally extended forms of substance P, were used to quantify and localize substance P precursor forms in hamster brain stem and spinal cord. The precursor determinant SP-G-K was liberated from larger heterogeneous forms by mild trypsinization of tissue extracts and was converted into the second precursor determinant, SP-G, by subsequent treatment with carboxypeptidase B. The basal levels of SP-G-K in brain stem and spinal cord were approx. = 0.5 pg/mg of tissue and rose 43- to 64-fold after trypsinization. Basal levels of Sp-G were comparable to those of SP-G-K and rose 10- to 29-fold after combined enzyme treatments. Immunohistochemical labeling of axons and somata with anti-SP-G-K increased dramatically after trypsinization. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that substance P is synthesized from larger precursors and demonstrate that extended precursor forms are normally present in the axons and somata of neural systems that synthesize substance P.

  19. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  20. An overview of the safety evaluation of the Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase enzyme (SP 628) and the Aspergillus aculeatus xylanase enzyme (SP 578).

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Broadmeadow, A

    1997-01-01

    Xylanases SP 628 and SP 578 were produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus oryzae, containing a gene code originating from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Aspergillus aculeatus, respectively. Both enzymes were subject to the same series of toxicological tests to document their safety in use. The enzymes are to be applied as processing aids in the baking industry and in wheat starch separation. Neither enzyme was found to be mutagenic in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, nor did they cause chromosomal aberrations in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes. No evidence of inhalation toxicity or skin and eye irritation was found. The enzymes are not regarded as skin-sensitizers, although the Buehler test with guinea-pigs revealed a minor potential. Oral administration up to 10.0 ml/kg bw/day (equivalent to a Total Organic Solids amount of 13.3% for SP 628 and of 11.3% for SP 578) in 13-week rat studies did not show any adverse effect.

  1. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic.

  2. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 17242(T)), Candida danieliae sp. nov. (CBS 8533(T)  = JCM 17247(T)), Candida robnettiae sp. nov. (CBS 8580(T)  = JCM 17243(T)) and Candida eppingiae sp. nov. (CBS 8586(T)  = JCM 17241(T)), isolated from plants in Thailand and Guyana, are proposed in this study.

  3. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Saare, Mario; Hämarik, Uku; Venta, Rainis; Panarina, Marina; Zucchelli, Chiara; Pihlap, Maire; Remm, Anu; Kisand, Kai; Toots, Urve; Möll, Kaidi; Salupere, Riina; Musco, Giovanna; Uibo, Raivo; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

  4. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio.

  5. Safety evaluation of Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bailey-Hall, E; Ryan, A S

    2011-01-01

    The safety of Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt.% of Algal Oil and two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt.% menhaden oil (the fish oil control). There were no treatment-related effects of Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis parameters. Increased mean liver weights and alveolar histiocytosis were observed in both the fish oil control and the high-dose Algal Oil-treated animals and were not considered to be adverse. Algal Oil was bioavailable as demonstrated by the dose-related increase of DHA and EPA levels in tissues and plasma. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt.% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average Algal Oil intake of 3250 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats. Based on the body surface area, the human equivalent dose is about 30 g Algal Oil/day for a 60 kg adult.

  6. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by neuron-specific transcription factor Sp4: implication in the tight coupling of energy production, neuronal activity and energy consumption in neurons.

    PubMed

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2014-02-01

    A major source of energy demand in neurons is the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump that restores the ionic gradient across the plasma membrane subsequent to depolarizing neuronal activity. The energy comes primarily from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, of which cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a key enzyme. Recently, we found that all 13 subunits of COX are regulated by specificity (Sp) factors, and that the neuron-specific Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, regulates the expression of key glutamatergic receptor subunits as well. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that Sp4 also regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit genes in neurons. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, over-expression, and RNA interference studies, we found that Sp4, with minor contributions from Sp1 and Sp3, functionally regulate the Atp1a1, Atp1a3, and Atp1b1 subunit genes of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in neurons. Transcripts of all three genes were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl stimulation and down-regulated by the impulse blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that their expression was activity-dependent. Silencing of Sp4 blocked the up-regulation of these genes induced by KCl, whereas over-expression of Sp4 rescued them from TTX-induced suppression. The effect of silencing or over-expressing Sp4 on primary neurons was much greater than those of Sp1 or Sp3. The binding sites of Sp factors on these genes are conserved among mice, rats and humans. Thus, Sp4 plays an important role in the transcriptional coupling of energy generation and energy consumption in neurons.

  7. IIem-spFRET: improved Iem-spFRET method for robust FRET measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Lin, Fangrui; Chai, Liuying; Wei, Lichun; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-10-01

    We recently developed a quantitative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurement method based on emission-spectral unmixing (Iem-spFRET). We here developed an improved Iem-spFRET method (termed as IIem-spFRET) for more robust FRET measurement in living cells. First, two background (BG) spectral fingerprints measured from blank living cells are introduced to remove BG and autofluorescence. Second, we introduce a ρ factor denoting the ratio of two molar extinction coefficient ratios (γ) of acceptor to donor at two excitations into IIem-spFRET for direct measurement of the γ values using a tandem construct with unknown FRET efficiency (E). We performed IIem-spFRET on our microscope-spectrometer platform to measure the γ values of Venus (V) to Cerulean (C) and the E values of C32V, CVC, VCV, and VCVV constructs, respectively, in living Huh7 cells. For the C32V or CVC cells, the Iem-spFRET and IIem-spFRET methods measured consistent E values. However, for the cells especially with low expressing levels of VCV or VCVV, the E values measured by Iem-spFRET showed large deviations and fluctuations, whereas the IIem-spFRET method greatly improved the measured E values. Collectively, IIem-spFRET is a powerful and robust tool for quantitatively measuring FRET signal in living cells.

  8. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  9. Amphibian (Xenopus sp.) iodothyronine deiodinase ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA-MED amphibian thyroid group is currently screening chemicals for inhibition of human iodothyronine deiodinase activity as components of the thyroid system important in human development. Amphibians are a bellwether taxonomic group to gauge toxicity of chemicals in the environment. Amphibian thyroid function is not only important in development but also metamorphosis. Xenopus sp. have been used extensively as model organisms and are well characterized genetically. We propose to screen a list of chemicals (selected from the human DIO screening results) to test for inhibition of Xenopus deiodinases. Large quantities of the enzymes will be produced using an adenovirus system. Our preliminary results show that there may be catalytic differences between human and Xenopus deiodinases. The Twin Ports Early Career Scientists is a new group formed within the Duluth-Superior scientific community. This presentation will provide a basic introduction to my research and our mission at EPA, and help to establish networking and collaboration relationships across disciplines and institutions.

  10. Herbal mixtures consisting of puerarin and either polyenylphosphatidylcholine or curcumin provide comprehensive protection against alcohol-related disorders in P rats receiving free choice water and 15% ethanol in pure water.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Jiang, Yin; Benlhabib, Elhabib; Gupta, Shveta

    2007-09-01

    Chronic alcohol drinking has been associated with the development of a number of abnormalities, including neuron-behavioral disorders, liver, pancreas, and heart-related diseases and inflammation and immune disorders. Because diverse mechanisms are involved in the development of these disorders, the commonly used receptor- or enzyme-specific drugs do not provide comprehensive protection against the adverse effects of alcoholism. This study describes possible therapeutic potency of puerarin (PU) from kudzu root, polyenylphosphatidylcholine from soy (SPCh), and curcumin (CU) from turmeric against alcohol's addiction-related and inflammatory-related abnormalities in alcohol-preferring P rats receiving free choice water and 15% ethanol in water. P-rats were fed once daily either the vehicle (for control) or different doses of PU, SPCh, CU, PU + SPCh, or PU + CU. The rats were divided in two groups: one received water alone, and the other free choice water and ethanol. Four rats from each group were fitted with electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes for EEG recording. After 70 days of alcohol drinking, alcohol was withdrawn for 2 weeks, and the withdrawal symptoms were assessed. This study showed that alcohol drinking for 70 days (1) caused liver inflammation characterized by elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and (2) dysregulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pleurisy. Alcohol withdrawal after 70 days of drinking generated severe withdrawal symptoms including seizure-type EEG activity. PU suppressed the addiction-mediated abnormalities but did not affect the inflammation-related abnormalities, while SPCh or CU suppressed only the inflammation-related abnormalities in alcohol-drinking rats subjected to LPS-induced pleurisy. A combination of PU with SPCh or CU suppressed both the addiction-related and inflammation-related abnormalities of alcohol drinking. Therefore, a mixture consisting of PU and either

  11. Genetic Polymorphisms of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D and Risk of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Yu; Li, Fang; Li, Feng-Sheng; Zheng, Cheng-Zhong; Lei, Yan-Zhe; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined selected polymorphisms in 3 pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins (SP) for their influence on serum SP levels and risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm neonates. Material/Methods Premature infants from a Han population were enrolled, including 100 premature infants with RDS (case group) and 120 premature infants without RDS (control group). SNP genotyping for SP-A (+186A/G and +655C/T), SP-B (−18A/C and 1580C/T), and SP-D (Met11ThrT/C and Ala160ThrG/A) used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Haplotypes were calculated with Shesis software and serum SP-A/B/D levels were quantified by ELISA. Results Case and control groups exhibited significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/T). However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of SP-B −18A/C, SP-D Met11ThrT/C, and SP-D Ala160ThrG/A. Importantly, serum SP-A and SP-B levels were reduced in RDS patients carrying SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/T) polymorphisms. AA genotype of +186A/G, SP-A level, and CC genotype of 1580C/T were independently correlated with increased RDS risk. Conclusions SP-A (+186A/G) and SP-B (1580C/T) polymorphisms are strongly associated with the risk of RDS in preterm infants. Notably, reduced serum SP-A levels were correlated with a high risk of RDS and may serve as novel biomarkers for RDS detection and monitoring. PMID:28011976

  12. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-01-31

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compability between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  13. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, L. T., Jr.; Womack, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  14. Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov., two tremellaceous yeast species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado Pagani, Danielle; Brandão, Luciana R; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Felix, Ciro R; Pais Ramos, Jesus; Broetto, Leonardo; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W; Augusto Rosa, Carlos; Valente, Patricia; Fontes Landell, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    Two yeast species, Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov., in the family Rhynchogastremataceae of the Tremellales are proposed. The two species are related to six species of the genus Papiliotrema: Papiliotrema aureus, P. flavescens, P. terrestris, P. baii, P. ruineniae and P. wisconsinensis. The novel species are proposed on the basis of the sequence-based phylogenetic species concept with analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 16 strains of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. were obtained from freshwater and bromeliad leaves collected in Brazil. Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. differs by 11, 12, 16, 14, 11 and 13 substitutions in the D1/D2 domain from the related species P. aureus, P. flavescens, P. terrestris, P. baii, P. ruineniae and P. wisconsinensis, respectively. Differences of 11 substitutions and 21 or more substitutions in ITS regions were found when the sequences of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. were compared with P. wisconsinensis and its closest relatives. The type strain of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y374T (=CBS 13918T). Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. is represented by two strains isolated from a flower of Miconia sp. and a water sample in Brazil. Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. differs from the related species P. aureus and P. ruineniae by eight substitutions, from P. flavescens and P. terrestris by 11 substitutions, from P. baii by 10 substitutions and from P. wisconsinensis by 6 substitutions in the D1/D2 domain, and by 7 substitutions from P. wisconsinensis and more than 19 substitutions in the ITS region from its closest relatives. The type strain of Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. is CBS 8358T (ML 3666T=DBVPG-4492T). The MycoBank numbers for Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. are MB 813594 and MB 814882, respectively.

  15. Synthetic lung surfactants containing SP-B and SP-C peptides plus novel phospholipase-resistant lipids or glycerophospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Notter, Robert H.; Gupta, Rohun; Schwan, Adrian L.; Wang, Zhengdong; Shkoor, Mohanad Gh

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examines the biophysical and preclinical pulmonary activity of synthetic lung surfactants containing novel phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids or synthetic glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB) DATK and/or SP-Css ion-lock 1 peptides that replicate the functional biophysics of surfactant proteins (SP)-B and SP-C. Phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids used in synthetic surfactants are DEPN-8 and PG-1, molecular analogs of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), while glycerophospholipids used are active lipid components of native surfactant (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight). The objective of the work is to test whether these novel lipid/peptide synthetic surfactants have favorable preclinical activity (biophysical, pulmonary) for therapeutic use in reversing surfactant deficiency or dysfunction in lung disease or injury. Methods Surface activity of synthetic lipid/peptide surfactants was assessed in vitro at 37 °C by measuring adsorption in a stirred subphase apparatus and dynamic surface tension lowering in pulsating and captive bubble surfactometers. Shear viscosity was measured as a function of shear rate on a Wells-Brookfield micro-viscometer. In vivo pulmonary activity was determined by measuring lung function (arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance) in ventilated rats and rabbits with surfactant deficiency/dysfunction induced by saline lavage to lower arterial PO2 to <100 mmHg, consistent with clinical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Results Synthetic surfactants containing 5:3:2 DPPC:POPC:POPG or 9:1 DEPN-8:PG-1 combined with 3% (by wt) of S-MB DATK, 3% SP-Css ion-lock 1, or 1.5% each of both peptides all adsorbed rapidly to low equilibrium surface tensions and also reduced surface tension to ≤1 mN/m under dynamic compression at 37 °C. However, dual-peptide surfactants containing 1.5% S-MB DATK + 1.5% SP-Css ion-lock 1 combined with 9:1 DEPN-8

  16. Food and water intake suppression by intracerebroventricular administration of substance P in food- and water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Dib, B

    1999-05-29

    The purpose of this present experiment was to determine the effect of substance P (SP) on the feeding and drinking behavior. This was investigated in male rats totally food and water deprived for a period of 24 h. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of SP (20 microg 10 microl-1 rat-1) suppressed food and water intakes during the 8 h following administration. At 24 h after i.c.v. injection of SP, the rats were not recovered 10.5% of their feeding and 24.9% of their drinking behavior. However, contrary to what happened with SP, i.c.v. injection of the vehicle of SP did not suppress feeding and drinking behavior, as was observed also in the rats (second control) cannulated i.c.v. but which did not receive any injection. At 48 h after SP injection, no alteration of food and water intakes was observed. These results indicated that SP may function as an endogenous anorexigenic peptide.

  17. Rats display a robust bimodal preference profile for sucralose.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Smith, James C; Sclafani, Anthony; Eckel, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats display considerable variability in their preference for the artificial sweetener sucralose over water. While some rats can be classified as sucralose preferrers (SP), as they prefer sucralose across a broad range of concentrations, others can be classified as sucralose avoiders (SA), as they avoid sucralose at concentrations above 0.1 g/L. Here, we expand on a previous report of this phenomenon by demonstrating, in a series of 2-bottle 24-h preference tests involving water and an ascending series of sucralose concentrations, that this variability in sucralose preference is robust across sex, stage of the estrous cycle, and 2 rat strains (Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley). In a second experiment involving a large sample of rats (n = 50), we established that the ratio of SP to SA is approximately 35-65%. This bimodal behavioral response to sucralose appears to be driven by taste because rats display a similar bimodal licking response to a range of sucralose solutions presented during brief-access tests. Finally, we have shown that sucralose avoidance is extremely robust as 23-h water-deprived SA continue to avoid sucralose in 1-h single-bottle intake tests. Based on their reduced licking responses to sucralose during brief-access (taste driven) tests, and the fact that their distaste for sucralose cannot be overcome by the motivation to rehydrate, we conclude that SA detect a negative taste quality of sucralose that SP are relatively insensitive to.

  18. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26605, isolated from Arctic lichen (Ochrolechia sp.).

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Chul; Ahn, Do Hwan; Lee, Jong Kyu; Kim, Su Jin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun

    2012-03-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26605 was isolated from Arctic lichens (Ochrolechia sp.) on the Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide further insights into the symbiotic mechanism of lichens in extreme environments.

  19. Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov. (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Nasrollahi, Siamak; Zamani, Ali Sina; Fayaz, Bahman Asali

    2014-07-28

    Two new species belonging to the family Stigmaeidae, Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov., are described from specimens collected from soil and litter under pear trees, Pyrus communis L. (Rosaceae) in Iran. A key to all Iranian species of the genera Cheylostigmaeus (male) and Stigmaeus (female) are provided. 

  20. Safety assessment of DHA-rich microalgae from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B G; Mayhew, D A; Robinson, K; Mast, R W; Sander, W J

    2001-06-01

    Schizochytrium sp. dried microalgae (DRM) contains oil rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA n-3) is the most abundant PUFA component of the oil. DHA-rich oil extracted from Schizochytrium sp. is intended for use as a nutritional ingredient in foods. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment program, the reproductive toxicity of DRM was examined in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats Crl:CD(SD)BR (30/sex/group) provided DRM in the diet at concentrations of 0, 0.6, 6.0, and 30%. These dietary levels corresponded to overall average dosages of approximately 400, 3900, and 17,800 mg/kg/day for F0 males (premating) and 480, 4600, and 20,700 mg/kg/day for F0 females, respectively. Prior to mating, males and females of the F0 generation were treated for 10 and 2 weeks, respectively. Treatment of males continued throughout mating and until termination (approximately 3 weeks after mating). Treatment of the females was continued throughout gestation and through lactation day 21. The females were killed after raising their young to weaning at 21 days of age. Food consumption was measured weekly throughout the study (except during mating) and body weights were recorded at least weekly during premating, gestation, and lactation. Reproductive parameters including estrus cycle duration, mating performance, fertility, gestation length, parturition, and gestation index were evaluated. Litter size and offspring body weights were recorded, offspring viability indices were calculated, and physical development (vaginal opening and preputial separation) was assessed for the F1 generation. All adult F0 and F1 animals were subjected to a detailed necropsy. DRM treatment had no effect on estrus cycles or reproductive performance including mating performance, fertility, gestation length, parturition, or gestation index. Litter size, sex ratio, and offspring viability indices were similarly unaffected and there were no effects of DRM treatment on the physical

  1. Micromonospora ureilytica sp. nov., Micromonospora noduli sp. nov. and Micromonospora vinacea sp. nov., isolated from Pisum sativum nodules.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Riesco, Raúl; Spröer, Cathrin; Trujillo, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    A diversity study on the presence of strains representing the genus Micromonospora in Pisum sativum nodules collected from Cañizal (Spain) has provided evidence of the high number of isolates that might represent novel species. In the present work, we have characterized three of these isolates: GUI23T, GUI43T and GUI63T. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses confirmed that all strains represent novel species of the genus Micromonospora with the following proposed names: Micromonospora ureilytica sp. nov., type strain GUI23T (=CECT 9022T=DSM 101692T), Micromonospora noduli sp. nov., type strain GUI43T (=CECT 9020T=DSM 101694T), and Micromonospora vinacea sp. nov., type strain GUI63T (=CECT 9019T=DSM 101695T).

  2. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3-sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Craig P.; Smith, Russell T.; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3-sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3-sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3-sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3-sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for

  3. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    Background Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods Wild brown rats (117 individuals) and black rats (44 individuals) were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp.), three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) fraterna), and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus). Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species) and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species) at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris) or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris). We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats. PMID

  4. Chronic dietary kudzu isoflavones improve components of metabolic syndrome in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ning; Prasain, Jeevan K; Dai, Yanying; Moore, Ray; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Carlson, Scott; Wyss, J Michael

    2009-08-26

    The present study tested the long-term effects of dietary kudzu root extract supplementation on the regulation of arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and circulating cholesterol in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SP-SHR). Female SP-SHR were maintained for 2 months on a polyphenol-free diet, with or without the addition of 0.2% kudzu root extract. Half of the rats in each diet group were ovariectomized, whereas the other half remained intact. Following 2 months on the diets, the 0.2% kudzu root extract supplementation (compared to control diet) significantly lowered arterial pressure (11-15 mmHg), plasma cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (20-30%), and fasting plasma insulin in both the ovariectomized and intact SP-SHR. These results indicate that long-term dietary kudzu root extract supplementation can improve glucose, lipid, and blood pressure control in intact and ovariectomized SP-SHR.

  5. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, Georgios; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kouser, Lubna; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Kishore, Uday; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain) on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP) genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and connexin 43 (CX43). In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one. PMID:26641881

  6. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase.

  7. Examination of the perception of sweet- and bitter-like taste qualities in sucralose preferring and avoiding rats

    PubMed Central

    Torregrossa, A-M.; Loney, G.C.; Smith, J.C.; Eckel, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sucralose avoiding rats detect a bitter-like taste quality in concentrations of sucralose that are strongly preferred over water by sucralose preferring rats. Here, we investigated whether sucralose preferrers (SP) also detect a bitter-like quality in sucralose that may be masked by increased perception of sucralose’s sweet-like quality. A microstructural analysis of sucralose intake revealed that, at concentrations they avoided in preference tests, sucralose avoiders (SA) consumed smaller and fewer bouts of sucralose than SP. Interestingly, the concentration-dependent increase in sucralose preference in SP was not associated with larger bouts or increased lick rate, two measures that are expected to increase with increasing perceived sweetness. This suggests that SP can detect an aversive quality in sucralose, but this perception of a presumably bitter-like quality may be masked by increased salience of a sweet-like quality that sustains high levels of intake in SP. Further evidence for increased sweet-taste perception in SP, relative to SA, was obtained in a second study in which SP consumed more of a palatable sweet-milk diet than SA. These are the first data to suggest that SP are not blind to the bitter-like quality in sucralose, and that there may be differences in sweet-taste perception between SP and SA. PMID:25497078

  8. SP-100 flight qualification testing assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanmougin, Nanette M.; Moore, Roger M.; Wait, David L.; Jacox, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    The SP-100 is a compact space power system driven by a nuclear reactor that provides 100 kWe to the user at 200 VDC. The thermal energy generated by the nuclear reactor is converted into electrical energy by passive thermoelectric devices. Various options for tailoring the MIL-STD-1540B guidelines to the SP-100 nuclear power system are discussed. This study aids in selecting the appropriate qualification test program based on the cost, schedule, and test effectiveness of the various options.

