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Sample records for alcohol-related negative consequences

  1. Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araas, Teresa E.; Adams, Troy B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol abuse among college students is associated with a quality of life burden. The current study replicated and extended previous research on protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by examining relationships between PBS use and negative alcohol-related consequences. Method: A national sample of 29,792 U. S. college students who…

  2. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  3. Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences: Associations with Past Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…

  4. Protective behavioral strategies when drinking alcohol and their relationship to negative alcohol-related consequences in college students.

    PubMed

    Martens, Matthew P; Taylor, Kari K; Damann, Krista M; Page, Jennifer C; Mowry, Emily S; Cimini, M Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Prior research has examined a number of individual characteristics (e.g., gender, family connectedness) that protect individuals from engaging in heavy drinking and experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences, but less is known about specific behavioral strategies that might also serve as protective factors. In this study, 556 undergraduate students completed the National College Health Assessment (American College Health Association, 2000) and answered questions regarding the use of specific protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences. Results indicated that less frequent use of PBS was related to a greater likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences, even after accounting for the effects of gender and alcohol consumption. These results suggest that PBS may be an important component of both prevention and treatment programs for college students. PMID:15631613

  5. Protective behavioral strategies, alcohol consumption, and negative alcohol-related consequences: do race and gender moderate these associations?

    PubMed

    Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2013-01-01

    White, non-Hispanic college students tend to drink more alcohol and experience more negative consequences than African American college students. However, racial differences have not been examined for protective behavioral strategies. This study examined whether race and gender moderated the associations that protective behavioral strategies had with alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. In general, the use of protective behavioral strategies were associated with greater deceases in consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences for White, non-Hispanic students than African American students, which suggests important racial differences related to protective strategy use. Research and clinical implications are provided. PMID:23967885

  6. Day-to-day variations in high-intensity drinking, expectancies, and positive and negative alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Cronce, Jessica M; Fairlie, Anne M; Atkins, David C; Lee, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity drinking (i.e., women/men consuming 8+/10+ drinks in a day) is prevalent and associated with negative consequences. Occasions of high-intensity drinking have markedly high risk; however, previous research has not examined the predictors of these high-risk drinking days. The current study was designed to examine to what extent positive and negative alcohol expectancies predict high-intensity drinking and whether high-intensity drinking on a given day was associated with drinking consequences and their evaluations that day. Frequently drinking college students (N=342) participated in an intensive longitudinal study of drinking behaviors (N=4645 drinking days). Days with greater positive and negative expectancies were associated with high-intensity drinking. Days with high-intensity drinking were associated with reporting more positive and negative consequences and with evaluating positive consequences more favorably and evaluating negative consequences less favorably, compared to drinking days without high-intensity drinking. Given this, prevention and intervention efforts may consider specifically targeting high-intensity drinking events as a unique phenomenon. PMID:26922158

  7. Protective Behavioral Strategies and the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Martin, Jessica L.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40% of college students reported engaging in heavy episodic or "binge" drinking in the 2 weeks prior to being surveyed. Research indicates that college students suffering from depression are more likely to report experiencing negative consequences related to their drinking than other students are. The reasons for this relationship…

  8. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26896561

  9. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  10. PTSD Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among College Students with a Trauma History

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jessica C.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Avery, Megan L.; Bracken, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences have been linked to emotion dysregulation. Sex differences exist in both emotion regulation dimensions and alcohol use patterns. This investigation examined facets of emotion dysregulation as potential mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences and whether differences may exist across sexes. Methods Participants included 240 college students with a trauma history who reported using alcohol within the past three months and completed measures of PTSD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and negative affect. The six facets of emotion dysregulation were examined as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample and by sex. Results There were differences in sexes on several variables, with women reporting higher PTSD scores and Lack of Emotional Awareness. Men reported significantly higher drinks per week in a typical week and a heavy week. There were significant associations between the variables for the full sample, with PTSD showing associations with five facets of emotion dysregulation subscales: Impulse Control Difficulties when Upset, Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Directed Behavior, Nonacceptance of Emotional Responses, Lack of Emotional Clarity, and Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies. Alcohol-related consequences were associated with four aspects of emotion dysregulation: Impulse Control Difficulties when Upset, Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Direct Behavior, Nonacceptance of Emotional Reponses, and Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies. Two aspects of emotion regulation, Impulse Control Difficulties and Difficulties Engaging in Goal Directed Behavior, mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample, even after adjusting for the effects of negative affect

  11. Alcohol-Related Consequences among Intercollegiate Student Athletes: The Role of Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)

  12. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  13. Alcohol-related adverse consequences: cross-cultural variations in attribution process among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Martin A.; Plant, Moira L.; Miller, Patrick; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Social norms around what is culturally accepted in terms of alcohol consumption and drunken comportment appear important regarding the acceptance of alcohol-related adverse consequences; however, investigations often neglect to consider differences in terms of attribution. This study aims at assessing cross-cultural differences in the reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences. It also considers differences across consequences that might explain which type of consequences (mainly acute or mainly chronic) are most affected by an attribution process. Methods: Conditional regression models were estimated based on data from eight European countries participating in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture—An International Study (GENACIS) project. Cases were matched to controls based on usual drinking patterns in order to control for average volume of alcohol and frequency of ‘risky single occasion drinking’ (RSOD). Results: Differences among the patterns of associations between countries and consequences were evident. The distinction between Nordic and other European countries was persistent. A higher variability of associations was observed for some consequences, namely the mainly acute instances. Finally, the Isle of Man and Switzerland showed specific trends with associations across consequences. Conclusion: Reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences seemed strongly affected by cultural norms. The latter may be exemplified by viewing drinking as ‘time-out’ behaviour. Respondents in countries with a stereotypical history of being ‘dry’ or with a stereotyped ‘binge’ drinking culture were more likely to attribute consequences to their alcohol consumption than people in ‘wet’ countries. This was particularly true for consequences that related to episodic ‘time-out’ heavy drinking. PMID:18287104

  14. Relationship of age of first drink to alcohol-related consequences among college students with unhealthy alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; DeJong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents who reported ever drinking, 14% reported an AFD before age 14. These early onset drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and other unhealthy alcohol use behaviors. Among the subset of drinkers with unhealthy alcohol use (36%), early drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report experiencing five out of 13 alcohol-related consequences, including driving while intoxicated, missing work or school due to drinking, getting into trouble at work or school due to drinking, receiving lower grades than they should have due to drinking, and developing a tolerance to alcohol. PMID:19042317

  15. Factors Associated With General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Justin F; Pedersen, Eric R; Mirza, Tehniat; Labrie, Joseph W

    2010-12-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), predeparture expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and perceived disparity between home and host cultures differentially predicted consequences abroad. The findings include important implications for student affairs professionals in developing study abroad-specific interventions and resources to maintain student well-being while abroad. PMID:23505594

  16. Reciprocal Relations of Protective Behavioral Strategies and Risk-Amplifying Behaviors with Alcohol-Related Consequences: Targets for Intervention with Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Varvel, Shiloh; Dude, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Transactional associations of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and risk-amplifying behaviors (RAB) to alcohol-related negative consequences were tested. A sample of 138 undergraduate women was assessed with self-report measures at two time points four months apart. Over and above quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, engagement in…

  17. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  18. Alcohol-Related Consequences among First-Year University Students: Effectiveness of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Nelson, Kinsey; DeYoung, Amanda; Renteria, Camryn Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based personalized feedback program using an objective measure of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were assigned to either the intervention group or an assessment-only control group during university orientation. Sanctions received for campus alcohol policy violations were tracked over the…

  19. Demographic and Predeparture Factors Associated with Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences for College Students Completing Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Aresi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study abroad students are at risk for increased and problematic drinking behavior. As few efforts have been made to examine this at-risk population, the authors predicted drinking and alcohol-related consequences abroad from predeparture and site-specific factors. Participants: The sample consisted of 339 students completing study…

  20. Relationship of Age of First Drink to Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…

  1. Factors Associated with General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), pre-departure expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and…

  2. The relationship between collective self-esteem, acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences among Asian American young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcohol consequences. This study suggests that differential aspects of collective self-esteem may serve as protective or risk factors for Asian American young adults depending on degree of acculturation. PMID:23480211

  3. The Relationship Between Collective Self-Esteem, Acculturation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    PEDERSEN, ERIC R.; HSU, SHARON HSIN; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; LEE, CHRISTINE M.; LARIMER, MARY E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcohol consequences. This study suggests that differential aspects of collective self-esteem may serve as protective or risk factors for Asian American young adults depending on degree of acculturation. PMID:23480211

  4. Health and social consequences of an alcohol-related admission to critical care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    McPeake, Joanne; Forrest, Ewan; Quasim, Tara; Kinsella, John; O'Neill, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of critical care on future alcohol-related behaviour. Further, it aimed to explore patterns of recovery for patients with and without alcohol use disorders beyond the hospital environment. Design In-depth, semistructured interviews with participants (patients) 3–7 months post intensive care discharge. Setting The setting for this study was a 20-bedded mixed intensive care unit (ICU), in a large teaching hospital in Scotland. On admission, patients were allocated to one of the three alcohol groups: low risk, harmful/hazardous and alcohol dependency. Participants 21 participants who received mechanical ventilation for greater than 3 days were interviewed between March 2013 and June 2014. Interventions None. Measurements and main results Four themes which impacted on recovery from ICU were identified in this patient group: psychological resilience, support for activities of daily living, social support and cohesion and the impact of alcohol use disorders on recovery. Participants also discussed the importance of personalised goal setting and appropriate and timely rehabilitation for alcohol-related behaviours during the critical care recovery period. Conclusions There is a significant interplay between alcohol misuse and recovery from critical illness. This study has demonstrated that at present, there is a haphazard approach to rehabilitation for patients after ICU. A more targeted rehabilitation pathway for patients leaving critical care, with specific emphasis on alcohol misuse if appropriate, requires to be generated. PMID:27048633

  5. Using Negative Consequences Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen H.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of dealing with students' inappropriate behavior, noncompliance, and conflict can be implemented at different levels within the school. Schoolwide interventions include expulsion, suspension, and physical punishment. Classroom interventions include time out, verbal reprimands and commands, logical consequences, and surface management…

  6. Is the Pregame to Blame? Event-Level Associations Between Pregaming and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Vermont, Leah N.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregaming (drinking before a social occasion) predicts alcohol consequences between persons; people who pregame report greater consequences than those who do not. The present study examined within-person associations between pregaming and daily consequences. Method: Participants were college students (N = 44; 50% female) reporting past-month pregaming. Daily drinks consumed (during pregaming and across the entire drinking episode) and alcohol consequences were assessed with a 30-day Timeline Followback interview. Results: Within individuals, engaging in pregaming predicted consequences experienced on a given day above and beyond the number of drinks consumed across the drinking episode and typical drinking level. Furthermore, there was a trend toward pregaming placing women at more risk for consequences than men. Conclusions: Findings support a context-specific risk for consequences that is conferred by pregaming and that is independent of how much drinking occurs across the drinking episode. Results highlight pregaming as a target for future interventions. PMID:23948535

  7. Negative Evaluations of Negative Alcohol Consequences Lead to Subsequent Reductions in Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. Objective To examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Method Students at three colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for two academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year also were evaluated. Results Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one’s average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Conclusions Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  8. Negative evaluations of negative alcohol consequences lead to subsequent reductions in alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Nancy P; Merrill, Jennifer E; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Students at 3 colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for 2 academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year were also evaluated. Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one's average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not for males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  9. Demographic and Predeparture Factors Associated With Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences for College Students Completing Study Abroad Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Aresi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study abroad students are at-risk for increased and problematic drinking behavior. As few efforts have been made to examine this at-risk population, we predicted drinking and alcohol-related consequences abroad from predeparture and site-specific factors. Participants: The sample consisted of 339 students completing study abroad programs. Method: Participants filled out online measures at predeparture, abroad, and at post-return. Results: We found drinking and consequences abroad were predicted by a number of factors including demographics (e.g., younger age, male sex, Greek affiliation, White ethnicity), student factors (e.g. low GPA, major area of study), study abroad site factors (e.g., apartment living abroad, study in Europe), predeparture levels of drinking and consequences, sensation seeking, and goals related to social gathering. Conclusions: Findings can be used to inform campus policies for admission to study abroad programs as well as assist in the development of interventions targeted toward preventing risk for students during abroad experiences. PMID:24499190

  10. The Roles of Negative Affect and Coping Motives in the Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Oster-Aaland, Laura; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although studies have consistently indicated that among college students alcohol use and the likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems are related it is possible that additional factors strengthen the magnitude of this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to assess the moderating effect of two such factors: negative affect and coping drinking motives. Method Data were collected on 316 college students at a midsized public university in the upper Midwest who reported using alcohol. Results Findings indicated that both negative affect and coping drinking motives moderated the alcohol use–alcohol problems relationship. The three-way interaction indicated that the strongest relationship between alcohol use and alcohol-related problems existed for individuals high in both negative affect and coping drinking motives. Conclusions This study suggests that college students high in negative affect and coping drinking motives are particularly at risk for experiencing problems as a result of their alcohol use, indicating that clinicians should consider screening for these factors when conducting alcohol-related prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:18432384

  11. Do college drinkers learn from their mistakes? Effects of recent alcohol-related consequences on planned protective drinking strategies among college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Norma; Walters, Scott T; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2013-12-01

    This study examined whether recent alcohol-related consequences affect intentions to use protective drinking strategies. Responses were collected from incoming college freshmen (N = 84,367) at 279 U.S. colleges and universities. Plans to limit future drinking were significantly lower among students who were male, younger, White, or were in or intending to join a fraternity or sorority. For heavy drinkers, having recently experienced a higher level of external harms predicted increased plans to limit drinking. For all drinkers, a lower level of recent impaired driving predicted increased plans to limit drinking. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23750616

  12. Declining Negative Consequences Related to Alcohol Misuse among Students Exposed to a Social Norms Marketing Intervention on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James; Perkins, H. Wesley; Bauerle, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol-related negative consequences decreased among students exposed to an intervention. Participants: Beginning in 1999, approximately 2,500 randomly selected undergraduates from a 4-year US university annually participated in a Web-based survey over 6 years. Methods: The educational intervention used…

  13. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  14. [Alcohol-related dementia].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshifumi; Yokoyama, Akira; Matsushita, Sachio; Kozaki, Koichi; Higuchi, Susumu

    2014-04-01

    Excessive alcohol use is associated with health problems for the elderly in combination with their chronic conditions. One such complication, alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is brought about by direct or indirect ethanol intoxication, and coexisting nutritional deficiency, liver disease, cerebrovascular disease and traumatic brain injury. The elderly people with ARD have been underestimated and underdiagnosed. In these older alcoholics, atrophic changes, lacunar infarcts and deep white matter lesions of the brain are evident and are associated not only with their cognitive decline, but also with their frailty, leading to high morbidity and mortality ratio. Although lifelong abstinence can recover patients with ARD to temporally lull, aging, the severity of alcohol dependence, and the concomitant nutritional, physical and environmental factors can all impact negatively their outcome. Therefore, a comprehensive approach to lifestyle factors is recommended so that they can minimize preventable risks and maintain health status. Nursing home placement may be an appropriate treatment option for some refractory, long-term patients with ARD. PMID:24796110

  15. Negative grouting consequences on karst environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, O.; Roje-Bonacci, T.; Gottstein, S.

    2009-04-01

    Grouting is a procedure by means of which grout is injected into different kinds of karst spaces (cracks, fissures, conduits and caves). It has a wide application in modern civil engineering, especially in karst terrains. It started nearly 200 years ago. In most cases the ingredients for the preparation of mortars and grouting suspensions are: cement, bentonite, clay and fillers, additives for stability and water. In practice the composition of grouting suspension is not standardized. A suspension injected under pressure will circulate in the karst spaces like a more or less viscous fluid until some of the larger suspended particles are blocked where the karst voids get narrower than the size of injected grains. The injection of materials into karst groundwater, i.e. the construction of grouting curtains, definitely could be the cause of unpredictable negative consequences on karst groundwater environments. The building of dams in karst areas always go along the construction of grouting curtains. During the construction of most dams in karst all over the world millions tons of injection mass have been injected in karst underground. It may impact water quantity in vadose zone and in karstic aquifer causing water table lowering and spring desiccation. In such cases the negative impact on local karst environment could be very dangerous. Physically as well as chemically this mass voraciously and quickly destroyed underground habitats and killed an enormous number of endangered and endemic species. Very often this is extremely expensive procedure and in many cases not very successful from the engineering point of view. From the ecological point of view it could causes catastrophic consequences. The greatest problem is that until now neither engineers nor ecologists took care of these great and massive negative influences on underground karst environments. In this paper few examples of different consequences of grouting on the hydrogeological as well as ecological regime

  16. Relational Aggression, Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency: Predicting Alcohol Use and Consequences among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g. acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions. PMID:25134025

  17. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  18. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. Objectives We aimed to: 1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and 2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. Methods We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13–20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Results Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N=232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1–9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.0 and 1.1–3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. Conclusions/Importance Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes. PMID:25612075

  19. Alcohol-related harm among university students in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Pham Bich; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Giang, Kim Bao; De Vries, Nanne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Aim This study examines the prevalence of and risk factors for alcohol-related harm and types of harm among medical students from Hanoi Medical University (Vietnam). Risk factors include aspects of drinking patterns and relevant socio-demographic variables. Study Design and Methods A cross-sectional study involving 1st to 6th year students (N=1216; response rate 96.5%). Of these, 210 students from each academic year were randomly selected from a sampling frame covering all students from each academic year. Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed in class by researchers. Drinkers completed 23 questions on alcohol-related harm categorized into: 1) ‘negative influence on daily activities’; 2) ‘social conflict’; 3) ‘loss of control, acute consequences, and withdrawal’; 4) ‘mental health conditions’; and 5) ‘physical and medical health problems’. Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to identify the predictors of alcohol-related harm and the amount of harm, respectively. Results The prevalence of alcohol use associated with at least one or more of the five types of harm was higher in men (81.8%) than in women (60.4%). In female and male students, the most common harm category was ‘loss of control, acute consequences, and withdrawal’ (51.8 and 75.6%, respectively), followed by ‘negative influence on daily activities’ (29.4 and 55.8%, respectively). Age, living away from home, and average number of standard drinks per occasion among male drinkers, and age and frequency of drinking per week among female drinkers were associated with alcohol-related harm. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol-related harm represents a serious public health problem among young educated individuals in Vietnam. The risk factors indicate that prevention should be aimed at aspects of drinking patterns and specific subpopulations defined by gender, age, and (for men only) type of living situation. PMID:23374703

  20. Exploring the role of positive and negative consequences in understanding perceptions and evaluations of individual drinking events

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine M.; Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Tollison, Sean J.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    While research has established that drinking more alcohol is associated with experiencing more positive and negative alcohol-related consequences, less is known about how college students evaluate their drinking experiences. Evaluations of drinking events may vary with factors such as how much one drinks, which consequences one experiences, and the context (i.e., where and with whom) one drinks on a given occasion. This research used daily data (Level 2: N=166 students, 61% female; Level 1: N=848 person drinking days) to explore the relationship between quantity of alcohol consumed and experience of specific domains of positive and negative consequences and to examine how the experience of specific consequences related to overall evaluation of the drinking experience. Drinking on a given day was positively associated with experiencing more negative (social and personal) and more positive (image, fun/social, and relaxation) consequences. With respect to the formation of overall impressions, negative (social and personal) consequences were associated with less favorable evaluations whereas positive (image, fun/social, and relaxation) consequences were associated with more favorable evaluations of the drinking experience. Indirect effects analyses suggested that consequences (negative personal, negative social, positive fun/social, and positive relaxation) significantly mediated the relationship between drinking and overall evaluation at the daily level. These results underscore the importance of considering both positive and negative consequences in understanding students’ choices to drink and how they evaluate their experiences. PMID:20385445

  1. Positive and negative consequences of a military deployment.

    PubMed

    Newby, John H; McCarroll, James E; Ursano, R J; Fan, Zizhong; Shigemura, Jun; Tucker-Harris, Yvonne

    2005-10-01

    This study determined the perception by 951 U.S. Army soldiers of positive and negative consequences of a peacekeeping deployment to Bosnia. Seventy-seven percent reported some positive consequences, 63% reported a negative consequence, and 47% reported both. Written comments were also provided. Of the 951 soldiers, 478 wrote at least one positive comment and 403 at least one negative comment. Single soldiers were more likely than married soldiers to report positive consequences (82% vs. 72%). Married soldiers were more likely than single soldiers to report negative consequences (70% vs. 55%). Positive consequences included making additional money, self-improvement, and time to think. Negative consequences included the military chain of command, being away from home, and deterioration of marital/significant other relationships. PMID:16435750

  2. It’s five o’clock somewhere: An examination of the association between happy hour drinking and negative consequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to understand which young adults’ drinking behaviors change in the presence of happy hour specials, the ways in which they change, and whether a link exists between happy hour drinking behavior and negative outcomes. Methods Using data collected from bar-going respondents (n = 1,423) within a print survey administered to a general college sample (n = 2,349), we identify significant differences in changes in happy hour behavior between demographic groups using χ2 tests and determine whether this behavior is related to six negative alcohol-related outcomes using logistical and ordinary least squares regression models with a variety of controls, including age of onset and frequency of use. Results Women, students under 21, non-athletes, members of Greek-affiliated organizations, more affluent and unemployed students, and students living on campus were more likely to change their drinking behavior in the presence of happy hour specials. In general, the most robust predictors of negative events are gender, alcohol use frequency, age of alcohol use onset, and increasing drinking due to happy hours/bar specials. While it was linked to various negative and illegal behaviors, altered happy hour drinking was not associated with an increased likelihood of an alcohol-related arrest. Conclusions This study lends support to the idea that alcohol price specials should be regulated in an effort to reduce high consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. Future research into the relationship between happy hour drinking and negative outcomes is necessary and should examine the impact of happy hour advertisements, different types of specials, and the timing of happy hours. PMID:24758616

  3. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  4. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  5. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  6. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  7. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  8. Negative Consequences of Undergraduate Alcohol Usage: A Multivariate Gender Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leonald D.

    This study examined whether female undergraduate students who share with male undergraduates similar demographics, perceptions, and alcohol use locations, also share similar alcohol usage patterns, negative consequences, and predictors for both. Secondary analysis was conducted using 1992 and 1993 U.S. Department of Education Core Survey data…

  9. Continuing education mitigates the negative consequences of adolescent childbearing.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kate; Clark, Jamie; Castrucci, Brian; Samsel, Rachel; Fonseca, Vincent; Garcia, Imelda

    2011-04-01

    Beginning childbearing during adolescence is consistently linked with negative outcomes for both children and parents. Many have attributed this association to maternal background characteristics which are often difficult to change through policy. Though maternal educational attainment is often a side effect of adolescent childbearing, it also represents a potential avenue through which we can help young mothers overcome the obstacles associated with an early birth. The data for this study come from the 1997 Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative sample of mothers and their children (N = 3,193). Data are used to explore the cognitive stimulation and emotional support in the home, measured using the HOME Scale (Caldwell and Bradley in Home observation for measurement of the environment. University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, 1984). OLS regression models how maternal education moderates the association between age at first birth and quality of children's home environment. Adolescent mothers scored significantly lower on the indicator of home environment than older mothers. However, when continuing education was considered, maternal age at first birth was no longer significantly associated with the home environment. The negative consequences of early births were mediated by adolescent mothers' continuing education efforts. While interventions are needed to reduce adolescent childbearing, these results highlight the need to ensure that adolescent mothers are provided support to continue their education following delivery. The negative consequences of adolescent births are not inevitable. Encouraging school retention may help young mothers form a safe, healthy, nurturing, and developmentally appropriate home environment. PMID:20204480

  10. The positive and negative consequences of stressors during early life

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Pat; Haussmann, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the long-term effects of stress exposure in pre- and early postnal life. We present an evolutionary framework within which such effects can be viewed, and describe how the outcomes might vary with species life histories. We focus on stressors that induce increases in glucocorticoid hormones and discuss the advantages of an experimental approach. We describe a number of studies demonstrating how exposure to these hormones in early life can influence stress responsiveness and have substantial long-term, negative consequences for adult longevity. We also describe how early life exposure to mild levels of stressors can have beneficial effects on resilience to stress in later life, and discuss how the balance of costs and benefits is likely dependent on the nature of the adult environment. PMID:26385447

  11. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  12. Human alcohol-related neuropathology.

    PubMed

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  13. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  14. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. PMID:22930540

  15. The Positive and Negative Consequences of Multiple-Choice Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple-choice tests are commonly used in educational settings but with unknown effects on students' knowledge. The authors examined the consequences of taking a multiple-choice test on a later general knowledge test in which students were warned not to guess. A large positive testing effect was obtained: Prior testing of facts aided final…

  16. The Impact of Presence Versus Absence of Negative Consequences in Dramatic Portrayals of Alcohol Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahk, C. Mo.

    1997-01-01

    Using dramatic media presentations, explores issues surrounding the absence of negative consequences in alcohol consumption. Results based on 211 participants indicate that exposure to portrayals of alcohol drinking with negative consequences elicits the least favorable attitudes toward drinking. Exposure to the same presentation, without the…

  17. [Alcohol-related problems in Cantabria].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Pérez, A M; Díez Manrique, J F; Peña Martín, C; García Usieto, E

    1995-01-01

    It is a cross sectorial epidemiological community survey into a random sample of 1,816 adult people. The objetivo of our work is to test the existence of some social-demographic variables that can be accumulated to the existence of alcohol related problems. We found that the men, the young people, with low socioeconomic level, and semiurban style of life have the highest risk of alcohol related problems. 48% of the sample men have recognized any alcohol related problems during the previous year to our study. The highest problem prevalence is associated to increased alcohol consumption. After all, there are many people with low alcohol consumption who have alcohol related problems. PMID:7717148

  18. The negative health consequences of unemployment: the case of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    In the 1990s Poland began to make a transition to a free-market economy: a transition accompanied by a variety of negative socio-economic developments, most notably a rise in unemployment. The aim of this study is to shed light on the relationship between occupational status (including unemployment) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), by examining the experience of 542 men and 572 women between the ages of 40 and 50 of the town of Wroclaw in 2006. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which uses certain health and life-style parameters to predict the risk of major coronary problems over a 10-year period, was calculated, and the effect of occupational status on the FRS was assessed. The results showed that the FRS varied according to sex and to occupational status, with the highest FRS rating among unemployed men. Thus governmental policies to counter the adverse effects of unemployment should be developed to remedy the problem. PMID:20627735

  19. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  20. "Man-ing" up and getting drunk: the role of masculine norms, alcohol intoxication and alcohol-related problems among college men.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Cheng, Alice; Lee, Christina S; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Gordon, Derrick

    2011-09-01

    Compared to college women, college men face elevated risks for problematic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. These risks highlight the critical need to investigate gender issues and risk factors contributing to intoxication and related problems among men. Theoretical models suggest that conforming to masculine norms or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a man, may help explain patterns of problematic drinking among men. The current study advances the literature by investigating the association between masculine norms, drinking to intoxication, and alcohol-related consequences among 776 undergraduate males after taking into account the importance of fraternity status and perceived peer norms. Results indicate that fraternity status and higher perceived peer norms regarding drinking increased the risks of getting drunk and experiencing alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, the masculine norms of being a "playboy", risk-taking, and winning were risk factors of drinking to intoxication; while, being a "playboy", risk-taking, and self-reliance increased the risks of alcohol-related problems. Primacy of work and heterosexual presentation were two masculine norms that were protective of drinking to intoxication. Our findings contribute to important future considerations for prevention, clinical interventions, and public-health implications in college settings. PMID:21620570

  1. “Man-ing” up and Getting Drunk: The Role of Masculine Norms, Alcohol Intoxication and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Men

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Cheng, Alice; Lee, Christina S.; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Gordon, Derrick

    2011-01-01

    Compared to college women, college men face elevated risks for problematic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. These risks highlight the critical need to investigate gender issues and risk factors contributing to intoxication and related problems among men. Theoretical models suggest that conforming to masculine norms or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a man, may help explain patterns of problematic drinking among men. The current study advances the literature by investigating the association between masculine norms, drinking to intoxication, and alcohol-related consequences among 776 undergraduate males after taking into account the importance of fraternity status and perceived peer norms. Results indicate that fraternity status and higher perceived peer norms regarding drinking increased the risks of getting drunk and experiencing alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, the masculine norms of being a “playboy”, risk-taking, and winning were risk factors of drinking to intoxication; while, being a “playboy”, risk-taking, and self-reliance increased the risks of alcohol-related problems. Primacy of work and heterosexual presentation were two masculine norms that were protective of drinking to intoxication. Our findings contribute to important future considerations for prevention, clinical interventions, and public-health implications in college settings. PMID:21620570

  2. Research Note: Patterns of Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2006-01-01

    The level of alcohol consumption in Russia is among the highest in the world and is often associated with a variety of problems in the country. Until recently, however, it was impossible to examine the health and social burdens associated with consumption in Russia due to Soviet secrecy surrounding vital statistics and health data related to alcohol and other topics. This study employed newly available mortality data to describe the demographic, temporal, and spatial patterns of mortality resulting directly from chronic and acute alcohol consumption in the country. The data reveal that in spite of high overall rates of alcohol-related mortality in Russia, levels of mortality vary considerably along these dimensions. Although descriptive in nature, the patterns of alcohol-related mortality in Russia presented here should provide initial observations with which to generate and test hypotheses concerning the causes and consequences of these patterns. PMID:16900263

  3. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  4. Help-seeking for alcohol-related problems in college students: correlates and preferred resources.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R

    2010-12-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students' history of help-seeking for alcohol problems, as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  5. Help-Seeking for Alcohol-Related Problems in College Students: Correlates and Preferred Resources

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Pederson, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students’ history of help-seeking for alcohol problems as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  6. Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamanna, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and nature of alcohol-related birth defects. Describes a continuum of impairment to offspring of drinking mothers that is dose-related and produces serious behavioral/learning deficits. The continuum includes young people of normal intelligence who perform below expected levels and find school adjustment difficult. Offers…

  7. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B

    2000-01-01

    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  8. Overcoming Potential Negative Consequences of Customer Orientation in Higher Education: Closing the Ideological Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Adam; Rosetti, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Substantial discussion has been going on surrounding the potential negative consequences of a customer orientation in college education. A major concern stems from the ideological gap--the perceived differentiation between what the students want and the educators' view of what is in the best interests of the students. A key aspect of the…

  9. Xenophobia: Understanding the Roots and Consequences of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    The current xenophobic cultural environment in the United States makes it imperative that psychologists understand the nature of xenophobia and recognize its consequences. This article explores sociological, social psychological, and multicultural research to examine the causes of negative attitudes toward immigrants. Xenophobia is presented as a…

  10. Clinical and pathological features of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    Zahr, Natalie M; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Harper, Clive G

    2011-05-01

    One of the sequelae of chronic alcohol abuse is malnutrition. Importantly, a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B(1)) can result in the acute, potentially reversible neurological disorder Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). When WE is recognized, thiamine treatment can elicit a rapid clinical recovery. If WE is left untreated, however, patients can develop Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a severe neurological disorder characterized by anterograde amnesia. Alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) describes the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on human brain structure and function in the absence of more discrete and well-characterized neurological concomitants of alcoholism such as WE and KS. Through knowledge of both the well-described changes in brain structure and function that are evident in alcohol-related disorders such as WE and KS and the clinical outcomes associated with these changes, researchers have begun to gain a better understanding of ARBD. This Review examines ARBD from the perspective of WE and KS, exploring the clinical presentations, postmortem brain pathology, in vivo MRI findings and potential molecular mechanisms associated with these conditions. An awareness of the consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on human behavior and brain structure can enable clinicians to improve detection and treatment of ARBD. PMID:21487421

  11. Mortality from alcohol related disease in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Mezzanotte, G; Cislaghi, C

    1986-01-01

    Trends in death certification rates from the five major alcohol related causes of death in Italy (cancers of the mouth or pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, liver and cirrhosis of the liver) were analysed over a period (1955-79) in which per capita alcohol consumption almost trebled. Age standardised mortality from liver cirrhosis almost doubled in males and increased over 70% in females. In males, mortality from cancers of the upper digestive or respiratory tract showed increases of between 27% and 44%, and liver cancer increased by over 100%. In the late 1970s, the four alcohol related cancer sites accounted for about 12% of all cancer deaths in males and 4.5% in females. Mortality from liver cirrhosis alone accounted for 4.8% of all deaths in males (9.2% of manpower years lost) and 2.3% in females (6.3% manpower years lost) in females. These figures were even higher in selected areas of north eastern Italy, where alcohol consumption is greater. In absolute terms, the upward trends observed correspond to about 10,000 excess deaths per year in the late 1970s compared with rates observed two decades earlier and are thus second only to the increase in tobacco related causes of death over the same calendar period. PMID:3772284

  12. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among Community College Students: Implications for Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Felicia D.; Darkes, Jack; Del Boca, Frances K.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among students at traditional 4-year universities have been well documented. However, little is known about the frequency of their such behaviors and its consequences among community college students, who comprise roughly 44% of all undergraduate students in the United States. The present study examined…

  13. Memory and the Moses illusion: failures to detect contradictions with stored knowledge yield negative memorial consequences.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Hayden C; Eslick, Andrea N; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Although contradictions with stored knowledge are common in daily life, people often fail to notice them. For example, in the Moses illusion, participants fail to notice errors in questions such as "How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?" despite later showing knowledge that the Biblical reference is to Noah, not Moses. We examined whether error prevalence affected participants' ability to detect distortions in questions, and whether this in turn had memorial consequences. Many of the errors were overlooked, but participants were better able to catch them when they were more common. More generally, the failure to detect errors had negative memorial consequences, increasing the likelihood that the errors were used to answer later general knowledge questions. Methodological implications of this finding are discussed, as it suggests that typical analyses likely underestimate the size of the Moses illusion. Overall, answering distorted questions can yield errors in the knowledge base; most importantly, prior knowledge does not protect against these negative memorial consequences. PMID:20706955

  14. Roles of Drinking Motives, Alcohol Consequences, and Season Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Lewis, Todd F.; Orsini, Muhsin M.; Wyrick, David L.

    2013-01-01

    populations at risk for heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. In this study, 63 (56% female, 62% Caucasian) first-year student-athletes completed a preliminary questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, athlete-specific drinking motives,…

  15. Measuring Negative Consequences of College Student Substance Use: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Brown, Natashia T.; Donovan, Brooke M.; Dude, Kim

    2005-01-01

    A commonly used instrument to assess negative consequences of substance use among college students is the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & J. S. Leichliter, 1998; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & R. Lyerla, 1993). Results from 2 studies suggest that a subset of CADS negative consequences items can be explained by…

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  17. Social and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol-Related Legal Infractions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M.; Thompson, Kevin; Nodes, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol consumption among college students is often limited by self-reported outcomes and a narrow focus of predictor factors. This study examined both traditional risk factors for alcohol use as well as broader factors (e.g., weather, seasons) in predicting objective negative outcomes of alcohol use--alcohol-related legal infractions…

  18. Healthcare managers in negative media focus: a qualitative study of personification processes and their personal consequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last decade healthcare management and managers have increasingly been in focus in public debate. The purpose of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of how prolonged, unfavorable media focus can influence both the individual as a person and his or her managerial practice in the healthcare organization. Methods In-depth interviews (n = 49) with 24 managers and their superiors, or subordinate human resources/information professionals, and partners were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results The conceptual model explains how perceived uncertainties related to the managerial role influence personification and its negative consequences. The role ambiguities comprised challenges regarding the separation of individual identity from the professional function, the interaction with intra-organizational support and political play, and the understanding and acceptance of roles in society. A higher degree of uncertainty in role ambiguity increased both personification and the personal reaction to intense media pressure. Three types of reactions were related to the feeling of being infringed: avoidance and narrow-mindedness; being hard on self, on subordinates, and/or family members; and resignation and dejection. The results are discussed so as to elucidate the importance of support from others within the organization when under media scrutiny. Conclusions The degree of personification seems to determine the personal consequences as well as the consequences for their managerial practice. Organizational support for managers appearing in the media would probably be beneficial for both the manager and the organization. PMID:24397306

  19. Alcohol-Related Brain Damage in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Erdozain, Amaia M.; Morentin, Benito; Bedford, Lynn; King, Emma; Tooth, David; Brewer, Charlotte; Wayne, Declan; Johnson, Laura; Gerdes, Henry K.; Wigmore, Peter; Callado, Luis F.; Carter, Wayne G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmann’s area (BA) 9) from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin β II, and α- and β-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in α-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in β-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous α3 (catalytic) subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of α-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic α- and β-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics. PMID:24699688

  20. Positive and negative perceived consequences of first intercourse among middle and high school students in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about young people's interpretations of sexual behaviour in Latin America. In this study, we examine the most commonly perceived consequences of first sexual intercourse among Mexican middle and high school students, how perceived consequences differ by gender, and factors that may predict experiencing more positive or negative consequences. Sexually active Mexican students aged 12-19 years (n = 268) reported whether they had experienced each of 19 consequences following first intercourse. Both positive consequences, such as physical satisfaction and closeness to partner, and negative consequences, such as worry about STDs and pregnancy, were common. Sex with a non-relationship partner was associated with fewer positive and more negative consequences, with the effect for positive consequences being stronger for young women. Pressure to have sex was associated with fewer positive consequences of first intercourse, and pressure to remain a virgin was associated with more positive and negative consequences. These findings suggest that young people often report mixed feelings about their first sexual intercourse and that relationship context and sexual socialisation influence their perceptions of the event. PMID:26529235

  1. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  2. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  3. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  4. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  5. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  6. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  7. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  8. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  9. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  10. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  11. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ‘‘bad’’ and ‘‘dangerous’’ in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘safe’’ in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors. PMID:26989352

  12. The relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol-related problems in University undergraduates: Results from the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Andretta, James R; McKay, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Time perspective is an individual difference variable which assesses the extent to which orientation to the past, present and future affects current behaviors. The present study investigated the viability of temporal profiles and the degree (if any) to which these predict meaningful differences in alcohol-related problems. Participants were undergraduates recruited from a University in the North West of England. Full survey data were available for 455 individuals (aged 18-25; 49.7% male) on (a) time perspective, and (b) alcohol-related problems. Four profiles emerged and were labeled Future-Positive, Present, Past Negative-Future, and Ambivalent. As hypothesized, the Future-Positive profile was associated with the best alcohol-related outcomes. The Present profile was associated with the worst outcomes. This study demonstrates that temporal profiles are associated with alcohol-related problems. PMID:26735914

  13. Short-Term Prospective Effects of Impulsivity on Binge Drinking: Mediation by Positive and Negative Drinking Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A.; Zaso, Michelle J.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although the association of impulsivity with diverse alcohol outcomes has been documented, the mechanisms by which impulsivity predicts drinking over time remain to be fully characterized. The authors examined whether positive drinking consequences, but not negative drinking consequences, mediated the association between impulsivity and…

  14. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Murphy, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010–3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25419202

  15. Vocabulary relearning in semantic dementia: Positive and negative consequences of increasing variability in the learning experience

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Clarke, Natasha; Jones, Roy W.; Noonan, Krist A.

    2015-01-01

    Anomia therapy typically aims to improve patients' communication ability through targeted practice in naming a set of particular items. For such interventions to be of maximum benefit, the use of trained (or relearned) vocabulary must generalise from the therapy setting into novel situations. We investigated relearning in three patients with semantic dementia, a condition that has been associated with poor generalisation of relearned vocabulary. We tested two manipulations designed to improve generalisation of relearned words by introducing greater variation into the learning experience. In the first study, we found that trained items were retained more successfully when they were presented in a variety of different sequences during learning. In the second study, we found that training items using a range of different pictured exemplars improved the patients' ability to generalise words to novel instances of the same object. However, in one patient this came at the cost of inappropriate over-generalisations, in which trained words were incorrectly used to name semantically or visually similar objects. We propose that more variable learning experiences benefit patients because they shift responsibility for learning away from the inflexible hippocampal learning system and towards the semantic system. The success of this approach therefore depends critically on the integrity of the semantic representations of the items being trained. Patients with naming impairments in the context of relatively mild comprehension deficits are most likely to benefit from this approach, while avoiding the negative consequences of over-generalisation. PMID:25585251

  16. Potential negative consequences of adding phosphorus-based fertilizers to immobilize lead in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgour, Douglas W.; Moseley, Rebecca A.; Savage, Kaye S; Jardine, Philip M

    2008-09-01

    A study of the potential negative consequences of adding phosphate (P)-based fertilizers as amendments to immobilize lead (Pb) in contaminated soils was conducted. Lead-contaminated firing range soils also contained elevated concentrations of antimony (Sb), a common Pb hardening agent, and some arsenic (As) of unknown (possibly background) origin. After amending the soils with triple superphosphate, a relatively soluble P source, column leaching experiments revealed elevated concentrations of Sb, As, and Pb in the leachate, reflecting an initial spike in soluble Pb and a particularly dramatic increase in Sb and As mobility. Minimal As, Sb, and Pb leaching was observed during column tests performed on non-amended control soils. In vitro extractions tests were performed to assess changes in Pb, As, and Sb bioaccessibility on P amendment. Lead bioaccessibility was systematically lowered with increasing P dosage, but there was much less of an effect on As and Sb bioaccessibility than on mobility. Our results indicate that although P amendments may aid in lowering the bioaccessibility of soil-bound Pb, it may also produce an initial increase in Pb mobility and a significant release of Sb and As from the soil, dramatically increasing their mobility and to a lesser extent their bioavailability.