  9. Swimming Activity Prevents the Unloading Induced Loss of Bone Mass, Architecture, and Strength in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Falcai, Maurício J.; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; de Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião; Volpon, Jose B.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether swimming activity associated with a three-week period of hypoactivity could prevent the deleterious effects of disuse on the tibias of tail-suspended rats. Forty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (HS) permanently hindlimb suspension rats; (HS + Swim) rats submitted to unloading interrupted by swimming exercise; (HS + WB) hindlimb suspension rats with interruption for regular weight bearing for the same length of time as the HS+Swim rats; (Control) control rats that were allowed regular cage activities; and (Control + Swim) control rats that underwent swimming exercise. At the end of the experiment, bone mineral density, bone strength, and trabecular quantification were analyzed. The hindlimb-suspended rats exhibited bone quality loss (significant decrease in BMD, bone strength, and deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone architecture; decrease in BV/TV, TbN, TbTh, ConnD, CtV, and CtTh; and increase in TbSp) when compared to control rats. In contrast, trained rats showed a significant increase of 43% in bone mass, 29% in bone strength, 58% in trabecular thickness, 85% in bone volume, 27% in trabeculae number, and 30% in cortical volume, when compared to the hindlimb-suspended rats. We conclude that swimming activity not only ameliorates but also fully prevents the deleterious effects on bone quality in osteopenic rats. PMID:26090414

  10. Cyanobactericidal effect of Rhodococcus sp. isolated from eutrophic lake on Microcystis sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2010-11-01

    A bacterium, which was observed in all cultivations of Microcystis sp., was isolated and designated as Rhodococcus sp. KWR2. The growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including four strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena variabilis, was suppressed by up to 75-88% by 2% (v/v) culture broth of KWR2 after 5 days. But KWR2 did not inhibit eukaryotic algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp. An extracellular algicidal substance produced by KWR2 showed a cyanobactericidal activity of 94% and was water-soluble with a molecular weight of lower than 8 kDa.

  11. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  12. Cloning and analysis of rat osteoclast inhibitory lectin gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jin-Xing; Zheng, Fang; Li, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Li-Ling; Sun, Zi-Yang; Jiao, Yan-Li; Wang, Bao-Li

    2009-03-01

    Osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) is a novel regulator of bone remodeling, however, little is known concerning how OCIL is regulated to date. In this study, approximately 4.4 kb of the 5'-flanking sequence of rat OCIL gene was cloned into the promoter-less reporter vector pGL3-basic and transiently transfected into three different cell lines. The differences in the levels of luciferase activity paralleled well with the levels of OCIL mRNA expression in these cells, suggesting that the regulation of rat OCIL gene expression occurs mainly at the transcriptional level. Additional luciferase assays using a series of constructs containing unidirectionally deleted fragments showed that the construct-1819/pGL3 (-1819 to +118) exhibited the highest luciferase activity, suggesting the presence of functional promoter in this region. The region from -4370 to -2805 might contain negative regulatory elements, while the region from -1819 to -1336 might have important positive regulatory elements that enhance OCIL transcription. Sequence analysis of the promoter revealed the absence of both TATA and CAAT boxes. However, in the proximal promoter region (-81 to +118), several potential transcription factor binding sites that may be responsible for the basal transcriptional activity of rat OCIL promoter were observed. The promoter contains several potential Sp1 binding sites, and cotransfection of a shRNA expression plasmid that knockdowns Sp1 significantly reduced OCIL promoter activity and endogenous gene expression and moreover, overexpressing Sp7, a Sp1 family member that also binds to Sp1 binding sequence, increased OCIL promoter activity and gene expression, suggesting a role of Sp1 family proteins in regulation of OCIL transcription.

  13. Proposal of six species of moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, endospore-forming bacteria: Alicyclobacillus contaminans sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus kakegawensis sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus macrosporangiidus sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus sacchari sp. nov. and Alicyclobacillus shizuokensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Goto, Keiichi; Mochida, Kaoru; Kato, Yuko; Asahara, Mika; Fujita, Rieko; An, Sun-Young; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2007-06-01

    Moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacteria (146 strains) were isolated from various beverages and environments. Based on the results of sequence analysis of the hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, eight of the strains represent novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus. These strains were designated 3-A191(T), 4-A336(T), 5-A83J(T), 5-A167N, 5-A239-2O-A(T), E-8, RB718(T) and S-TAB(T). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) nucleotide sequences confirmed that the eight strains belonged to the Alicyclobacillus clade. Cells of the eight strains were Gram-positive or Gram-variable, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped. The strains grew well under acidic and moderately thermal conditions, produced acid from various sugars, contained menaquinone 7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and did not produce guaiacol. omega-Alicyclic fatty acids were the predominant lipid component of strains 4-A336(T), 5-A83J(T), 5-A167N, RB718(T) and S-TAB(T). No omega-alicyclic fatty acids were detected in strains 3-A191(T), 5-A239-2O-A(T) or E-8, but iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids and small amounts of straight-chain saturated fatty acids were detected instead. According to the DNA-DNA hybridization data and distinct morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomical and genetic traits, the eight strains represent six novel species within the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the following names are proposed: Alicyclobacillus contaminans sp. nov. (type strain 3-A191(T)=DSM 17975(T)=IAM 15224(T)), Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov. (type strain S-TAB(T)=DSM 17978(T)=IAM 15229(T)), Alicyclobacillus kakegawensis sp. nov. (type strain 5-A83J(T)=DSM 17979(T)=IAM 15227(T)), Alicyclobacillus macrosporangiidus sp. nov. (type strain 5-A239-2O-A(T)=DSM 17980(T)=IAM 15370(T)), Alicyclobacillus sacchari sp. nov. (type strain RB718(T)=DSM 17974(T)=IAM 15230(T)) and Alicyclobacillus shizuokensis sp. nov. (type strain 4-A336(T)=DSM 17981(T)=IAM 15226(T)).

  14. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid against Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Swallowing Dysfunction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Hirokazu; Iwata, Naohiro; Xuan, Meiyan; Kamiuchi, Shinya; Hibino, Yasuhide; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Okazaki, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic phytochemical, has been reported to exert antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FA against the dysfunction of the swallowing reflex induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats. In 2VO rats, topical administration of water or citric acid to the pharyngolaryngeal region evoked a diminished number of swallowing events with prolonged latency compared to sham-operated control rats. 2VO rats had an increased level of superoxide anion radical, and decreased dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme levels in the striatum, suggesting that 2VO augmented cerebral oxidative stress and impaired the striatal dopaminergic system. Furthermore, substance P (SP) expression in the laryngopharyngeal mucosa, which is believed to be positively regulated by dopaminergic signaling in the basal ganglia, was decreased in 2VO rats. Oral treatment with FA (30 mg/kg) for 3 weeks (from one week before 2VO to two weeks after) improved the swallowing reflex and maintained levels of striatal dopamine and laryngopharyngeal SP expression in 2VO rats. These results suggest that FA maintains the swallowing reflex by protecting the dopamine-SP system against ischemia-induced oxidative damage in 2VO rats. PMID:28273833

  15. ACMEV-SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sedlacek, Arthur

    2015-06-01

    The SP2 provides information on the amounts of rBC (refractory black carbon) and of other, non-refractory substances associated with individual rBC containing particles by simultaneously measuring the scattering and incandescence signals of such particles that are directed through the cavity of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. (refractory Black Carbon) rBC mixing ratio (ng/Kg) and number size distribution time series collected during the DOE-ARM sponsored ACME-V field campaign held from June 1 to September 15, 2015 rBC mixing ratio is reported at STP conditions Time resolution: 10 sec Uncertainty: ~ 30% SP2 Unit: 25 Location: Deadhorse, AK Location: N 70-degree 11' 41'' - W 148-degress. 27' 55'' SP2_dateTime: UTC rBC concentration is in units of ng/Kg - dry air. Mass Equivalent Diameters [MED] used for size distribution (SP2_min; SP2_geo; and SP2_max) are in units of micrometers dN/dlogDp counts for a given size bin (SP2_geo) listed as 'SP2_cnts_0 - SP2_cnts_199' and are in units of #/cc. Column naming convention: 'SP2_cnts_X' are the number of particles in bin number _X. , where _X is the row number within the 'SP2_geo' size bin column that contains the mass equivalent diameter (e.g., SP2_cnts_0 = 0.01 microns; SP2_cnts_10 = 0.060 microns, etc.). The dN/dlogDp data is time-resolved where a given row is associated with the timestamp for that row. Note that the rBC column length is one field shorter than the SP2_datetime column. Last time field is not relevant to the rBC time series (see comment below on length of SP2_datetime column) Lengths for SP2_max; SP2_min; SP2_geo are one field longer then the number of SP2_cnts_XX columns . This is to provide bounds for image plots (if desired). Length for SP2_datetime is one field longer than that length of the SP2_cnts_XX columns This is to provide bounds for image plots (if desired) SP2 Calibration: Fullerene soot with corrrection applied for particle density as a function of particle size. No correction for OC content in

  16. Evoluation of SP-100 System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, Alan T.; Fujita, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    The current phase of the SP-100 program was initiated in 1986 with the objectives of developing the technology for Space Reactor Power Systems (SRPS) in the 10-1000k. We power range and perfoming ground system tests of both nuclear and non-nuclear major assemblies.

  17. Dolichodorus aestuarius n. sp. (Nematode: Dolichodoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Chow, F. H.; Taylor, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Dolichodorus aestuarius n. sp. from an estuarine habitat near Cedar Key, Florida is described. This nematode has a stylet range of 62-76 μm in females and 60-72 μm in males. The stylet is shorter than those of all described species except D. brevistilus. The probable host plant is Juncus roemerianus. PMID:19305840

  18. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  19. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  20. Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Ryan, Una M; Fall, Abbie; Ward, Lucy A; Hijjawi, Nawal; Sulaiman, Irshad; Fayer, Ronald; Thompson, R C Andrew; Olson, M; Lal, Altaf; Xiao, Lihua

    2002-01-01

    The structure and infectivity of the oocysts of a new species of Cryptosporidium from the feces of humans are described. Oocysts are structurally indistinguishable from those of Cryptosporidium parvum. Oocysts of the new species are passed fully sporulated, lack sporocysts. and measure 4.4-5.4 microm (mean = 4.86) x 4.4-5.9 microm (mean = 5.2 microm) with a length to width ratio 1.0-1.09 (mean 1.07) (n = 100). Oocysts were not infectious for ARC Swiss mice, nude mice. Wistar rat pups, puppies, kittens or calves, but were infectious to neonatal gnotobiotic pigs. Pathogenicity studies in the gnotobiotic pig model revealed significant differences in parasite-associated lesion distribution (P = 0.005 to P = 0.02) and intensity of infection (P = 0.04) between C. parvum and this newly described species from humans. In vitro cultivation studies have also revealed growth differences between the two species. Multi-locus analysis of numerous unlinked loci, including a preliminary sequence scan of the entire genome demonstrated this species to be distinct from C. parvum and also demonstrated a lack of recombination, providing further support for its species status. Based on biological and molecular data, this Cryptosporidium infecting the intestine of humans is proposed to be a new species Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp.

  1. Substance P Promotes the Proliferation, but Inhibits Differentiation and Mineralization of Osteoblasts from Rats with Spinal Cord Injury via RANKL/OPG System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Chen, Liang; Han, Li-Ren; Yang, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB) in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI. The expression of NK1R protein in BMSC-OB was observed using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The dose- and time-dependent effects of SP on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of BMSC-OB and the expression of osteoblastic markers by in vitro experiments. The expression of NK1R in BMSC-OB was observed on plasma membranes and in cytoplasm. One week after osteogenic differentiation, the expression of NK1R was significantly increased after SCI at mRNA and protein levels. However, this difference was gradually attenuated at 2 or 3 weeks later. SP have the function to enhance cell proliferation, inhibite cell differentiation and mineralization at a proper concentration and incubation time, and this effect would be inhibited by adding SP or NK1R antagonist. The expression of RANKL/OPG was significantly increased in tibiae after SCI. Similarly, the RANKL/OPG expression in SCI rats was significantly increased when treating with 10−8 M SP. SP plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. The direct effect of SP may lead to increased bone resorption through the RANKL/OPG axis after SCI. In addition, high expression of SP also results in the suppression of osteogenesis in SCI rats. Then, the balance between bone resorption and bone formation was broken and finally osteoporosis occurred. PMID:27764190

  2. Remote sensing data of SP mountain and SP lava flow in north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain and SP flow in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization and compared with surface and aerial photography, Landsat multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is brighter on direct-polarization K-band images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data.

  3. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  4. Developmental expression of Sp1 in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Saffer, J D; Jackson, S P; Annarella, M B

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the trans-acting transcription factor Sp1 in mice was defined by a combination of RNA analysis and immunohistochemical localization of the Sp1 protein. Although ubiquitously expressed, there was an unexpected difference of at least 100-fold in the amount of Sp1 message in different cell types. Sp1 protein levels showed corresponding marked differences. Substantial variations in Sp1 expression were also found in some cell types at different stages of development. Sp1 levels appeared to be highest in developing hematopoietic cells, fetal cells, and spermatids, suggesting that an elevated Sp1 level is associated with the differentiation process. These results indicate that Sp1 has a regulatory function in addition to its general role in the transcription of housekeeping genes. Images PMID:2005904

  5. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways.

  6. Nanocrystalline sp 2 and sp 3 carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, M. L.; Rossi, M.; Tamburri, E.

    2016-11-01

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp 2- and sp 3-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  7. Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae) a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae).

    PubMed

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2002-08-01

    Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae), a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae) from Py (Pyrenean mountains, France), is described and illustrated. The present species can be separated from the other two members of the same genus, A. flexilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Morand, 1990 and A. tauricus Korol and Spiridonov, 1991, by size measurements, number and disposition of the male's genital papillae, shape of the spicule and number of eggs in the female.

  8. Low-Dose Prazosin Alone and in Combination with Propranolol or Naltrexone: Effects on Ethanol- and Sucrose-Seeking and Self-Administration in the P Rat

    PubMed Central

    Verplaetse, Terril L.; Czachowski, Cristine L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Evidence suggests that the noradrenergic system mediates ethanol-reinforcement. However, preclinical studies suggest that noradrenergic antagonists block other oral reinforcers indicating possible unwanted secondary medication effects. Methods This study examined combinations of low-dose prazosin with propranolol or naltrexone using a behavioral paradigm that separately assesses reinforcer-seeking and self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring (P) rats (n=20/experiment) were trained to complete a response requirement (RR) resulting in access to 1% sucrose (n=10) or 10% ethanol (n=10) for 20min. Rats received vehicle, prazosin alone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneally (IP)) or prazosin in combination with propranolol (5 mg/kg (IP); Exp1) or in combination with naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg (subcutaneously (SC); Exp2). Results For Exp1, prazosin alone effectively decreased sucrose-seeking more than ethanol-seeking, but decreased ethanol self-administration only. Propranolol alone effectively decreased ethanol-seeking more than sucrose-seeking and decreased ethanol intake only. At some dose combinations, there was a greater attenuation of ethanol and sucrose intake relative to either drug alone. For Exp2, prazosin alone and naltrexone alone were effective in decreasing ethanol-seeking and intake only. Combination treatment was more effective than either drug alone at decreasing ethanol-seeking and consumption and sucrose intake, but not sucrose-seeking. Conclusions Propranolol and naltrexone alone were specific to ethanol indicating that low doses of either medication may be beneficial in treating alcohol use disorders. Prazosin in combination with propranolol or naltrexone was more effective than either drug alone, but also reduced sucrose-reinforced behaviors. These data suggest that the noradrenergic system is a viable target for developing treatment approaches for problem drinkers. PMID:25743758

  9. Binge ethanol withdrawal: Effects on post-withdrawal ethanol intake, glutamate-glutamine cycle and monoamine tissue content in P rat model.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujan C; Althobaiti, Yusuf S; Alshehri, Fahad S; Sari, Youssef

    2016-04-15

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a medical emergency situation which appears after abrupt cessation of ethanol intake. Decreased GABA-A function and increased glutamate function are known to exist in the AWS. However, the involvement of glutamate transporters in the context of AWS requires further investigation. In this study, we used a model of ethanol withdrawal involving abrupt cessation of binge ethanol administration (4 g/kg/gavage three times a day for three days) using male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. After 48 h of withdrawal, P rats were re-exposed to voluntary ethanol intake. The amount of ethanol consumed was measured during post-withdrawal phase. In addition, the expression of GLT-1, GLAST and xCT were determined in both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We also measured glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and the tissue content of glutamate, glutamine, dopamine and serotonin in both mPFC and NAc. We found that binge ethanol withdrawal escalated post-withdrawal ethanol intake, which was associated with downregulation of GLT-1 expression in both mPFC and NAc. The expression of GLAST and xCT were unchanged in the ethanol-withdrawal (EW) group compared to control group. Tissue content of glutamate was significantly lower in both mPFC and NAc, whereas tissue content of glutamine was higher in mPFC but unchanged in NAc in the EW group compared to control group. The GS activity was unchanged in both mPFC and NAc. The tissue content of DA was significantly lower in both mPFC and NAc, whereas tissue content of serotonin was unchanged in both mPFC and NAc. These findings provide important information of the critical role of GLT-1 in context of AWS.

  10. The sigma-receptor antagonist BD-1063 decreases ethanol intake and reinforcement in animal models of excessive drinking.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro; Zhao, Yu; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Conti, Bruno; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2009-05-01

    Sigma-Receptors (SigRs) have been implicated in behavioral and appetitive effects of psychostimulants and may also modulate the motivating properties of ethanol. This study tested the hypothesis that SigRs modulate ethanol reinforcement and contribute to excessive ethanol intake. The effects of subcutaneous treatment with the potent, selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on operant ethanol self-administration were studied in two models of excessive drinking-Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats and acutely withdrawn ethanol-dependent Wistar rats-and compared to ethanol self-administration in nondependent Wistar controls. To assess the specificity of action, the effects of BD-1063 on self-administration of an equally reinforcing saccharin solution were determined in Wistar and sP rats. Gene expression of Sig-1R in reward-related brain areas implicated in ethanol reinforcement was compared between ethanol-naive sP and Wistar rats and withdrawn ethanol-dependent Wistar rats. BD-1063 dose dependently reduced ethanol self-administration in sP rats (3.3-11 mg/kg) and withdrawn, dependent Wistar rats (4-11 mg/kg) at doses that did not modify mean ethanol self-administration in nondependent Wistar controls. BD-1063 did not reduce concurrent water self-administration and did not comparably suppress saccharin self-administration, suggesting selectivity of action. BD-1063 also reduced the breakpoints of sP rats to work for ethanol under a progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule. Ethanol-naive sP rats and 24-h withdrawn, dependent Wistar rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens. The results suggest that SigR systems may contribute to innate or ethanol-induced increases in susceptibility to self-administer high ethanol levels, identifying a potential neuroadaptive mechanism contributing to excessive drinking and a therapeutic target for alcohol abuse and dependence.

  11. Exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter sp. YG4 reduces uranium induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    K, Nagaraj; Devasya, Rekha Punchapady; Bhagwath, Arun Ananthapadmanabha

    2016-01-01

    Uranium nephrotoxicity is a health concern with very few treatment options. Bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) possess multiple biological activities and appear as prospective candidates for treating uranium nephrotoxicity. This study focuses on the ability of an EPS produced by a bacterial strain Enterobacter sp. YG4 to reduce uranium nephrotoxicity in vivo. This bacterium was isolated from the gut contents of a slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac). Based on the aniline blue staining reaction and infrared spectral analysis, the EPS was identified as β-glucan and its molecular weight was 11.99×10(6)Da. The EPS showed hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity in vitro. To assess the protection provided by the EPS against uranium nephrotoxicity, a single dose of 2mg/kg uranyl nitrate was injected intraperitoneally to albino Wistar rats. As intervention, the EPS was administered orally (100mg/kg/day) for 4 consecutive days. The rats were sacrificed on the fifth day and analyses were conducted. Increased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels and histopathological alterations in kidneys were observed in uranyl nitrate treated animals. All these alterations were reduced with the administration of Enterobacter sp. YG4 EPS, emphasizing a novel approach in treating uranium nephrotoxicity.

  12. Differential activation of NF kappa B/RelA-p50 and NF kappa B/p50-p50 in control and alcohol-drinking rats subjected to carrageenin-induced pleurisy.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashok K; Jiang, Yin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carrageenin (CAR) injection into the pleural cavity causes local inflammation called carrageenin-induced pleurisy (CAR-IP). Inflammation onset is characterized by an activation of pro-inflammatory NFkappaB, RelA-p50, while inflammation resolution is characterized by an activation of an anti-inflammatory NFkappaB, p50-p50, that re-establishes homeostasis, an essential process for an organism's survival. Although chronic alcohol intake disrupts inflammation, the mechanism behind the development of inflammatory disorder in alcoholics is not yet known. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to study the effects of ethanol intake on CAR-IP and NFkappaB activation in pleural fluid neutrophils in P rats. METHODS: Alcohol-preferring, P rats were given free choice of alcohol (15% ethanol) and water or water alone (for control) for 15 days. Then, each rat was injected with 0.2 ml of 2% CAR into the pleural cavity under light ether anesthesia. At different time intervals after the CAR injection, rats were anesthetized and their blood and pleural fluid samples were collected. Pleural fluid inflammatory cells were identified with Turk's or Wright-Giemsa staining. Different cell types were sorted using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Pleural fluid neutrophils were examined for apoptosis and activation of the two NFkappaB subspecies. RESULTS: In control rats, fluid began to accumulate in the pleural cavity 0.5 h after, which peaked 24 h after, CAR injection. Then, the values declined gradually. The increase in pleural fluid correlated with RelA-p50 activation, while the decline in pleural fluid correlated with p50-p50 activation and apoptosis in neutrophils. In alcohol-drinking rats, pleural fluid remained elevated for up to 6 days after CAR injection. Neutrophils from alcohol-drinking rats exhibited suppressed apoptosis, augmented RelA-p50 activation, and suppressed p50-p50 activation. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake prolonged inflammation in P rats. An

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katy J; Moore, Karen; Sambles, Christine; Love, John; Studholme, David J; Aves, Stephen J

    2016-01-14

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe.