  17. Potential negative consequences of adding phosphorus-based fertilizers to immobilize lead in soil.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Douglas W; Moseley, Rebecca B; Barnett, Mark O; Savage, Kaye S; Jardine, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    A study of the potential negative consequences of adding phosphate (P)-based fertilizers as amendments to immobilize lead (Pb) in contaminated soils was conducted. Lead-contaminated firing range soils also contained elevated concentrations of antimony (Sb), a common Pb hardening agent, and some arsenic (As) of unknown (possibly background) origin. After amending the soils with triple superphosphate, a relatively soluble P source, column leaching experiments revealed elevated concentrations of Sb, As, and Pb in the leachate, reflecting an initial spike in soluble Pb and a particularly dramatic increase in Sb and As mobility. Minimal As, Sb, and Pb leaching was observed during column tests performed on non-amended control soils. In vitro extractions tests were performed to assess changes in Pb, As, and Sb bioaccessibility on P amendment. Lead bioaccessibility was systematically lowered with increasing P dosage, but there was much less of an effect on As and Sb bioaccessibility than on mobility. Our results indicate that although P amendments may aid in lowering the bioaccessibility of soil-bound Pb, it may also produce an initial increase in Pb mobility and a significant release of Sb and As from the soil, dramatically increasing their mobility and to a lesser extent their bioavailability. PMID:18689734

  18. Vocabulary relearning in semantic dementia: Positive and negative consequences of increasing variability in the learning experience.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Clarke, Natasha; Jones, Roy W; Noonan, Krist A

    2015-09-01

    Anomia therapy typically aims to improve patients' communication ability through targeted practice in naming a set of particular items. For such interventions to be of maximum benefit, the use of trained (or relearned) vocabulary must generalise from the therapy setting into novel situations. We investigated relearning in three patients with semantic dementia, a condition that has been associated with poor generalisation of relearned vocabulary. We tested two manipulations designed to improve generalisation of relearned words by introducing greater variation into the learning experience. In the first study, we found that trained items were retained more successfully when they were presented in a variety of different sequences during learning. In the second study, we found that training items using a range of different pictured exemplars improved the patients' ability to generalise words to novel instances of the same object. However, in one patient this came at the cost of inappropriate over-generalisations, in which trained words were incorrectly used to name semantically or visually similar objects. We propose that more variable learning experiences benefit patients because they shift responsibility for learning away from the inflexible hippocampal learning system and towards the semantic system. The success of this approach therefore depends critically on the integrity of the semantic representations of the items being trained. Patients with naming impairments in the context of relatively mild comprehension deficits are most likely to benefit from this approach, while avoiding the negative consequences of over-generalisation. PMID:25585251

  19. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  20. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  1. The Effects of Consequence Manipulation during Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczak, Kathryn; Carr, James E.; Michael, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct analytic methods have been used to identify the function of problem behavior. The antecedent-behavior-consequence (ABC) method (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) includes the delivery of consequences for problem behavior. The AB method (Carr & Durand, 1985) does not include consequence delivery, instead relying…

  2. Alcohol Use and Perceived Social and Emotional Consequences among Perpetrators of General and Sexual Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relation among alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last 3 months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple…

  3. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  4. Reductions in drinking and alcohol-related harms reported by first-year college students taking an online alcohol education course: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lovecchio, Catherine P; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2010-10-01

    A randomized control trial was conducted at a midsized private university in the Northeast to evaluate the short-term impact of AlcoholEdu for College 8.0, an online alcohol course for first-year students. In September 2007, 1,620 matriculated first-year students were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or an assessment-only control group. Both groups of students completed a baseline survey and knowledge test. Treatment group students finished the course, took a second knowledge test, and 30 days later completed a postintervention survey. Control group students completed the postintervention survey and knowledge test during the same time period. Compared with the control group, treatment group students reported a significantly lower level of alcohol use, fewer negative drinking consequences, and less positive alcohol-related attitudes. AlcoholEdu 8.0 had a positive impact on the first-year students' alcohol-related attitudes, behaviors, and consequences. Additional investigations of online alcohol education courses are warranted. PMID:21104507

  5. Susceptibility to alcohol-related liver injury.

    PubMed

    Lieber, C S

    1994-01-01

    Alcohol affects the liver through metabolic disturbances associated with its oxidation. Redox changes produced by the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase pathway affect lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Ethanol is also oxidized in liver microsomes by the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P4502E1, resulting in ethanol tolerance and selective hepatic perivenular damage. Furthermore, P4502E1 activates various xenobiotics, explaining the increased susceptibility of the heavy drinker to the toxicity of anesthetics, commonly used medications (i.e. isoniazid), analgesics (i.e. acetaminophen), and chemical carcinogens. Induction of microsomal enzymes also contributes to vitamin A depletion, enhances its hepatotoxicity and results in increased acetaldehyde generation from ethanol, with formation of protein adducts, glutathione depletion, free-radical-mediated toxicity, and lipid peroxidation. Chronic ethanol consumption strikingly enhances the number of hepatic collagen-producing activated lipocytes. Both in vivo (in our baboon model of alcoholic cirrhosis) and in vitro (in cultured myofibroblasts and activated lipocytes) ethanol and/or its metabolite acetaldehyde increase collagen accumulation and mRNA for collagen. Gender differences are related, in part, to lower gastric ADH activity (with consequent reduction of first pass ethanol metabolism) in young women, decreased hepatic fatty acid binding protein and increased free-fatty acid levels as well as lesser omega-hydroxylation, all of which result in increased vulnerability to ethanol. Elucidation of the biochemical effects of ethanol are now resulting in improved therapy: in baboons, S-adenosyl-L-methionine attenuates the ethanol-induced glutathione depletion and associated mitochondrial lesions, and polyenylphosphatidylcholine opposes the ethanol-induced hepatic phospholipid depletion, the decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity and the activation of hepatic lipocytes, with full prevention of

  6. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  7. Alcohol-related advertisements in a college newspaper.

    PubMed

    Walfish, S; Stenmark, D E; Wentz, D; Myers, C; Linares, D

    1981-07-01

    The college newspaper is a powerful socializing force on the university campus. Within the general context of a university-based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Project, the present investigation examined alcohol related advertising in a college newspaper at one southern university. Ads were categorized into those: (1) promoting the responsible use of alcohol, (2) promoting the irresponsible use of alcohol, and (3) having a neutral content. Results indicated that a great deal of alcohol-related advertising was presented in this publication, and the majority of advertising did not promote responsible use of the beverage. The potential role of the community-oriented professional as an intervention strategist is discussed. PMID:7327776

  8. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Haighton, Catherine; Wilson, Graeme; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over. Methods Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51–90 years) and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50–95 years) were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent. Findings Participants’ alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people. Conclusion Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced

  9. Sex Differences in the Meaning of Negative Evaluation in Achievement Situations: Determinants and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol S.

    Sex differences in children's reactions to failure feedback in school situations were investigated by assessing the ways in which teachers use negative evaluation in the classroom. Three aspects of teachers' evaluative feedback were studied: (1) ratio of negative to positive feedback; (2) contingency vs. noncontingency of feedback; and (3) (the…

  10. Factors Governing the Effective Remediation of Negative Affect and Its Cognitive and Behavioral Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, R. Christopher; And Others

    A study was conducted in which negative affective states were induced in children by one of several different types of cognition or experience. Subjects were 150 second-grade children, evenly divided by sex, from suburban elementary schools. In particular, cognitive induction procedures involved children's thinking about negative events that might…

  11. Missouri Curriculum Guide for Alcohol-Related Traffic Offenders' Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Don; McClain, Robert

    This document contains the second edition of the Alcohol or Drug Related Traffic Offenders' Program (ARTOP) curriculum guide developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to reduce alcohol-related traffic offenses by presenting factual information about the physical effects of alcohol on the body and on driving skills. The materials…

  12. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

  13. Family Supports for Children Who Have Alcohol-Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Since the first publication on fetal alcohol syndrome appeared in the scientific literature over 30 years ago, there has been a great deal of research interest in the topic. This paper reviews findings within the past 10 years related to causes, frequency, and diagnosis of alcohol-related disabilities, before turning to the impact these…

  14. [ENT emergency treatment and alcohol related head and neck injuries].

    PubMed

    Teudt, I; Grundmann, T; Pueschel, K; Hogan, B; Leventli, B

    2013-08-01

    The spectrum of ENT-diseases can differ widely among emergency departments (ED) of different geographic regions. Especially in terms of head and neck trauma a higher number of injuries can be expected in large cities due to alcohol related violence.The ED of a large hospital situated in the center of Hamburg Germany was analysed for ENT-emergency treatments in 2011 retrospectively. Beside usual patient statistics, the study focused on alcohol related injuries with an ENT-surgeon involved. All data were compared to reports by other EDs in Germany and alcohol related costs were approximated for initiation of prevention programs in the future.2 339 ENT-patients were admitted to the ED. 19% of all patients used an ambulance whereas 80% reached the ED by private transportation. The majority of patients were between 21 and 30 years of age. For 143 of all trauma cases alcohol involvement was documented. Subanalysis revealed male dominance and a high use of ambulance transportation.The high number of traumata differs considerably from other ENT studies. One reason is the hospital's close proximity to all time party districts like "Reeperbahn" and the "Port of Hamburg". In those areas high amounts of alcohol ingestion takes place leading to more injuries at the head- and neck region. Theoretically financial resources would be plenty after the initiation of those programs as the severe costs for alcohol related medical treatment would decline. PMID:23568584

  15. Use of Novel Technology-Based Techniques to Improve Alcohol-Related Outcomes in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gurvich, Eugenia M.; Kenna, George A.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the biologic basis of alcohol dependence and the considerable financial burden of alcohol abuse and dependence, the number of alcohol-related clinical pharmacotherapy trials has been on the rise. Subsequently, the potential to find efficacious treatments is more promising. Unfortunately, alcohol-related trials face a number of challenges, as a result of the difficulties that arise from traditional and outdated methods to collect data and ensure medication adherence. Novel technology-based assessments, such as ecological momentary assessment, interactive voice response, transdermal sensor and medication-event monitoring system provide a prospective solution—albeit not without possible concerns—to the difficulties faced in alcohol-related clinical trials. Clinical trials are meant to define the efficacy of the treatment and to determine an effective and safe dosage. However, due to lack of adherence a drug could inappropriately or mistakenly be judged as ineffective for treating a specific disorder. The described technologies may be important tools to prevent false negatives in validating drug efficacy, to provide consistency in clinical trials and to improve available data regarding the study of pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. PMID:23955872

  16. Drinking norms and alcohol-related problems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Linsky, A S; Colby, J P; Straus, M A

    1986-09-01

    One of Bales's three related hypotheses concerning how cultures or social structures influence the level of alcoholism in a population--that culturally determined attitudes toward drinking and intoxication determine whether alcohol will be used to relieve the stress generated in a society--is examined in the first systematic test of that hypothesis based on American data. A proscriptive norm index was computed for each of the 50 states based on percentage population residing in legally dry areas, the degree of legal restrictions on the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages and the percentage population of Mormons and Fundamentalists. The most proscriptive states are located in the southern region of the United States. Proscriptive norms are significantly correlated with all of the indicators of alcohol-related problems studied. Most of the correlations remain significant when five other variables are controlled. Proscriptive norms are negatively correlated with the indicators of heavy drinking, but positively correlated with the "social disruptiveness" of alcohol (arrest data). Thus driving while intoxicated and other alcohol-related arrests do not appear to arise as a response to the total amount of drinking. Instead, such alcohol-related problems appear to be a response to the strong cultural disapproval of drinking, with the proscriptively oriented states experiencing the highest rates of disruptive behaviors related to alcohol. The findings are consistent with a social control explanation for this link. PMID:3762162

  17. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  18. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Nicole J; Draper, Brian; Withall, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  19. How to Avoid the Negative Consequences of Restructuring the Network of Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvorova, Galina

    2004-01-01

    Because of the destruction of the agricultural sector of Russia's economy, there is no demand for workers in the countryside, and, as a consequence, the able-bodied population is leaving the countryside and the birth rate has gone down drastically. These factors have resulted in the liquidation of kindergartens and small-enrollment schools and a…

  20. Women's Ways of Drinking: College Women, High-Risk Alcohol Use, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…

  1. Does Drinking Location Matter? Profiles of Risky Single-Occasion Drinking by Location and Alcohol-Related Harm among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Caroline; Dey, Michelle; Dermota, Petra; Foster, Simon; Gmel, Gerhard; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    In adolescents and young adults, acute consequences like injuries account for a substantial proportion of alcohol-related harm, especially in risky single-occasion (RSO) drinkers. The primary aim of the study was to characterize different drinking profiles in RSO drinkers according to drinking locations and their relationship to negative, alcohol-related consequences. The sample consisted of 2746 young men from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors who had reported drinking six or more drinks on a single-occasion at least monthly over the preceding 12 months. Principal component analysis on the frequency and amount of drinking at 11 different locations was conducted, and 2 distinguishable components emerged: a non-party-dimension (loading high on theater/cinema, sport clubs, other clubs/societies, restaurants, and sport events) and a party-dimension (loading high on someone else’s home, pubs/bars, discos/nightclubs, outdoor public places, special events, and home). Differential impacts of drinking location profiles were observed on severe negative alcohol-related consequences (SAC). Relative to those classified as low or intermediate in both dimensions, no significant difference experiencing SAC was found among those who were classified as high in the non-party-dimension only. However, those who were classified as high in the party-dimension alone or in both dimensions were more likely to experience SAC. These differential effects remained after adjusting for alcohol consumption (volume and risky single-occasion drinking), personality traits, and peer-influence [adjusted OR = 0.83 (0.68–1.02), 1.57 (1.27–1.96), and 1.72 (1.23–2.41), respectively], indicating independent effects of drinking location on SAC. The inclusion of sociodemographic factors did not alter this association. The fact that this cluster of party-dimension locations seems to predispose young men to experiencing SAC has important implications for alcohol control policies

  2. Intergenerational Continuity of Hostile Parenting and Its Consequences: The Moderating Influence of Children's Negative Emotional Reactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Conger, Rand D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined intergenerational transmission of hostile parenting, moderating effects of child negative emotional reactivity, and links between second generation (G2) hostile parenting and G3 problem behaviors. Found that G1 mothers' hostile parenting when target participant was an adolescent (G2) predicted G2 hostile parenting toward their young child…

  3. The Set-Point Theory of Well-Being: Negative Results and Consequent Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    An adequate theory of happiness or subjective well-being (SWB) needs to link at least three sets of variables: stable person characteristics (including personality traits), life events and measures of well-being (life satisfaction, positive affects) and ill-being (anxiety, depression, negative affects). It also needs to be based on long-term data…

  4. The Research Assessment Exercise in Hong Kong: Positive and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings from 39 interviews from two Hong Kong universities and offers a critique of the RAE system. Respondents stated that the main emphasis in counting research productivity was on articles in prestigious international journals. There were many negative comments about this as the main quality indicator. Some respondents…

  5. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems. PMID:26075735

  6. Personality and alcohol-related outcomes among mandated college students: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs as mediators.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Matthew R; Hustad, John T P

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined three alcohol-perception variables (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs) as mediators of the predictive effects of four personality traits (impulsivity, sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of mandated college students (n=875). Our findings replicated several findings of a previous study of incoming freshman college students (Hustad et al., in press) in that impulsivity and hopelessness had direct effects on alcohol-related problems, sensation seeking and impulsivity had indirect effects on alcohol-related outcomes via college-related alcohol beliefs, and college-related alcohol beliefs predicted both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We discuss the implications of our findings for global college student interventions as well as personality-targeted interventions. PMID:24589869

  7. Unphysical consequences of negative absorbed power in linear passive scattering: Implications for radiation force and torque.

    PubMed

    Marston, Philip L; Zhang, Likun

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to some claims, the absorbed power associated with linear scattering of sound by passive objects in ideal fluids must be non-negative. Such unphysical claims suggest analytical or computational error, or use of an unphysical constitutive relation for material properties. The close connection with the evaluation of acoustic radiation force on targets according to Westervelt's formulation [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29, 26-29 (1957)], recently generalized to certain acoustic beams, is briefly reviewed along with the theory of acoustic radiation torque on axisymmetric targets with power absorption. Applications to viscous dissipation and to issues pertaining to active targets are also examined. PMID:27369138

  8. Experiences of racist events are associated with negative health consequences for African American women.

    PubMed Central

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Guevarra, Josephine S.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether experiences of racist events were related to psychological distress, negative health behaviors, and health problems. Participants were 71 African American women (mean age 44.4) who were recruited from an urban cancer-screening clinic as part of a larger longitudinal study on familial risk of breast cancer. Participants completed three study assessments, approximately one month apart, and data were collected via self-report. Correlational analyses revealed that past year and lifetime racism were both related to psychological distress. Among smokers and drinkers, past year racism was positively correlated with number of cigarettes and drinks consumed. Lifetime racism was negatively related to perceived health, and positively related to lifetime history of physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. Analyses using a general linear model revealed that these relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. In addition, demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American's well being and should be investigated in health disparities research. PMID:12856911

  9. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  10. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  11. Drinking Reductions following Alcohol-related Sanctions are associated with Social Norms among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.; Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Students mandated for intervention following an alcohol-related sanction event often reduce their drinking prior to intervention. Knowing the determinants of self-initiated change may help identify intervention targets for individuals who do not reduce their drinking. Guided by self-regulation theory, we tested whether fewer past alcohol consequences and higher descriptive and injunctive norms would be associated with higher levels of post-sanction drinking. College students referred for a campus alcohol violation (N=658, 64% male) reported on their drinking during the month before and after their sanction event. Results show that post-sanction drinking was significantly lower than pre-sanction drinking across four outcomes: (a) drinks per drinking day, (b) drinks per week, (c) peak drinks, and (d) peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Hypothesized social influence variables (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) were consistently associated with all four drinking outcomes; that is, students who perceived that their friends drank more and held more accepting views of drinking were less reactive to alcohol-related sanctions. Past consequences of drinking did not consistently predict subsequent drinking. Therefore, we conclude that alcohol interventions for mandated students should target both descriptive and injunctive norms to optimize their efficacy. PMID:24274435

  12. Negative consequences of glacial turbidity for the survival of freshwater planktonic heterotrophic flagellates.

    PubMed

    Sommaruga, Ruben; Kandolf, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic (phagotrophic) flagellates are key components of planktonic food webs in freshwater and marine ecosystems because they are the main consumers of bacteria. Although they are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, they were numerically undetectable in turbid glacier-fed lakes. Here we show that glacial particles had negative effects on the survival and growth of heterotrophic flagellates. The effect of glacial particles was concentration-dependent and was caused by their interference with bacterial uptake rather than by physical damage. These results are the first to reveal why establishment of heterotrophic flagellates populations is hindered in very turbid glacial lakes. Because glaciers are vanishing around the world, recently formed turbid meltwater lakes represent an excellent opportunity to understand the environmental conditions that probably shaped the establishment of lake communities at the end of the last glaciation. PMID:24531332

  13. Nicotine, adolescence, and stress: A review of how stress can modulate the negative consequences of adolescent nicotine abuse.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    In order to continue the decline of smoking prevalence, it is imperative to identify factors that contribute to the development of nicotine and tobacco addiction, such as adolescent initiation of nicotine use, adolescent stress, and their interaction. This review highlights the biological differences between adolescent and adults in nicotine use and resulting effects, and examines the enduring consequences of adolescent nicotine administration. A review of both clinical and preclinical literature indicates that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine administration leads to increased susceptibility for development of long-lasting impairments in learning and affect. Finally, the role stress plays in normal adolescent development, the deleterious effects stress has on learning and memory, and the negative consequences resulting from the interaction of stress and nicotine during adolescence is reviewed. The review concludes with ways in which future policies could benefit by addressing adolescent stress as a means of reducing adolescent nicotine abuse. PMID:27068856

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  15. Alcohol Expectancies and Evaluations of Aggression in Alcohol-Related Intimate-Partner Verbal and Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol aggression expectancies have been found to be associated with increases in aggressive behavior. However, research has not consistently examined evaluations of such behavior. This is unfortunate as both expectancies and evaluations may play a role in whether such behavior will occur. Given this, the current study cross-sectionally examined the associations between alcohol aggression expectancies, evaluations of alcohol-related aggression, indicators of excessive drinking, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression. Method: The sample consisted of 280 married and cohabiting couples. These couples reported on excessive drinking indicators, alcohol expectancies and evaluations, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression during the past year. Results: Findings showed that verbal aggression was positively associated with indicators of excessive drinking among females and with alcohol aggression expectancies for females who evaluated such aggression positively. For males, aggression expectancies and indicators of excessive drinking were positively associated with verbal aggression. For physical aggression, results showed that indicators of excessive drinking and aggression expectancies were associated with physical aggression for females. For males, aggression expectancies were positively associated and evaluations were negatively associated with physical aggression. Conclusions: These findings add to previous research on alcohol aggression expectancies in close relationships and emphasize the importance of considering evaluations of alcohol-related behavior and how they may play a role in intimate-partner violence and aggression. PMID:25208191

  16. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  17. The associations among prior drinking consequences, subjective evaluations, and subsequent alcohol outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zaso, Michelle J.; Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A.; Kwon, Hoin; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Although the many positive and negative psychosocial consequences of alcohol use are well documented, evidence of the association between prior drinking consequences and subsequent alcohol-related outcomes is mixed. Social learning theory highlights that cognitive appraisals of prior drinking consequences play a crucial intermediate role in the relation of prior drinking consequences with subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. This prospective study was designed to test the mediating effects of subjective evaluations (i.e., perceived valence and controllability) in the association of prior drinking consequences with change in binge drinking and drinking consequences over time. Participants were 171 college students (68% female, 74% White, mean age = 18.95 years [SD = 1.35]) who completed two online surveys, with an average interval of 68 days [SD = 10.22] between assessments. Path analyses of the data did not support mediational effects of perceived valence or controllability of prior drinking consequences on subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. Specifically, greater frequency of negative consequences was associated with lower perceived valence and controllability, and greater frequency of positive consequences was associated with lower perceived controllability of the experienced consequences. However, perceptions of valence and controllability were not in turn associated with subsequent binge drinking and drinking consequences. Instead, greater frequency of positive consequences was directly associated with greater subsequent frequency of binge drinking. Findings highlight the importance of prior positive consequences in the escalation of binge drinking over a short period of time, although this relation may not be accounted for by perceptions of valence and controllability of the prior drinking consequences. PMID:27214171

  18. The associations among prior drinking consequences, subjective evaluations, and subsequent alcohol outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zaso, Michelle J; Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A; Kwon, Hoin; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Although the many positive and negative psychosocial consequences of alcohol use are well documented, evidence of the association between prior drinking consequences and subsequent alcohol-related outcomes is mixed. Social learning theory highlights that cognitive appraisals of prior drinking consequences play a crucial intermediate role in the relation of prior drinking consequences with subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. This prospective study was designed to test the mediating effects of subjective evaluations (i.e., perceived valence and controllability) in the association of prior drinking consequences with change in binge drinking and drinking consequences over time. Participants were 171 college students (69% female, 74% White, M age = 18.95 years, SD = 1.35) who completed 2 online surveys, with an average interval of 68 days (SD = 10.22) between assessments. Path analyses of the data did not support mediational effects of perceived valence or controllability of prior drinking consequences on subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. Specifically, greater frequency of negative consequences was associated with lower perceived valence and controllability, and greater frequency of positive consequences was associated with lower perceived controllability of the experienced consequences. However, perceptions of valence and controllability were not in turn associated with subsequent binge drinking and drinking consequences. Instead, greater frequency of positive consequences was directly associated with greater subsequent frequency of binge drinking. Findings highlight the importance of prior positive consequences in the escalation of binge drinking over a short period of time, although this relation may not be accounted for by perceptions of valence and controllability of the prior drinking consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214171

  19. The Japanese society of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Higuchi, Susumu

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents an outline of the Japanese Society of Alcohol-Related Problems. The precursor of the Society was the Japan Alcoholism Treatment Research Group, inaugurated in 1979, by merging two local research groups in the Tokyo and Osaka areas, both of which were exclusive gatherings of psychiatrists associated with alcoholism clinics. The Research Group developed into the Society in 1992, as the number of participants including those from other medical professions increased yearly, and the subjects of the group widened to include all addictive behaviours. In reflecting the process of establishment, it is unique in many aspects as a scientific society. The Society is not a science-orientated body for presentation of new research findings. The main programme of the annual meeting is therefore a set of symposia in which members participate and discuss clinical and/or social problems arising from dependency on alcohol or drugs. Perhaps because of its content, the annual meeting is attended each year by the largest number of participants among all the societies in Japan concerned with alcohol and drugs. For the next several years, the Society's activities will be directed at (1) establishment of guidelines for early identification of and intervention in alcohol-related problems; (2) expansion of its membership to include those in related fields of medicine and non-medical professions; (3) improvement of the system of journal publication; and (4) creation of a system for timely adequate response to social problems associated with drugs and alcohol. PMID:15049741

  20. Effects of prices, civil and criminal sanctions, and law enforcement on alcohol-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Sloan, F A; Reilly, B A; Schenzler, C

    1994-07-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to several causes of death. This study provides an empirical analysis of the effects of various public policies on mortality rates by state and year for the years 1982-88. Causes of death analyzed are: alcohol primary cause; traffic accident; homicides; suicides; falls, fires and other accidents; and contributory cause deaths (cancers of the alimentary tract). We find that increasing the price of alcohol decreases mortality rates for some of the causes, but not for primary cause deaths. Higher excise taxes on cigarettes reduce contributory cause mortality. Dram shop laws have negative and statistically significant effects not only on mortality rates from traffic accidents, but for several of the other causes. There is a need for further analysis to determine how these reductions are achieved. We find no evidence that imposing mandatory minimum jail terms, fines or license revocation for a DUI conviction affects alcohol-related mortality. However, increased police protection decreases mortality rates for several categories, especially homicides and traffic accidents. We find that imposing the death penalty reduces homicide rates. Reductions in alcohol-related mortality may be achieved by implementing a mix of public policies. No single policy is a panacea. PMID:7934053

  1. The role of negative mood states and consequences of hypersexual behaviours in predicting hypersexuality among university students

    PubMed Central

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K.; Pontes, Halley M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The issue of whether hypersexual behaviours exist among university students is controversial because many of these individuals engage in sexual exploration during their time at university. To date, little is known about the correlates of hypersexual behaviours among university students in the UK. Therefore, the aims of this exploratory study were two-fold. Firstly, to explore and establish the correlates of hypersexual behaviours, and secondly, to investigate whether hypersexuality among university students can be predicted by variables relating to negative mood states (i.e., emotional dysregulation, loneliness, shame, and life satisfaction) and consequences of hypersexual behaviour. Methods Survey data from 165 British university students was analysed using regression analyses. Results The full regression model significantly predicted hypersexual behaviours. However, only a small number of predictor variables (i.e., gender, consequences of hypersexual behaviours, life satisfaction and emotional dysregulation) accounted for the significant unique influence on hypersexual behaviours among the sample. Conclusions The study empirically supported the concept of hypersexual disorder. The implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:26551908

  2. Alcohol-related Cues Promote Automatic Racial Bias.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott; Friedman, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase the expression of race bias by impairing control-related processes. The current study tested whether simple exposure to alcohol-related images can also increase bias, but via a different mechanism. Participants viewed magazine ads for either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to completing Payne's (2001) Weapons Identification Task (WIT). As predicted, participants primed with alcohol ads exhibited greater race bias in the WIT than participants primed with neutral beverages. Process dissociation analyses indicated that these effects were due to automatic (relative to controlled) processes having a larger influence on behavior among alcohol-primed relative to neutral-primed participants. Structural equation modeling further showed that the alcohol-priming effect was mediated by increases in the influence of automatic associations on behavior. These data suggest an additional pathway by which alcohol can potentially harm inter-racial interactions, even when no beverage is consumed. PMID:22798699

  3. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook. PMID:21644803

  4. Dominant negative consequences of a hERG 1b-specific mutation associated with intrauterine fetal death.

    PubMed

    Jones, David K; Liu, Fang; Dombrowski, Natasha; Joshi, Sunita; Robertson, Gail A

    2016-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) encodes two subunits, hERG 1a and hERG 1b, that combine in vivo to conduct the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). Reduced IKr slows cardiac action potential (AP) repolarization and is an underlying cause of cardiac arrhythmias associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS). Although the physiological importance of hERG 1b has been elucidated, the effects of hERG 1b disease mutations on cardiac IKr and AP behavior have not been described. To explore the disease mechanism of a 1b-specific mutation associated with a case of intrauterine fetal death, we examined the effects of the 1b-R25W mutation on total protein, trafficking and membrane current levels in HEK293 cells at physiological temperatures. By all measures the 1b-R25W mutation conferred diminished expression, and exerted a temperature-sensitive, dominant-negative effect over the WT hERG 1a protein with which it was co-expressed. Membrane currents were reduced by 60% with no apparent effect on voltage dependence or deactivation kinetics. The dominant-negative effects of R25W were demonstrated in iPSC-CMs, where 1b-R25W transfection diminished native IKr compared to controls. R25W also slowed AP repolarization, and increased AP triangulation and variability in iPSC-CMs, reflecting cellular manifestations of pro-arrhythmia. These data demonstrate that R25W is a dominant-negative mutation with significant pathophysiological consequences, and provide the first direct link between hERG 1b mutation and cardiomyocyte dysfunction. PMID:26772437

  5. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors. PMID:21988480

  6. Anxiety and the Use of Alcohol-Related Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2015-01-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are useful skills for reducing the negative consequences of alcohol. The moderating effects of anxiety on the relationship between 3 different types of PBS and negative consequences were examined among students accessing college counseling services. Results revealed a significant interaction between anxiety…

  7. Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the iron mountain superfund site, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Alpers, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    The Richmond Mine of the Iron Mountain copper deposit contains some of the most acid mine waters ever reported. Values of pH have been measured as low as -3.6, combined metal concentrations as high as 200 g/liter, and sulfate concentrations as high as 760 g/liter. Copious quantities of soluble metal sulfate salts such as melanterite, chalcanthite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, voltaite, copiapite, and halotrichite have been identified, and some of these are forming from negative-pH mine waters. Geochemical calculations show that, under a mine-plugging remediation scenario, these salts would dissolve and the resultant 600,000-m3 mine pool would have a pH of 1 or less and contain several grams of dissolved metals per liter, much like the current portal effluent water. In the absence of plugging or other at-source control, current weathering rates indicate that the portal effluent will continue for approximately 3,000 years. Other remedial actions have greatly reduced metal loads into downstream drainages and the Sacramento River, primarily by capturing the major acidic discharges and routing them to a lime neutralization plant. Incorporation of geochemical modeling and mineralogical expertise into the decision-making process for remediation can save time, save money, and reduce the likelihood of deleterious consequences.

  8. Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Alpers, Charles N.

    1999-01-01

    The Richmond Mine of the Iron Mountain copper deposit contains some of the most acid mine waters ever reported. Values of pH have been measured as low as −3.6, combined metal concentrations as high as 200 g/liter, and sulfate concentrations as high as 760 g/liter. Copious quantities of soluble metal sulfate salts such as melanterite, chalcanthite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, voltaite, copiapite, and halotrichite have been identified, and some of these are forming from negative-pH mine waters. Geochemical calculations show that, under a mine-plugging remediation scenario, these salts would dissolve and the resultant 600,000-m3 mine pool would have a pH of 1 or less and contain several grams of dissolved metals per liter, much like the current portal effluent water. In the absence of plugging or other at-source control, current weathering rates indicate that the portal effluent will continue for approximately 3,000 years. Other remedial actions have greatly reduced metal loads into downstream drainages and the Sacramento River, primarily by capturing the major acidic discharges and routing them to a lime neutralization plant. Incorporation of geochemical modeling and mineralogical expertise into the decision-making process for remediation can save time, save money, and reduce the likelihood of deleterious consequences. PMID:10097057

  9. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  10. Cortical morphology in children with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rajaprakash, Meghna; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Rovet, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that individuals exposed to alcohol in utero have reduced cortical grey matter volumes. However, the candidate determinants of these reductions, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), have not been investigated exclusively in alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), the most prevalent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder subgroup that lacks the characteristic facial dysmorphology. Methods T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 88 participants (8–16 years), 36 diagnosed with ARND and 52 typically developing controls. Scans were submitted to the CIVET pipeline (version 1.1.10). Deformable models were used to construct the inner white matter surfaces and pial surfaces from which CT and SA measures were derived. Group differences in cortical volume, CT, and SA were computed using a general linear model covaried for age, sex, and handedness. Results Global cortical volume reductions in ARND did not reflect CT, which did not differ between groups. Instead, volume decreases were consistent with global SA reductions in bilateral frontal and temporal as well as right occipital regions. Local reductions in SA were observed in the right superior temporal gyrus and the right occipital-temporal region. Conclusion Results suggest that in ARND, prenatal alcohol exposure perturbs global SA to a greater degree than CT, particularly in the right temporal lobe. PMID:24653953

  11. [Clinical application of neuroimaging to alcohol-related dementia].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshifumi; Sakurai, Hideki; Toyama, Tomomi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2012-06-01

    Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is one of the most common dementing disorders in middle-aged people and occurs in heavy drinkers who are estimated to be 10 - 15 % of the adult men in a community. While the concept of ARD is multifactorial and includes all cognitive deficits in alcoholics, the central clinical manifestations are exemplified by Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), a persistent neuropsychiatric syndrome, characterized by amnesia and disorientation that is caused by thiamine deficiency along with excessive alcohol consumption. Antemortem detection of intracranial changes has been made possible by MRI and many studies have revealed that alcoholics have atrophic changes in frontal lobe, cerebellum, medial temporal lobe and hippocampus. However, these brain regions are vulnerable to excessive alcohol and seem to be independent of cognitive deficits in alcoholics. This review shows the regional differences in gray matter volumes between cognitively normal alcoholics and patients with KS. By employing a 3-dimensional MRI method for voxel-based morphometry that enables an automated, unbiased, comprehensive assessment, we demonstrate that parahippocampal/hippocampal atrophy is specific to KS and thalamic atrophy and the third ventricle enlargement are more severe in patients with KS than in cognitively normal alcoholics. PMID:22894053

  12. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  13. 14 CFR 120.221 - Consequences for employees engaging in alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Except as provided in 49 CFR part 40, no covered employee shall perform safety-sensitive functions if the... otherwise required by 49 CFR part 40 or this subpart. (5) Once the Federal Air Surgeon has recommended under... that the employee meets the return to duty requirements in accordance with 49 CFR part 40. (d)...

  14. 14 CFR 120.221 - Consequences for employees engaging in alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Except as provided in 49 CFR part 40, no covered employee shall perform safety-sensitive functions if the... 49 CFR part 40 or this subpart. (5) Once the Federal Air Surgeon has recommended under paragraph (c... the employee meets the return to duty requirements in accordance with 49 CFR part 40. (d) Notice...

  15. 14 CFR 120.221 - Consequences for employees engaging in alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Except as provided in 49 CFR part 40, no covered employee shall perform safety-sensitive functions if the... otherwise required by 49 CFR part 40 or this subpart. (5) Once the Federal Air Surgeon has recommended under... that the employee meets the return to duty requirements in accordance with 49 CFR part 40. (d)...

  16. 14 CFR 120.221 - Consequences for employees engaging in alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Except as provided in 49 CFR part 40, no covered employee shall perform safety-sensitive functions if the... otherwise required by 49 CFR part 40 or this subpart. (5) Once the Federal Air Surgeon has recommended under... that the employee meets the return to duty requirements in accordance with 49 CFR part 40. (d)...

  17. 14 CFR 120.221 - Consequences for employees engaging in alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Except as provided in 49 CFR part 40, no covered employee shall perform safety-sensitive functions if the... otherwise required by 49 CFR part 40 or this subpart. (5) Once the Federal Air Surgeon has recommended under... that the employee meets the return to duty requirements in accordance with 49 CFR part 40. (d)...

  18. A Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention Reduces Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences in Adjudicated College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lamb, Toby F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Quinlan, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a single-session group motivational enhancement intervention with college students adjudicated for violation of alcohol policy. The intervention consisted of a timeline Followback assessment of drinking, social norms re-education, decisional balance for behavior change, relapse prevention, expectancy…

  19. Social anxiety and alcohol-related impairment: The mediational impact of solitary drinking.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Terlecki, Meredith A

    2016-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to drinking frequency. Inconsistent findings may be at least partially due to lack of attention to drinking context - it may be that socially anxious individuals are especially vulnerable to drinking more often in specific contexts that increase their risk for alcohol-related problems. For instance, socially anxious persons may drink more often while alone, before social situations for "liquid courage" and/or after social situations to manage negative thoughts about their performance. Among current (past-month) drinkers (N=776), social anxiety was significantly, positively related to solitary drinking frequency and was negatively related to social drinking frequency. Social anxiety was indirectly (via solitary drinking frequency) related to greater past-month drinking frequency and more drinking-related problems. Social anxiety was also indirectly (via social drinking frequency) negatively related to past-month drinking frequency and drinking-related problems. Findings suggest that socially anxious persons may be vulnerable to more frequent drinking in particular contexts (in this case alone) and that this context-specific drinking may play an important role in drinking problems among these high-risk individuals. PMID:26894561

  20. Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Bray, Robert M; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Population-based Department of Defense health behavior surveys were examined for binge and heavy drinking among U.S. active duty personnel. From 1998-2008, personnel showed significant increases in heavy drinking (15% to 20%) and binge drinking (35% to 47%). The rate of alcohol-related serious consequences was 4% for nonbinge drinkers, 9% for binge drinkers, and 19% for heavy drinkers. Personnel with high combat exposure had significantly higher rates of heavy (26.8%) and binge (54.8%) drinking than their counterparts (17% and 45%, respectively). Heavy and binge drinking put service members at high risk for problems that diminish force readiness and psychological fitness. PMID:23869454

  1. Skin Immunization Obviates Alcohol-Related Immune Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Rhonda M.; Stottlemyer, John Mark; Cline, Rachel A.; Donahue, Cara; Behari, Jaideep; Falo, Louis D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH)-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD) and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC) diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM), directly to liver (hydrodynamic), or cutaneously (biolistic, ID). We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg), and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects. PMID:26561838

  2. Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behavior among College Drinkers: Associations with Protective Behaviors, Personality, and Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Matthew I.; Perkins, David R.; Labatut, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behaviors Inventory (DARBI), a measure of harmful alcohol-related behavior, and the relationship between protective behavior use and scores on the DARBI and several other measures. Participants: Participants were 281 undergraduate volunteers (60%…

  3. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  4. Community off-sales provision and the presence of alcohol-related detritus in residential neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Alasdair J M; Davidson, Neil

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between community off-sales premises and alcohol-related detritus (litter/remains) in residential neighbourhoods. This was accomplished by photographing all brand-identifiable alcohol product detritus (glass, packaging, etc.) where they lay and mapping these against the presence of off-sales outlets (licensed convenience stores) in the community. It was hypothesised that alcohol-related detritus would be greatest near to such alcohol outlets. However, although there was some evidence of a "broken bottles effect", accumulations of alcohol-related detritus near some off-sales premises, it is concluded that local area deprivation is a better predictor of such alcohol-related incivility than is outlet provision. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to current social responsibility policy developments which are designed to make the alcohol industry liable for alcohol-related incivilities. PMID:20004129

  5. The Negative Consequences of Other Students’ Drinking: Inventory Development and Assessment of Differences by Student Characteristics and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Omli, Morrow R.; Cohen, Gail M.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; DuRant, Robert H.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    College students continue to report being disrupted by other students’ alcohol use. Objective: This study was designed to develop measures to document the consequences resulting from other students’ drinking and identify differences in experiencing these consequences by student characteristics and drinking behaviors. Study group: A stratified random sample of undergraduate students (N = 3,908) from ten universities in North Carolina, USA, completed a web-based assessment. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the random first split-half sample (n = 1,954) to identify factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the remaining half sample (n = 1,954) using structural equation modeling. Results: EFA revealed two inventories: interpersonal and community consequences of others’ drinking inventories. CFA on the second split-half sample identified model fits for the two factor structure suggested by EFA. Of 3,908 participants, 78% reported experiencing one or more consequences due to others’ drinking during the past 30 days. Multivariable generalized linear mixed modeling further validated the inventories and resulted in several associations. Male students who reported getting drunk experienced significantly more interpersonal consequences from others’ drinking (p < .001). Minority students, students who lived on campus and students who reported getting drunk experienced significantly more community consequences from others’ drinking (p < .01). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that 4 out of 5 college students experience consequences from others’ drinking, and consequences vary for different subgroups of students. Although these inventories should be tested further, these findings propose standardized measures that may be useful to assess the consequences of others’ drinking among college students. PMID:20306764

  6. Double jeopardy! The additive consequences of negative affect on performance-monitoring decrements following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Kaufman, David A S; Kellison, Ida L; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Perlstein, William M

    2009-07-01

    Survivors of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at increased risk for emotional sequelae. The current study utilized the error-related negativity (ERN) and posterror positivity (Pe) components of the event-related potential (ERP) to test the hypothesis that negative affect disproportionately impairs performance-monitoring following severe TBI. High-density ERPs were acquired while 20 survivors of severe TBI and 20 demographically matched controls performed a single-trial Stroop task. Response-locked ERPs were separately averaged for correct and error trials. Negative affect was measured as the single latent factor of measures of depression and anxiety. Groups did not differ on overall level of negative affect. Control and TBI participants did not differ on error rates as a function of negative affect, but differed in response times. ERP results revealed disproportionately smaller ERN amplitudes in participants with TBI relative to controls as a function of negative affect. Pe amplitude did not differ between groups. Negative affect inversely correlated with ERN amplitude in TBI but not control participants. Overall, results support a "double jeopardy" hypothesis of disproportionate impairments in performance monitoring when negative affect is overlaid on severe TBI. PMID:19586208

  7. Differential alcohol-related mortality among American Indian tribes in Oklahoma, 1968-1978.

    PubMed

    Christian, C M; Dufour, M; Bertolucci, D

    1989-01-01

    Tribal differences in alcohol-related mortality were examined among 11 Indian tribes living in Oklahoma. Data on alcohol-related deaths from 1968 to 1978 were compiled and assigned to various tribes on the basis of population distributions by county. Results showed significant differences in alcohol-related mortality among the various tribes. Of the 267,238 total deaths in Oklahoma during the study period, 9.3% of Indian deaths were alcohol-related while only 3.2% of those among blacks and 2.4% of those among whites were classified as such. Indian males and females are far more likely to die of alcohol-related deaths than their black and white counterparts. Cheyenne-Arapaho, Comanche and Kiowa areas (located in the western++ part of the state) have higher alcohol-related deaths than Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole and Pawnee areas (located in eastern Oklahoma). Indian residents of the Seminole area have the lowest percentage of deaths identified as alcohol-related. The patterns which emerge may be due to different cultural and historical factors among the Indian tribes. PMID:2784011

  8. American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol-Related Incarceration and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, Sarah W.; Venner, Kamilla L.; May, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcohol-related incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported receiving 0 to 43 treatment experiences. Moreover, participants had a significantly greater number of alcohol-related incarcerations than all other treatments combined. These findings underline the importance of making alcohol treatment available within criminal justice settings. PMID:17602406

  9. Genetic influences in emotional dysfunction and alcoholism-related brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Bowirrat, Abdalla

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex, multifactorial disorder involving problematic ethanol ingestion; it results from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Personality, likewise, is formed from a combination of inherited and acquired influences. Because selected dimensions of emotional temperament are associated with distinct neurochemical substrates contributing to specific personality phenotypes, certain aspects of abnormal emotional traits in alcoholics may be inherited. Emotions involve complex subjective experiences engaging multiple brain regions, most notably the cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum. Results of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and post-mortem neuropathological studies of alcoholics indicate that the greatest cortical loss occurs in the frontal lobes, with concurrent thinning of the corpus callosum. Additional damage has been documented for the amygdala and hippocampus, as well as in the white matter of the cerebellum. All of the critical areas of alcoholism-related brain damage are important for normal emotional functioning. When changes occur in these brain regions, either as a consequence of chronic ethanol abuse or from a genetic anomaly affecting temperament and/or a vulnerability to alcoholism, corresponding changes in emotional functions are to be expected. In alcoholics, such changes have been observed in their perception and evaluation of emotional facial expressions, interpretation of emotional intonations in vocal utterances, and appreciation of the meaning of emotional materials. PMID:18568071

  10. [Is superstitious behavior more easily acquired by negative reinforcement schedules than positive reinforcement schedules? Examinations of the polarity and the duration of a consequence].