  14. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  15. 76 FR 22694 - SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 12, 2011, SP 49 Pipeline LLC (``SP 49'') submitted a request for waiver of the requirement to file the FERC Form... Pipe Line Company's (``Chevron'') pipeline system and associated equipment, specifically the South...

  16. Transcription Factors Sp1 and Hif2α Mediate Induction of the Copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) Gene in Intestinal Epithelial Cells during Hypoxia*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liwei; Collins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Genes with G/C-rich promoters were up-regulated in the duodenal epithelium of iron-deficient rats including those encoding iron (e.g. Dmt1 and Dcytb) and copper (e.g. Atp7a and Mt1) metabolism-related proteins. It was shown previously that an intestinal copper transporter (Atp7a) was co-regulated with iron transport-related genes by a hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, Hif2α. In the current study, we sought to test the role of Sp1 in transcriptional regulation of Atp7a expression during iron deprivation/hypoxia. Initial studies in IEC-6 cells showed that mithramycin, an Sp1 inhibitor, reduced expression of Atp7a and iron transport-related genes (Dmt1, Dcytb, and Fpn1) and blocked their induction by CoCl2, a hypoxia mimetic. Consistent with this, overexpression of Sp1 increased endogenous Atp7a mRNA and protein expression and stimulated Atp7a, Dmt1, and Dcytb promoter activity. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis of a basal Atp7a promoter construct revealed four functional Sp1 binding sites that were necessary for Hif2α-mediated induction of promoter activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that Sp1 specifically interacts with the Atp7a promoter in IEC-6 cells and in rat duodenal enterocytes. This investigation has thus revealed a novel aspect of Atp7a gene regulation in which Sp1 may be necessary for the HIF-mediated induction of gene transcription during iron deficiency/hypoxia. Understanding regulation of Atp7a expression may help further clarify the physiological role of copper in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, this Sp1/Hif2α regulatory mechanism may have broader implications for understanding the genetic response of the intestinal epithelium to maintain whole-body iron homeostasis during states of deficiency. PMID:23814049

  17. Traumatic brain injury induces neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration that is associated with escalated alcohol self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mayeux, Jacques P; Teng, Sophie X; Katz, Paige S; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Molina, Patricia E

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of people each year and is characterized by direct tissue injury followed by a neuroinflammatory response. The post-TBI recovery period can be associated with a negative emotional state characterized by alterations in affective behaviors implicated in the development of Alcohol Use Disorder in humans. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that post-TBI neuroinflammation is associated with behavioral dysfunction, including escalated alcohol intake. Methods Adult male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer alcohol prior to counterbalanced assignment into naïve, craniotomy, and TBI groups by baseline drinking. TBI was produced by lateral fluid percussion (LFP; >2 ATM; 25 ms). Alcohol drinking and neurobehavioral function were measured at baseline and following TBI in all experimental groups. Markers of neuroinflammation (GFAP & ED1) and neurodegeneration (FJC) were determined by fluorescence histochemistry in brains excised at sacrifice 19 days post-TBI. Results The cumulative increase in alcohol intake over the 15 days post-TBI was greater in TBI animals compared to naïve controls. A higher rate of pre-injury alcohol intake was associated with a greater increase in post-injury alcohol intake in both TBI and craniotomy animals. Immediately following TBI, both TBI and craniotomy animals exhibited greater neurobehavioral dysfunction compared to naïve animals. GFAP, IBA-1, ED1, and FJC immunoreactivity at 19 days post-TBI was significantly higher in brains from TBI animals compared to both craniotomy and naïve animals. Conclusions These results show an association between post-TBI escalation of alcohol drinking and marked localized neuroinflammation at the site of injury. Moreover, these results highlight the relevance of baseline alcohol preference in determining post-TBI alcohol drinking. Further investigation to determine the contribution of neuroinflammation to increased alcohol drinking

  18. Dissecting the genetic components of a quantitative trait locus for blood pressure and renal pathology on rat chromosome 3

    PubMed Central

    Koh-Tan, H.H. Caline; Dashti, Mohammed; Wang, Ting; Beattie, Wendy; Mcclure, John; Young, Barbara; Dominiczak, Anna F.; McBride, Martin W.; Graham, Delyth

    2017-01-01

    Background: We have previously confirmed the importance of rat chromosome 3 (RNO3) genetic loci on blood pressure elevation, pulse pressure (PP) variability and renal pathology during salt challenge in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rat. The aims of this study were to generate a panel of RNO3 congenic sub-strains to genetically dissect the implicated loci and identify positional candidate genes by microarray expression profiling and analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Method and results: A panel of congenic sub-strains were generated containing Wistar–Kyoto (WKY)-introgressed segments of varying size on the SHRSP genetic background, focused within the first 50 Mbp of RNO3. Haemodynamic profiling during salt challenge demonstrated significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and PP variability in SP.WKYGla3a, SP.WKYGla3c, SP.WKYGla3d and SP.WKYGla3e sub-strains. Only SBP and DBP were significantly reduced during salt challenge in SP.WKYGla3b and SP.WKYGla3f sub-strains, whereas SP.WKYGla3g rats did not differ in haemodynamic response to SHRSP. Those sub-strains demonstrating significantly reduced PP variability during salt challenge also demonstrated significantly reduced renal pathology and proteinuria. Microarray expression profiling prioritized two candidate genes for blood pressure regulation (Dnm1, Tor1b), localized within the common congenic interval shared by SP.WKYGla3d and SP.WKYGla3f strains, and one candidate gene for salt-induced PP variability and renal pathology (Rabgap1), located within the region unique to the SP.WKYGla3d strain. Comparison of next-generation sequencing data identified variants within additional positional genes that are likely to affect protein function. Conclusion: This study has identified distinct intervals on RNO3-containing genes that may be important for blood pressure regulation and renal pathology during salt challenge. PMID:27755386

  19. Metschnikowia sinensis sp. nov., Metschnikowia zizyphicola sp. nov. and Metschnikowia shanxiensis sp. nov., novel yeast species from jujube fruit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng-Lin; Zhang, Li-Qun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Ji-Shu; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2006-09-01

    Eight yeast strains were isolated from jujube fruit surfaces collected in Shanxi and Shandong Provinces, China. All eight strains produced needle-shaped ascospores under suitable conditions. Three separate groups, representing three novel species in the genus Metschnikowia, were recognized by sequence comparisons of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The names Metschnikowia sinensis sp. nov. (type strain XY103(T)=AS 2.3110(T)=CBS 10357(T)), Metschnikowia zizyphicola sp. nov. (type strain XY201(T)=AS 2.3111(T)=CBS 10358(T)) and Metschnikowia shanxiensis sp. nov. (type strain XY801(T)=AS 2.3112(T)=CBS 10359(T)) are proposed for the three novel species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence showed that these three novel species are clustered in a clade together with the previously described species Metschnikowia fructicola, Metschnikowia andauensis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Metschnikowia chrysoperlae.

  20. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  1. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  2. Effects of Spirulina on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Ovarian Toxicity in Rats: Biochemical and Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Yener, Nese Arzu; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Ilter, Erdin; Celik, Aygen; Sezgin, Gulbuz; Midi, Ahmet; Aksungar, Fehime

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cyc) is known to cause ovotoxicity and infertility in women. Our aim is to investigate the possible ovotoxic effects of Cyc and possible antioxidant and protective effects of blue-green algae, Spirulina (Sp), in rat ovaries. Eighteen rats were given: group I (n = 6, control); group II (n = 6, CP), a single dose Cyc; group III (n = 6, Sp+Cyc), 7 days Sp+single dose Cyc. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities are assessed biochemically. Normal and atretic primordial and primary follicle counts for all sections obtained for each ovary are calculated. Mean number of follicle counts for each group are compared. In Sp+Cyc group, tissue MDA levels were significantly lower than those in the CP and higher than those in the C group (CP > Sp+Cyc > C). Tissue SOD activity was significantly higher in Sp+Cyc group than that in the CP group and lower than that in the C group (C > Sp+Cyc > C). No statistically significant difference was found between the ovarian CAT activities in any group. Histomorphometrically, there was also no significant difference between the mean numbers of normal and atretic small follicle counts. Our results suggest that single dose Cyc has adverse effects on oxidant status of the ovaries and Sp has protective effects in Cyc-induced ovotoxicity. PMID:23762559

  3. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  4. Candida alocasiicola sp. nov., Candida hainanensis sp. nov., Candida heveicola sp. nov. and Candida musiphila sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Jia, Jian-Hua; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-08-01

    In a taxonomic study on the ascomycetous yeasts isolated from plant materials collected in tropical forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces, southern China, four strains isolated from tree sap (YJ2E(T)) and flowers (YF9E(T), YWZH3C(T) and YYF2A(T)) were revealed to represent four undescribed yeast species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences showed that strain YJ2E(T) was located in a clade together with Candida haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii. Strain YF9E(T) was most closely related to C. azyma and strain YWZH3C(T) to C. sorbophila and C. spandovensis. Strain YYF2A(T) was clustered in a clade containing small-spored Metschnikowia species and related anamorphic Candida species. The new strains differed from their closely related described species by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. No sexual states were observed for the four strains on various sporulation media. The new species are therefore assigned to the genus Candida and described as Candida alocasiicola sp. nov. (type strain, YF9E(T) = AS 2.3484(T) = CBS 10702(T)), Candida hainanensis sp. nov. (type strain, YYF2A(T) = AS 2.3478(T) = CBS 10696(T)), Candida heveicola sp. nov. (type strain, YJ2E(T) = AS 2.3483(T) = CBS 10701(T)) and Candida musiphila sp. nov. (type strain, YWZH3C(T) = AS 2.3479(T) = CBS 10697(T)).

  5. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Carl. M.; Mahaffey, Michael M.; Smith, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly.

  6. Vorticella sp: Prospective Mosquito Biocontrol Agent

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar Devidas; Narkhede, Chandrakant Prakash; Suryawanshi, Rahul Khushal; Patil, Satish Vitthal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the disadvantages of chemical insecticides, we aimed to evaluate Vorticella parasites for control of mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti at different larval stages. Methods: Vorticella sp infected mosquito larvae were crushed in the 0.85% saline and homogenized well to get Vorticella in suspension. The effects of Vorticella sp infections on larval development were investigated by inoculating protozoan on different larval instars of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti and observed under light microscope. Lethal time of the Vorticella infected larvae at different stages was calculated. Results: First and 2nd larval instars of both An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti did not show signs of infection by Vorticella sp., whereas 3rd instars of An. stephensi showed more Vorticella infection than those of Ae. aegypti. However, 4th larval instars of both mosquitoes were heavily infected with Vorticella parasite which was responsible for sluggish movements of larvae and eventually death. Moreover, parasites (Vorticella spp) were responsible for more than 90% reduction in adult emergence for both infected An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. Conclusion: This study provides insights for mosquito larvicidal action of surface parasite Vorticella on different larval stages of An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti. It could be suggested as a potential candidate in mosquito biocontrol programs. PMID:28032113

  7. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp

    PubMed Central

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ5, Δ7 and Δ5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays. PMID:21339959

  8. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  9. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history.

  10. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  11. Rats! Oh No, Not Rats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gary E.

    1987-01-01

    Examples of problems encountered in a new library building--including rats and humidity--and a description of the library's collections provide a framework for this presentation of the California State Library's emergency management planning. Current preservation efforts are documented and the library's disaster and security plans are described.…

  12. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    SciTech Connect

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna; Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M.T.; Formisano, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin.

  13. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase.

  14. Bacteroides clarus sp. nov., Bacteroides fluxus sp. nov. and Bacteroides oleiciplenus sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Nagai, Fumiko; Morotomi, Masami; Sakon, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichiro

    2010-08-01

    Three Gram-stain-negative, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria (strains YIT 12056T, YIT 12057T and YIT 12058T) were isolated from human faeces. These strains were characterized by phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that strains YIT 12056T, YIT 12057T and YIT 12058T were most closely related to the type strains of Bacteroides gallinarum, Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides intestinalis with approximate similarity values of 96.6, 95.0 and 96.7%, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of the novel strains were 45.3 (YIT 12056T), 45.2 (YIT 12057T) and 43.6 mol% (YIT 12058T) and the major respiratory quinones of all three isolates were menaquinones MK-10 and MK-11. These properties were typical for members of the genus Bacteroides. The results of the other phenotypic analyses also supported the affiliation of these strains to the genus Bacteroides. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, analysis of the major cellular fatty acids and other biochemical tests enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the three new strains. Based on these data, three novel species, Bacteroides clarus sp. nov., Bacteroides fluxus sp. nov. and Bacteroides oleiciplenus sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains of B. clarus, B. fluxus and B. oleiciplenus are YIT 12056T (=JCM 16067T=DSM 22519T), YIT 12057T (=JCM 16101T=DSM 22534T) and YIT 12058T (=JCM 16102T=DSM 22535T), respectively.

  15. Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R.F.; Lupatini, M.; Trindade, L.; Antoniolli, Z.I.; Steffen, R.B.; Andreazza, R

    2013-01-01

    Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L−1 in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L−1 in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth) as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L−1 in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites. PMID:24294261

  16. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed.

  17. Flavobacterium koreense sp. nov., Flavobacterium chungnamense sp. nov., and Flavobacterium cheonanense sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater reservoir.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siwon; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Ahn, Tae-Young

    2011-06-01

    Taxonomic studies were performed on three strains isolated from Cheonho reservoir in Cheonan, Korea. The isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, catalase-positive, and oxidase-positive. Colonies on solid media were cream-yellow, smooth, shiny, and circular. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Flavobacterium. The strains shared 98.6-99.4% sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 97% similarity with members of the genus Flavobacterium with validly published names. The DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separate genomic status of strains ARSA-42(T), ARSA-103(T), and ARSA-108(T). The isolates contained menaqui-none-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) 3-OH, iso-Ci(15:1) G, and iso-C(16:0) 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolates were 31.4-33.2 mol%. According to the phenotypic and genotypic data, these organisms are classified as representative of three novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, and the name Flavobacterium koreense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-42(T) =KCTC 23182(T) =JCM 17066(T) =KACC 14969(T)), Flavobacterium chungnamense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-103(T) =KCTC 23183(T) =JCM 17068(T) =KACC 14971(T)), and Flavobacterium cheonanense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-108(T) =KCTC 23184(T) =JCM 17069(T) =KACC 14972) are proposed.

  18. Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.

    PubMed

    Silva, R F; Lupatini, M; Trindade, L; Antoniolli, Z I; Steffen, R B; Andreazza, R

    2013-01-01

    Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L(-1) in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L(-1) in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth) as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L(-1) in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites.

  19. Substance P Inhibits the Collagen Synthesis of Rat Myocardial Fibroblasts Induced by Ang II.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xinzhong; Guo, Naipeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Sheng

    2016-12-16

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the regulating effects of Substance P (SP) on the collagen synthesis of rat myocardial fibroblasts (CFBs) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and its potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS The CFBs of a neonatal SD rat were separately cultured and divided into the control group, Ang II treatment group, and treatment groups with different concentrations of SP, Ang II +; each group was given corresponding treatment respectively. RESULTS Ang II successfully induced the collagen synthesis of CFBs. Compared with the control group, the phosphorylation levels of TGF-β, erk, and smad2/3 were higher (p<0.05). Different concentrations of SP had an effect on Ang II-induced CFBs, reduced the collagen synthesis of CFBs, and increased the expressions of SP receptors, accompanied by lowering TGF-β protein, erk protein phosphorylation level, and smad2/3 protein phosphorylation level (p<0.05). Moreover, the higher the concentrations of SP, the more obvious of an effect it exerted. Treating the Ang II + SP group with aprepitant reduced the inhibiting effects of SP on collagen synthesis. The expression changes of collagen I and collagen III detected by immunocytochemistry were exactly in accordance with the results of qPCR and Western blotting. CONCLUSIONS SP can inhibit collagen synthesis of CFBs after Ang II inducing which may adjust the downstream signaling pathways associated protein including TGF-β, erk and smad2/3. SP can block the progress of myocardial fibrosis and is dose dependent, which is expected to be a promising target for the treatment of myocardial fibrosis.

  20. Substance P Inhibits the Collagen Synthesis of Rat Myocardial Fibroblasts Induced by Ang II

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xinzhong; Guo, Naipeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the regulating effects of Substance P (SP) on the collagen synthesis of rat myocardial fibroblasts (CFBs) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and its potential mechanism. Material/Methods The CFBs of a neonatal SD rat were separately cultured and divided into the control group, Ang II treatment group, and treatment groups with different concentrations of SP, Ang II +; each group was given corresponding treatment respectively. Results Ang II successfully induced the collagen synthesis of CFBs. Compared with the control group, the phosphorylation levels of TGF-β, erk, and smad2/3 were higher (p<0.05). Different concentrations of SP had an effect on Ang II-induced CFBs, reduced the collagen synthesis of CFBs, and increased the expressions of SP receptors, accompanied by lowering TGF-β protein, erk protein phosphorylation level, and smad2/3 protein phosphorylation level (p<0.05). Moreover, the higher the concentrations of SP, the more obvious of an effect it exerted. Treating the Ang II + SP group with aprepitant reduced the inhibiting effects of SP on collagen synthesis. The expression changes of collagen I and collagen III detected by immunocytochemistry were exactly in accordance with the results of qPCR and Western blotting. Conclusions SP can inhibit collagen synthesis of CFBs after Ang II inducing which may adjust the downstream signaling pathways associated protein including TGF-β, erk and smad2/3. SP can block the progress of myocardial fibrosis and is dose dependent, which is expected to be a promising target for the treatment of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:27980320

  1. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed.

  2. Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Oscar; Binda, Maria Grazia; Pilato, Giovanni

    2016-04-14

    Two new eutardigrade species are described: Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov. The first is similar to Eremobiotus alicatai (Binda, 1969) but differs in the claw shape and dimensions. It has been found in Sicily, Israel and Russia. The second species, belonging to the richtersi group, is currently found exclusively in Sicily. It has a smooth cuticle, three macroplacoids and a microplacoid, eggs with reticulated trunco-conical processes with small terminal thorns; the egg-shell is areolated and the areolae are clearly sculptured.

  3. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain.

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of germanium-containing Spirulina in rats with (D)-galactosamine- and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Kiharu

    2014-01-14

    In the present study, the protective effects of dietary Spirulina (SP) and germanium-containing Spirulina (GeSP) were compared in rats with liver injury induced by an intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS). Wistar rats were fed one of the following diets: the basal diet (GalN/LPS-CON group; n 6), the basal diet supplemented with 5 % SP or GeSP (GalN/LPS-SP and GalN/LPS-GeSP group, respectively; n 7 each). After administering these diets for 7 d, each rat was intraperitoneally injected with GalN/LPS. Increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were suppressed in the GalN/LPS-GeSP group (GalN/LPS-CON v. GalN/LPS-GeSP: ALT 1052 (sem 187) v. 509 (sem 88) IU/l and AST 2183 (sem 368) v. 1170 (sem 196) IU/l) following the injection of GalN/LPS. Plasma levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and TNF-α in GeSP-fed rats were significantly lower when compared with those in the GalN/LPS-CON group (GalN/LPS-CON v. GalN/LPS-GeSP: IFN-γ 142·8 (sem 17·5) v. 66·8 (sem 9·7) pg/ml and TNF-α 72·3 (sem 15·4) v. 31·2 (sem 6·8) pg/ml). However, the decrease in these levels observed in the GalN/LPS-SP group was not as prominent as those observed in the GalN/LPS-GeSP group. Furthermore, the increase in liver catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, as well as the level of oxidised glutathione (GSSG), was more suppressed in GeSP-fed rats (GalN/LPS-CON v. GalN/LPS-GeSP: CAT 457 (sem 47) v. 262 (sem 54) U/mg liver protein; GPx 1·30 (sem 0·11) v. 0·53 (sem 0·09) U/mg liver protein; GSSG 2·18 (sem 0·33) v. 1·31 (sem 0·24) mmol/kg liver) after the injection of GalN/LPS. These changes were more pronounced in the GalN/LPS-GeSP group than in the GalN/LPS-SP group. These results suggest that GeSP could afford a significant protective effect in the alleviation of GalN/LPS-induced hepatic damage. In addition, the results indicate that GeSP is more effective than SP.

  5. Systemic Administration of Substance P Recovers Beta Amyloid-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Rat: Involvement of Kv Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Florenzano, Fulvio; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Marolda, Roberta; Palmery, Maura; Rinaldi, Anna Maria; Zona, Cristina; Possenti, Roberta; Calissano, Pietro; Severini, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Reduced levels of Substance P (SP), an endogenous neuropeptide endowed with neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties, have been found in brain and spinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Potassium (K+) channel dysfunction is implicated in AD development and the amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced up-regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits could be considered a significant step in Aβ brain toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SP could reduce, in vivo, Aβ-induced overexpression of Kv subunits. Rats were intracerebroventricularly infused with amyloid-β 25–35 (Aβ25–35, 20 µg) peptide. SP (50 µg/Kg, i.p.) was daily administered, for 7 days starting from the day of the surgery. Here we demonstrate that the Aβ infused rats showed impairment in cognitive performances in the Morris water maze task 4 weeks after Aβ25–35 infusion and that this impairing effect was prevented by SP administration. Kv1.4, Kv2.1 and Kv4.2 subunit levels were quantified in hippocampus and in cerebral cortex by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Interestingly, SP reduced Kv1.4 levels overexpressed by Aβ, both in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for a neuroprotective activity of systemic administration of SP in a rat model of AD and suggest a possible mechanism underlying this effect. PMID:24265678

  6. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  7. Effects of lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and palmitic acid on monolayer stability.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, J; Takamoto, D Y; von Nahmen, A; Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on SP-C eliminate the loss to the subphase of unsaturated lipids necessary for good adsorption and respreading by inducing a transition between monolayers and multilayers within the fluid phase domains of the monolayer. The morphology and thickness of the multilayer phase depends on the lipid composition of the monolayer and the concentration of SP-C or SP-C peptide. Lung surfactant protein SP-B and peptides based on SP-B induce a reversible folding transition at monolayer collapse that allows all components of surfactant to be retained at the interface during respreading. Supplementing Survanta, a clinically used replacement lung surfactant, with a peptide based on the first 25 amino acids of SP-B also induces a similar folding transition at monolayer collapse. Palmitic acid makes the monolayer rigid at low surface tension and fluid at high surface tension and modifies SP-C function. Identifying the function of lung surfactant proteins and lipids is essential to the rational design of replacement surfactants for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:11325728

  8. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  9. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  10. Granulicella paludicola gen. nov., sp. nov., Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov., Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. and Granulicella rosea sp. nov., acidophilic, polymer-degrading acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofey A; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2010-12-01

    Five strains of strictly aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria that form pink-red colonies and are capable of hydrolysing pectin, xylan, laminarin, lichenan and starch were isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs and were designated OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T) and TPO1014(T). Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative, non-motile rods that produced an amorphous extracellular polysaccharide-like substance. Old cultures contained spherical bodies of varying sizes, which represent starvation forms. Cells of all five strains were acidophilic and psychrotolerant, capable of growth at pH 3.0-7.5 (optimum pH 3.8-4.5) and at 2-33°C (optimum 15-22°C). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). The major menaquinone detected was MK-8. The pigments were carotenoids. The genomic DNA G+C contents were 57.3-59.3 mol%. The five isolates were found to be members of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria and displayed 95.3-98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest described relatives to strains OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T), and TPO1014(T) were members of the genera Terriglobus (94.6-95.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Edaphobacter (94.2-95.4 %). Based on differences in cell morphology, phenotypic characteristics and hydrolytic capabilities, we propose a novel genus, Granulicella gen. nov., containing four novel species, Granulicella paludicola sp. nov. with type strain OB1010(T) (=DSM 22464(T) =LMG 25275(T)) and strain LCBR1, Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6011(T) (=VKM B-2509(T) =DSM 21001(T)), Granulicella rosea sp. nov. with type strain TPO1014(T) (=DSM 18704(T) =ATCC BAA-1396(T)) and Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6028(T) (=LMG 25274(T) =VKM B-2571(T)).

  11. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  12. SP-100, a project manager's view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, Vincent C.

    1983-01-01

    Born to meet the special needs of America's space effort, the SP-100 Program testifies to the cooperation among government agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are working together to produce a 100-kW power system for use in outer space. At this point in the effort, it is appropriate to review: The approach to meet program goals; the status of activities of the Project Office, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and, because this is a meeting on materials, answers beings developed by the Project Office to vital questions on refractory alloy technology.

  13. Succinylated Apoptolidins from Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Fotso, Serge; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Shahab, Salmah; Santosa, Dwi Andreas; Ishmael, Jane E; Proteau, Philip J; Zabriskie, T Mark; Mahmud, Taifo

    2015-05-15

    Two new apoptolidins, 2'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (11) and 3'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (12), were isolated from the culture broth of an Indonesian Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242. These compounds inhibit the proliferation and viability of human H292 and HeLa cells. However, in contrast to apoptolidin A (1), they do not inhibit cellular respiration in H292 cells. It is proposed that apoptolidins are produced and secreted in their succinylated forms and 1 is the hydrolysis product of 11 and 12.

  14. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  15. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contact with it.

  16. Sp-branes: integrable multidimensional cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukh, V.; Zhuk, A.

    2006-10-01

    We investigate time-dependent solutions (Sp-brane solutions) for product manifolds consisting of factor spaces where only one of them is of a non-Ricci-flat type. Our model contains a minimally coupled free scalar field and form field (flux) as matter sources. We discuss the possibility of generating late-time acceleration of the Universe. For these models, we investigate the variation with time of the effective four-dimensional fundamental 'constants'. We show that experimental bounds for the fundamental constant variations apply strong restrictions to the considered models.

  17. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Szilagyi, Bela; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Ott, Christian; Lippuner, Jonas; Scheel, Mark; Barkett, Kevin; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal.

  18. TRPV1 receptor in the human trigeminal ganglion and spinal nucleus: immunohistochemical localization and comparison with the neuropeptides CGRP and SP.

    PubMed

    Quartu, Marina; Serra, Maria Pina; Boi, Marianna; Poddighe, Laura; Picci, Cristina; Demontis, Roberto; Del Fiacco, Marina

    2016-12-01

    This work presents new data concerning the immunohistochemical occurrence of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) receptor in the human trigeminal ganglion (TG) and spinal nucleus of subjects at different ontogenetic stages, from prenatal life to postnatal old age. Comparisons are made with the sensory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). TRPV1-like immunoreactive (LI) material was detected by western blot in homogenates of TG and medulla oblongata of subjects at prenatal and adult stages of life. Immunohistochemistry showed that expression of the TRPV1 receptor is mostly restricted to the small- and medium-sized TG neurons and to the caudal subdivision of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5C). The extent of the TRPV1-LI TG neuronal subpopulation was greater in subjects at early perinatal age than at late perinatal age and in postnatal life. Centrally, the TRPV1 receptor localized to fibre tracts and punctate elements, which were mainly distributed in the spinal tract, lamina I and inner lamina II of the Sp5C, whereas stained cells were rare. The TRPV1 receptor colocalized partially with CGRP and SP in the TG, and was incompletely codistributed with both neuropeptides in the spinal tract and in the superficial laminae of the Sp5C. Substantial differences were noted with respect to the distribution of the TRPV1-LI structures described in the rat Sp5C and with respect to the temporal expression of the receptor during the development of the rat spinal dorsal horn. The distinctive localization of TRPV1-LI material supports the concept of the involvement of TRPV1 receptor in the functional activity of the protopathic compartment of the human trigeminal sensory system, i.e. the processing and neurotransmission of thermal and pain stimuli.

  19. The capsaicin VR1 receptor mediates substance P release in toxin A-induced enteritis in rats.

    PubMed

    McVey, D C; Vigna, S R

    2001-09-01

    The mechanism by which Clostridium difficile toxin A causes substance P (SP) release and subsequent inflammation in the rat ileum is unknown. Pretreatment with the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) antagonist, capsazepine, before toxin A administration significantly inhibited toxin A-induced SP release and intestinal inflammation. Intraluminal administration of the VR1 agonist capsaicin caused intestinal inflammation similar to the effects of toxin A. Pretreatment with capsazepine before capsaicin administration also significantly inhibited capsaicin-induced intestinal inflammation. These results suggest that intraluminal toxin A causes SP release from primary sensory neurons via stimulation of VR1 receptors resulting in intestinal inflammation.

  20. Intranigral administration of substance P receptor antagonist attenuated levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinxin; Zhao, Hui; Shi, Hongjuan; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Shenyang; Zhang, Zunsheng; Zu, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Xia; Cui, Guiyun; Hua, Fang

    2015-09-01

    Levodopa (L-dopa) remains the most effective drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) has hindered its use for PD patients. The mechanisms of LID are not fully understood. Substance P (SP) receptor antagonist has been shown to reduce parkinsonism in animal models of PD, and ameliorate LID in PD rats. But the concrete mechanism is not fully understood. To address this issue, we produced a rat model of PD using 6-hydroxydompamine (6-OHDA) injections, and valid PD rats were intranigrally administrated with different doses of SP receptor antagonist LY303870 (5 nmol/day, 10 nmol/day and 20 nmol/day) following L-dopa (6 mg/kg/day, i.p.) plus benserazide (12 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 23 days. We found that nigral SP levels were increased on days 3, 7 and 14 and decreased on day 21 after 6-hydroxydompamine lesions. But nigral SP levels kept increasing after repeated L-dopa administration in PD rats. Intranigral administration of low and moderate LY303870 reduced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) while improving motor deficits in PD rats treated with L-dopa plus benserazide. Microdialysis revealed that LY303870 (10 nmol/day) treatment attenuated the increase of striatal dopamine and the reduction of γ-aminobutyric acid in ventromedial thalamus of PD rats primed with L-dopa. Additionally, LY303870 (10 nmol/day) treatment prior to L-dopa administration reduced the phosphorylated levels of dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa at Thr 34 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 as well as the levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein and Penk in L-dopa-primed PD rats. Taken together, these data showed that low and moderate SP receptor antagonists LY303870 could ameliorate LID via neurokinin 1 receptor without affecting therapeutic effect of L-dopa.

  1. Studies on bioflocculant production by a mixed culture of Methylobacterium sp. Obi and Actinobacterium sp. Mayor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioflocculants effect the aggregation of suspended solutes in solutions thus, a viable alternative to inorganic poly-ionic and synthetic organic flocculants which are associated with deleterious health problems. Consequently, a consortium of two bacteria species were evaluated for optimized bioflocculant yield following the inadequacies of axenic cultures. Results 16S rDNA nucleotide sequencing and BLAST analysis of nucleotide sequences were used to identify the bacterial species, carbon and nitrogen sources optimally supporting bioflocculant production were assessed and the purified bioflocculant characterized. Nucleotide sequences showed 97% and 96% similarity to Methylobacterium sp. AKB-2008-KU9 and Methylobacterium sp. strain 440. The second isolate, likewise, showed 98% similarity to Actinobacterium OR-221. The sequences were deposited in GenBank as Methylobacterium sp. Obi [accession number HQ537130] and Actinobacterium sp. Mayor [accession number JF799090]. Flocculating activity of 95% was obtained in the presence of Ca2+ and heat-stability was exhibited with retention of above 70% activity at 100°C in 30 min. In addition, bioflocculant yield was about 8.203 g/l. A dose of 1 mg/ml of purified bioflocculant was optimal for the clarification of Kaolin suspension (100 ml) following Jar test. FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups amongst others. Conclusions The mixed culture produced bioflocculant with high flocculating activity and an improved yield. The efficiency observed with jar test may imply industrial applicability. PMID:23915393

  2. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8807

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady D.; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-12-01

    Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Microcosm experiments were performed in which Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and bicarbonate concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Disappearance of soluble calcium was used as an indicator of CaCO3 formation; results from metabolically active microcosms were compared to controls with no cells or no carbonate added. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment with approximately 18.6 mg of calcium in the solid phase. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of calcium was removed in the solid phase. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. Removal of inorganic carbon by fixation into biomass was insignificant compared to the mass of inorganic carbon removed by incorporation into the growing CaCO3 solid.

  3. The family feud: turning off Sp1 by Sp1-like KLF proteins

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Sp1 is one of the best characterized transcriptional activators. The biological importance of Sp1 is underscored by the fact that several hundreds of genes are thought to be regulated by this protein. However, during the last 5 years, a more extended family of Sp1-like transcription factors has been identified and characterized by the presence of a conserved DNA-binding domain comprising three Krüppel-like zinc fingers. Each distinct family member differs in its ability to regulate transcription, and, as a consequence, to influence cellular processes. Specific activation and repression domains located within the N-terminal regions of these proteins are responsible for these differences by facilitating interactions with various co-activators and co-repressors. The present review primarily focuses on discussing the structural, biochemical and biological functions of the repressor members of this family of transcription factors. The existence of these transcriptional repressors provides a tightly regulated mechanism for silencing a large number of genes that are already known to be activated by Sp1. PMID:16266294

  4. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  5. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  6. Infection Rates of Wolbachia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Different Populations of Fleas.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Antonio; Gutiérrez, Sara García; Cutillas, Cristina

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a molecular detection of Bartonella sp. and Wolbachia sp. in Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) isolated from Canis lupus familiaris from different geographical areas of Spain, Iran and South Africa, and in Stenoponia tripectinata tripectinata isolated from Mus musculus from the Canary Islands has been carried out by amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA partial gene of Wolbachia sp. and intergenic spacer region (its region) of Bartonella sp. A total of 70 % of C. felis analysed were infected by W. pipientis. This percentage of prevalence was considerably higher in female fleas than in male fleas. Bartonella DNA was not detected in C. felis from dogs, while Bartonella elizabethae was detected and identified in S. t. tripectinata from M. musculus from the Canary Islands representing 43.75 % prevalence. This report is the first to identify B. elizabethae in S. t. tripectinata collected in M. musculus from the Canary Islands. Thus, our results demonstrate that this flea is a potential vector of B. elizabethae and might play roles in human infection. The zoonotic character of this bartonellosis emphasizes the need to alert public health authorities and the veterinary community of the risk of infection.

  7. Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. and Zelinkaderes brightae sp. nov. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Martin V.; Heiner, Iben; Ziemer, Ole; Neuhaus, Birger

    2007-12-01

    One new kinorhynch genus and species and one new species from the genus Zelinkaderes are described from sandy sediment off Fort Pierce, Florida. The new genus and species, Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the first trunk segment consisting of a closed ring, the second segment of a bent tergal plate with a midventral articulation and the following nine segments consisting of a tergal and two sternal plates. Cuspidate spines are not present, but flexible tubules are located on several segments, and in particular concentrated on the ventral side of the second segment. Middorsal spines are present on all trunk segments and are alternatingly offset to a position slightly lateral to the middorsal line. Zelinkaderes brightae nov. sp. is characterized by its spine formula in having middorsal spines on trunk segments 4, 6 and 8-11, lateroventral acicular spines on segment 2, lateral accessory cuspidate spines on segments 2 and 8, ventrolateral cuspidate spines on segments 4-6 and 9, lateroventral acicular spines present on segments 8 and 9, and midterminal, lateral terminal and lateral terminal accessory spines on segment 11. The spine formula of Z. brightae nov. sp. places it in a position in between Z. submersus and a clade consisting of Z. klepali and Z. floridensis. The new findings on Z. brightae nov. sp. have led us to propose an emended diagnosis for the genus.

  8. Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

    1999-03-01

    A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the São Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild.

  9. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids. PMID:19294020

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katy J.; Moore, Karen; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe. PMID:26769927

  11. A silk peptide fraction restores cognitive function in AF64A-induced Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing expression of choline acetyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yeseul; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Su Kil; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Park, Dongsun; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Yeon, Sungho; Lee, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Joo, Seong Soo; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction. The active peptide in SP-NN was identified as tyrosine-glycine with 238.1 of molecular weight. Male rats were orally administered with SP-NN (50 or 300mg/kg) and challenged with a cholinotoxin AF64A. As a result of brain injury and decreased brain acetylcholine level, AF64A induced astrocytic activation, resulting in impairment of learning and memory function. Treatment with SP-NN exerted recovering activities on acetylcholine depletion and brain injury, as well as cognitive deficit induced by AF64A. The results indicate that, in addition to a neuroprotective activity, the SP-NN preparation restores cognitive function of Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine.

  12. Changes in surfactant protein A mRNA levels in a rat model of insulin-treated diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moglia, B B; Phelps, D S

    1996-02-01

    Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Previous studies using rat models for the diabetic pregnancy have documented decreased amounts of surfactant protein mRNA in the lungs of fetuses. In this study, we measured fetal lung surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) mRNA from diabetic rats treated with insulin by daily injection or osmotic pump. Lungs were taken from fetuses on gestational d 20, and RNA was isolated and subjected to Northern blotting and densitometry to quantify SP-A mRNA. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA from untreated diabetic pregnancies was 34 +/- 2.9% of control. Insulin treatment increased levels to 55 +/- 4.2% of control values. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA levels were affected by the timing, length, and effectiveness of insulin treatment. Although levels from all treatment groups were still less than control values, insulin treatment during the last 5 or 10 d of pregnancy resulted in a substantial increase in SP-A mRNA levels over those of from untreated diabetic pregnancies. However, fetuses from the group with insulin treatment for the entire pregnancy showed decreases in fetal SP-A mRNA levels. Although the mechanism(s) responsible for the effects of diabetes and its treatment on fetal SP-A expression remain unclear, it appears unlikely that hyperglycemia is the principal cause.

  13. IBM SP high-performance networking with a GRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, J.P.

    1999-05-27

    Increasing use of highly distributed applications, demand for faster data exchange, and highly parallel applications can push the limits of conventional external networking for IBM SP sites. In technical computing applications we have observed a growing use of a pipeline of hosts and networks collaborating to collect, process, and visualize large amounts of realtime data. The GRF, a high-performance IP switch from Ascend and IBM, is the first backbone network switch to offer a media card that can directly connect to an SP Switch. This enables switch attached hosts in an SP complex to communicate at near SP Switch speeds with other GRF attached hosts and networks.

  14. The marine mites Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp. Associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Rentería, Y G; Curiel-Ramírez, S; Valdéz, J A; Rivas, G

    2000-10-01

    Two species of marine mites belonging to the families Hyadesiidae and Halacaridae, Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp., respectively, were found associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Baja California in NW México. The first species was found inside the mussel gut with an intensity ranging from one to six mites per mussel and their prevalence was from 20.0 to 46.7%; this species was also found living free in the sediment at a density of 0.7 mite/100 ml. The second species was found on the mantle and gills of the host with an intensity ranging from one to three mites per host and their prevalence was from 3.3 to 6.7%; this species was abundant (4.5 mites/100 ml) and living free in the sediment around mussel clumps. Hyadesia sp. was found alive and attached in the gut of the mussel. A histological analysis revealed this species in the lumen of intestine surrounded by mucus and attached to the epithelial cells of the intestine, where some disorder of epithelial cells was associated. Moreover, this mite may be encapsulated by hemocytes inside the digestive diverticulum, the reproductive follicle, or the connective tissue surrounding the diverticulum. No damages to branches or gills resulting from the presence of Copidognathus sp. were observed. The results suggest that these mites are occasional invaders of mussels; however, as a result of this infestation, Hyadesia sp. may produce damage in the host's tissues. This is the first record of marine mites inside the gut, reproductive follicles, branches, and mantle of a marine bivalve.

  15. Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. isolated from seaweed.

    PubMed

    Du, Zong-Jun; Lv, Guo-Qiang; Rooney, Alejandro P; Miao, Ting-Ting; Xu, Qing-Qiang; Chen, Guan-Jun

    2011-03-01

    A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium, WH0801(T), was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801(T) shared 96.1  % similarity with Agarivorans albus MKT 106(T), the type species of the genus Agarivorans. A polyphasic taxonomic study was conducted and confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation of strain WH0801(T) to the genus Agarivorans. Isolate WH0801(T) produces light-yellow-pigmented colonies; cells are Gram-stain-negative, straight or curved rods, which are motile with a single polar flagellum. Strain WH0801(T) grew in 0.5-5  % NaCl, with optimum growth at 3  % NaCl, and its optimal pH and cultivation temperature were 8.4-8.6 and 28-32 °C, respectively. Data from biochemical tests, whole-cell fatty acid profiling, 16S rRNA gene sequence studies and DNA-DNA hybridization clearly indicated that isolate WH0801(T) represented a novel species within the genus Agarivorans, for which the name Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. is WH0801(T) (=NRRL B-59247(T) =CGMCC 1.10131(T)).

  16. Development and Dynamics of Pseudomonas sp. Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Brinch, Ulla C.; Ragas, Paula C.; Andersen, Jens Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr; Molin, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 and Pseudomonas putida OUS82 were genetically tagged with the green fluorescent protein and the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein, and the development and dynamics occurring in flow chamber-grown two-colored monospecies or mixed-species biofilms were investigated by the use of confocal scanning laser microscopy. Separate red or green fluorescent microcolonies were formed initially, suggesting that the initial small microcolonies were formed simply by growth of substratum attached cells and not by cell aggregation. Red fluorescent microcolonies containing a few green fluorescent cells and green fluorescent microcolonies containing a few red fluorescent cells were frequently observed in both monospecies and two-species biofilms, suggesting that the bacteria moved between the microcolonies. Rapid movement of P. putida OUS82 bacteria inside microcolonies was observed before a transition from compact microcolonies to loose irregularly shaped protruding structures occurred. Experiments involving a nonflagellated P. putida OUS82 mutant suggested that the movements between and inside microcolonies were flagellum driven. The results are discussed in relation to the prevailing hypothesis that biofilm bacteria are in a physiological state different from planktonic bacteria. PMID:11053394

  17. SP-100 Space Reactor Power System readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, A. T.; Matteo, D. N.; Bailey, H. S.

    The SP-100 Space Reactor Power System is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An effective infrastructure of Industry, National Laboratories and Government agencies has made substantial progress since the 1988 System Design Review. Hardware development and testing has progressed to the point of resolving all key technical feasibility issues. The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety, performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996 - 1997 time frame.

  18. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied.

  19. Importance of fundamental sp, sp2, and sp3 hydrocarbon radicals in the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2012-06-05

    The most basic chemistry of products formation in hydrocarbons pyrolysis has been explored via a comparative experimental study on the roles of fundamental sp, sp(2), and sp(3) hydrocarbon radicals/intermediates such as ethyne/ethynyl (C(2)H(2)/C(2)H), ethene/ethenyl (C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(3)), and methane/methyl (CH(4)/CH(3)) in products formations. By using an in situ time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique, gas-phase products of pyrolysis of acetylene (ethyne, C(2)H(2)), ethylene (ethene, C(2)H(4)), and acetone (propanone, CH(3)COCH(3)) were detected and found to include small aliphatic products to large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of mass 324 amu. Observed products mass spectra showed a remarkable sequence of mass peaks at regular mass number intervals of 24, 26, or 14 indicating the role of the particular corresponding radicals, ethynyl (C(2)H), ethenyl (C(2)H(3)), or methyl (CH(3)), in products formation. The analysis of results revealed the following: (a) product formation in hydrocarbon pyrolysis is dominated by hydrogen abstraction and a vinyl (ethenyl, C(2)H(3)) radical addition (HAVA) mechanism, (b) contrary to the existing concept of termination of products mass growth at cyclopenta fused species like acenaphthylene, novel pathways forming large PAHs were found succeeding beyond such cyclopenta fused species by the further addition of C(2)H(x) or CH(3) radicals, (c) production of cyclopenta ring-fused PAHs (CP-PAHs) such as fluoranthene/corannulene appeared as a preferred route over benzenoid species like pyrene/coronene, (d) because of the high reactivity of the CH(3) radical, it readily converts unbranched products into products with aliphatic chains (branched product), and (e) some interesting novel products such as dicarbon monoxide (C(2)O), tricarbon monoxide (C(3)O), and cyclic ketones were detected especially in acetone pyrolysis. These results finally suggest that existing kinetic models of product formation should be modified to include

  20. Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense sp. nov., members of the Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Iskandar; Cayrou, Caroline; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2009-11-01

    An rpoB sequence-based evaluation of 100 Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) clinical isolates led to the identification of five respiratory tract isolates that were potential representatives of three novel MAC species. Distinctive phenotypic features of isolates 62863 and 5356591(T) included a pseudomycelium morphology and both esterase and acid phosphatase activities. These two isolates exhibited sequence similarities of 99.8 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 86.3 and 86.1 % for 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequence, 96.7 and 97.8 % for rpoB and 97.6 and 97.4 % for hsp65, respectively, with the type strain of Mycobacterium chimaera, the most closely related species. Isolates 3256799 and 5351974(T) lacked alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase activities. They exhibited sequence similarities of 99.6 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 90.1 and 90.4 % for ITS-1, 97.8 % for rpoB and 98.0 and 98.1 % for hsp65, respectively, with the type strain of M. chimaera, the most closely related species. Isolate 4355387(T) lacked urease and alpha-glucosidase activities, but it exhibited valine arylamidase, cystine arylamidase and acid phosphatase activities. It had sequence similarities of 99.3 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 51.8 % for ITS-1, 97.1 % for rpoB and 97.8 % for hsp65 with the type strain of Mycobacterium colombiense, the most closely related species. A phylogenetic tree based on concatenated 16S rRNA gene, ITS-1, rpoB and hsp65 sequences showed the uniqueness of these five isolates as representatives of three novel species, with bootstrap values >/=95 % in all nodes. On the basis of these phenotypic and genetic characteristics, these five isolates are proposed as representatives of three novel MAC species: Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., with strain 5356591(T) (=CCUG 56325(T) =CIP 109828(T) =CSUR P30(T)) as the type strain; Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov., with strain 5351974(T) (=CCUG 56329(T) =CIP 109830(T) =CSUR P32(T)) as the type strain; and Mycobacterium

  1. Microfungi on the Pandanaceae: Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov., L. siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. are described with a key to Linocarpon species from the Pandanaceae.