    PubMed

    Hori, Mayuko; Numata, Keitaro; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of positive and negative reinforcement on superstitious behaviors. Participants were instructed to produce the word "GOOD" on a computer display (positive reinforcement condition) or to remove the word "BAD" (negative reinforcement condition) by pressing any of six keys. The words GOOD or BAD were presented at fixed-time intervals regardless of the participant's responses. In Experiment 1, only participants exposed to the negative reinforcement condition acquired superstitious behaviors. However, the observed asymmetry may not have been due to the polarity of consequences (positive vs. negative) but instead to the amount of time of goal states, because the period of the absence of BAD was longer than the period of the presence of GOOD. Experiment 2 varied the duration of word presentations to match the period of goal state between the positive and negative reinforcement conditions, and found that participants acquired superstitious behaviors equally under the two conditions. These results indicate that the duration of a consequence rather than its polarity is a critical factor controlling superstitious behaviors. The theoretical relationship between superstitious behavior and the illusion of control is discussed. PMID:24669504

  11. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  12. Alcohol Related Changes in Regulation of NMDA Receptor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, József

    2008-01-01

    Long-term alcohol exposure may lead to development of alcohol dependence in consequence of altered neurotransmitter functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptors is a particularly important site of ethanol’s action. Several studies showed that ethanol potently inhibits NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and prolonged ethanol exposition leads to a compensatory “up-regulation” of NMDAR mediated functions. Therefore, alterations in NMDAR function are supposed to contribute to the development of ethanol tolerance, dependence as well as to the acute and late signs of ethanol withdrawal. A number of publications report alterations in the expression and phosphorylation states of NMDAR subunits, in their interaction with scaffolding proteins or other receptors in consequence of chronic ethanol treatment. Our knowledge on the regulatory processes, which modulate NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, protein expression and post-translational modifications of NMDAR subunits, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins or other downstream signaling elements are incessantly increasing. The aim of this review is to summarize the complex chain of events supposedly playing a role in the up-regulation of NMDAR functions in consequence of chronic ethanol exposure. PMID:19305787

  13. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; Pearce, J.; Shortt, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18–25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  14. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed

    Richardson, E A; Hill, S E; Mitchell, R; Pearce, J; Shortt, N K

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18-25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  15. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  16. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  17. Alcohol-Related Visual Cues Impede the Ability to Process Auditory Information: Seeing but Not Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Monem, Ramey G.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of visual attention find that drinkers spend more time attending to images of alcohol-related stimuli compared to neutral images. It is believed that this attentional bias contributes to the maintenance of alcohol use. However, no research has examined the possibility that this bias of visual attention might actually impede the functioning of other modalities, such as the processing of accompanying auditory stimuli. This study aimed to determine if alcohol-related images engender greater sensory dominance than neutral images, such that processing accompanying information from another modality (audition) would be impeded. Drinkers who had an attentional bias to alcohol-related images performed a multisensory perception task that measured how alcohol-related versus neutral visual images affected their ability to detect and respond to simultaneously presented auditory signals. In accord with the hypothesis, compared with neutral images, the presentation of alcohol-related images impaired the ability to detect and respond to auditory signals. Increased dominance of the visual modality was demonstrated by more bimodal targets being misclassified as visual-only targets in the alcohol target condition compared with that of the neutral. Findings suggest that increased processing of alcohol-related stimuli may impede an individual’s ability to encode and interpret information obtained from other sensory modalities. PMID:26653149

  18. A Qualitative Examination of the Positive and Negative Consequences Associated With Going Tobacco-Free in Substance Abuse Treatment: The NY State Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Taylor E.; Evans, Elizabeth; Selzer, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In 2008, the New York State (NYS) Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) required all state-funded or state-certified addiction treatment programs to be 100% tobacco-free. The regulation prohibits the use or possession of all tobacco products by patients, employees, volunteers, and visitors. This includes exterior grounds and vehicles owned, leased, or operated by the facility. Addiction treatment centers are also required to screen patients for tobacco use and incorporate tobacco cessation into treatment programming. This study examined the perceived effectiveness of this regulation from the perspective of counselors and clinical supervisors. Methods: Qualitative data were collected from 261 counselors and 80 clinical supervisors working in 50 free-standing substance abuse treatment programs throughout NYS. Questions asked about the perceived positive and negative consequences of the OASAS regulation approximately 1 year after its implementation. Results: The findings indicate mixed reactions to the regulation. A wide range of positive and negative consequences were identified, which were generally consistent across counselor and clinical supervisor reports. The most commonly reported positive outcomes were positive behavior change (e.g., less smoking, increased intentions to quit) and increased awareness about smoking (e.g., dangers, available assistance to quit). The most commonly reported negative consequences were reinforcing addict behaviors among patients (e.g., lying, “dealing” cigarettes) and enforcement problems (e.g., difficulty enforcing, policing for compliance). Conclusion: Findings have implications for the implementation of tobacco-free regulations in substance abuse treatment programs. PMID:22416113

  19. Psychological consequences associated with positive and negative responses to disclosure of sexual assault among college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-07-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims' subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims' post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  20. Psychological Consequences Associated With Positive and Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Assault Among College Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  1. [Guideline-oriented treatment of alcohol-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Mann, K; Hoch, E; Batra, A; Bonnet, U; Günthner, A; Reymann, G; Soyka, M; Wodarz, N; Schäfer, M

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (e.g. abuse and dependence) account for a plethora of consequences for affected individuals and for a substantial proportion of the overall burden of disease for the community. To date, existing treatment options are either poorly known by doctors or they are not fully applied and only approximately 15% of potential patients are treated with a mean latent period of 10 years between early symptoms and the first intervention. So-called S3 treatment guidelines were recently developed to close this gap. Representatives of more than 50 learned societies, families and patients were involved. A systematic literature search from 2005 to 2012 was performed and more than 120 recommendations were made. Financing came exclusively from those societies and the academic and treatment institutes involved.This article summarizes the recommendations pertinent for psychiatrists and include early detection and intervention, acute withdrawal and long-term psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Classical and new treatment goals are discussed. If the new guidelines were properly applied an increase in patients receiving treatment to 30-40% could be expected, which would improve the quality of lives of affected persons and their families and in Germany would save several thousand lives per year. PMID:26670021

  2. Inferential false memories of events: negative consequences protect from distortions when the events are free from further elaboration.

    PubMed

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico; Grassano, Massimo; Cornoldi, Cesare; Melinder, Annika

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate whether negative emotionally charged and arousing content of to-be-remembered scripted material would affect propensity towards memory distortions. We further investigated whether elaboration of the studied material through free recall would affect the magnitude of memory errors. In this study participants saw eight scripts. Each of the scripts included an effect of an action, the cause of which was not presented. Effects were either negatively emotional or neutral. Participants were assigned to either a yes/no recognition test group (recognition), or to a recall and yes/no recognition test group (elaboration + recognition). Results showed that participants in the recognition group produced fewer memory errors in the emotional condition. Conversely, elaboration + recognition participants had lower accuracy and produced more emotional memory errors than the other group, suggesting a mediating role of semantic elaboration on the generation of false memories. The role of emotions and semantic elaboration on the generation of false memories is discussed. PMID:23663060

  3. When mothering goes awry: Challenges and opportunities for utilizing evidence across rodent, nonhuman primate and human studies to better define the biological consequences of negative early caregiving.

    PubMed

    Drury, Stacy S; Sánchez, Mar M; Gonzalez, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Across mammalian species, mothers shape socio-emotional development and serve as essential external regulators of infant physiology, brain development, behavior patterns, and emotional regulation. Caregiving quality, consistency and predictability shape the infant's underlying neurobiological processes. Although the requirements for "optimal" caregiving differ across species, the negative long-term consequences of the absence of needed caregiving (e.g. neglect) or the presence of harmful/aversive caregiving (e.g. physical abuse), are translatable across species. Recognizing the significant potential of cross species comparisons in terms of defining underlying mechanisms, effective translation requires consideration of the evolutionary, ecological, and fundamental biological and developmental differences between and among species. This review provides both an overview of several success stories of cross-species translations in relation to negative caregiving and a template for future studies seeking to most effectively define the underlying biological processes and advance research dedicated to mitigating the lasting negative health consequences of child maltreatment. PMID:26506032

  4. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovács, Katalin; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Leinsalu, Mall; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtaříková, Jitka; de Gelder, Rianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time. Methods and Findings We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3–4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2–118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of

  5. Recurring alcohol-related care between 1998 and 2007 among people treated for an alcohol-related disorder in 1997: A register study in Stockholm County

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inpatient care for alcohol intoxication is increasing in Sweden, especially among young women. Since it is well known that alcohol disorder is a chronic relapsing illness, this study examines the extent to which people return for more care. Method All inpatients with alcohol-related diagnoses in Stockholm County during 1997 were followed prospectively to 2007 through registers. The proportion reappearing for the same diagnosis, other alcohol-related inpatient, or outpatient care each year after baseline, as well as the number of years the inpatients reappeared were calculated (n = 2735). Three diagnoses were examined separately; alcohol dependence, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol intoxication. Results Three out of five inpatients with an alcohol diagnoses reappeared for more alcohol-related inpatient care during the following decade. The proportion returning was largest the year after baseline and then decreased curvilinearly over time. The inclusion of outpatient care increased proportions, but did not change patterns. Of those with an alcohol dependence diagnosis at baseline 42 percent returned for more alcohol-related inpatient care the first, 28 percent the fifth, and 25 percent the tenth year. Corresponding proportions for harmful use and intoxication were smaller. One in five among those with an alcohol dependence returned for more than five of the ten years. Ordered logistic regressions confirmed that besides diagnosis, age and gender were independently related to the number of years returning to care. Conclusions While middle-aged males with alcohol dependence were in a revolving door, young female inpatients with intoxication diagnosis returned to a comparably lower degree. PMID:21771291

  6. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  7. Long-term intermittent pharmacological therapy of uterine fibroids – a possibility to avoid hysterectomy and its negative consequences

    PubMed Central

    Olszak-Wąsik, Katarzyna; Czerwinska-Bednarska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are found in almost 20-40% of women of reproductive age. For each woman an individualised treatment method should be applied because the hysterectomy procedure is not a good option in every case. The uterus is an organ necessary not only in reproduction. Its removal may result in: pelvic floor dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence, negative impair on life quality, depressive disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and higher incidence of neoplastic disease. According to the last scientific reports, selective progesterone receptor modulators are the effective therapeutic option in uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age because progesterone is an important factor in their pathogenesis. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a progesterone receptor antagonist. It inhibits cell proliferation and angiogenesis in uterine fibroids and also reduces collagen deposits in extracellular matrix. Significant data concerning ulipristal acetate efficacy have been provided by scientific research, especially from the consecutive PEARL studies. Oral ulipristal acetate effectively and safely controls bleeding and pain in patients with symptomatic fibroids. It reduces fibroid volume and restores quality of life. The results of UPA long-term intermittent treatment are largely maintained during the off-treatment periods. PMID:27095959

  8. Long-term intermittent pharmacological therapy of uterine fibroids - a possibility to avoid hysterectomy and its negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Olejek, Anita; Olszak-Wąsik, Katarzyna; Czerwinska-Bednarska, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Uterine fibroids are found in almost 20-40% of women of reproductive age. For each woman an individualised treatment method should be applied because the hysterectomy procedure is not a good option in every case. The uterus is an organ necessary not only in reproduction. Its removal may result in: pelvic floor dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence, negative impair on life quality, depressive disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and higher incidence of neoplastic disease. According to the last scientific reports, selective progesterone receptor modulators are the effective therapeutic option in uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age because progesterone is an important factor in their pathogenesis. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a progesterone receptor antagonist. It inhibits cell proliferation and angiogenesis in uterine fibroids and also reduces collagen deposits in extracellular matrix. Significant data concerning ulipristal acetate efficacy have been provided by scientific research, especially from the consecutive PEARL studies. Oral ulipristal acetate effectively and safely controls bleeding and pain in patients with symptomatic fibroids. It reduces fibroid volume and restores quality of life. The results of UPA long-term intermittent treatment are largely maintained during the off-treatment periods. PMID:27095959

  9. Evaluating the effects of six alcohol-related message frames on emotions and intentions: The neglected role of disgust.

    PubMed

    Collymore, Natalie N; McDermott, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    A total of 120 18- to 56-year-olds, divided into six groups containing equal numbers of men and women, were shown a textual message and associated photograph featuring alcohol-related behaviour. Subsequently, questions were answered about intentions to reduce consumption, to drink moderately and how positive and negative the messages made participants feel. Loss-framed messages, in particular those featuring health-related disgust, were the most effective for increasing intentions to reduce alcohol intake. In conclusion, studies have over-focused on fear-loss frames, neglecting the utility of disgust-loss frames in health messages. This study suggests that disgust-loss frames deserve equivalent attention. PMID:25673373

  10. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  11. Emerging adult identity development, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems during the transition out of college.

    PubMed

    Gates, Jonathan R; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early 20s and declines with age. These declines, referred to as "maturing out," are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g., marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g., personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (Wave 1) and the 2 following years (Waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time-varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of maturing out and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077443

  12. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    , traditional norms that may directly pertain to hyperfemininzed Asian-American women, including modesty and sexual fidelity, may protect against heavy episodic drinking (Young et al. 2005). Conversely, the risk for heavy episodic drinking may be enhanced in men who strive to demonstrate traditional notions of masculinity through risk-taking and endorsement of playboy norms (Iwamoto et al. 2010). Although this review has illustrated the contemporary state of research on alcohol use among Asian Americans, it also highlights the significant limitations in this literature. Many of the studies reviewed here have used cross-sectional data, which do not allow researchers to infer causality between the various sociocultural factors and problematic alcohol use. One way of addressing this gap in the existing literature may be to implement longitudinal designs to further understand how the temporal relationship between sociocultural factors, including acculturation and gender norms, may impact alcohol use and alcohol-related problem trajectories. There also is a pressing need to develop greater understanding of within-group differences among U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans as well as among as specific ethnic groups. To date, epidemiological research has largely neglected to examine these significant discrepancies. Given the growing prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among Asian-American women (Grant et al. 2004; Iwamoto et al. 2010), studies also should focus on this group and explore how the intersection of gender and culture may influence alcohol use. Finally, the majority of research on this population has been conducted in college samples; therefore, it is important to also examine community samples, including U.S.-born young adults who are not attending college and older adult Asian-American populations. PMID:27159808

  13. Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC. PMID:21682908

  14. Alcohol Policy Comprehension, Compliance and Consequences Among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Genevieve M.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This study explores relationships between young adult restaurant employees' understanding and compliance with workplace alcohol control policies and consequences of alcohol policy violation. A mixed method analysis of 67 semi-structured interviews and 1,294 telephone surveys from restaurant chain employees found that alcohol policy details confused roughly a third of employees. Among current drinkers (n=1,093), multivariable linear regression analysis found that frequency of alcohol policy violation was positively associated with frequency of experiencing problems at work; perceived supervisor enforcement of alcohol policy was negatively associated with this outcome. Implications for preventing workplace alcohol-related problems include streamlining confusing alcohol policy guidelines. PMID:22984360

  15. An Employee Assistance Model of Health Care Management for Employees with Alcohol-Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Kerry D.; Balkin, David B.

    1992-01-01

    Describes employee assistance model in which cost-effective, high-quality treatment can be offered for a complex range of alcohol-related problems. Notes that this system of care allows the employee to be treated in the least restrictive therapeutic environment, thus encouraging continued productivity at work. (Author/NB)

  16. The origin of alcohol-related social norms in the Saami minority.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S

    1993-04-01

    The present paper addressed the problem of the origin of alcohol-related social norms in the Saami minority in northern Norway. Based on data from studies of comparable ethnic minorities in Greenland, North America and Australia it could be expected that alcohol use- and abuse would be more prevalent in the Saami than in the Norwegian populations of northern Norway. No data to support this hypothesis exist. On the contrary, available data suggest that drinking problems in this group are similar to those of the majority in the area. The present paper developed the hypothesis that Saami alcohol-related social norms originated in the Laestadian religious revival. The paper investigated the impact of the Laestadian culture in the formation of alcohol-related social norms. It was concluded that the Laestadian sobriety norm, and the norm of abstinence from the use of adiafora, have influenced alcohol-related behaviour in the Saami group in such a way that this group does not conform to the drinking behaviour found in comparable minorities. PMID:8485427

  17. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  18. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  19. Alcohol-Related Vehicular Death Rates for College Students in the Commonwealth of Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James; Bauerle, Jennifer; Keller, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Determine rate of college student alcohol-related vehicular traffic fatalities in Virginia during 2007. Participants: Undergraduates at colleges and universities in Virginia. Methods: Institutions with membership in the American College Health Association were invited to participate in a survey. Data collected from institutional reports…

  20. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  1. Alcohol-Related Incident Guardianship and Undergraduate College Parties: Enhancing the Social Norms Marketing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Troy A.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized experiment examines the effects of contextual information on undergraduate college student's levels of alcohol-related incident guardianship at college parties. The research is conceptualized using routine activities theory and the theory of planned behavior. The experiment examines attitudinal variations about heavy drinking…

  2. A Duty of Care: Non-Drinkers and Alcohol Related Harm among an Australian University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailovich, Katja; George, Amanda; Rickwood, Debra; Parker, Rhian

    2011-01-01

    Studies documenting the harm associated with excessive drinking amongst university students are numerous. Fewer studies have explored the experience of non-drinkers in the university setting. In 2008, 826 students aged 18-29 years responded to an online survey aiming to investigate alcohol use and alcohol related harm at an Australian university.…

  3. Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

  4. Motivating Learning Disabled Offenders with Alcohol-Related Problems: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Elizabeth; Hipkins, Jane

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed to apply motivational interviewing techniques in assisting seven individuals with mental retardation and alcohol-related problems through the stages of change. The group met for one hour over three sessions and staff training was provided. Results demonstrated increases in motivation, self-efficacy, and determination to change their…

  5. American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol-Related Incarceration and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Sarah W.; Venner, Kamilla L.; May, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcoholrelated incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported…

  6. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…

  7. Hospitalizations for Students with an Alcohol-Related Sanction: Gender and Pregaming as Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…

  8. Harnessing the Power of Perception: Reducing Alcohol-Related Harm among Rural Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Clarissa; Julian, Roberta; Richman, Matthew; Mason, Ron; Long, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines early findings from the Tasmanian-based Social Norms Analysis Project (SNAP). The Social Norms model is presented as a theoretically informed, evidence-based model for reducing alcohol-related harm in youthful populations by utilising the complex and often positive contributions peer groups make to adolescent health and…

  9. Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Visits Associated with Collegiate Football Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Janice; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In 2003, after several post-college football game riots, multiple strategies including strict enforcement of open container laws were instituted by the authors' city and university. The authors compared alcohol-related visits to the on-campus emergency department (ED) associated with home football games in 2002 and 2006, hypothesizing…

  10. Differential trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college by parenting profiles

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Turrisi, Robert J.; Mallett, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which profiles of perceived parenting are associated with trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college. Method Participants were surveyed five times from the summer prior to college to the fall of the second year. A total 285 college students were enrolled from the incoming classes of consecutive cohorts of students at a large, public university in the Northeastern U.S. At baseline, participants provided information on their parents’ alcohol-related behaviors (e.g., parental modeling of use; perceived approval of underage use) and parenting characteristics (e.g., parental monitoring; parent-child relationship quality). Students also reported on their personal alcohol-related behaviors at each time point. Results Latent profile analysis was used to identify four subgroups based on the set of parenting characteristics: High Quality (14%) – highest parent-teen relationship quality; High Monitoring (31%) – highest parental monitoring and knowledge; Low Involvement (30%) – poor relationship quality, little monitoring and communication; and Pro-Alcohol (21%) – highest parental modeling and approval. Students were then assigned to profiles, and their alcohol-related behaviors were examined longitudinally using latent growth curve modeling. In general, students in the Pro-Alcohol profile displayed the highest baseline levels of typical weekend drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and peak BAC, in addition to showing steeper increases in typical weekend drinking across the first year of college. Discussion Results support the notion that parental behaviors remain relevant across the first year of college. Differential alcohol-related behaviors across parenting profiles highlight the potential for tailored college intervention. PMID:23915366

  11. Fighting the Consequences of Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The process of change in any organization must begin at the top. Leadership experts describe successful organizations as those that are guided by a leader who exhibits appropriate behavior and vision for the organization and its employees. In other words, leaders must model the behavior and attitudes they want to see from staff members. Therefore,…

  12. Risk-taking and risky decision-making in Internet gaming disorder: Implications regarding online gaming in the setting of negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) continue gaming despite adverse consequences. However, the precise mechanism underlying this behavior remains unknown. In this study, data from 20 IGD subjects and 16 otherwise comparable healthy control subjects (HCs) were recorded and compared when they were undergoing risk-taking and risky decision-making during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During risk-taking and as compared to HCs, IGD subjects selected more risk-disadvantageous trials and demonstrated less activation of the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate and middle temporal gyrus. During risky decision-making and as compared to HCs, IGD subjects showed shorter response times and less activations of the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri. Taken together, data suggest that IGD subjects show impaired executive control in selecting risk-disadvantageous choices, and they make risky decisions more hastily and with less recruitment of regions implicated in impulse control. These results suggest a possible neurobiological underpinning for why IGD subjects may exhibit poor control over their game-seeking behaviors even when encountering negative consequences and provide possible therapeutic targets for interventions in this population. PMID:26656573

  13. Climate change has indirect effects on resource use and overlap among coexisting bird species with negative consequences for their reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Auer, Sonya K.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can modify ecological interactions, but whether it can have cascading effects throughout ecological networks of multiple interacting species remains poorly studied. Climate-driven alterations in the intensity of plant–herbivore interactions may have particularly profound effects on the larger community because plants provide habitat for a wide diversity of organisms. Here we show that changes in vegetation over the last 21 years, due to climate effects on plant–herbivore interactions, have consequences for songbird nest site overlap and breeding success. Browsing-induced reductions in the availability of preferred nesting sites for two of three ground nesting songbirds led to increasing overlap in nest site characteristics among all three bird species with increasingly negative consequences for reproductive success over the long term. These results demonstrate that changes in the vegetation community from effects of climate change on plant–herbivore interactions can cause subtle shifts in ecological interactions that have critical demographic ramifications for other species in the larger community.

  14. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  15. Alcohol-Related Problems and Risk of Suicide among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Belongingness and Burdensomeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship among alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide proneness in undergraduate college students (N = 996) was examined. As hypothesized, alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness were all significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness.…

  16. The Relationship Between Psychological Distress, Negative Cognitions, and Expectancies on Problem Drinking: Exploring a Growing Problem Among University Students.