    PubMed

    Thongkantha, S; Lumyong, S; Lumyong, P; Whitton, S R; McKenzie, E H C; Hyde, K D

    2003-01-01

    Linocarpon species are reported from Pandanaceae in Australia, Brunei, Hong Kong, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Seychelles, Thailand and Vanuatu. Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov. were collected on decaying leaves of Pandanus tectorius in Hong Kong. Linocarpon siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. were collected from decaying leaves of P. penetrans in Thailand. These taxa are described, illustrated and compared with Linocarpon species with similar ascospore morphology and dimensions. Included are a synoptic table, which compares the new species to similar known species, and a dichotomous key to species of Linocarpon known from members of the Pandanaceae.

  2. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-04-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased /sup 3/H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous /sup 3/H-spiperone (/sup 3/H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound /sup 3/H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. /sup 3/H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by /sup 3/H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. /sup 3/H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of /sup 3/H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo.

  3. Effects of jnk inhibitor on inflammation and fibrosis in the ovary tissue of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Gulay; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Dönmez, Yeliz Bozdemir; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Erten, Remzi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor (SP600125) on fibrosis and inflammation in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Method: 50 Wistar-albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each): control group, sham group, PCOS group, SP600125+ PCOS group and SP600125 group. In the estradiol valerate (EV)-treated group in which PCOS was injected with a single 4 mg/kg i.p. of EV in 0.2 ml sesame oil and the rats were sacrificed on day 60. The estradiol valerate (EV)-treated + SP600125-treated group was injected with a single 4 mg/kg i.p. of EV in 0.2 ml sesame oil. As of day 60, the treatment group was additionally given 15 mg/kg i.p. of SP600125 once daily for 4 consecutive days and the rats were sacrificed on day 65. Histopathological findings (ovarian morphology, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular congestion and hyperemia) and collagen type IV immunoexpression were assessed. Results: The SP600125+ PCOS group showed a significant level of improvement in ovarian follicle morphology, edema, inflammatory infiltrate, vascular congestion and hyperemia as compared with the PCOS group. Furthermore, collagen type IV immunoexpression showed a significant reduction in staining intensity on the theca cell layer and ovary stroma as compared to the PCOS group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the therapeutic effect of SP600125 in the prevention of PCOS in an experimental model. PMID:26464620

  4. Electron microscope study of Sarcocystis sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeve, V.H.; Price, D.L.; Herman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which appear to be mechanically produced by the parasite. The microtubules within the villus-like projections of the cyst suggest that their possible function is absorptive and/or conductive with regard to the production of a toxin or the conveyance of nutritive material to the developing cells. The proposed function of submembranous filaments and their relation to the conoid is discussed. Similarities in the ultrastructure to Toxoplasma and other protozoa tend to negate the relegation of Sarcocystis to the fungi and further emphasize its protozoan nature.

  5. The Behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Banchetti, R; Nicola, R

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. was studied with the same approach as those already used for many species of ciliates. The ethogram we drew comprehends both helicoidal swimming (n = 20, r = 52.5 +/-12.2 mum, pitch = 512 +/- 101 mum, v--> = 215 +/- 43 mum/sec), periodically interrupted by irregular patterns changing the direction of the swimming of random angles and creeping on the substrate. The latter behavioral state, very common for the species we studied, occurs along tracks formed by successive elements (circular, C, vs linear segments, S) joined to each other by two kinds of reactions, which change their trajectory. The surprising similarities and the unexpected differences between the behavior of this gastrotrich and those of the ciliates already studied from this point of view are discussed, on the basis of the dimensional ranges and ecological niches shared by these two, definitely unrelated groups of organisms.

  6. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Ott, Christian; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark; Moesta, Philipp; Duez, Matthew; Foucart, Francois

    2012-03-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal. We provide estimates on the accuracy required for the LIGO scientific goals of constraining EOS parameters.

  7. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Szilagyi, Bela; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Lippuner, Jonas; Scheel, Mark; Duez, Matthew; Ott, Christian

    2013-04-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal. We provide estimates on the accuracy required for the LIGO scientific goals of constraining EOS parameters.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Shewanella sp. Strain CP20

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Carla; Martin Tay, Qi Xiang; Sun, Shuyang

    2015-01-01

    Shewanella sp. CP20 is a marine bacterium that survives ingestion by Tetrahymena pyriformis and is expelled from the protozoan within membrane-bound vacuoles, where the bacterial cells show long-term survival. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. CP20 and discuss the potential mechanisms facilitating intraprotozoan survival. PMID:25858840

  9. Sp4-dependent repression of Neurotrophin-3 limits dendritic branching

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Belén; Valín, Alvaro; Sun, Xinxin; Gill, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of neuronal gene expression is critical to establish functional connections in the mammalian nervous system. The transcription factor Sp4 regulates dendritic patterning during cerebellar granule neuron development by limiting branching and promoting activity-dependent pruning. Here, we investigate neurotrophin-3 (NT3) as a target gene important for Sp4-dependent dendritic morphogenesis. We found that Sp4 overexpression reduced NT3 promoter activity whereas knockdown of Sp4 increased NT3 promoter activity and mRNA. Moreover, Sp4 bound to the NT3 promoter in vivo, supporting a direct role for Sp4 as a repressor of NT3 expression. Addition of exogenous NT3 promoted dendritic branching in cerebellar granule neurons. Furthermore, sequestering NT3 blocked the continued addition of dendritic branches observed upon Sp4 knockdown, but had no effect on dendrite pruning. These findings demonstrate that, during cerebellar granule neuron development, Sp4-dependent repression of neurotrophin-3 is required to limit dendritic branching and thereby promote acquisition of the mature dendritic pattern. PMID:19555762

  10. Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Oliver; Richter, Elvira; Göbel, Ulf B.; Petrich, Annette; Buchholz, Petra; Moter, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective molecular genetic analysis of 166 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates showed that 143 (86%) strains could be assigned to Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Of 97 patients from whom M. chimaera sp. nov. was isolated, only 3.3% exhibited mycobacterial lung disease, whereas all M. intracellulare isolates caused severe pulmonary infections. PMID:18760016

  11. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  12. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  14. Occurrence and clinical relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, Birgitta; Goldenberg, Oliver; Richter, Elvira; Göbel, Ulf B; Petrich, Annette; Buchholz, Petra; Moter, Annette

    2008-09-01

    Retrospective molecular genetic analysis of 166 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates showed that 143 (86%) strains could be assigned to Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Of 97 patients from whom M. chimaera sp. nov. was isolated, only 3.3% exhibited mycobacterial lung disease, whereas all M. intracellulare isolates caused severe pulmonary infections.

  15. Compositional and toxicological evaluation of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneegurt, M. A.; Arieli, B.; McKeehen, J. D.; Stephens, S. D.; Nielsen, S. S.; Saha, P. R.; Trumbo, P. R.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Compositional analyses of Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 showed high protein (50-60%) and low fat (0.4-1%) content, and the ability to synthesize vitamin B12. The amino acid profile indicated that Cyanothece sp. was a balanced protein source. Fatty acids of the 18:3n-3 type were also present. Mineral analyses indicated that the cellular biomass may be a good source of Fe, Zn and Na. Caloric content was 4.5 to 5.1 kcal g dry weight-1 and the carbon content was approximately 40% on a dry weight basis. Nitrogen content was 8 to 9% on a dry weight basis and total nucleic acids were 1.3% on a dry weight basis. Short-term feeding studies in rats followed by histopathology found no toxicity or dietary incompatibility problems. The level of uric acid and allantoin in urine and tissues was low, suggesting no excess of nucleic acids, as sometimes reported in the past for a cyanobacteria-containing diet. The current work discusses the potential implications of these results for human nutrition applications.

  16. Ogataea ganodermae sp. nov., a methanol-assimilating yeast species isolated from basidiocarps of Ganoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhao-Hui; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-06-01

    Three methanol-utilizing yeast strains were isolated from basidiocarps of Ganoderma sp. collected from a tree trunk in Mangshan Mountain, Hunan Province, southern China. These strains formed hat-shaped ascospores in unconjugated and deliquescent asci. Sequence analysis of the large-subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, electrophoretic karyotype comparison and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Ogataea, which is described as Ogataea ganodermae sp. nov. (type strain SHS 2.1(T) =CGMCC AS 2.3435(T) =CBS 10646(T)). Phylogenetically, the novel species was closely related to Ogataea pini and Ogataea henricii. The latter two taxa with similar D1/D2 sequences were confirmed to represent separate species by ITS sequence and electrophoretic karyotype comparisons.

  17. Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov., Antarctic basidioblastomycetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    New yeasts from the Ross Desert (dry valley area) of Antarctica include Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov. Cryptococcus socialis MYSW A801-3aY1 (= ATCC 56685) requires no vitamins, assimilates L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, soluble starch, sucrose, and trehalose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production, cellobiose assimilation, and failure to utilize nitrate, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%. Cryptococcus consortionis MYSW A801-3aY92 (= ATCC 56686) requires thiamine, assimilates L-arabinose, D-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, succinate, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production and failure to utilize nitrate, cellobiose, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%.

  18. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Khandeparker, Rakhee; Jalal, Thasneem

    2015-01-01

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase (α-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp. and Lactobacillus sp. was investigated using different carbon sources. Induction and repression of all these enzymes differed with carbon source and also with the organism. Wheat bran was the best carbon source for the production of xylanase and α-l-AFase, whereas both isolates showed maximum Axe production when grown on oat bran as a carbon source. Preferential utilization of a carbon source for enzyme production can give us better insights into regulatory mechanism in these marine bacteria. Elution profile as well as zymogram analysis indicated the possibility of bifunctional α-l-AFase-Axes in both marine bacteria.

  19. Source and origin of nerve fibres immunoreactive for substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the normal and chronically denervated superior cervical sympathetic ganglion of the rat.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Z F; Matthews, M R

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of sympathetic ganglia have indicated that the normal rat superior cervical ganglion contains both SP-IR and CGRP-IR fibres, and CGRP- and SP-immunoreactivity coexist in some fibres. In rat sympathetic ganglia decentralization by preganglionic denervation leads to intraganglionic increase of peptidergic fibres immunoreactive (IR) for substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide. We explored the sources of SP- and CGRP-IR fibres in normal and in chronically decentralized rat SCGs. The distribution of immunoreactivities for CGRP and SP was determined in SCGs of normal rats and of rats following preganglionic denervation followed by sensory denervation. Ganglia were studied after short-term (2-5 days) sensory denervation, and long-term (7-16 months) sympathetic denervation followed by short-term (2 days) sensory denervation. To explore for the production of SP and CGRP by intrinsic neurones within the ganglion, normal and chronically decentralized SCGs were examined following pretreatment by local in vivo application of colchicine. Normal and chronically decentralized ganglia were also injected with fluorescent tracer Fluorogold for retrograde tracing of extrinsic fibres back to their neurones of origin. The observations suggest that in normal SCG in the rat the SP-IR and CGRP-IR nerve fibres are derived via direct links from vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves and the cervical plexus, or from nerve fibres running along the cervical sympathetic trunk, and the external carotid and the internal carotid nerves. Sensory nerve inputs to the rat SCG following decentralization may contribute to the low levels of ganglionic activation observable in the autonomic failure of multiple system atrophy in man.

  20. Rate-distortion analysis of SP and SI frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, Eric; Girod, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    SP and SI frames in the H.264 video coding standard can be used for error resilience, bitstream switching or random access. Despite a widespread interest in these new types of frames, no work so far has investigated, in a systematic way, their rate-distortion efficiency. In this paper, we propose a model for the rate-distortion performance of SI and SP frames. A comparison to experimental results, obtained with our implementation of an SP encoder, recently adopted by JVT, confirms its validity. The model predicts how the relative sizes of SP and SI frames can be traded off. We analyze, both theoretically and experimentally, how this can be used to minimize the transmitted bit-rate when SP frames are used for video streaming with packet losses.

  1. Inactivation of surfactant in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Fan, B R; David-Cu, R; Taeusch, H W; Walther, F J

    1996-02-01

    Although surfactant replacement therapy has dramatically improved the outcome of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome, approximately 30% of treated infants show a transient or no response. Nonresponse to surfactant replacement therapy may be due to extreme lung immaturity and possibly surfactant inactivation. Surfactant inactivation involves aspecific biophysical events, such as interference with the formation or activity of an alveolar monolayer, and specific interactions with serum proteins, including antibodies, leaking into the alveolar space. As formulations containing surfactant proteins appear to better tolerate serum inactivation, we used an excised rat lung model to compare the susceptibility to serum inactivation of a mixture of synthetic phospholipids selected from surfactant lipid constituents, Exosurf (a protein-free synthetic surfactant), Survanta [containing surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and -C)], and a porcine surfactant (containing SP-A, -B, and -C). For each of these preparations, we used pressure/volume determinations as an in situ measure of surfactant activity and retested the same preparations after mixing with human serum, a nonspecific surfactant inactivator. Human serum inactivated porcine surfactant to a lesser extent than Survanta, Exosurf, or synthetic phospholipids. Temperature exerted a significant effect on deflation stability, as shown by a greater lung compliance in untreated, normal lungs and a larger improvement in compliance after treating lavaged lungs with synthetic phospholipids at 37 degrees C than at 22 degrees C. We conclude that surfactant containing SP-A, -B, and -C is only moderately susceptible to inactivation with whole serum and may therefore exert a greater clinical response than protein-free surfactants or those containing only SP-B and -C.

  2. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  3. Spermatogenesis of riffle bugs, Rhagovelia whitei and Rhagovelia sp (Veliidae), and backswimmers Martarega sp (Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Castanhole, M M U; Pereira, L L V; de Souza, H V; Itoyama, M M

    2012-08-06

    We examined the course of spermatogenesis and the meiotic chromosome complements in aquatic species of true bugs, Heteroptera. The chromosome complement of the Veliidae species was 2n = 39 (38A + X0) and 23 (22A + X0) in Rhagovelia whitei and Rhagovelia sp, respectively, and in the species of the Notonectidae (Martarega sp) it was 26 (22A + 2m + XY); all collected from the region of São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. An impressive characteristic of the first analysis was the size of the cells belonging to Martarega sp, which were six times larger than the same cells in Pentatomidae and twice as large as the cells in aquatic Heteroptera (Gerridae). Regarding spermatogenesis, all the species analyzed showed the same pattern: holocentric chromosomes and elongated spermatids with the chromatin distributed evenly along the head. The family Veliidae showed several bodies impregnated with silver nitrate at prophase, while the family Notonectidae displayed only one. The cells of Notonectidae also showed an evident and round body until the end of prophase I and in the family Veliidae the silver-impregnated bodies were disorganized, where the only region visualized was possibly that of the NOR. In metaphase, silver-stained regions were found at the periphery of all chromosomes in Veliidae and at the periphery of some chromosomes in Notonectidae. The spermatids of Veliidae showed a less silver-impregnated vesicle, while Notonectidae showed silver staining only in part of the nuclear membrane. Therefore, families of Heteroptera have some differences and features that can help identify and classify these species.

  4. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-04

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis.

  5. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp2 hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  6. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-23

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp(2)-sp(3) hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp(2) hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices.

  7. Cryptococcus mujuensis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus cuniculi sp. nov., basidiomycetous yeasts isolated from wild rabbit faeces.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kee-Sun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Park, Yong-Ha; Lee, Kang Hyun; Poo, Haryoung; Kwon, Gi-Seok; Kwon, O-Yu

    2006-09-01

    Two previously undescribed anamorphic yeasts, strains T-11(T) and T-26(T), recovered from wild rabbit faecal pellets collected in Muju, Korea, were identified using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The isolates were characterized by the proliferation of budding cells, positive diazonium blue B and urease reactions, the presence of Q-10 as the major ubiquinone, the presence of xylose in whole-cell hydrolysates and the inability to ferment sugars. Phylogenetic analyses based on 26S rRNA gene partial sequences revealed that strain T-11(T) was located in the Bulleromyces clade and was related to Sirobasidium intermedium, Tremella exigua, Cryptococcus cellulolyticus and Bullera pseudoalba. Strain T-26(T) was located in the Mesenterica clade and was closely related to Cryptococcus sp. F6 and Cryptococcus heveanensis CBS 8976. Sequence divergence values of more than 4 % from other described Cryptococcus species, together with the phenotypic differences, showed that the isolated yeasts represent previously unrecognized members of this genus. Therefore, two novel yeast species are proposed: Cryptococcus mujuensis sp. nov., with strain T-11(T) (=KCTC 17231(T)=CBS 10308(T)) as the type strain, and Cryptococcus cuniculi sp. nov., with strain T-26(T) (=KCTC 17232(T)=CBS 10309(T)) as the type strain.

  8. Flavobacterium orientale sp. nov., isolated from lake water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, obligately aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated SP3T and SP38, were isolated from a cold-water lake in the west of China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed for the strains. Alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains SP3T and SP38 were associated with the genus Flavobacterium and were most closely related to Flavobacterium lacus NP180T (96.4 % sequence similarity), Flavobacterium ponti GSW-R14T (95.6 %) and Flavobacterium yanchengense hgT (95.3 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SP3T and SP38 were 34.9 and 34.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. The unique respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and several unidentified polar lipids. Based on physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic data for these isolates, it was confirmed that strains SP3T and SP38 were affiliated to the genus Flavobacterium and represented a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium orientale sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP3T (=CGMCC 1.12506T=NBRC 109717T).

  9. Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov., Wickerhamiella pterostichi f.a., sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella qilinensis f.a., sp. nov., three yeast species isolated from insects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yun; Ren, Yong-Cheng; Hui, Feng-Li

    2016-10-01

    Eight strains representing three novel yeast species were isolated from insects distributed in three localities in Nanyang, Henan Province, Central China during 2014 and 2015. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene revealed that these species are members of the Wickerhamiella clade. These three novel species have a greater than 2.5 % difference from each other or their closest known species in the D1/D2 sequences. The three yeast species can also be separated from their closest known species in terms of physiological characteristics. Moreover, a sexual state could not be found in these three novel yeast species on various sporulation media. Therefore, the three novel species are described as Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 15885T=CICC 33092T=CBS 14176T), Wickerhamiellapterostichi f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 15896T=CICC 33093T=CBS 14177T) and Wickerhamiellaqilinensis f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 146103T=CICC 33062T=CBS 13929T). The MycoBank numbers of Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov., Wickerhamiellapterostichi f.a., sp. nov. and Wickerhamiellaqilinensis f.a., sp. nov. are MB 816962, MB 816963 and MB 816964, respectively.

  10. Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...

  11. Concentration-dependent effects of endogenous S-nitrosoglutathione on gene regulation by specificity proteins Sp3 and Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Khalequz; Palmer, Lisa A; Doctor, Allan; Hunt, John F; Gaston, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    The activities of certain nuclear regulatory proteins are modified by high concentrations of S-nitrosothiols associated with nitrosative stress. In the present study, we have studied the effect of physiological (low microM) concentrations of the endogenous S-nitrosothiol, GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione), on the activities of nuclear regulatory proteins Sp3 and Sp1 (specificity proteins 3 and 1). Low concentrations of GSNO increased Sp3 binding, as well as Sp3-dependent transcription of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory gene, cftr. However, higher GSNO levels prevented Sp3 binding, augmented Sp1 binding and prevented both cftr transcription and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression. We conclude that low concentrations of GSNO favour Sp3 binding to 'housekeeping' genes such as cftr, whereas nitrosative stress-associated GSNO concentrations shut off Sp3-dependent transcription, possibly to redirect cellular resources. Since low micromolar concentrations of GSNO also increase the maturation and activity of a clinically common CFTR mutant, whereas higher concentrations have the opposite effect, these observations may have implications for dosing of S-nitrosylating agents used in cystic fibrosis clinical trials. PMID:14766015

  12. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  13. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki . E-mail: haburata-tky@umin.ac.jp

    2006-02-17

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21{sup WAF1}). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers.

  14. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26621, an Arctic-lichen-associated bacterium isolated from a Cetraria sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoungseok; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bum-Keun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun

    2012-06-01

    The lichen-associated bacterial strain Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 was isolated from an Arctic lichen Cetraria sp. on Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide novel insights into the molecular principles of lichen-microbe interactions.

  15. Ligand-promoted alkylation of C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Yi; He, Jian; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2014-09-24

    9-Methylacridine was identified as a generally effective ligand to promote a Pd(II)-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H alkylation of simple amides with various alkyl iodides. This alkylation reaction was applied to the preparation of unnatural amino acids and geometrically controlled tri- and tetrasubstituted acrylic acids.