    PubMed

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. PMID:26311191

  17. The Relationship Between Psychological Distress, Negative Cognitions, and Expectancies on Problem Drinking: Exploring a Growing Problem Among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Brooks, Jessica J.; Cavanagh, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M̄age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. PMID:26311191

  18. The role of medical schools in the prevention of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, J C

    1990-01-01

    There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams. PMID:2224672

  19. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  20. Drinking, Driving, and Crashing: A Traffic-Flow Model of Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Accidents*

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities on rates of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. A traffic-flow model is developed to represent geographic relationships between residential locations of drinking drivers, alcohol outlets, and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Method: Cross-sectional and time-series cross-sectional spatial analyses were performed using data collected from 144 geographic units over 4 years. Data were obtained from archival and survey sources in six communities. Archival data were obtained within community areas and measured activities of either the resident population or persons visiting these communities. These data included local and highway traffic flow, locations of alcohol outlets, population density, network density of the local roadway system, and single-vehicle nighttime (SVN) crashes. Telephone-survey data obtained from residents of the communities were used to estimate the size of the resident drinking and driving population. Results: Cross-sectional analyses showed that effects relating on-premise densities to alcohol-related crashes were moderated by highway traffic flow. Depending on levels of highway traffic flow, 10% greater densities were related to 0% to 150% greater rates of SVN crashes. Time-series cross-sectional analyses showed that changes in the population pool of drinking drivers and on-premise densities interacted to increase SVN crash rates. Conclusions: A simple traffic-flow model can assess the effects of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities as they vary across communities to produce alcohol-related crashes. Analyses based on these models can usefully guide policy decisions on the siting of on-premise alcohol outlets. PMID:20230721

  1. Alcohol-related cues potentiate alcohol impairment of behavioral control in drinkers.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N = 40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counterbalanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or "loss of control" drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual's control over ongoing alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134023

  2. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

    PubMed Central

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Findings Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3–64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4–22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4–20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3–17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2–7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6–2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. Conclusion The majority of 554 men aged 25–54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008–09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. PMID:25066373

  3. School performance and alcohol-related disorders in early adulthood: a Swedish national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gauffin, Karl; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse is an important global health determinant and a major contributor to health inequalities. We aimed to investigate the association between school performance and alcohol-related disorders in early adulthood in a longitudinal register-based national cohort study. Methods We followed a register-based national cohort of Swedish citizens born 1973–1984 (N = 948 440) from compulsory school graduation at age 15–16 to 2009. We divided the population into five groups: high school marks (> mean + 1 SD); high average (between mean and mean + 1 SD); low average (between mean and mean − 1 SD); low (< mean – 1SD); and missing. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the relation between school marks at time of graduation and hospital care for alcohol-related disorders in early adulthood. Results There was a steep gradient in the risk of alcohol-related disorders related to school performance. In comparison with peers in the top category of school marks, students with low marks had adjusted hazard ratios of 8.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.20 to 8.91], low average 3.02 (2.72 to 3.35) and high average 1.55 (1.39 to 1.73). The risk associated with low school marks was stronger in the male population and in the group from high socioeconomic background. Conclusions The study demonstrated a strong graded relation between low school performance and alcohol-related disorders in young adulthood. School performance should be taken into account when developing prevention programmes/policies targeting alcohol misuse among teenagers and young adults, especially if the aim is to reach high-risk groups. PMID:25797580

  4. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  5. Alcohol use and prior alcohol-related convictions as predictors of probation officer perceptions and sentencing.

    PubMed

    Harrell, W A

    1980-11-01

    Presentence reports for 740 offenders were content analyzed. Regression techniques were used to evaluate a number of predictors of sentencing, including the effects of number of prior alcohol-related convictions and whether the offender was intoxicated while committing the offense he was charged with. The two most prominent variables affecting the severity of sentence were the probation officer's assessment of the offender's probable success on probation and the legal seriousness of the offense. While failing to have any significant direct effects on sentencing, our measures of alcohol use had significant indirect effects which were mediated by the probation officer's assessment of success on probation and legal seriousness. An extensive criminal record of prior alcohol-related convictions resulted in a poorer prognosis for success on probation this, in turn, led to more severe sentences for these offenders. Intoxication while committing an offense was related to the commission of minor crimes which, subsequently, yielded more lenient treatment for alcohol-users compared to nonusers. Finally, native offenders were more likely than nonnatives to have many prior alcohol-related convictions and to have been intoxicated while committing an offense. PMID:7216566

  6. Alcohol-related expectancies in adults and adolescents: Similarities and disparities.

    PubMed

    Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to contrast student and not student outcome expectancies, and explore the diversity of alcohol-related cognitions within a wider student sample. Participants (n=549) were college students (higher education-typically aged 15-18 years), university students (further education-typically aged 18-22 years) and business people (white collar professionals <50 years) who completed questionnaires in their place of work or education. Overall positive expectancies were higher in the college students than in the business or university samples. However, not all expectancy subcategories followed this pattern. Participant groups of similar age were therefore alike in some aspects of their alcohol-related cognitions but different in others. Similarly, participant groups whom are divergent in age appeared to be alike in some of their alcohol-related cognitions, such as tension reduction expectancies. Research often homogenises students as a specific sub-set of the population, this paper hi-lights that this may be an over-simplification. Furthermore, the largely exclusive focus on student groups within research in this area may also be an oversight, given the diversity of the findings demonstrated between these groups. PMID:26990388

  7. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  8. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the HEPP Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roje-Bonacci, T.; Bonacci, O.

    2013-04-01

    The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of town of the Dubrovnik (Croatia). Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s-1 and 117 m3 s-1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981-2011), is 24.05 m3 s-1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968-1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s-1. There is a project for construction of the hydro electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. Top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130, m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain planned to be realized, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some potential, but very probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained.

  9. Once the rockets are up, who should care where they come down? The problem of responsibility ascription for the negative consequences of biofuel innovations.

    PubMed

    Tempels, T H; Van den Belt, H

    2016-01-01

    Responsible Innovation (RI) is often heralded in EU policy circles as a means to achieve ethically acceptable, sustainable innovations. Yet, conceptual questions on the specific notion of 'responsibility' and to what extent an innovation can be 'responsible' are only partly addressed. In this chapter the question of responsibility for the indirect negative effects of biofuel innovations is explored. While initially hailed as one of the much needed solutions in the global struggle against climate change, the use of biofuels has become increasingly criticised. It is argued that the increased production of biofuels has put smallholder farmers out of business, has given rise to increased food prices, sparking food riots in several countries, while also contributing to further environmental degradation as the demand for new biofuels requires the development of new croplands at the cost of forests and peat lands. In the current market-based system it is customary to disburden researchers and business companies from any responsibility for the more remote consequences of their actions. When harmful consequences are brought about through the mediation of (perhaps a long series of) market transactions, they are often considered inevitable and excusable and not an appropriate occasion for invoking anybody's responsibility. But how broad is the scope of responsibility when it comes to the above mentioned social and ecological problems? By invoking the sacred duty to "innovate", the business company could perhaps be exculpated. In our age, innovation is often so much celebrated that many negative impacts are duly accepted as the inevitable price of progress. By approaching responsibility from a perspective that takes into account the economic and ecological interconnectedness of the world, we show how the debate on Responsible Innovation in biofuels becomes tied in with global debates on economic justice and bioscarcity. In conclusion we argue that if we-assuming this

  10. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  11. Teenage drinking, alcohol availability and pricing: a cross-sectional study of risk and protective factors for alcohol-related harms in school children

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Hughes, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Cook, Penny A; Morleo, Michela; Hannon, Kerin; Smallthwaite, Linda; Jones, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a lack of empirical analyses examining how alcohol consumption patterns in children relate to harms. Such intelligence is required to inform parents, children and policy relating to the provision and use of alcohol during childhood. Here, we examine drinking habits and associated harms in 15-16 year olds and explore how this can inform public health advice on child drinking. Methods An opportunistic survey of 15-16 year olds (n = 9,833) in North West England was undertaken to determine alcohol consumption patterns, drink types consumed, drinking locations, methods of access and harms encountered. Cost per unit of alcohol was estimated based on a second survey of 29 retail outlets. Associations between demographics, drinking behaviours, alcohol pricing and negative outcomes (public drinking, forgetting things after drinking, violence when drunk and alcohol-related regretted sex) were examined. Results Proportions of drinkers having experienced violence when drunk (28.8%), alcohol-related regretted sex (12.5%) and forgetting things (45.3%), or reporting drinking in public places (35.8%), increased with drinking frequency, binge frequency and units consumed per week. At similar levels of consumption, experiencing any negative alcohol-related outcome was lower in those whose parents provided alcohol. Drunken violence was disproportionately associated with being male and greater deprivation while regretted sex and forgetting things after drinking were associated with being female. Independent of drinking behaviours, consuming cheaper alcohol was related to experiencing violence when drunk, forgetting things after drinking and drinking in public places. Conclusion There is no safe level of alcohol consumption for 15-16 year olds. However, while abstinence removes risk of harms from personal alcohol consumption, its promotion may also push children into accessing drink outside family environments and contribute to higher risks of harm. Strategies to

  12. Utility of urinary ethyl glucuronide analysis in post-mortem toxicology when investigating alcohol-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Sundström, M; Jones, A W; Ojanperä, I

    2014-08-01

    Use and abuse of alcohol are common findings when unnatural deaths are investigated as evidenced by high blood- and urine- alcohol concentrations (BAC and UAC) at autopsy. Because ethanol is metabolized in the liver until the time of death, the autopsy BAC or UAC might be negative even though the deceased had consumed alcohol in the immediate ante-mortem period. Analysis of the non-oxidative metabolite of ethanol [ethyl glucuronide (EtG)] offers a more sensitive test of recent drinking. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of ethanol and EtG in urine samples from 972 consecutive forensic autopsies. In 425 cases (44%) both EtG and ethanol were positive, which supports ante-mortem drinking. In 342 cases (35%), both EtG and ethanol was negative, which speaks against any consumption of alcohol just before death. In 181 cases, ethanol was negative in urine (<0.2 g/kg), whereas EtG was positive (>0.5 mg/L), which points towards ingestion of alcohol some time before death. In these cases, mean and median concentrations of EtG were 53.2 mg/L and 23.7 mg/L, respectively, although there was no mention of alcohol on 131 of the death certificates. Alcohol was mentioned on death certificates as an underlying or immediate cause of death or a contributing factor in 435 (45%) cases, which rose to 566 (58%) cases when positive EtG results were included. This article demonstrates the usefulness of EtG analysis in routine post-mortem toxicology when ante-mortem drinking and alcohol-related deaths are investigated. PMID:24954799

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and alcohol-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nedic, Gordana; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Sviglin, Korona Nenadic; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2013-01-10

    Alcoholism is a chronic psychiatric disorder affecting neural pathways that regulate motivation, stress, reward and arousal. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates mood, response to stress and interacts with neurotransmitters and stress systems involved in reward pathways and addiction. Aim of the study was to evaluate the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (BDNF Val66Met or rs6265) and alcohol related phenotypes in Caucasian patients. In ethnically homogenous Caucasian subjects of the Croatian origin, the BDNF Val66Met genotype distribution was determined in 549 male and 126 female patients with alcohol dependence and in 655 male and 259 female healthy non-alcoholic control subjects. Based on the structured clinical interview, additional detailed clinical interview, the Brown-Goodwin Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Clinical Global Impression scores, alcoholic patients were subdivided into those with or without comorbid depression, aggression, delirium tremens, withdrawal syndrome, early/late onset of alcohol abuse, prior suicidal attempt during lifetime, current suicidal behavior, and severity of alcohol dependence. The results showed no significant association between BDNF Val66Met variants and alcohol dependence and/or any of the alcohol related phenotypes in either Caucasian women, or men, with alcohol dependence. There are few limitations of the study. The overall study sample size was large (N=1589) but not well-powered to detect differences in BDNF Val66Met genotype distribution between studied groups. Healthy control women were older than female alcoholic patients. Only one BDNF polymorphism (rs6265) was studied. In conclusion, these data do not support the view that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism correlates with the specific alcohol related phenotypes in ethnically homogenous medication-free Caucasian subjects with alcohol dependence. PMID:23023098

  14. Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000

  15. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  16. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. PMID:26046402

  17. IQ and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among Swedish men and women: the importance of socioeconomic position

    PubMed Central

    Sjölund, Sara; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Allebeck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association between intelligence in childhood and later risk of alcohol-related disease and death by examining (1) the mediating effect of social position as an adult and (2) gender as a possible moderator. Design Cohort study. Setting and participants 21 809 Swedish men and women, born in 1948 and 1953, from the Swedish “Evaluation Through Follow-up” database were followed until 2006/2007. Measurements IQ was measured in school at the age of 13 and alcohol-related disease and death (International Classification of Disease codes) were followed from 1971 and onwards. Findings We found an increased crude HR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.29) for every decrease in group of IQ test results for alcohol-related admissions and 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.24) for alcohol-related death. Social position as an adult was found to mediate both outcomes. Gender was not found to moderate the association. However, adjusting for socioeconomic position lowered the risk more among men than among women. Conclusions There was an inverse, graded association between IQ and alcohol-related disease and death, which at least partially was mediated by social position as an adult. For alcohol-related death, complete mediation by socioeconomic position as an adult was found. Gender does not moderate this association. The role of socioeconomic position may differ between the genders. PMID:26163557

  18. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  19. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2013-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (NSW TRC) at the University of Sydney, Australia is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain disease (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951–61) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539–52). PMID:24033426

  20. Latent Trajectory Classes for Alcohol-Related Blackouts from Age 15 to 19 in ALSPAC

    PubMed Central

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Heron, Jon; Hickman, Matthew; Macleod, John; Munafo, Marcus R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Dick, Danielle M.; Davey-Smith, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs) are reported by ~50% of drinkers. While much is known about the prevalence of ARBs in young adults and their cross-sectional correlates, there are few prospective studies regarding their trajectories over time during mid-adolescence. This paper reports latent trajectory classes of alcohol-related blackouts between ages 15 and 19, along with predictors of those patterns. Methods Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was used to evaluate the pattern of occurrence of ARBs across four time points for 1402 drinking adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Multinomial regression analyses evaluated age 15 demography, substance-related items, externalizing characteristics, and estimated peer substance use as predictors of latent class membership. Results ARBs were reported at age 15 in 30% and at age 19 in 74% of these subjects. Four latent trajectory classes were identified: Class 1 (5.1%) reported no blackouts; for Class 2 (29.5%) ARBs rapidly increased with age; for Class 3 (44.9%) blackouts slowly increased; and for Class 4 (20.5%) ARBs were consistently reported. Using Class 2 (rapid increasers) as the reference, predictors of class membership included female sex, higher drinking quantities, smoking, externalizing characteristics, and estimated peer substance involvement (pseudo R2 =.22). Conclusions ARBs were common and repetitive in these young subjects, and predictors of their trajectories over time involved multiple domains representing diverse characteristics. PMID:25516068

  1. A Mediational Model of Racial Discrimination and Alcohol-Related Problems Among African American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Marcella H; O’Hara, Ross E; Covault, Jonathan; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Racial discrimination has been identified as an important predictor of alcohol-related outcomes for African Americans. The goal of the current study was to extend previously found links between lifetime discrimination, alcohol use, and alcohol problems as well as to elucidate the affective mechanisms underlying these associations, as moderated by gender. Method: A multiple-groups structural equation model was computed using survey data collected from 619 students from a historically Black college/university. Results: The final model provided excellent fit to the data, explaining 6% of the variance in alcohol consumption and 37% of the variance in alcohol problems. Discrimination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems but not, by and large, level of use. For men, anger—but not discrimination-specific anger—was a significant partial mediator of the link between discrimination and both alcohol use and alcohol problems. Depression partially mediated the link between discrimination and alcohol problems for both men and women. Conclusions: The results suggest that, for African Americans whose drinking leads to drinking-related problems, discrimination and poor affective self-regulation are highly relevant and predictive factors, especially for men. PMID:24650816

  2. Therapeutic reversal of chronic alcohol-related steatohepatitis with the ceramide inhibitor myriocin

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ming; Longato, Lisa; Ramirez, Teresa; Zabala, Valerie; Wands, Jack R; Monte, Suzanne M

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is associated with steatohepatitis and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance impairs growth and disrupts lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. Dysregulated lipid metabolism promotes ceramide accumulation and oxidative stress, leading to lipotoxic states that activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways and worsen inflammation and insulin resistance. In a rat model of chronic alcohol feeding, we characterized the effects of a ceramide inhibitor, myriocin, on the histopathological and ultrastructural features of steatohepatitis, and the biochemical and molecular indices of hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and ER stress. Myriocin reduced the severity of alcohol-related steatohepatitis including the abundance and sizes of lipid droplets and mitochondria, inflammation and architectural disruption of the ER. In addition, myriocin-mediated reductions in hepatic lipid and ceramide levels were associated with constitutive enhancement of insulin signalling through the insulin receptor and IRS-2, reduced hepatic oxidative stress and modulation of ER stress signalling mechanisms. In conclusion, ceramide accumulation in liver mediates tissue injury, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in ALD. Reducing hepatic ceramide levels can help restore the structural and functional integrity of the liver in chronic ALD due to amelioration of insulin resistance and ER stress. However, additional measures are needed to protect the liver from alcohol-induced necroinflammatory responses vis-à-vis continued alcohol abuse. PMID:24456332

  3. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China’s policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China’s current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization’s global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  4. Disruption of Alcohol-Related Memories by mTORC1 Inhibition Prevents Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Segev; Liu, Feng; Hamida, Sami Ben; Yowell, Quinn V.; Neasta, Jeremie; Kharazia, Viktor; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    Relapse to alcohol abuse is a critical clinical issue, frequently caused by cue-induced drug craving. Therefore, disruption of the memory for the cue-alcohol association is expected to prevent relapse. It is increasingly accepted that memories become labile and erasable soon after their reactivation through retrieval, during a memory reconsolidation process that depends on protein synthesis. Here, we show that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories triggered by the sensory properties of alcohol itself (odor and taste) activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in select amygdalar and cortical regions in rats, resulting in increased levels of several synaptic proteins. Furthermore, systemic or central amygdalar (CeA) inhibition of mTORC1 during reconsolidation disrupts alcohol-cue associated memories, leading to a long-lasting suppression of relapse. Our findings provide evidence that the mTORC1 pathway and its downstream substrates play a crucial role in alcohol-related memory reconsolidation, and highlight this pathway as a therapeutic target to prevent relapse. PMID:23792945

  5. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  6. Association and ancestry analysis of sequence variants in ADH and ALDH using alcohol-related phenotypes in a Native American community sample

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qian; Gizer, Ian R.; Libiger, Ondrej; Bizon, Chris; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use and other drug-dependence have been observed in some Native American populations relative to other ethnic groups in the U.S. Previous studies have shown that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes may affect the risk of development of alcohol dependence, and that polymorphisms within these genes may differentially affect risk for the disorder depending on the ethnic group evaluated. We evaluated variations in the ADH and ALDH genes in a large study investigating risk factors for substance use in a Native American population. We assessed ancestry admixture and tested for associations between alcohol-related phenotypes in the genomic regions around the ADH1-7 and ALDH2 and ALDH1A1 genes. Seventy-two (72) ADH variants showed significant evidence of association with a severity level of alcohol drinking-related dependence symptoms phenotype. These significant variants spanned across the entire 7 ADH gene cluster regions. Two significant associations, one in ADH and one in ALDH2, were observed with alcohol dependence diagnosis. Seventeen (17) variants showed significant association with the largest number of alcohol drinks ingested during any 24-hour period. Variants in or near ADH7 were significantly negatively associated with alcohol-related phenotypes, suggesting a potential protective effect of this gene. In addition, our results suggested that a higher degree of Native American ancestry is associated with higher frequencies of potential risk variants and lower frequencies of potential protective variants for alcohol dependence phenotypes. PMID:25270064

  7. Circulating granulocyte lifespan in compensated alcohol-related cirrhosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Potts, Jonathan R; Farahi, Neda; Heard, Sarah; Chilvers, Edwin R; Verma, Sumita; Peters, Adrien M

    2016-09-01

    Although granulocyte dysfunction is known to occur in cirrhosis, in vivo studies of granulocyte lifespan have not previously been performed. The normal circulating granulocyte survival half-time (G - t½), determined using indium-111 ((111)In)-radiolabeled granulocytes, is ~7 h. In this pilot study, we aimed to measure the in vivo G - t½ in compensated alcohol-related cirrhosis. Sequential venous blood samples were obtained in abstinent subjects with alcohol-related cirrhosis over 24 h post injection (PI) of minimally manipulated (111)In-radiolabeled autologous mixed leukocytes. Purified granulocytes were isolated from each sample using a magnetic microbead-antibody technique positively selecting for the marker CD15. Granulocyte-associated radioactivity was expressed relative to peak activity, plotted over time, and G - t½ estimated from data up to 12 h PI This was compared with normal neutrophil half-time (N - t½), determined using a similar method specifically selecting neutrophils in healthy controls at a collaborating center. Seven patients with cirrhosis (six male, aged 57.8 ± 9.4 years, all Child-Pugh class A) and seven normal controls (three male, 64.4 ± 5.6 years) were studied. Peripheral blood neutrophil counts were similar in both groups (4.6 (3.5 - 5.5) × 10(9)/L vs. 2.8 (2.7 - 4.4) × 10(9)/L, respectively, P = 0.277). G - t½ in cirrhosis was significantly lower than N - t½ in controls (2.7 ± 0.5 h vs. 4.4 ± 1.0 h, P = 0.007). Transient rises in granulocyte and neutrophil-associated activities occurred in four patients from each group, typically earlier in cirrhosis (4-6 h PI) than in controls (8-10 h), suggesting recirculation of radiolabeled cells released from an unidentified focus. Reduced in vivo granulocyte survival in compensated alcohol-related cirrhosis is a novel finding and potentially another mechanism for immune dysfunction in chronic liver disease. Larger studies are needed to

  8. Childhood adversity moderates the effect of ADH1B on risk for alcohol-related phenotypes in Jewish Israeli drinkers.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Edenberg, Howard J; Gelernter, Joel; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Childhood adversity and genetic variant ADH1B-rs1229984 have each been shown to influence heavy alcohol consumption and disorders. However, little is known about how these factors jointly influence these outcomes. We assessed the main and additive interactive effects of childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and parental divorce) and the ADH1B-rs1229984 on the quantitative phenotypes 'maximum drinks in a day' (Maxdrinks) and DSM-Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) severity, adjusting for demographic variables, in an Israeli sample of adult household residents (n = 1143) evaluated between 2007 and 2009. Childhood adversity and absence of the protective ADH1B-rs1229984 A allele were associated with greater mean Maxdrinks (mean differences: 1.50; 1.13, respectively) and AUD severity (mean ratios: 0.71; 0.27, respectively). In addition, childhood adversity moderated the ADH1B-rs1229984 effect on Maxdrinks (P < 0.01) and AUD severity (P < 0.05), in that there was a stronger effect of ADH1B-rs1229984 genotype on Maxdrinks and AUD severity among those who had experienced childhood adversity compared with those who had not. ADH1B-rs1229984 impacts alcohol metabolism. Therefore, among those at risk for greater consumption, e.g. those who experienced childhood adversity, ADH1B-rs1229984 appears to have a stronger effect on alcohol consumption and consequently on risk for AUD symptom severity. Evidence for the interaction of genetic vulnerability and early life adversity on alcohol-related phenotypes provides further insight into the complex relationships between genetic and environmental risk factors. PMID:24164917

  9. Childhood adversity moderates the effect of ADH1B on risk for alcohol-related phenotypes in Jewish Israeli drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Edenberg, Howard J.; Gelernter, Joel; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Childhood adversity and genetic variant ADH1B-rs1229984 have each been shown to influence heavy alcohol consumption and disorders. However, little is known about how these factors jointly influence these outcomes. We assessed the main and additive interactive effects of childhood adversity (abuse, neglect, parental divorce) and the ADH1B-rs1229984 on the quantitative phenotypes “maximum drinks in a day” (Maxdrinks) and DSM-Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) severity, adjusting for demographic variables, in an Israeli sample of adult household residents (n=1,143) evaluated between 2007–2009. Childhood adversity and absence of the protective ADH1B-rs1229984 A allele were associated with greater mean Maxdrinks [Mean Differences: 1.50; 1.13 respectively] and AUD severity [Mean Ratios: 0.71; 0.27 respectively]). In addition, childhood adversity moderated the ADH1B-rs1229984 effect on Maxdrinks (p<0.01) and AUD severity (p<0.05), in that there was a stronger effect of ADH1B-rs1229984 genotype on Maxdrinks and AUD severity among those who had experienced childhood adversity compared to those who had not. ADH1B-rs1229984 impacts alcohol metabolism. Therefore, among those at risk for greater consumption, e.g., those who experienced childhood adversity, ADH1B-rs1229984 appears to have a stronger effect on alcohol consumption and consequently on risk for AUD symptom severity. Evidence for the interaction of genetic vulnerability and early life adversity on alcohol-related phenotypes provides further insight into the complex relationships between genetic and environmental risk factors. PMID:24164917

  10. Encephalopathy after persistent vomiting: Three cases of non-alcohol-related Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Antel, K; Singh, N; Chisholm, B; Heckmann, J M

    2015-06-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a medical emergency. Although WE is commonly viewed in the context of alcoholism, it can be caused by thiamine deficiency secondary to persistent vomiting. Non-alcohol-related WE may be more catastrophic in onset and less likely to present with the classic features than WE with alcoholism as a cause. We describe three cases of WE due to persistent vomiting without alcoholism in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, drug-induced hyperlactataemia, and an acute gastrointestinal illness in an already malnourished individual. Our cases highlight the importance of recognising WE when undernutrition, which may be caused by gastrointestinal disease or surgery, or malignancy, is compounded by vomiting. Expert guidelines suggest that WE must be considered in the emergency room in any individual with disturbed consciousness of unknown cause. Treatment is with parenteral thiamine before glucose administration. PMID:26716155

  11. Global metabolic profiling for the study of alcohol-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gika, Helen G; Wilson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related disorders are multifaceted since ethanol can induce profound metabolic perturbations when taken in excess. Global metabolic profiling strategies may aid the understanding of ethanol-related effects by shedding light on these metabolic changes and potentially revealing unknown mechanisms of ethanol toxicity. Here an overview of studies designed to explore the effects of alcohol (ethanol) consumption using holistic metabolite profiling approaches (metabonomics/metabolomics) is presented, demonstrating the potential of this methodology. The analytical technologies used (NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS), have been applied to the profiling of serum, plasma, urine and tissues, obtained from animal models or humans, after exposure to alcohol. From the metabolic profiling data of a range of biological samples, a number of endogenous metabolites have been proposed as potential ethanol consumption-related biomarkers. The biomarkers suggested by these studies, and the biochemical insights that they provide for understanding the effects of ethanol mechanisms of toxicity, are discussed. PMID:24341495

  12. Identifying the best scenario for using schematic organizers as integration tools for alcohol-related information.

    PubMed

    Peel, J L; Dansereau, D F; Dees, S

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine scenarios for using two schematic organizers--schematic knowledge maps and conceptual matrices--in integrating episodic and semantic knowledge about alcohol. Seventy students from undergraduate general psychology classes participated for course credit. Participants were assigned to either a schematic organizer group or an essay writing group. These groups were subdivided further into two treatment sequences: episodic/semantic and semantic/episodic. The episodic activity required participants to complete materials using their own alcohol-related experiences, whereas the semantic activity required participants to annotate expert materials. Assessment measures used were consumer-satisfaction questionnaires and free-recall tests. While no preferences were established for any one scenario, the episodic activities were rated higher than the semantic activities regardless of integration sequence. The semantic/episodic integration scenario did produce higher recall scores for the expert information. PMID:8487138

  13. Services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems: a survey of U.K. prisons.

    PubMed

    McMurran, M; Baldwin, S

    1989-09-01

    Offenders have been identified as heavy drinkers who admit to a relationship between drinking and offending. Many prisoners express a desire to reduce their alcohol consumption. The extent of alcohol interventions in U.K. prisons was unknown and so a postal survey was conducted to gather basic information about current work. Of all responding establishments, 91% claimed to provide services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems and 58% gave details of these services. Services are provided mainly by probation officers/social workers, prison officers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Group and individual interventions are described. Service development has been haphazard, lacking central co-ordination. A case is made for appointment of a central facilitator responsible for staff training, establishing a communications network, encouraging new interventions to match clients' needs, encouraging closer links with community workers and guiding evaluative research. PMID:2790268

  14. Latent class analysis of alcohol treatment utilization patterns and 3-year alcohol related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Orion; Glass, Joseph E; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette L

    2015-07-01

    People who obtain treatment for alcohol use problems often utilize multiple sources of help. While prior studies have classified treatment use patterns for alcohol use, an empirical classification of these patterns is lacking. For the current study, we created an empirically derived classification of treatment use and described how these classifications were prospectively associated with alcohol-related outcomes. Our sample included 257 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who first received alcohol treatment in the 3-year period prior to their baseline interview. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of treatment users based on their patterns of treatment use of 13 types of alcohol treatment. Regression models examined how classes of treatment use at baseline were associated with alcohol-related outcomes assessed at a 3-year follow-up interview. Outcomes included a continuous measure of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder status. Four classes of treatment users were identified: (1) multiservice users (8.7%), (2) private professional service users (32.8%), (3) alcoholics anonymous (AA) paired with specialty addiction service users (22.0%), and (4) users of AA alone (36.5%). Those who utilized AA paired with specialty addiction services had better outcomes compared to those who used AA alone. In addition to elucidating the most common treatment utilization patterns executed by people seeking help for their alcohol problems, the results from this study suggest that increased efforts may be needed to refer individuals across sectors of care to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25744651

  15. Legislation on alcohol detection in alcohol-related traffic accidents involving casualties in Japan and Canada.

    PubMed

    Hattori, H; Komura, S; Furuno, J

    1992-06-01

    A comparative study of the law concerning the arrest and conviction of alcohol-related casualty traffic accident was made between Japan and Canada. In Japan, the incidence of alcohol-related traffic accident has declined since 1970, but the number of fatal traffic accidents remains unchanged over the last 6 years, and amount to 9% of the total number of fatalities in traffic accidents. Hence, an effort is being made to reduce this number. According to the Road Traffic Act, a driver can be convicted for drunken driving if his or her blood alcohol level is above 0.5 mg/ml or above 0.25 mg/l in exhaled air, and if driver is judged as a drunken state by sobriety test. Unlike Canada, however, police officer cannot demand a blood sample from a suspected drunken driver. Instead, they must rely on the breath analysis and sobriety test. These tests are considered to be less accurate than blood test. These drawbacks are reflected in a number of court cases which are related to the relationship between alcohol concentration and the state of driving. In Canada, the operation of a motor vehicle with a blood alcohol level of over 0.8 mg/ml is a criminal offense punishable by fine or imprisonment or both, and results in the suspension of driving privileges for 6 months. Initially, a breath alcohol analysis is performed on everyone suspected of motor vehicle after consuming alcohol within the preceding two hours. Subsequently, with the suspect's consent, a police officer is allowed to request a blood sample for further analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1524523

  16. Detecting alcohol-related problems in developing countries: A comparison of two screening measures in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Bond, Jason C.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Patel, Vikram; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is inadequate recognition of alcohol misuse as a public health issue in India. Information on screening measures is critical for prevention and early intervention efforts. This study critically evaluated the full and shorter versions of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF as screening measures for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample of male drinkers in Goa, India. Methods Data from male drinking respondents in a population study on alcohol use patterns and sexual risk behaviors in randomly selected rural and urban areas of North Goa are reported. Overall, 39% (n=743) of the 1899 screened men, age 18 to 49, reported consuming alcohol in the last 12 months. These current drinkers were administered the screening measures as part of detailed interviews on drinking patterns and AUD symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted for each combination of screening measure and criterion (alcohol dependence or any AUD). Reliability and correlations among the 4 measures were also examined. Results All four measures performed well with area under the curves (AUCs) of at least .79. The full screeners that included both drinking patterns and problem items (the AUDIT and the RAP4-QF) performed better than their shorter versions (the AUDIT-C and the RAPS4) in detecting AUDs. Performance of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF improved with lowered and raised thresholds, respectively, and alternate cut-off scores are suggested. Scores on the full measures were significantly correlated (.80). Reliability estimates for the AUDIT measures were higher than those for the RAPS4 measures. Conclusions All measures were efficient at detecting AUDs. When screening for alcohol-related problems among males in the general population in India, cut-off scores for screeners may need to be adjusted. Selecting an appropriate screening measure and cut-off score necessitates careful consideration of the screening context and resources available to confirm alcohol-related

  17. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  18. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p < 0.007) but no effect on gray matter regions. In contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p < 0.06). There were no smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to

  19. Prospective Effects of Family Cohesion on Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescence: Similarities and Differences by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Ben T; Chan, Sut Yee Shirley; Conger, Katherine J; Martin, Monica J; Hollis, Nicole D; Serido, Joyce; Russell, Stephen T

    2015-10-01

    Research increasingly finds that race/ethnicity needs to be taken into account in the modelling of associations between protective factors and adolescent drinking behaviors in order to understand family effects and promote positive youth development. The current study examined racial/ethnic variation in the prospective effects of family cohesion on adolescent alcohol-related problems using a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and included 10,992 (50% female) non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White 7th-12th graders. Consistent with Hirschi's social control theory of youth delinquency, higher levels of family cohesion predicted lower levels of future adolescent alcohol-related problems, independent of race/ethnicity, sex, age, baseline alcohol-related problems, and family socioeconomic status. Findings from moderation analyses indicated that the magnitude of associations differed across groups such that the protective effect of family cohesion was strongest among White adolescents. For Latino adolescents, family cohesion was not associated with alcohol-related problems. Future longitudinal cross-racial/ethnic research is needed on common and unique mechanisms underlying differential associations between family processes and adolescent high-risk drinking. Understanding these processes could help improve preventive interventions, identify vulnerable subgroups, and inform health policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related health disparities. PMID:25563233

  20. A Cross-Lagged Panel Model Examining Protective Behavioral Strategies: Are Types of Strategies Differentially Related to Alcohol Use and Consequences?

    PubMed Central

    Napper, Lucy E.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Lewis, Leslie J.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are skills that can be used to reduce the of risk alcohol-related negative consequences. Studies have shown that, in general, PBS are related to less alcohol consumption and fewer negative consequences; however, other studies have suggested that not all types of PBS (e.g., stopping/limiting drinking [SLD], manner of drinking [MOD] and serious harm reduction [SHR]) are equally effective at reducing alcohol risk. In addition, few studies have explored the longitudinal relationships among PBS, alcohol use and consequences. Using a sample of heavy drinking college students (N = 338), the current study examined PBS use, alcohol consumption and consequences across two time points three months apart. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that MOD predicted a reduction in alcohol use and negative consequences. SHR was longitudinally related to fewer negative consequences, but unrelated to alcohol use. SLD was not associated with drinking or consequences at follow-up. These results highlight the need for future research to examine the effects of different types of PBS and have implications for alcohol intervention programs that incorporate PBS skills training. PMID:24229842

  1. Effects of Ads from a Drug and Alcohol Prevention Campaign on Willingness to Engage in Alcohol-Related Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether ads from a field-tested drug-and-alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign ads or consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign ads lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  2. Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related disease mortality in New York State from 1969 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Delcher, Chris; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship of increased alcohol taxes to reductions in alcohol-related harm is well established. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of sudden decreases in alcohol tax rates or effects of narrow tax changes limited to specific beverage types. In the current study, we: (1) examine whether tax increases on spirits have similar effects in reducing alcohol-related disease mortality as increasing taxes on all types of alcoholic beverages simultaneously, and (2) evaluate effects of beer-specific tax decreases in New York State on mortality. Method We used a time-series, quasi-experimental research design, including non-alcohol deaths within New York State and other states’ rates of alcohol-related disease mortality for comparison. The dataset included 456 monthly observations of mortality in New York State over a 38-year period (1969–2006). We used a random-effects approach and included several other important covariates. Results Alcohol-related disease mortality declined by 7.0% after a 1990 tax increase for spirits and beer. A spirits-only tax increase (in 1972) was not significantly associated with mortality but a data anomaly increased error in this effect estimate. Small tax decreases on beer between 1996 and 2006 had no measurable effect on mortality. Doubling the beer tax from $0.11 to $0.22 per gallon, a return to New York State’s 1990 levels, would decrease deaths by an estimated 250 deaths per year. Conclusions Excise tax increases on beer and spirits were associated with reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality. Modifying tax rates on a single beverage type does not appear to be as effective as doing so on multiple alcoholic beverages simultaneously. In New York, small decreases in beer taxes were not significantly associated with alcohol-related disease mortality. PMID:22436591

  3. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed

    Heather, Nick

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners' (GPs') advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service's National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  4. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  5. The Emotional and Academic Consequences of Parental Conditional Regard: Comparing Conditional Positive Regard, Conditional Negative Regard, and Autonomy Support as Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies of 9th-grade Israeli adolescents (169 in Study 1, 156 in Study 2) to compare the parenting practices of conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support using data from multiple reporters. Two socialization domains were studied: emotion control and academics. Results were consistent…

  6. Predictors of Adolescent Male Body Image Dissatisfaction: Implications for Negative Health Practices and Consequences for School Health from a Regionally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, James E.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Kittleson, Mark; Welshimer, Kathleen J.; Partridge, Julie A.; Robertson, Stacia L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent males are more likely to sustain intentional and unintentional injuries, be involved in a physical confrontation, and be successful in suicide attempts. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) has been linked as a possible contributing factor to these negative health behaviors and risks; however, research is limited with males. The…

  7. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-11-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  8. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  9. Assessing the Representativeness of Population-Sampled Health Surveys Through Linkage to Administrative Data on Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Emma; Leyland, Alastair H.; McCartney, Gerry; White, Ian R.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Rutherford, Lisa; Graham, Lesley; Gray, Linsay

    2014-01-01

    Health surveys are an important resource for monitoring population health, but selective nonresponse may impede valid inference. This study aimed to assess nonresponse bias in a population-sampled health survey in Scotland, with a focus on alcohol-related outcomes. Nonresponse bias was assessed by examining whether rates of alcohol-related harm (i.e., hospitalization or death) and all-cause mortality among respondents to the Scottish Health Surveys (from 1995 to 2010) were equivalent to those in the general population, and whether the extent of any bias varied according to sociodemographic attributes or over time. Data from consenting respondents (aged 20–64 years) to 6 Scottish Health Surveys were confidentially linked to death and hospitalization records and compared with general population counterparts. Directly age-standardized incidence rates of alcohol-related harm and all-cause mortality were lower among Scottish Health Survey respondents compared with the general population. For all years combined, the survey-to-population rate ratios were 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.76) for the incidence of alcohol-related harm and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.96) for all-cause mortality. Bias was more pronounced among persons residing in more deprived areas; limited evidence was found for regional or temporal variation. This suggests that corresponding underestimation of population rates of alcohol consumption is likely to be socially patterned. PMID:25227767

  10. Questioning the Value of Realism: Young Adults' Processing of Messages in Alcohol-Related Public Service Announcements and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andsager, Julie L.; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that: (1) perceived realism and themes that students could identify with are important factors in increasing the salience and persuasiveness of alcohol-related public service announcements (PSAs) among undergraduate students; (2) realistic but logic-based PSAs were not as effective as unrealistic but enjoyable ads; and (3) low production…

  11. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems across Hispanic National Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. A total of 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Multivariate analysis…

  12. Unique Direct and Indirect Effects of Impulsivity-Like Traits on Alcohol-Related Outcomes via Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) mediates the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related problems using a sample of 278 college students. Validating the 5-factor model of impulsivity, we showed that each impulsivity-like trait had a distinct pattern of relationships with PBS…

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  14. Rifaximin improves systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Kalambokis, Georgios N; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Rodi, Maria; Pappas, Konstantinos; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Xourgia, Xanthi; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

    2012-07-01

    Circulating levels of endotoxin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α increase with intestinal bacterial overgrowth and translocation, and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome and functional renal failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of the antibiotic rifaximin on systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and ascites. We measured mean arterial pressure, cardiac output (CO) by Doppler ultrasound, systemic vascular resistance (as the ratio of mean arterial pressure:CO), plasma renin activity, levels of plasma aldosterone, the glomerular filtration rate by plasma clearance of technetium-99m-DTPA, natriuresis, levels of plasma endotoxin, and serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in 13 patients at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with rifaximin. Rifaximin treatment significantly reduced CO and significantly increased systemic vascular resistance, in association with a significant decrease in plasma rennin activity. The therapy also significantly increased the glomerular filtration rate and natriuresis while reducing levels of endotoxin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Intestinal decontamination with rifaximin improved systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with advanced cirrhosis. PMID:22391344

  15. Study Protocol: Screening and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Trauma (START) – a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Methods and design The study is a randomised controlled trial with 6 months of follow-up, to examine the effectiveness of a brief and culturally adapted intervention in improving outcomes for trauma patients with at-risk drinking admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital maxillofacial surgery unit. Potential participants are identified using AUDIT-C questionnaire. Eligible participants are randomised to either Motivational Care Planning (MCP) or Treatment as Usual (TAU). The outcome measures will include quantity and frequency of alcohol and other substance use by Timeline Followback. The recruitment target is 154 participants, which with 20% dropout, is hoped to provide 124 people receiving treatment and follow-up. Discussion This project introduces screening and brief interventions for high-risk drinkers admitted to the hospital with facial trauma. It introduces a practical approach to integrating brief interventions in the hospital setting, and has potential to demonstrate significant benefits for at-risk drinkers with facial trauma. Trial Registration The trial has been registered in Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) and Trial Registration: ACTRN12611000135910. PMID:23106916

  16. Alcohol-related problems: a critical review of the literature and directions in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Arthur, D

    1998-08-01

    It is generally accepted the around 2-5% of the adult population show major signs of alcohol dependence, that alcohol-related harm is experienced by up to 20% of the population, and that approximately 60% drink at risk-free levels. Further prevalence studies show that there are high numbers of problem drinkers who attend general hospital services for reasons other than their alcohol consumption. Nurses are in constant contact with patients who may have an early problem with alcohol but who are admitted for other reasons, and they are in a prime position to comprehensively assess patients (including alcohol screening), develop rapport and provide 'counselling'. Also, university nursing education is propelling nurses toward adoption of independent discipline focused models of care which are increasingly becoming independent of the medical model. Recent trends in the management of problem drinkers suggest that controlled drinking approaches may well offer treatment options to nurses that the traditional abstinence approaches did not. This paper presents a brief overview of the notion of controlled drinking, then critically reviews the nursing research studies and the descriptive literature providing direction for nursing education. Some recent clinical initiatives are discussed which highlight the flaws existing in nursing education, including lack of sufficient curriculum hours and the need for better designed education models and strategies. PMID:9847741

  17. Insulin Resistance, Ceramide Accumulation, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Human Chronic Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Longato, Lisa; Ripp, Kelsey; Setshedi, Mashiko; Dostalek, Miroslav; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Branda, Mark; Wands, Jack R.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chronic alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is mediated by insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Recent studies suggest that dysregulated lipid metabolism with accumulation of ceramides, together with ER stress potentiate hepatic insulin resistance and may cause steatohepatitis to progress. Objective. We examined the degree to which hepatic insulin resistance in advanced human ALD is correlated with ER stress, dysregulated lipid metabolism, and ceramide accumulation. Methods. We assessed the integrity of insulin signaling through the Akt pathway and measured proceramide and ER stress gene expression, ER stress signaling proteins, and ceramide profiles in liver tissue. Results. Chronic ALD was associated with increased expression of insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 receptors, impaired signaling through IGF-1R and IRS1, increased expression of multiple proceramide and ER stress genes and proteins, and higher levels of the C14, C16, C18, and C20 ceramide species relative to control. Conclusions. In human chronic ALD, persistent hepatic insulin resistance is associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism, ceramide accumulation, and striking upregulation of multiple ER stress signaling molecules. Given the role of ceramides as mediators of ER stress and insulin resistance, treatment with ceramide enzyme inhibitors may help reverse or halt progression of chronic ALD. PMID:22577490

  18. Chemosensory Dysfunction in Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Joint Exploration of Olfaction and Taste.