  16. Descriptions of Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. from Kashmir Valley, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. are described and illustrated from freshwater stream soil in Kashmir Valley, India. Kashmira gen. n. is characterized by having dimorphic tails: coinoid-spicate tail in female and subcylindroid with rounded, non-spicate tip wi...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Reis, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization. PMID:28104653

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M S; Reis, Margarida; Costa, Rodrigo

    2017-01-19

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization.

  19. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6), Zusanli (ST36), and Sanyinjiao (SP6); in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23) was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6) and Zusanli (ST36), needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA) apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG) was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS) and serum C peptide (C-P) were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules. PMID:27738449

  20. Substance P modulates the time course of nicotinic but not muscarinic catecholamine secretion from perfused adrenal glands of rat.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X. F.; Marley, P. D.; Livett, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    1. Substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh) are contained within the splanchnic nerve terminals in the adrenal gland and can be released in response to stress. In the rat, the release of aCh brings about secretion of catecholamines (CA) by acting on nicotinic and muscarinic receptors on the adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. In the present study, we have used a rat isolated adrenal gland preparation to investigate the effects of SP, perfused at different concentrations, on CA secretion evoked by 10(-5) M nicotine and 10(-4) M muscarine. 3. In the first 10 min stimulation period (S1), in the absence of SP, nicotine (10(-5) M) evoked substantial and equal secretion of noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad). In a second 10 min stimulation period (S2), carried out 18 min after S1, the nicotinic response was desensitized. In contrast, the muscarinic response, which preferentially evoked Ad secretion in S1 (Ad/NA: 8.7/1), was well maintained in S2. 4. SP present in S1 had no effect on desensitization of the subsequent nicotinic response in S2. 5. At low concentrations (10(-7)-10(-10) M), SP changed the time course of nicotine-induced CA secretion during S1 by enhancing CA secretion in the first 4 min and inhibiting CA secretion thereafter. The maximal effect occurred at 10(-9) M SP. 6. At a higher concentration (10(-5) M), SP inhibited total nicotinic CA secretion throughout S1 and produced a biphasic secretion of CA (depressed in the presence of SP and enhanced after wash out of SP).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1723914

  1. Wastewater treatment using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor and Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Shervin; Akbarzadeh, Abbas; Woo, Kwang-Sung; Valipour, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential use of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) followed by Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. for treating domestic wastewater generated by small communities (751 mg COD/L, 500 SCOD mg/L, 348 mg BOD5/L). Two parallel laboratory-scale models showed that the process planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. are capable of removing COD by 87% & 86%, SCOD by 90% & 88%, BOD5 by 93% & 92%, TSS by 88% & 86%, TN by 79% & 77%, PO4-P by 21% & 14% at an overall HRT of 21 (843 g COD/m(3)/day & 392 g BOD5/m(3)/day) and 27 (622 g COD/m(3)/day & 302 g BOD5/m(3)/day) hours, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated a high reduction in the MPN of total coliform and TVC as high as 99% at the outlet end of the processes. The vegetated system using Phragmites sp. showed significantly greater (p <0.05) pollutant removal efficiencies due to its extensive root and mass growth rate (p <0.05) of the plant compared to Typha sp. The Phragmites sp. indicated a higher relative growth rate (3.92%) than Typha sp. (0.90%). Microorganisms immobilized on the surface of the Bio-rack media (mean TVC: 2.33 × 10(7) cfu/cm(2)) were isolated, identified and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study illustrated that the present integrated processes could be an ideal approach for promoting a sustainable decentralization, however, Phragmites sp. would be more efficient rather than Typha sp.

  2. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  3. Discriminant analysis indicates a single sperm protein (SP22) is predictive of fertility following exposure to epididymal toxicants.

    PubMed

    Klinefelter, G R; Laskey, J W; Ferrell, J; Suarez, J D; Roberts, N L

    1997-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) compromised the fertilizing ability of proximal cauda epididymal sperm from the rat within 4 days of exposure, an effect that persisted in castrated, testosterone (T)-implanted animals, establishing direct action on the epididymis. This EDS-induced reduction in fertilizing ability was highly correlated with a quantitative decrease in specific sperm protein. Here we sought to determine whether the fertility of proximal cauda epididymal sperm recovered from animals exposed to a variety of male reproductive toxicants could be predicted by assessing quantitative changes in specific sperm protein(s), or whether more common endpoints (e.g., sperm motility, sperm morphology, serum and epididymal tissue T, cauda epididymal sperm reserves) also are required to predict fertility. Intact adult male rats were dosed with EDS (25 or 50 mg/kg), chloroethylmethanesulphonate (CEMS; 12.5 or 18.75 mg/kg), or epichlorohydrin (EPI; 3 or 6 mg/kg) daily for 4 days. Castrated, T-implanted rats were dosed with hydroxyflutamide (HFLUT; 12.5 or 25 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. On day 5, proximal cauda epididymal sperm were inseminated in utero into receptive, cervically stimulated adult females, and on day 9, fertility (implants/corpora lutea) was assessed. Fertility-was decreased by the higher dose of each toxicant (P < 0.05) and also by the lower dose of EPI and HFLUT. Likewise, an acidic 22 kDa sperm protein (SP22) was decreased quantitatively (P < 0.05) in silver-stained two-dimensional gels by the higher dose of each toxicant as well as by the lower dose of EPI and HFLUT. Although sperm motility and serum T were altered by specific exposures, these endpoints were not useful in predicting fertility. In contrast, SP22 was highly correlated (P < 0.0001; r2 = 0.83) with fertility. Indeed, the amount of SP22 correctly predicted 90% and 94% of the fertile (> 50% fertility) and subfertile (< 50 fertility) animals, respectively

  4. Strain differences in circadian drinking behaviors of ethanol and water in rats.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Powell, E W; Halberg, F

    1987-01-01

    Voluntary drinking responses to an alternating three-bottle, two-choice paradigm to tap water or to 5% ethanol were measured in adult male Fisher (Fshr; N = 14) and spontaneously hypertensive (SP; N = 16) rats for 6-9 days. All animals were singly caged and housed separately in isolation chambers. The animals received light from 0600 to 1800 (CST) daily (LD 12:12) or remained in constant darkness (DD) at room temperature (23 degrees C). Food was freely available. Water and ethanol bottles were changed daily, and volumes of the respective fluids consumed by each rat were measured. A dim red light (approximately 0.5 lux) was used in handling animals in the dark. SP rats demonstrated significant (P less than 0.05) circadian drinking patterns of water and ethanol consumption under LD and DD lighting conditions. Fshr rats, however, exhibited a circadian pattern (P less than 0.02) only with regard to water consumption under an LD 12:12 lighting schedule; they did not exhibit circadian patterns of drinking water (P less than 0.054) in DD or ethanol in LD (P less than 0.24) or in DD (P less than 0.67) conditions. Volumes of ethanol consumption were also greater (P less than 0.05) in SP rats than in Fshr rats. It is concluded that differences exist in circadian drinking behaviors for both water and ethanol intake in two strains of rats. Perhaps variation in circadian patterns is an evolutionary mechanism that programs behavior over an appropriate time span for differences in physiological needs of nocturnal animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Combination of Spirulina with glycyrrhizin prevents cognitive dysfunction in aged obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cognition enhancing effect of the combination of Spirulina and glycyrrhizin in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese aged rats. Materials and Methods: Obesity was induced in rats by administration of MSG (intraperitoneally, 4 mg/g body weight) for 14 consecutive days from day 1 after birth. Subsequently, the animals were allowed to grow for 18 months with food and water ad libitum. Hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, leptin resistance, were monitored in these animals. Cognitive status was assessed by Barne's maze task and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels. Further, the animals were treated with Spirulina (Sp) (oral route, 1 g/Kg body weight, for 30 days) alone or glycyrrhizin (Gly) alone (intraperitoneal route, 0.1 mg/Kg, on day 15 and day 21), or their combination (SpGly). Counting of the treatment days was done by considering first day of Sp administration as day 1. After the completion of 30 days of Spirulina treatment or 2 doses of Gly administration or the combination (SpGly) treatment, the animals were left for 3 weeks. They were then were assessed for their biochemical and cognitive changes. Results: The combination of Sp with Gly showed a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in glucose, cholesterol, leptin levels in the serum with improvement in cognitive functions with concomitant reduction in AChE activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates (P < 0.0001) of the obese rats. Conclusion: SpGly combination has a potential role in reversing cognitive dysfunctions associated with aging and obesity. PMID:25821309

  6. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-07-08

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes.

  7. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes. PMID:27060138

  8. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  9. Safety evaluation of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bauter, M; Ryan, A S

    2011-12-01

    The safety of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. containing 40-45 wt% DHA and up to 10 wt% EPA was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study with in utero exposure, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. In the 90-day study, DHA-rich Algal Oil was administered at dietary levels of 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt% along with two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt% of concentrated Fish Oil. There were no treatment-related effects of DHA-rich Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis. Increases in absolute and relative weights of the liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals (adrenals and spleen with histological correlates) were observed in both the Fish Oil- and the high-dose of DHA-rich Algal Oil-treated females and were not considered to be adverse. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for DHA-rich Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average DHA-rich Algal Oil intake of 4260 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats.

  10. The role of OX22- helper T cells in protective immunity to reinfection with Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Ito, A; Okamoto, K

    1993-12-01

    Spleen cells (SpC) and mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNC) from F344 donor rats actively immunized by oral inoculation with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were syngeneically transferred into previously uninfected recipient rats by intravenous injection. Recipient rats were challenged with eggs after cell transfer. The degree of immunity was assessed by counting the number of growing metacestodes (MC) in the liver and compared with that in controls. Transfer of 2 x 10(8) SpC, obtained from donors immunized for ten or more (but not for three or five) days before cell transfer inhibited the establishment of most of MC. There were approximately 86-88% reductions in MC recoveries. SpC (2 x 10(8)) obtained from donors immunized for ten days inhibited the establishment of most of MC in recipient rats when transferred nought, two, or 24 h (but not 48 h) before egg challenge. Functional cells in the immune SpC were helper T cells W3/25+, OX8- and OX22-. However, immune MLNC obtained from donors immunized for three to ten days before cell transfer had no effect on transferring immunity.

  11. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ewan St John; Blass, Gregory R C; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-05-24

    Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP) in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  12. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  13. Natural Anti-Infective Pulmonary Proteins: In Vivo Cooperative Action of Surfactant Protein SP-A and the Lung Antimicrobial Peptide SP-BN.

    PubMed

    Coya, Juan Manuel; Akinbi, Henry T; Sáenz, Alejandra; Yang, Li; Weaver, Timothy E; Casals, Cristina

    2015-08-15

    The anionic antimicrobial peptide SP-B(N), derived from the N-terminal saposin-like domain of the surfactant protein (SP)-B proprotein, and SP-A are lung anti-infective proteins. SP-A-deficient mice are more susceptible than wild-type mice to lung infections, and bacterial killing is enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing SP-B(N). Despite their potential anti-infective action, in vitro studies indicate that several microorganisms are resistant to SP-A and SP-B(N). In this study, we test the hypothesis that these proteins act synergistically or cooperatively to strengthen each other's microbicidal activity. The results indicate that the proteins acted synergistically in vitro against SP-A- and SP-B(N)-resistant capsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae (serotype K2) at neutral pH. SP-A and SP-B(N) were able to interact in solution (Kd = 0.4 μM), which enabled their binding to bacteria with which SP-A or SP-B(N) alone could not interact. In vivo, we found that treatment of K. pneumoniae-infected mice with SP-A and SP-B(N) conferred more protection against K. pneumoniae infection than each protein individually. SP-A/SP-B(N)-treated infected mice showed significant reduction of bacterial burden, enhanced neutrophil recruitment, and ameliorated lung histopathology with respect to untreated infected mice. In addition, the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in lung homogenates increased early in infection in contrast with the weak inflammatory response of untreated K. pneumoniae-infected mice. Finally, we found that therapeutic treatment with SP-A and SP-B(N) 6 or 24 h after bacterial challenge conferred significant protection against K. pneumoniae infection. These studies show novel anti-infective pathways that could drive development of new strategies against pulmonary infections.

  14. Do local vasomotor effects elicit the motor deficits induced by intrathecally applied substance P antagonists in the rat?

    PubMed

    Barber, A; Wild, A; Wedel, R

    1987-09-23

    The intrathecal application of the substance P (SP) antagonists [D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]SP (DPDT) and [D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]SP (DAPTL) to the lumbar region of intact, freely moving rats produced laming of the hindlimbs at doses of 0.375 nmol and above, and 1.5 nmol and above, respectively. In addition, the administration of DPDT (doses of 25 and 0.18 nmol) and DAPTL (25 and 0.6 nmol) produced a powerful constriction of the dorsal median spinal vein (DMSV) in decerebrated, unanaesthetised rats. Intrathecal SP (25 or 1.0 nmol) had a similar action on the spinal circulation to DPDT and DAPTL, though laming was first observed at doses of 30 nmol and higher. This suggests that intrathecally applied SP antagonists do not elicit laming by causing an obstruction of the venous drainage of the spinal cord. Disturbances of the spinal circulation could, however, influence the results of behavioural or physiological experiments in which SP or its analogues are administered intrathecally.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading species isolated from Hawaiian soils: Mycobacterium crocinum sp. nov., Mycobacterium pallens sp. nov., Mycobacterium rutilum sp. nov., Mycobacterium rufum sp. nov. and Mycobacterium aromaticivorans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hennessee, Christiane T; Seo, Jong-Su; Alvarez, Anne M; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants. In this study, both pristine and contaminated soils were sampled as a source of PAH-degrading organisms. Nine strains isolated from these soils were identified as rapidly growing members of the genus Mycobacterium through basic phenotypic characteristics and through sequence similarity of three genes. Because the sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene is relatively high among members of this genus, additional conserved genes encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and a heat-shock protein (hsp65) were sequenced. Several analyses were completed to differentiate the strains from one another and to determine their species-level taxonomy, including fatty acid methyl ester analysis, biochemical tests and substrate-utilization profiling. A phylogenetic tree incorporating sequences for all three genes was constructed with the isolates and their close described relatives. Results for biochemical tests, substrate-utilization tests and DNA sequencing were compared with those of the phylogenetically similar organisms to establish the isolated strains as representatives of novel species with characteristics unlike those of previously described species of Mycobacterium. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization was performed between strains and their close relatives to confirm their position within novel species. Our results demonstrated that the isolates represent five novel species, which were named Mycobacterium crocinum sp. nov. (type strain czh-42(T) =ATCC BAA-1373(T) =CIP 109262(T); reference strains czh-1A =ATCC BAA-1370 =CIP 109266 and czh-3 =ATCC BAA-1371=CIP 109267), Mycobacterium pallens sp. nov. (type strain czh-8(T) =ATCC BAA-1372(T) =CIP 109268(T)), Mycobacterium rutilum sp. nov. (type strain czh-117(T) =ATCC BAA-1375(T) =CIP 109271(T); reference strains czh-107 =ATCC BAA-1374 =CIP 109270 and czh-132 =ATCC BAA-1376 =CIP 109272), Mycobacterium rufum sp. nov. (type strain JS14(T

  16. Volcanic Soils as Sources of Novel CO-Oxidizing Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov., Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov., Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov., Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov., and Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that members of the Burkholderiales were important in the succession of aerobic, molybdenum-dependent CO oxidizing-bacteria on volcanic soils. During these studies, four isolates were obtained from Kilauea Volcano (Hawai'i, USA); one strain was isolated from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) during a separate study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the Pico de Orizaba isolate and the isolates from Kilauea Volcano were provisionally assigned to the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia, respectively. Each of the isolates possessed a form I coxL gene that encoded the catalytic subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH); none of the most closely related type strains possessed coxL or oxidized CO. Genome sequences for Paraburkholderia type strains facilitated an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and average nucleotide identities (ANI). ANI did not exceed 95% (the recommended cutoff for species differentiation) for any of the pairwise comparisons among 27 reference strains related to the new isolates. However, since the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among this set of reference strains was 98.93%, DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) were performed for two isolates whose 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with their nearest phylogenetic neighbors were 98.96 and 99.11%. In both cases DDH values were <16%. Based on multiple variables, four of the isolates represent novel species within the Paraburkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov. (type strain I2(T) = DSM 28029(T) = LMG 27952(T)); Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov. (type strain WA(T) = DSM 28027(T) = LMG 27949(T)); Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov. (type strain PP52-1(T) = DSM 28028(T) = LMG 27950(T)); and Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov. (type strain DNBP6-1(T) = DSM 28030(T) = LMG 28140(T)). The remaining isolate represents the first CO-oxidizing member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex: Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. (type strain PO-04-17-38(T) = DSM

  17. Volcanic Soils as Sources of Novel CO-Oxidizing Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov., Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov., Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov., Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov., and Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Carolyn F.; King, Gary M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that members of the Burkholderiales were important in the succession of aerobic, molybdenum-dependent CO oxidizing-bacteria on volcanic soils. During these studies, four isolates were obtained from Kilauea Volcano (Hawai‘i, USA); one strain was isolated from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) during a separate study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the Pico de Orizaba isolate and the isolates from Kilauea Volcano were provisionally assigned to the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia, respectively. Each of the isolates possessed a form I coxL gene that encoded the catalytic subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH); none of the most closely related type strains possessed coxL or oxidized CO. Genome sequences for Paraburkholderia type strains facilitated an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and average nucleotide identities (ANI). ANI did not exceed 95% (the recommended cutoff for species differentiation) for any of the pairwise comparisons among 27 reference strains related to the new isolates. However, since the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among this set of reference strains was 98.93%, DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) were performed for two isolates whose 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with their nearest phylogenetic neighbors were 98.96 and 99.11%. In both cases DDH values were <16%. Based on multiple variables, four of the isolates represent novel species within the Paraburkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov. (type strain I2T = DSM 28029T = LMG 27952T); Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov. (type strain WAT = DSM 28027T = LMG 27949T); Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov. (type strain PP52-1T = DSM 28028T = LMG 27950T); and Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov. (type strain DNBP6-1T = DSM 28030T = LMG 28140T). The remaining isolate represents the first CO-oxidizing member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex: Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. (type strain PO-04-17-38T = DSM 28031T = LMG 28138T

  18. Sudden Death Following Selective Neuronal Lesions in the Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarii

    PubMed Central

    Talman, William T.; Lin, Li-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    In efforts to assess baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats in which substance P (SP) or catecholamine transmission had been eliminated we studied animals after bilateral injections into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of SP or stabilized SP (SSP) conjugated to saporin (SP-SAP or SSP-SAP respectively) or SAP conjugated to an antibody to dopamine-β-hydroxylase (anti-DBH-SAP). We found that SP- and SSP-SAP eliminated NTS neurons that expressed the SP neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) while anti-DBH-SAP eliminated NTS neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DBH. The toxins were selective. Thus SP-or SSP-SAP did not eliminate TH/DBH neurons and anti-DBH-SAP did not eliminate NK1R neurons in the NTS. Each toxin, however, led to chronic lability of arterial blood pressure, diminished baroreflex function, cardiac ventricular irritability, coagulation necrosis of cardiac myocytes and, in some animals, sudden death associated with asystole. However, when TH/DBH neurons were targeted and eliminated by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), none of the cardiovascular or cardiac changes occurred. The studies reviewed here reveal that selective lesions of the NTS lead to altered baroreflex control and to cardiac changes that may lead to sudden death. Though the findings could support a role for SP or catecholamines in baroreflex transmission neither is proven in that NK1R colocalizes with glutamate receptors. Thus neurons with both are lost when treated with SP- or SSP-SAP. In addition, loss of catecholamine neurons after treatment with 6-OHDA does not affect cardiovascular control. Thus, the effect of the toxins may depend on an action of SAP independent of the effects of the SAP conjugates on targeted neuronal types. PMID:23245583

  19. The Physiologic Effects of Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, and Hypothermia Used for Anesthesia in Neonatal Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Huss, Monika K; Chum, Helen H; Chang, Angela G; Jampachairsi, Katechan; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding effective anesthetic regimens for neonatal rat pups is limited. Here we investigated whether isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia maintains physiologic parameters more consistently than does hypothermia anesthesia in neonatal rat pups. Rat pups (age, 4 d) were randomly assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane, or hypothermia. Physiologic parameters monitored at 1, 5, 10, and 15 min included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen saturation (%SpO2). Other parameters evaluated were loss and return of righting reflex, paw withdrawal reflex, and maternal acceptance. Corticosterone and glucose were sampled at 20 min and 24 h after anesthesia induction. Once a surgical plane of anesthesia was achieved, a skin incision was made on the right lateral thigh. After the procedure, all pups were accepted and cared for by their dam. Isoflurane- and sevoflurane-treated pups maintained higher HR, RR, %SpO2, and glucose levels than did hypothermia-treated pups. For both the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups, HR and RR were significantly lower at 10 and 15 min after anesthesia than at 1 min. Compared with hypothermia, isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia provided shorter times to loss of and return of the righting reflex. Although corticosterone did not differ among the groups, glucose levels were higher at 20 min after anesthesia induction than at 24 h in all anesthetic groups. We conclude that both isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia maintain physiologic parameters (HR, RR, %SpO2) more consistently than does hypothermia anesthesia in 4-d-old rat pups.

  20. Friedmanniella flava sp. nov., a soil actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefang; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, Yabo; Xin, Yuhua; He, Hongju

    2013-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain W6(T), was isolated from a soil sample of Yunnan Province, China. The bacterium was aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and Gram-stain-positive. Genetic, phenotypic and chemical properties of the isolate were studied. 16S rRNA gene sequence data suggested that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Friedmanniella and shared 98.6% sequence similarity with Friedmanniella antarctica DSM 11053(T) and Friedmanniella okinawensis DSM 21744(T), the most closely related species. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, and mycolic acids were absent. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H4) and the predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0. The phospholipid profile contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain W6(T) was 72 mol%. Strain W6(T) showed 30.0% and 28.5% DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, to F. antarctica DSM 11053(T) and F. okinawensis DSM 21744(T). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain W6(T) should be assigned to the genus Friedmanniella as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Friedmanniella flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W6(T) ( = CGMCC 4.6856(T) =JCM 17701(T)).

  1. Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Curotto, Sandra Mara Rotter; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2009-07-07

    In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) of all Plasmodium organisms. This revealed three positive animals. Products from two samples were purified and sequenced. The results showed less than 1% divergence between the two capybara sequences. When compared with GenBank sequences, a 55% similarity was obtained to Toxoplasma gondii and a higher similarity (73-77.2%) was found to ssrRNAs from Plasmodium species that infect reptile, avian, rodents, and human beings. The most similar Plasmodium sequence was from Plasmodium mexicanum that infects lizards of North America, where around 78% identity was found. This work is the first report of Plasmodium in capybaras, and due to the low similarity with other Plasmodium species, we suggest it is a new species, which, in the future could be denominated "Plasmodium hydrochaeri".

  2. Taxonomic study of bacteria isolated from plants: proposal of Sphingomonas rosa sp. nov., Sphingomonas pruni sp. nov., Sphingomonas asaccharolytica sp. nov., and Sphingomonas mali sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Sakane, T; Yanagi, M; Yamasato, K; Hamana, K; Yokota, A

    1995-04-01

    The taxonomic positions of 10 strains of 3-ketolactose-forming bacteria which were isolated from the roots of plants (Rosa sp., Psychotria nairobiensis, Ardisia crispa, Prunus persica, and apple trees) were investigated. The DNA base compositions of these strains ranged from 64.0 to 65.7 mol%, the isoprenoid quinone of each strain was ubiquinone 10, 3-hydroxy fatty acids were lacking in the cellular fatty acids of these organisms, and all of the strains contained a sphingolipid with the long-chain base dihydrosphingosin. These are characteristics of the genus Sphingomonas. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison data, we propose the following four new species of the genus Sphingomonas: Sphingomonas rosa (type strain, IFO 15208) for the strains isolated from rose plants and formerly named [Agrobacterium rhizogenes]; Sphingomonas pruni (type strain, IFO 15498) for the strains isolated from Prunus persica; and Sphingomonas asaccharolytica (type strain, IFO 15499) and Sphingomonas mali (type strain, IFO 15500) for the strains isolated from apple trees. Two strains which were isolated from Psychotria nairobiensis and formerly named [Chromobacterium lividum] were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strains.

  3. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications.

  4. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-09-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  5. Mineralization of phenanthrene by a Mycobacterium sp

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, W.F.; Jones, G.E.

    1988-04-01

    A Mycobacterium sp., designated strain BG1, able to utilize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from estuarine sediment following enrichment with the hydrocarbon. Unlike other phenanthrene degraders, this bacterium degraded phenanthrene via 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid without accumulating this or other aromatic intermediates, as shown by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degradation proceeded via meta cleavage of protocatechuic acid. Different nonionic surfactants (Tween compounds) solubilized the phenanthrene to different degrees and enhanced phenanthrene utilization. The order of enhancement, however, did not correlate perfectly with increased solubility, suggesting physiological as well as physicochemical effects of the surfactants. Plasmids of approximately 21, 58, and 77 megadaltons were detected in cells grown with phenanthrene but not in those which, after growth on nutrient media, lost the phenanthrene-degrading phenotype. Given that plasmid-mediated degradations of aromatic hydrocarbons generally occur via meta cleavages, it is of interest that the addition of pyruvate, a product of meta cleavage, supported rapid mineralization of phenanthrene in broth culture; succinate, a product of ortho cleavage, supported growth but completely repressed the utilization of phenanthrene. The involvement of plasmids may have given rise to the unusual degradation pattern that was observed.

  6. Enterococcus saccharominimus sp. nov., from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Vancanneyt, M; Zamfir, M; Devriese, L A; Lefebvre, K; Engelbeen, K; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Amar, M; De Vuyst, L; Haesebrouck, F; Swings, J

    2004-11-01

    Four isolates, which were obtained from Belgian, Moroccan and Romanian dairy products, constituted a homogeneous but unidentified taxon after screening with whole-cell protein fingerprinting. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis classified representative strains in the genus Enterococcus. Highest sequence similarities of 98.6 and 98.0 % were obtained with the species Enterococcus sulfureus and Enterococcus saccharolyticus, respectively. Growth characteristics, biochemical features, tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and DNA G+C contents of selected strains demonstrated that they represent a single, novel Enterococcus species. It differs phenotypically from other enterococci in characteristics commonly considered as typical of this genus: no growth in 6.5 % NaCl or 0.4 % sodium azide, and no acid production from a wide range of carbohydrates. The name Enterococcus saccharominimus sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species; the type strain (LMG 21727(T)=CCM 7220(T)) was isolated from contaminated pasteurized cow's milk.

  7. Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

    2012-03-30

    Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 μN in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates.

  8. Citrobacter bitternis sp. nov. isolated from bitterns.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Joo; Park, Myoung Kyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we reported two gram-negative bacteria that were isolated from bitterns, designated as SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20, representing a novel species of Citrobacter. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were found to be closely related and showed the highest pairwise similarity with Citrobacter farmeri CDC 2992-81(T) (97.1-97.3 %) and other Citrobacter species. Cellular fatty acid analysis revealed that the profiles of strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 were similar to those of related species of Citrobacter. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (31.5 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c, 19.7 %), summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 ω6c, 11.9 %), C17:0 cyclo (10.7 %), and summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10928, 9.5 %). Although the strains could utilize sucrose and raffinose as a carbon source, they did not produce ornithine decarboxylase and urease. The biochemical and genotypic characteristics indicate that strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 represent a novel species of Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter bitterns sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SKKU-TP7(T) (=KCTC 42139(T) = JCM 30009(T)).

  9. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements.

  10. Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov., isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Bryndová, Hana; Holochová, Pavla; Kosina, Marcel; Maslanová, Ivana; Sedlácek, Ivo

    2012-07-01

    Eight Gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterial strains were isolated during screening of enterococcal populations on plants. rep-PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)(5) primer showed that the isolates constituted a single cluster that was separate from all known enterococcal species. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis of three representative strains showed that the isolates belonged to the genus Enterococcus and that they clustered with the Enterococcus faecalis species group. Sequencing of the genes for the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) and the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) also revealed the isolates' separate taxonomic position. Application of whole-cell protein fingerprinting, automated ribotyping and extensive phenotyping demonstrated the genetic and phenotypic homogeneity of the isolates and confirmed their separate position within the E. faecalis species group. The isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CCM 7889(T) (=LMG 26214(T)=C27(T)).

  11. Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nevzat; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodfellow, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain positive actinobacterial strain, designated KT1403(T), was isolated from a soil sample, collected from Karpaz, Magusa, Northern Cyprus, and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Morphological characteristics and chemotaxonomic data indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Phytomonospora. The cell wall of the novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and galactose, glucose and mannose as the major sugars in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids in the cell membrane were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H4). The major fatty acids were found to be iso C15:0 , anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KT1403(T) belongs to the genus Phytomonospora with a sequence similarity of 99.73 % with Phytomonospora endophytica, the type species of the genus. DNA-DNA hybridization further differentiated strain KT1403(T) from its near phylogenetic neighbour, P. endophytica DSM 45386(T) (29.0 ± 2.2 % DNA relatedness). Therefore, it is proposed that strain KT1403(T) represents a novel species of the genus Phytomonospora, for which the name Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KT1403(T) (=KCTC 29479(T) = DSM 46767(T)).

  12. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

    1993-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  13. Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Faria, Cátia; Lopes, Ana R; Svensson, Liselott; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Ferreira, António C Silva; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2009-12-01

    Strain VC-230(T) was isolated from homemade vermicompost produced from kitchen waste. The isolate was a Gram-negative-staining, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod-shaped bacterium able to grow at 15-37 degrees C and pH 6-8. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain VC-230(T) was determined to belong to the family Sphingomonadaceae by its clustering with type strains of the genus Sphingobium, with Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 33790(T) (97.7 %) and Sphingobium herbicidovorans DSM 11019(T) (97.4 %) as its closest neighbours. The polar lipid pattern, the presence of spermidine and ubiquinone 10, the predominance of the cellular fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c/9t/12t, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA supported the affiliation of this organism to the genus Sphingobium. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses verify that strain VC-230(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VC-230(T) (=CCUG 55809(T) =DSM 21299(T)).

  14. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)).

  15. Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-Bin; Wang, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Li, Shun-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Strain YF-2(T), a Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, light-yellow-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from soil samples collected in the city of Yuncheng, Shanxi province of China. Strain YF-2(T) grew over a temperature range of 25-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YF-2(T) was closely related to strains Flavobacterium akiainvivens CIP 110358(T) and Flavobacterium hauense KCTC 32147(T) with 95.99 and 95.92 % sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-2(T) were Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (21.97 %), iso-C15:0 (18.65 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (11.41 %), C16:0 (9.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (6.21 %). It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone MK-6 as major polar lipid and respiratory quinone, respectively. Strain YF-2(T) differs from other Flavobacterium species in many characteristics and represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain YF-2(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014079(T) = JCM 30153(T)).

  16. Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Yuan, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Jie

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T3T, was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. Analysis of the16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain T3T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens DSM 19382T (96.8 %). The novel strain was able to grow at 10-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown glycolipids, five unknown aminolipids and four unidentified lipids, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant fatty acids were C16  :  1ω7c and/or C16  :  1ω6c and iso-C15  :  0. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36 mol  %. Based on these data, strain T3T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = CGMCC 1.12926T = JCM 30113T).

  17. Flavobacterium fontis sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jeesun; Kang, Ji Young; Jahng, Kwang Yeop

    2013-05-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel bacterial strain, designated MIC3010(T), which was isolated from a freshwater pond in Jeonju, Republic of Korea. Cells of the isolate were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae, with Flavobacterium haoranii LQY-7(T) as its closest relative, with a similarity of 94.2 %. The predominant fatty acids of strain MIC3010(T) were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile of strain MIC3010(T) revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and one unidentified lipid (L1) as major components. In addition, two aminolipids (AL1, AL2) and one glycolipid were present in small amounts. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 41.0 mol%. The strain contained MK-6 as the major quinone and sym-homospermidine as the predominant polyamine. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is concluded that strain MIC3010(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium fontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MIC3010(T) ( = KACC 16593(T) = JCM 18212(T)).

  18. Flavobacterium yanchengense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Guiqin; Li, Yang-Yang; Guan, Yi-Ting; Wang, Jun; Li, Shun-Peng; Hong, Qing

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, hg(T), resembling members of the genus Flavobacterium, was isolated from soil, and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain hg(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 30 °C in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 34 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain hg(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain hg(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Flavobacterium were below 94.7 %. Strain hg(T) differed from phylogenetically related species of the genus Flavobacterium in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain hg(T) (= CCTCC AB 2012099(T) = KACC 16855(T)) was classified in the genus Flavobacterium as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium yanchengense sp. nov. is proposed.

  19. PKCɛ mediates substance P inhibition of GABAA receptors-mediated current in rat dorsal root ganglion.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ke-tao; Shi, Wen-yan; Wang, Ying-zi; Si, Jun-qiang

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated response in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated. In freshly dissociated rat DRG neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record GABA-activated current and sharp electrode intracellular recording technique was used to record GABA-induced membrane depolarization. Application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) induced an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner in 114 out of 127 DRG neurons (89.8 %) examined with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) evoked a depolarizing response in 236 out of 257 (91.8%) DRG neurons examined with intracellular recordings. Application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) suppressed the GABA-activated inward current and membrane depolarization. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent and could be blocked by the selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors antagonist spantide but not by L659187 and SR142801 (1 μmol/L, n=7), selective antagonists of NK2 and NK3. The inhibitory effect of SP was significantly reduced by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, respectively. The PKA inhibitor H-89 did not affect the SP effect. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of SP on GABA-activated current was nearly completely removed by a selective PKCε inhibitor epilon-V1-2 but not by safingol and LY333531, selective inhibitors of PKCα and PKCβ. Our results suggest that NK1 receptor mediates SP-induced inhibition of GABA-activated current and membrane depolarization by activating intracellular PLC-Ca²⁺-PKCε cascade. SP might regulate the excitability of peripheral nociceptors through inhibition of the "pre-synaptic inhibition" evoked by GABA, which may explain its role in pain and neurogenic inflammation.

  20. The growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. cells in the presence of thorium.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Juliana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23 × 10(6) to 4.27 × 10(5) and 8.57 × 10(5) cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65 × 10(4) cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25 × 10(5) and 5.12 × 10(5) cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies.

  1. Removal of Pb (II) by immobilized and free filaments of marine Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muthukannan Satheesh; Rajeshwari, Kamaraj; Johnson, Shani; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2011-09-01

    Pb(2+) removal ability of the immobilized and free filaments of marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 was studied using batch experiments. Biosorption of lead by immobilized filaments was studied as a function of pH (2, 4, 6, 8, 10), contact time (5-180 min) and initial lead concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) and the removal efficiency of free filaments was studied by culturing in the marine medium with the initial concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) at pH 7 and incubated for 10 days. The maximum percentage removal was observed at 25 min for immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and 30 min for immobilized Phormidium sp. NTMS02. At 4th and 6th day of incubation, 89% and 77% removal was observed at 1 mg/L of initial lead concentration by free filaments of Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively and further the removal was decreased with increasing concentration. Chlorophyll-a content was decreased in a dose dependent manner. About 40 and 50% reduction of chlorophyll-a was observed at higher concentration in Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively. The adsorption capacity of immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 was found to be (Q(max)) 217.39 which is comparatively higher than other sorbents. The Pb(2+) removal efficiency was performed as described in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. These organisms is found to fit better by the Langmuir isotherms.

  2. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils.

  3. Combinations of fluorescently labeled pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in phospholipid films.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, K; Taneva, S G; Perez-Gil, J; Cruz, A; Keough, K M

    1997-01-01

    Hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant (PS) proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) modulate the surface properties of PS lipids. Epifluorescence microscopy was performed on solvent-spread monolayers of fluorescently labeled porcine SP-B (R-SP-B, labeled with Texas Red) and SP-C (F-SP-C, labeled with fluorescein) in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (at protein concentrations of 10 and 20 wt%, and 10 wt% of both) under conditions of cyclic compression and expansion. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectroscopy of R-SP-B and F-SP-C indicated that the proteins were intact and labeled with the appropriate fluorescent probe. The monolayers were compressed and expanded for four cycles at an initial rate of 0.64 A2 x mol(-1) x s(-1) (333 mm2 x s x [-1]) up to a surface pressure pi approximately 65 mN/m, and pi-area per residue (pi-A) isotherms at 22 +/- 1 degrees C were obtained. The monolayers were microscopically observed for the fluorescence emission of the individual proteins present in the film lipid matrix, and their visual features were video recorded for image analysis. The pi-A isotherms of the DPPC/protein monolayers showed characteristic "squeeze out" effects at pi approximately 43 mN/m for R-SP-B and 55 mN/m for F-SP-C, as had previously been observed for monolayers of the native proteins in DPPC. Both proteins associated with the expanded (fluid) phase of DPPC monolayers remained in or associated with the monolayers at high pi (approximately 65 mN/m) and redispersed in the monolayer upon its reexpansion. At comparable pi and area/molecule of the lipid, the proteins reduced the amounts of condensed (gel-like) phase of DPPC monolayers, with F-SP-C having a greater effect on a weight basis than did R-SP-B. In any one of the lipid/protein monolayers the amounts of the DPPC in condensed phase were the same at equivalent pi during compression and expansion and from cycle to cycle. This indicated that only minor loss of components from these systems

  4. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-03-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  5. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  6. Insights into the Oxidation Mechanism of sp(2)-sp(3) Hybrid Carbon Materials: Preparation of a Water-Soluble 2D Porous Conductive Network and Detectable Molecule Separation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Siwei; Yang, Yucheng; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-01-31

    A thorough investigation of the oxidation mechanism of sp(2)-sp(3) hybrid carbon materials is helpful for the morphological trimming of graphene. Here, porous graphene (PGN) was obtained via a free radical oxidation process. We further demonstrated the difference between traditional and free radical oxidation processes in sp(2)-sp(3) hybrid carbon materials. The sp(3) part of graphene oxide was oxidized first, and well-crystallized sp(2) domains were reserved, which is different from the oxidation mechanism in a traditional approach. The obtained PGN shows excellent performance in the design of PGN-based detectable molecule separation or other biomedical applications.

  7. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  8. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  9. [Causative agent of human diphyllobothriasis--Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n].

    PubMed

    Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S

    1988-01-01

    A new cestode species, Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n., is described on the basis of experimental examination and morphological study of 51 specimens expelled from men in lower part of the Amur river and 18 specimens expelled from golden hamsters. The larval stage of this cestode is plerocercoid of type F, which is localized in muscles of Oncorhynchus keta and O. gorbuscha. D. klebanovskii sp. n. is a marine species, it differs from D. latum and other species of the genus Diphyllobothrium.

  10. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera.

  11. Increased vascular permeability in rat nasal mucosa induced by substance P and stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, L; Saria, A; Lundberg, J M; Anggård, A

    1983-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve induced an increase in vascular permeability to macromolecules and an interstitial edema in the nasal mucosa of the rat, as indicated by extravasation of Evans blue. In animals that had been treated neonatally with capsaicin, the effect of trigeminal nerve stimulation was abolished. Local application of capsaicin or substance P (SP) also induced a significant Evans blue extravasation in the nasal mucosa. In capsaicin-pretreated animals the effect of SP was still present, while the permeability increase induced by capsaicin was abolished. In conclusion, chemogenic irritation of the nasal mucosa by capsaicin induces edema probably via a local axon reflex inducing release of SP. Capsaicin-sensitive SP-containing afferents in the nasal mucosa may also be involved in the pathogenesis of nasal congestion seen in various types of rhinitis.

  12. Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov., isolated from pebbles.

    PubMed

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (>5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of < 98.41 % with all species of the genus Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26 ± 1 % and 34 ± 3 %, respectively. Based on taxonomic data obtained using a polyphasic approach, strain JC267T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC267T ( = IBRC-M 10914T = KCTC 33579T).

  13. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)).

  14. Gordonia humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Frischmann, A; Busse, H-J; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium (CC-12301(T)) was isolated from soil attached to a spawn used in the laboratory to grow the edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain CC-12301(T) was shown to belong to the genus Gordonia and was most closely related to the type strains of Gordonia hydrophobica (97.6 % similarity), Gordonia terrae (97.5 %), Gordonia amarae (97.5 %) and Gordonia malaquae (97.4 %). The quinone system was determined to consist predominantly of menaquinone MK-9(H(2)), minor amounts of MK-8(H(2)) and MK-7(H(2)). The polar lipid profile consisted of the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, moderate amounts of two phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylinositol and minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified glycolipids, two phosphoglycolipids and a phospholipid. Mycolic acids were present. These chemotaxonomic traits and the major fatty acids, which were C(16 : 1) cis9, C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) and tuberculostearic acid (10-methyl C(18 : 0)), supported the affiliation of strain CC-12301(T) to the genus Gordonia. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed clear phenotypic differentiation of strain CC-12301(T) from the most closely related Gordonia species. Strain CC-12301(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Gordonia humi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CC-12301(T) (=DSM 45298(T) =CCM 7727(T)).

  15. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  16. Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3 % identity in this gene and 96 %, 92 % and 86 % identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18 : 1ω7c in summed feature 8 (40.82 %), C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω6c in summed feature 3 (23.72 %) and C16 : 0 (15.20 %). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or β-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52 % relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) ( = LMG 26839(T) = CECT 8089(T)).

  17. (Spirosoma luteolum) sp. nov. isolated from water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Park, Sangkyu; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Ten, Leonid N; Jung, Hee-Young

    2017-03-01

    A novel Gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated as 16F6ET, was isolated from a water sample. Cells were yellowish in color and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain grew at 10-37°C (optimum at 25°C) but not at 4 and 42°C, and pH 5-7 (optimum at pH 7). It showed moderate resistance to gamma-ray irradiation. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed that strain 16F6E(T) belonged to the family Cytophagaceae of the class Cytophagia. Furthermore, this isolate showed relatively low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (90.7-93.1%) to the members of the genus Spirosoma. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, C16:0 N alcohol, and C16:0. The polar lipid profile indicated presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, an unknown amino lipid, unknown phospholipids, and unknown polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 16F6E(T) was 56.5 mol%. Phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic properties indicated that isolate 16F6ET represents a novel species within the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma luteolum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 16F6ET (=KCTC 52199(T) =JCM 31411(T)).

  18. Actinomadura scrupuli sp. nov., isolated from rock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Wan; Lee, Soon Dong

    2010-11-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain R-Ac121(T), was isolated from a small stone collected from an agricultural field in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organism formed abundant vegetative mycelium that was branched and twisted. The reverse colour of colonies was brownish-yellow. Non-motile, wrinkled arthrospores were produced directly on the substrate mycelium. Aerial mycelium and sporangia were not observed. A neighbour-joining tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate formed a distinct clade within the radiation of the family Thermomonosporaceae. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity was found with the type strain of Spirillospora rubra (97.3 % sequence similarity) followed by those of Actinoallomurus purpureus (97.0 %), Actinomadura alba (96.5 %), Actinomadura fibrosa (96.5 %) and Actinomadura echinospora (96.4 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were rhamnose, glucose, ribose, xylose and arabinose. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H(6)) and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(17 : 1)ω8c and 10-methyl C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 71.8 mol%. The combination of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data clearly supports the separation of the organism from recognized species of the genus Actinomadura and related genera. On the basis of the data presented here, strain R-Ac121(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura scrupuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain R-Ac121(T) (=KCTC 19488(T) =DSM 45225(T)).

  19. Flavobacterium chungbukense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae-Sung; Oh, Yong-Sik; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Park, A-Rum; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Roh, Dong-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    A yellow-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated CS100(T), was isolated from soil in Chungbuk, Korea. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative studies based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain CS100(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CS100(T) showed the highest sequence similarities to Flavobacterium glaciei JCM 13953(T) (97.6 %) and Flavobacterium johnsoniae KACC 11410(T) (97.1 %). Sequence similarity to other members of the genus Flavobacterium was 91.5-97.0 %. Growth occurred at 4-30 °C, at pH 5.0-9.0 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Flexirubin-type pigments were produced. Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (17.3 %), summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c, 15.5 %) and C(16 : 0) (11.8 %). The DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. Strain CS100(T) hydrolysed skimmed milk and gelatin, but not chitin or pectin, and showed oxidase and catalase activities. DNA-DNA relatedness was 3.0 % with F. glaciei JCM 13953(T) and 11.5 % with F. johnsoniae KACC 11410(T). On the basis of the evidence from this study, strain CS100(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium chungbukense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CS100(T) ( = KACC 15048(T) = JCM 17386(T)).

  20. Flavobacterium maotaiense sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingqing; Gao, Yuan; Nogi, Yuichi; Tan, Xu; Han, Lu; Zhang, Yali; Lv, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two novel strains, T9(T) and T10, were isolated from water samples collected from Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. The isolates were yellow-pigmented, Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and aerobic. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, and showed highest similarities to Flavobacterium hibernum DSM 12611(T) (97.0 %), followed by Flavobacterium granuli Kw05(T) (96.7 %) and Flavobacterium pectinovorum DSM 6368(T) (96.7 %). The novel strains were able to grow at 20-37 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 7.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5 %). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c, anteiso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1ω10c, and menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the main respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown glycolipid, two unknown aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains T9(T) and T10 were 37.7 and 36.4 mol%, respectively. According to the phenotypic and genetic data, strains T9(T) and T10 represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium maotaiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T9(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12712(T) = JCM 19927(T)).

  1. Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Sooyeon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Soo-Jin; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, non-gliding, yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated GSW-R14(T), was isolated from seawater of Geoje Island in the South Sea, Korea. Strain GSW-R14(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GSW-R14(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, joining Flavobacterium gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) by a bootstrap resampling value of 100 %. Strain GSW-R14(T) exhibited 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) and similarities of 91.2-95.2 % to other members of the genus Flavobacterium. Strain GSW-R14(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The fatty acid profile of strain GSW-R14(T) was similar to that of F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T). The DNA G+C content of strain GSW-R14(T) was 31.4 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness with F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) was 31 %. Strain GSW-R14(T) could be distinguished from F. gelidilacus and the other species of the genus Flavobacterium by its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and by several phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, strain GSW-R14(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is GSW-R14(T) (=KCTC 22802(T) =CCUG 58402(T)).

  2. Flavobacterium vireti sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Akter, Shahina; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-06-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as THG-SM1(T), was isolated from field soil collected from Suwon, South Korea. The strain was found to grow optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain THG-SM1(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium and is most closely related to Flavobacterium terrae KACC 11731(T), followed by Flavobacterium columnare KACC 11683(T) and Flavobacterium enshiense KCTC 23775(T). The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was determined to be 38.5 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, the DNA relatedness between strain THG-SM1(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbour F. terrae was below 50 %. Flexirubin-type pigments were found to be present. The major polar lipid and isoprenoid quinone were phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone 6 (MK-6), respectively. The main cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:1G, iso-C15:0 3OH, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The DNA-DNA hybridization result and differentiating chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics showed that strain THG-SM1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium vireti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SM1(T) (=KACC 18371(T) = CCTCC AB2014312(T)).

  3. Flavobacterium buctense sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Min; Tan, Xu; Jia, Li; Long, Ping-Ping; Han, Lu; Lv, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A gram-negative, non-gliding motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain T7(T), was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Flavobacterium and that shared less than 97 % sequence similarities with recognized Flavobacterium species. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Flavobacterium dankookense (96.9 %), followed by Flavobacterium cheonhonense (96.8 %) and Flavobacterium macrobrachii (96.7 %). The strain formed smooth yellow colonies on R2A plates, and cells were observed to be short rods. Strain T7(T) was found to be able to grow at 15-30 °C (optimum 25 °C), at NaCl concentration of 0-0.5 % (optimum 0 %) and at pH 6.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). Catalase and oxidase tests were positive. Polar lipids of strain T7(T) included phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified polar lipids, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified aminolipid. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed menaquinone-6 as the dominant respiratory quinone and C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:1) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain T7(T) was determined to be 38.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and genetic data obtained in this study, strain T7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium buctense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T7(T) (=JCM 30750=CGMCC 1.15216).

  4. Flavobacterium marinum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Liu, Hongcan; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin; Zhou, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-gliding, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SW105(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the Indian Ocean. The strain produced flexirubin-type pigments and grew at 15-45 °C (optimum, 35 °C), at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-1.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major menaquinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SW105(T) was 36.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolate was related to members of the genus Flavobacterium, showing the highest similarity to Flavobacterium ummariense DS-12(T) and Flavobacterium ceti CCUG 52969(T) (94.3 and 93.0 % sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain SW105(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW105(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10825(T) = JCM 18132(T)).

  5. Octadecabacterponticola sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyeon; Yoon, Sun Young; Jung, Yong-Taek; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, HDSW-34T, was isolated from seawater of Hwang-do on the Yellow Sea, South Korea, and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain HDSW-34T grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HDSW-34Tclustered with the type strains of four species of the genus Octadecabacter, showing 96.7-97.6 % sequence similarity. Strain HDSW-34T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids detected in strain HDSW-34T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain HDSW-34T was 62.0 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with Octadecabacterantarcticus CIP 106731T and Octadecabacterarcticus DSM 13978T were 11-18 %. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain HDSW-34T is separated from other recognized species of the genus Octadecabacter. On the basis of the data presented, strain HDSW-34T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Octadecabacter, for which the name Octadecabacterponticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HDSW-34T (= KCTC 52250T=NBRC 112296T).

  6. Variovorax dokdonensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2006-04-01

    A Gram-negative, motile and oval- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, DS-43T, was isolated from soil from Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 30 degrees C in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain DS-43T had Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids, which are consistent with the corresponding data for the type strain (KCTC 12459T) of Variovorax paradoxus. The DNA G+C content was 66.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-43T was most closely related to Variovorax paradoxus, the only recognized species of the genus. The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain DS-43T and V. paradoxus IAM 12373T was 97.3 %. DNA-DNA relatedness data and differential phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain DS-43T is distinguishable from V. paradoxus. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, it is proposed that strain DS-43T (=KCTC 12544T = CIP 108838T) be classified in the genus Variovorax as a member of a novel species, Variovorax dokdonensis sp. nov.

  7. Variovorax defluvii sp. nov., isolated from sewage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2012-08-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out on 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21, two strains isolated from sewage flowing into River Geumho in Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile and oval or rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed a clear affiliation of these two isolates with members of the Betaproteobacteria; they were most closely related to Variovorax boronicumulans KCTC 22010(T), Variovorax dokdonensis KCTC 12544(T), Variovorax ginsengisoli KCTC 12583(T), Variovorax paradoxus ATCC 17713(T) and Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.4-98.8% with these strains and shared 100% similarity with each other. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 were 65.5 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data [Q-8 as the major ubiquinone; C(16:0), summed feature 4 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) cyclo and summed feature 7 (C(18:1)ω7c and/or ω9t and/or ω12t) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21 to the genus Variovorax. Based on evidence derived from this polyphasic analysis, it is proposed that strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 represent a novel species for which the name Variovorax defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 2C1-b(T) ( = KCTC 12768(T) = JCM 17804(T)).

  8. Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov., isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Piyush; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium capable of growing at 15-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5-11 (optimum pH 7) was isolated from compost. Its taxonomic position was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the strain was designated RC2(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming a clade within the cluster containing Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T), and showed highest similarity to B. flexus IFO 15715(T) (98.1 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15:0 (36.83 %), anteiso-C15:0 (49.19 %) and C16:0 (5.19 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RC2(T) and B. flexus DSM 1320(T) showed a level of relatedness of 54.5 %. The polar lipid profile of strain RC2(T) showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of strain RC2(T) was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests, strain RC2(T) was clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus, and the strain is assigned to a novel species, for which the name Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC2(T) ( = MTCC 9831(T) = MCC 2100(T) = KCTC 13724(T) = CCM 7754(T)).

  9. Devosia albogilva sp. nov. and Devosia crocina sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mansi; Kumar, Mukesh; Dadhwal, Mandeep; Kaur, Jaspreet; Lal, Rup

    2009-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, IPL15(T) and IPL20(T), isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site in India, were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains belonged to the genus Devosia; highest sequence similarities of strain IPL15(T) were observed with Devosia neptuniae J1(T) and Devosia geojensis BD-c194(T) (96.2 % in each case) and the highest sequence similarity of strain IPL20(T) was observed with Devosia soli GH2-10(T) (98.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed the distinct lineages of strains IPL15(T) and IPL20(T) among members of the genus Devosia. The presence of C(18 : 0) 3-OH and C(10 : 0) 3-OH fatty acids supported their respective positions within the genus Devosia. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization results, it is concluded that strains IPL15(T) and IPL20(T) represent two distinct species of the genus Devosia for which the names Devosia albogilva sp. nov. and Devosia crocina sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The type strains are Devosia albogilva IPL15(T) (=CCM 7427(T)=MTCC 8594(T)) and Devosia crocina IPL20(T) (=CCM 7425(T)=MTCC 8590(T)).

  10. Cryobacterium flavum sp. nov. and Cryobacterium luteum sp. nov., isolated from glacier ice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Hongcan; Wen, Ying; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

    2012-06-01

    Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, strains Hh8(T), Hh15(T) and Hh40-2, were isolated from the No. 1 glacier in Xinjiang, north-west China. Colonies of strain Hh8(T) were orange-yellow, convex and round on PYG plates. Strain Hh8(T) grew at 0-19 °C and pH 5.5-10.5. Colonies of strain Hh15(T), which was able to grow at 0-20 °C and pH 5.5-12, were lemon yellow, convex and round on PYG plates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these three strains were related to members of the genus Cryobacterium. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(15:1) A. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, two novel species, Cryobacterium flavum sp. nov. (type strain Hh8(T) = CGMCC 1.11215(T) = NBRC 107879(T)) and Cryobacterium luteum sp. nov. (type strain Hh15(T) = CGMCC 1.11210(T) = NBRC 107880(T)), are proposed.

  11. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo.

    PubMed

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-16

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2-10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment.

  12. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    PubMed Central

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment. PMID:24135818

  13. Degradation of methomyl by the combination of Aminobacter sp. MDW-2 and Afipia sp. MDW-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Yang, Z; Jin, W; Wang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhu, S; Yu, X; Hu, G; Hong, Q

    2017-04-01

    Methomyl (S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate) is a kind of oxime carbamate insecticide. It is considered to be extremely toxic to nontarget organism. To date, no pure culture or consortium has been reported to have the ability to degrade methomyl completely. In this study, a methomyl-degrading enrichment E1 was obtained by using the sludge from the wastewater-treating system of a pesticide manufacturer as the original inoculant. Two bacterial strains named MDW-2 and MDW-3 were isolated from this enrichment, and they were preliminarily identified as Aminobacter sp. and Afipia sp. respectively. Strains MDW-2 and MDW-3 could coexist and degrade 50 mg l(-1) methomyl completely within 3 days by the cooperative metabolism. Methomyl was first converted to methomyl oxime and methylcarbamic acid by strain MDW-2, and the latter could be used as the carbon source for the growth of strain MDW-2. But methomyl oxime could not be sequentially degraded by strain MDW-2. However, it could be degraded and used as the carbon source by strain MDW-3.

  14. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  15. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Anionic sp(2) -sp(3) Diboron Compounds: Readily Accessible Boryl Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Sabrina; Neeve, Emily C; Apperley, David C; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Mo, Fanyang; Qiu, Di; Cheung, Man Sing; Dang, Li; Wang, Jianbo; Radius, Udo; Lin, Zhenyang; Kleeberg, Christian; Marder, Todd B

    2015-05-04

    Lewis base adducts of tetra-alkoxy diboron compounds, in particular bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2 pin2 ), have been proposed as the active source of nucleophilic boryl species in metal-free borylation reactions. We report the isolation and detailed structural characterization (by solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography) of a series of anionic adducts of B2 pin2 with hard Lewis bases, such as alkoxides and fluoride. The study was extended to alternative Lewis bases, such as acetate, and other diboron reagents. The B(sp(2) )-B(sp(3) ) adducts exhibit two distinct boron environments in the solid-state and solution NMR spectra, except for [(4-tBuC6 H4 O)B2 pin2 ](-) , which shows rapid site exchange in solution. DFT calculations were performed to analyze the stability of the adducts with respect to dissociation. Stoichiometric reaction of the isolated adducts with two representative series of organic electrophiles-namely, aryl halides and diazonium salts-demonstrate the relative reactivities of the anionic diboron compounds as nucleophilic boryl anion sources.

  16. Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov., isolated from various terrestrial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, I.R.; Kampfer, P.; Topp, E.; Warner, K.L.; Cox, M.J.; Connell, Hancock T.L.; Miller, L.G.; Larkin, M.J.; Ducrocq, V.; Coulter, C.; Harper, D.B.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial strains IMB-1T and CC495T, which are capable of growth on methyl chloride (CH3Cl, chloromethane) and methyl bromide (CH3Br, bromomethane), were isolated from agricultural soil in California fumigated with CH3Br, and woodland soil in Northern Ireland, respectively. Two pesticide- /herbicide-degrading bacteria, strains ER2 and C147, were isolated from agricultural soil in Canada. Strain ER2 degrades N-methyl carbamate insecticides, and strain C147 degrades triazine herbicides widely used in agriculture. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, these four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Aminobacter, for which the names Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. (type strain IMB-1T=ATCC 202197T=CIP 108660T=CCUG 50580T; strains ER2 and C147) and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov. (type strain CC495T=NCIMB 13798T=CIP 108661T=CCUG 50579T) are proposed. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  17. Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Campocasso, Angélique; Boughalmi, Mondher; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Two isolates of intra-amoeba-growing bacteria, LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)) and LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)), were characterized on the basis of microscopic appearance, staining characteristics, axenic growth at different temperatures and the sequences of the mip, rpoB, 16S rRNA and rnpb genes, as well as the 23S-5S region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates lay within the radius of the family Legionellaceae. Furthermore, the analysis of these genes yielded congruent data that indicated that, although strain LegM(T) clusters specifically with Legionella feeleii ATCC 35072(T) and LegA(T) clusters with Legionella nautarum ATCC 49596(T), the divergence observed between these species was greater than that observed between other members of the family. Taken together, these results support the proposal that these two isolates represent novel members of the genus Legionella, and we propose to name them Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. for LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)) and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov. for LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)).

  18. Photobacterium rosenbergii sp. nov. and Enterovibrio coralii sp. nov., vibrios associated with coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Naser, S; Hoste, B; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Munn, C; Bourne, D; Swings, J

    2005-03-01

    Six new Vibrio-like isolates originating from different species of bleached and healthy corals around Magnetic Island (Australia) were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, recA and rpoA gene sequences split the isolates in two new groups. Strains LMG 22223(T), LMG 22224, LMG 22225, LMG 22226 and LMG 22227 were phylogenetic neighbours of Photobacterium leiognathi LMG 4228(T) (95.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), whereas strain LMG 22228(T) was related to Enterovibrio norvegicus LMG 19839(T) (95.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The two new groups can be distinguished from closely related species on the basis of several phenotypic features, including fermentation of d-mannitol, melibiose and sucrose, and utilization of different compounds as carbon sources, arginine dihydrolase activity, nitrate reduction, resistance to the vibriostatic agent O/129 and the presence of fatty acids 15 : 0 iso and 17 : 0 iso. The names Photobacterium rosenbergii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 22223(T)=CBMAI 622(T)=CC1(T)) and Enterovibrio coralii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 22228(T)=CBMAI 623(T)=CC17(T)) are proposed to accommodate these new isolates. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two type strains are respectively 47.6 and 48.2 mol%.

  19. Enterobacter turicensis sp. nov. and Enterobacter helveticus sp. nov., isolated from fruit powder.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Roger; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vos, Paul; Lehner, Angelika

    2007-04-01

    Four Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming isolates of coccoid rods were obtained from fruit powder and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allocated the isolates to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Their phylogenetic position within the family Enterobacteriaceae was confirmed by rpoB sequence analysis and as the highest rpoB sequence similarities were obtained with Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter cowanii and Enterobacter sakazakii, the isolates clearly belong to the genus Enterobacter. Biochemical data revealed that the isolates can be separated into two distinct groups that represent two novel species, as confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations. The two novel species can be differentiated from their nearest neighbours by the following characteristics: the utilization of sucrose, D-sorbitol, putrescine and mucate, the hydrolysis of aesculin and a negative result in the Voges-Proskauer reaction. It is therefore proposed that these novel isolates are classified as Enterobacter turicensis sp. nov. (type strain 508/05(T)=LMG 23730(T)=DSM 18397(T)) and Enterobacter helveticus sp. nov. (type strain 513/05(T)=LMG 23732(T)=DSM 18396(T)).

  20. Identification and Production of Bioflocculants by Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. and their Characterization Studies.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, L; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Rajini, N; Christopher, Fenila

    2017-02-16

    In this work, two bioflocculants, namely, EB-EPS and B1-EPS were derived from Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively and analyzed with regard to their production and characterization. About 0.9 g and 0.16 g of purified EB and B1 were obtained from I L of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis showed the contents of purified EB and B1 mainly as 88.7% and 92.8% (w/w) of carbohydrate, and 11.3% and 21.8% (w/w) protein, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, amide and carboxyl groups in the identified bioflocculant. TGA results exhibited enhanced thermal stability with a minimum mass loss of 50% while 25% were found to have occurred at higher temperatures (>400 °C) for microbial-derived compounds EB, B1 leading to the possibility of using these compounds as fillers or for fabricating composite films for high-temperature applications. Further, the compounds from both the bacteria exhibited good antibacterial characteristics against pathogenic E.coli. Degradability study of bioflocculant embedded composite films show the possibility of attaining eco-friendly bioremediation. Accordingly, experimental results revealed the suitability of developed composite films as a suitable alternative for food packaging and biomedical applications.

  1. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    PubMed

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic.

  2. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  3. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed.

  4. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains.

  5. Paenibacillus pasadenensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus barengoltzii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Osman, Shariff; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2006-07-01

    Two novel spore-forming, Gram-positive, mesophilic, heterotrophic bacteria representing two novel species were isolated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spacecraft Assembly Facility (JPL-SAF) at Pasadena, CA, USA. The incidence of similar strains was examined by screening the growing collection of isolates ( approximately 400 strains) obtained from the JPL-SAF using species-specific PCR primer sets designed from the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-007(T). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these novel isolates within the genus Paenibacillus. Two strains, SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-125, shared 98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus timonensis and 97 % similarity with Paenibacillus macerans. Strain SAFN-007(T) showed 95.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus kobensis, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological tests and biochemical analysis allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from currently recognized Paenibacillus species. Strain SAFN-007(T) and strains SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-125 are representatives of two separate novel species, for which the names Paenibacillus pasadenensis sp. nov. (type strain SAFN-007(T)=ATCC BAA-1211(T)=NBRC 101214(T)) and Paenibacillus barengoltzii sp. nov. (type strain SAFN-016(T)=ATCC BAA-1209(T)=NBRC 101215(T)) are proposed.

  6. Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., isolated from Arctic glacier foreland.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xia; Qu, Zhihao; Jiang, Fan; Ren, Lvzhi; Chang, Xulu; Kan, Wenjing; Fang, Chengxiang; Peng, Fang

    2014-07-01

    Two psychrotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designed M1-27(T) and 8-24(T), were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic studies. Strain M1-27(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Midtre Lovénbreen glacier, whereas strain 8-24(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Austre Lovénbreen glacier. Both were Arctic glacier forelands, near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 91.0-96.0% and 92.3-96.7%, respectively, to type strains of recognized species of the genus Pedobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains were grouped with members of the genus Pedobacter, but represented distinct taxa. Both strains contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C contents of strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) were 43.8% and 39.4%, respectively. The phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and polygenetic analysis, clearly indicated that strains M1-27(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012936(T) = LMG 28205(T)) and 8-24(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012941(T) = NRRL B-59993(T)) represent two novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the names Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.

  7. Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Mika; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Chaipitakchonlatarn, Winai; Malimas, Taweesak; Sugimoto, Masako; Yoshino, Mayumi; Kamakura, Yuki; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanaka, Naoto; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Three Lactobacillus-like strains, NB53T, NB446T and NB702, were isolated from traditional fermented food in Thailand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the dnaK, rpoA, pheS and recA gene sequences indicated that these three strains were distantly related to known species present in the L. plantarum group. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains demonstrated that these strains represented two novel species; the novel strains could be differentiated based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, two novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. (NB53T) and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov. (NB446T and NB702), are proposed with the type strains NB53T ( = NBRC 107333T = BCC 38054T) and NB446T ( = NBRC 107235T = BCC 38191T), respectively.

  8. Complete Genomic Sequence of the Virulent Salmonella Bacteriophage SP6

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, Aleisha T.; George, Matthew; Basham, Daryl A.; Ford, Michael E.; Houtz, Jennifer M.; Pedulla, Marisa L.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of enterobacteriophage SP6, which infects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The genome contains 43,769 bp, including a 174-bp direct terminal repeat. The gene content and organization clearly place SP6 in the coliphage T7 group of phages, but there is ∼5 kb at the right end of the genome that is not present in other members of the group, and the homologues of T7 genes 1.3 through 3 appear to have undergone an unusual reorganization. Sequence analysis identified 10 putative promoters for the SP6-encoded RNA polymerase and seven putative rho-independent terminators. The terminator following the gene encoding the major capsid subunit has a termination efficiency of about 50% with the SP6-encoded RNA polymerase. Phylogenetic analysis of phages related to SP6 provided clear evidence for horizontal exchange of sequences in the ancestry of these phages and clearly demarcated exchange boundaries; one of the recombination joints lies within the coding region for a phage exonuclease. Bioinformatic analysis of the SP6 sequence strongly suggested that DNA replication occurs in large part through a bidirectional mechanism, possibly with circular intermediates. PMID:15028677

  9. Sp1- and Krüppel-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Joanna; Cook, Tiffany; Urrutia, Raul

    2003-01-01

    Sp1-like proteins and Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are highly related zinc-finger proteins that are important components of the eukaryotic cellular transcriptional machinery. By regulating the expression of a large number of genes that ha