    PubMed

    Brion, Mélanie; de Timary, Philippe; Vander Stappen, Caroline; Guettat, Lamia; Lecomte, Benoît; Rombaux, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Chemosensory (olfaction-taste) dysfunctions are considered as reliable biomarkers in many neurological and psychiatric states. However, experimental measures of chemosensory abilities are lacking in alcohol-dependence (AD) and Korsakoff Syndrome (KS, a neurological complication of AD), despite the role played by alcohol-related odors and taste in the emergence and maintenance of AD. This study thus investigated chemosensory impairments in AD and KS. Olfactory-gustatory measures were taken among 20 KS, 20 AD, and 20 control participants. Olfaction (odor detection-discrimination-identification) was assessed using the "Sniffin Sticks" battery and taste was measured using the "Taste Strips" task. Impairments were found for high-level olfaction in AD (odor discrimination) and KS (odor discrimination-identification), even after controlling for psychopathological comorbidities. Gustatory deficits were also observed in both groups, indexing a global deficit for chemosensory perception. Finally, the gradient of impairment between the successive disease stages for odor identification suggests that the hypothesis of a continuum between AD and KS regarding cognitive deficits can be generalized to chemosensory perception. AD and KS are thus characterized by deficits in chemosensory abilities, which could constitute a marker of the AD-KS transition. In view of its deleterious influence on everyday life, chemosensory dysfunction should also be taken into account in clinical settings. PMID:26354933

  19. Infant Symbolic Play as an Early Indicator of Fetal Alcohol-Related Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2010-01-01

    Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. 107 Cape Coloured, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of play, socio-demographic and psychological correlates of maternal alcohol use, and quality of parenting were assessed at 13 months, and IQ and FAS diagnosis at 5 years. The effect of drinking on spontaneous play was not significant after control for social environment. By contrast, prenatal alcohol and quality of parenting related independently to elicited play. Elicited play predicted 5-year Digit Span and was poorer in infants subsequently diagnosed with FAS/partial FAS and in nonsyndromal heavily exposed infants, compared with abstainers/light drinkers. Thus, symbolic play may provide an early indicator of risk for alcohol-related deficits. The independent effects of prenatal alcohol and quality of parenting suggest that infants whose symbolic play is adversely affected by alcohol exposure may benefit from stimulation from a responsive caregiver. PMID:20953338

  20. Do students use contextual protective behaviors to reduce alcohol-related sexual risk? Examination of a dual-process decision-making model.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Nichole M; Hultgren, Brittney A; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Sell, Nichole M

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students' decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine (a) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use and (b) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Students (n = 508) completed Web-based baseline (mid-Spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization. PMID:26415062

  1. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men. PMID:26467937

  2. Relative Mortality among Criminals in Norway and the Relation to Drug and Alcohol Related Offenses

    PubMed Central

    Skardhamar, Torbjørn; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-01-01

    Background Registered offenders are known to have a higher mortality rate, but given the high proportion of offenders with drug-addiction, particularly among offenders with a custodial sentence, higher mortality is expected. While the level of overall mortality compared to the non-criminal population is of interest in itself, we also estimate the risk of death by criminal records related to substance abuse and other types of criminal acts, and separate between those who receive a prison sentence or not. Methods Age-adjusted relative risks of death for 2000–2008 were studied in a population based dataset. Our dataset comprise the total Norwegian population of 2.9 million individuals aged 15–69 years old in 1999, of whom 10% had a criminal record in the 1992–1999 period. Results Individuals with a criminal record have twice the relative risk (RR) of death of the control group (non-offenders). Males with a record of use/possession of drugs and a prison record have an 11.9 RR (females, 15.6); males with a drug record but no prison record have a 6.9 RR (females 10.5). Males imprisoned for driving under the influence of substances have a 4.4 RR (females 5.6); males with a record of driving under the influence but no prison sentence have a 3.2 RR (females 6.5). Other male offenders with a prison record have a 2.8 RR (females 3.7); other male offenders with no prison record have a 1.7 RR (females 2.3). Conclusion Significantly higher mortality was found for people with a criminal record, also for those without any record of drug use. Mortality is much higher for those convicted of substance-related crimes: more so for drug- than for alcohol-related crimes and for women. PMID:24223171

  3. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Morleo, Michela; Tocque, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Allen, Tony; Harrison, Dominic; Fe-Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence) and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence) health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271) using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they develop only moderate drinking

  4. Alcohol-related emergency department admissions among adolescents in the Ghent and Sint-Niklaas areas.

    PubMed

    Calle, P; Hautekiet, A; François, H; Sundahl, N; Cornelis, C; Calle, S; Damen, J; Vanbrabant, P; De Turck, B; De Graeve, K; Mpotos, N; De Paepe, P

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major health concern. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the alcohol-related emergency department (ED) admissions among adolescents in all hospitals of distinct areas during a 1-year period. In each hospital, all ED patients with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of at least 0.5 g/l were surveyed in a standardised way. Of the 3918 included patients, only 146 (3.7%) were < 18  years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. There was a strong preponderance of weekend and night time admissions. Most of the patients were transported by ambulance (77% of 138 patients with information on this item). The main reason for ED admittance was depressed level of consciousness (64%), trauma (12%), vomiting and/or abdominal pain (12%), agitation or aggression (4%), syncope (4%) and psychological problems (4%). The context of the alcohol intoxication was related to some kind of festivity in 85%, mental problems in 14% and chronic abuse in 1%. Median BAC values (and range) were 2.08 g/l (0.73-3.70 g/l) for boys and 1.51 g/l (0.73-2.90 g/l) for girls. Most patients (87%) could be discharged home within 24  hours. Our study confirms that problematic alcohol use leading to ED admissions starts in adolescence. Although the numbers of cases below 18 years are low when compared to adults, the phenomenon is alarming as it is associated with substantial health problems. Therefore, Belgium urgently needs a global national alcohol plan, with youngsters being one of the target groups. PMID:25984783

  5. College Students' Drinking and Posting About Alcohol: Forwarding a Model of Motivations, Behaviors, and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey K

    2016-06-01

    College drinking continues to remain a public health problem that has been exacerbated by alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNSs). Although existing research has linked alcohol consumption, alcohol posts, and adverse consequences to one another, comprehensive explanations for these associations have been largely unexplored. Thus, we reasoned that students' personal motivations (i.e., espousing an alcohol identity, needing entertainment, and adhering to social norms) influence their behaviors (i.e., alcohol consumption and alcohol-related posting on SNSs), which can lead to alcohol problems. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 364 undergraduate students and found general support for our model. In particular, espousing an alcohol identity predicted alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting, needing entertainment predicted alcohol consumption but not alcohol-related SNS posting, and adhering to social norms predicted alcohol-related SNS posting but not alcohol consumption. In turn, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting predicted alcohol problems. It is surprising that alcohol-related SNS posting was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems than alcohol consumption. We discuss the findings within their applied applications for college student health. PMID:27186824

  6. 10 Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Have You Heard about Alcohol and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jerry; And Others

    A set of two pamphlets is presented on the topic of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. "Ten Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects" provides ideas and materials for students and others to use in educating the public about the dangers of alcohol use during pregnancy. It offers…

  7. Applying the Attention-Allocation Model to the Explanation of Alcohol-Related Aggression: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giancola, Peter R.; Josephs, Robert A.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Gunn, Rachel L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to apply the attention allocation model (AAM; Steele & Josephs, 1990) to the explanation, as well as the prevention, of alcohol-related violence. The AAM contends that alcohol has a “myopic” effect on attentional capacity that presumably facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus on the most salient provocative cues, that are naturally present in hostile situations, rather than less salient inhibitory cues. Data are presented to demonstrate support for the AAM with regard to alcohol-related aggression. The model has also been expanded to suggest some intermediary mechanisms that may account for how distracting attention away from provocative cues might be involved in the reduction of aggression. Finally, a number of practical suggestions are put forth regarding how the AAM can be applied to the prevention of intoxicated aggression. PMID:19938917

  8. Ethnic identity, drinking motives, and alcohol consequences among Alaska Native and non-Native college students.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Monica C; Blume, Arthur W

    2015-01-01

    This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm. PMID:25536236

  9. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gauffin, Karl; Hjern, Anders; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD) on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973–82 (n = 872 912), which was followed from age 18 to 29–40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7–2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4–7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1–12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks–those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9–14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4–1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage. PMID:26991657

  10. Examining the relationship between parenting types and patterns of student alcohol-related behavior during the transition to college

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to examine parenting influences on student alcohol use through the use of a holistic, person-centered approach in order to accomplish three distinct research aims: (1) identify groups of college students with unique profiles of perceived parenting characteristics; (2) identify groups of college students with unique profiles of alcohol-related correlates; and (3) examine the extent to which profiles of perceived parenting characteristics are associated with profiles of college alcohol-related risk. Method A sample of 1,153 first-year university students (17 – 20 years-of-age) was assessed on a host of perceived parenting and self-reported alcohol-related items. Results Four profiles of perceived parenting (High Quality, High Monitoring, Anti-Alcohol, Pro-Alcohol) were found using latent profile analysis (LPA). Five profiles of student alcohol-related characteristics (Abstainers, Past Drinkers, Light Drinkers, High Risk Drinkers, Extreme Risk Drinkers) were also found using LPA. Latent transition analysis illustrated that students who perceived their parents as belonging to the Pro-Alcohol profile had much higher probabilities of belonging in the High Risk Drinker or Extreme Risk Drinker profiles than students in all other perceived parenting profiles. Conclusions In addition to alcohol-specific parenting characteristics, aspects of parent-teen relationship quality may also be integral in the prevention of college alcohol misuse. Finally, this study observed complex patterns of parenting and alcohol behaviors, such that the profiles could be interpreted as qualitatively distinct types of individuals. These unique profiles suggest that a targeted approach reflecting the profiles found in the current study might greatly enhance prevention program efficacy. PMID:21842968

  11. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Gauffin, Karl; Hjern, Anders; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD) on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912), which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage. PMID:26991657

  12. The Alcohol Improvement Programme: Evaluation of an Initiative to Address Alcohol-Related Health Harm in England

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Betsy; MacGregor, Susanne; Godfrey, Christine; Herring, Rachel; Lloyd, Charlie; Tchilingirian, Jordan; Toner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The evaluation aimed to assess the impact of The Alcohol Improvement Programme (AIP). This was a UK Department of Health initiative (April 2008–March 2011) aiming to contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm as measured by a reduction in the rate of increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions (ARHAs). Methods: The evaluation (March 2010–September 2011) used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the impact of the AIP on ARHAs, to describe and assess the process of implementation, and to identify elements of the programme which might serve as a ‘legacy’ for the future. Results: There was no evidence that the AIP had an impact on reducing the rise in the rate of ARHAs. The AIP was successfully delivered, increased the priority given to alcohol-related harm on local policy agendas and strengthened the infrastructure for the delivery of interventions. Conclusion: Although there was no measurable short-term impact on the rise in the rate of ARHAs, the AIP helped to set up a strategic response and a delivery infrastructure as a first, necessary step in working towards that goal. There are a number of valuable elements in the AIP which should be retained and repackaged to fit into new policy contexts. PMID:23729674

  13. The Role of Alcohol Perceptions as Mediators Between Personality and Alcohol-Related Outcomes Among Incoming College-Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, John T. P.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    After high school, college students escalate their drinking at a faster rate than their noncollege-attending peers, and alcohol use in high school is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in college. Therefore, an improved understanding of the role of predictors of alcohol use during the critical developmental period when individuals transition to college has direct clinical implications to reduce alcohol-related harms. We used path analysis in the present study to examine the predictive effects of personality (e.g., impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and three measures of alcohol perception: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and perceptions regarding the perceived role of drinking in college on alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 490 incoming freshmen college students. Results indicated that descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking largely mediated the effects of personality on alcohol outcomes. In contrast, both impulsivity and hopelessness exhibited direct effects on alcohol-related problems. The perceived role of drinking was a particularly robust predictor of outcomes and mediator of the effects of personality traits, including sensation seeking and impulsivity on alcohol outcomes. The intertwined relationships observed in this study between personality factors, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking highlight the importance of investigating these predictors simultaneously. Findings support the implementation of interventions that target these specific perceptions about the role of drinking in college. PMID:24467197

  14. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women. PMID:26132301

  15. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  16. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roje-Bonacci, T.; Bonacci, O.

    2013-08-01

    The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of the town of Dubrovnik (Croatia). Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s-1 and 117 m3 s-1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981-2011), is 24.05 m3 s-1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968-1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s-1. There is a project for construction of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. The top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130 m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained. The HEPP Ombla could result in many large and hard-to-predict negative consequences which are specific for this particular HEPP, for example (1) severe spring discharge change; (2) unpredictable regional groundwater redistribution; (3) threatening of endemic fauna; (4) induced seismicity; (5) induced sinkholes; (6) occurrence of landslides; (7) conflict regarding internationally shared karst aquifers; (8) intensification of karst flash floods; (9) sea water intrusion in coastal karst aquifer; etc.

  17. Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use: Integrating Ecological Momentary Assessment and Geospatial Data to Examine Risk for Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems provides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these challenges, researchers need tools that allow them to gather detailed information about when and where people choose to drink and how contextual factors influence drinking risks. New data collection and analysis techniques, such as activity-space analysis, which examines movement through different contexts, and ecological momentary assessment, which captures microlevel contextual changes as individuals move through their days, can advance the field of alcohol studies by providing detailed information on the use of drinking contexts, particularly when combined. Data acquired through these methods allow researchers to better identify those con-texts where and conditions under which drinking and problems related to drinking occur. Use of these methods will allow prevention practitioners to target prevention efforts to those contexts that place most drinkers at risk and tailor prevention efforts to each context for specific outcomes. PMID:26258998

  18. Nursing assessment and management of alcohol-related brain damage in young people.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; McColm, Robert; Aindow, Jackie; Anderson, Judith

    The long term consequences of chronic alcohol misuse are increasingly affecting young people. This one part unit outlines the main signs and symptoms of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome. It details nursing assessment and management of these conditions, as well as regimens for safe detoxification. PMID:19899490

  19. Assessing University Students' Self-Efficacy to Employ Alcohol-Related Harm Reduction Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Kraus, Shane W.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bannon, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Develop and evaluate key psychometric properties of a self-report questionnaire specifically designed to assess student drinkers' self-confidence to employ a variety of strategies intended to reduce unhealthy consequences of high-risk drinking. Methods: Four hundred ninety-eight participants rated their confidence (from "not at all…

  20. Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Alcohol-Related Crime in a College Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Aaron M.; Carroll, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to clarify crime "movement" through the city of Madison to focus efforts to address consequences of student drinking. The authors examined all crime reported by police during the 2003 year. Methods: Using geographical information system (GIS) mapping and 2003 crime data from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the…

  1. Game-Day Survey Results: Looking at Football Fan Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Jolie; Glassman, Tavis; Dodd, Virginia J.; Young, Gail C. Dale

    2007-01-01

    On college campuses, alcohol abuse is a challenge particularly on football game days. From previous research, it is known that fans drink more and are more affected by excessive alcohol consumption than non-fans. This study explored age and gender issues regarding behaviors and consequences of typical game-day alcohol consumption. A…

  2. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided. PMID:21335270

  3. All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related violence in and in the vicinity of licensed premises continues to place a considerable burden on the United Kingdom’s (UK) health services. Robust interventions targeted at licensed premises are therefore required to reduce the costs of alcohol-related harm. Previous evaluations of interventions in licensed premises have a number of methodological limitations and none have been conducted in the UK. The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Safety Management in Licensed Environments intervention designed to reduce alcohol-related violence in licensed premises, delivered by Environmental Health Officers, under their statutory authority to intervene in cases of violence in the workplace. Methods/Design A national randomised controlled trial, with licensed premises as the unit of allocation. Premises were identified from all 22 Local Authorities in Wales. Eligible premises were those with identifiable violent incidents on premises, using police recorded violence data. Premises were allocated to intervention or control by optimally balancing by Environmental Health Officer capacity in each Local Authority, number of violent incidents in the 12 months leading up to the start of the project and opening hours. The primary outcome measure is the difference in frequency of violence between intervention and control premises over a 12 month follow-up period, based on a recurrent event model. The trial incorporates an embedded process evaluation to assess intervention implementation, fidelity, reach and reception, and to interpret outcome effects, as well as investigate its economic impact. Discussion The results of the trial will be applicable to all statutory authorities directly involved with managing violence in the night time economy and will provide the first formal test of Health and Safety policy in this environment. If successful, opportunities for replication and generalisation will be considered. Trial registration

  4. Alcohol-related injury among Greek-letter college students: Defining a target population for secondary prevention

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Mary Claire; McNamara, Robert S; McCoy, Thomas P; Sutfin, Erin L; Wolfson, Mark; Rhodes, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Members of Greek-letter societies are the heaviest drinkers on college campuses, and experience more alcohol-related problems than their peers. This study reports the results of a web-based survey administered to stratified random samples of college students from ten North Carolina universities. Greek-letter status was a significant independent risk factor for increased injury (both experienced and caused to others), even after adjusting for drinking behaviors. Prevention, screening, and intervention strategies are discussed in the context of these results. PMID:22689586

  5. Effects of AlcoholEdu for College on Alcohol-Related Problems Among Freshmen: A Randomized Multicampus Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Antin, Tamar; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: AlcoholEdu for College is a 2- to 3-hour online course for incoming college freshmen. This study was the first multicampus trial to examine effects of AlcoholEdu for College on alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Method: Thirty universi participated in the study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive AlcoholEdu, and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. AlcoholEdu was implemented by intervention schools during the summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university beginning before the intervention in spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in fall 2008/2009 and spring 2009/2010. The surveys included questions about the past-30-day frequency of 28 alcohol-related problems, from which we created indices for the total number of problems and problems in seven domains: physiological, academic, social, driving under the influence/riding with drinking drivers, aggression, sexual risk taking, and victimization. Multilevel Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine intent-to-treat and dosage effects of AlcoholEdu for College on these outcomes. Results: Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the risk for past-30-day alcohol problems in general and problems in the physiological, social, and victimization domains during the fall semester immediately after completion of the course. However, these effects did not persist in the spring semester. Additional analyses suggested stronger AlcoholEdu effects on these outcomes at colleges with higher rates of student course completion. No AlcoholEdu effects were observed for alcohol-related problems in the other four domains. Conclusions: AlcoholEdu for College appears to have beneficial short-term effects on victimization and the most common types of alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Universities may benefit the most by mandating AlcoholEdu for College for all incoming freshmen and

  6. Self and partner alcohol-related problems among ACOAs and non-ACOAs: associations with depressive symptoms and motivations for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Linden, Ashley N; Milletich, Robert J; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kurtz, Erin D; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Bodkins, Jessica A; Sheehan, Brynn E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether drinking motivations and depressive symptoms would have a stronger impact on alcohol-related problems among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and their dating partners as compared to non-ACOAs and their dating partners. Participants were 197 undergraduate (60 ACOAs, 137 non-ACOAs) 18 to 25year-old female drinkers in dating relationships. Participants completed measures of ACOA screening, depressive symptoms, and drinking motives, as well as alcohol-related problems for themselves and their partner. Although no differences were found between ACOA and non-ACOA women's alcohol-related problems, ACOA women and women with greater depressive symptoms were at a higher risk of having a partner with more alcohol-related problems. In addition, we found that regardless of parental history of alcoholism, higher depressive symptoms coupled with stronger motives for drinking to cope with stressors predicted participants' own alcohol-related problems. These findings demonstrate the need for future research to examine additional factors that may moderate the effects of depressive symptoms and ACOA status on female college student drinking problems. A greater understanding of the unique and interactive effects of these variables on alcohol-related problems in both young women and their dating partners can aid in the development of prevention programs more targeted to the specific vulnerabilities of this population. PMID:24182750

  7. Reciprocal Effects of Internalizing and Oppositional Defiance Symptoms on Heavy Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harms in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kara D.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Ames, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for longitudinal research to understand how psychopathology relates to the onset and maintenance of substance use from adolescence into young adulthood. Hence, we investigate the longitudinal, reciprocal influences of internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing (oppositional defiance) symptoms on heavy episodic drinking (HED; ≥5 drinks per occasion) and alcohol-related harms in a community-based sample of youth aged 12–27 years. Participants were chosen from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, followed six times, biennially between 2003 and 2013 (N = 662). Analyses used cross-lagged panel models to examine reciprocal relations over time. Differences across age and sex were also tested. Defiance symptoms predicted increases in HED, which reciprocally predicted increases in defiance symptoms for females. Internalizing symptoms were related to HED within time for females. Alcohol-related harms had reciprocal positive associations with internalizing and defiance symptoms for both males and females. Associations were largely invariant across age groups, suggesting that the presence and strength of associations persisted across development. While psychopathology preceded the onset of HED and harms, the overall findings suggest that these risk processes are mutually reinforcing across development and that youth may become entrenched in an interdependent cycle that significantly increases their risk of comorbid disorders in adulthood. PMID:26819553

  8. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. PMID:26905761

  9. Developing a guide for community-based groups to reduce alcohol-related harm among African migrants.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Alison; Brown, Tony; Norman, Catherine; Hata, Kiri; Toohey, Mark; Vasiljevic, Dubravka; Rowe, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related harm is an issue of concern for African migrant communities living in Australia. However, there has been little information available to guide workers in developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies. Methods A three-step approach, comprising a literature review, community consultations and an external review, was undertaken to develop a guide to assist organisations and health promotion groups working with African migrant communities to address alcohol-related harms. Discussion There was a high level of agreement between the three steps. Addressing alcohol harms with African migrant communities requires approaches that are sensitive to the needs, structures and experiences of communities. The process should incorporate targeted approaches that enable communities to achieve their resettlement goals as well as strengthening mainstream health promotion efforts. Conclusions The resource produced guides alcohol harm prevention coalitions and workers from the first steps of understanding the influences of acculturation and resettlement on alcohol consumption, through to planning, developing and evaluating an intervention in partnership with communities. So what? This paper advances knowledge by providing a precise summary of Australian African migrant focused alcohol and other drug research to date. It also describes a three-step approach that aimed to incorporate a diversity of community views in the creation of a health promotion and community capacity-building resource. PMID:26726816

  10. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  11. Association between firearm ownership, firearm-related risk and risk reduction behaviours and alcohol-related risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol use and firearm ownership are risk factors for violent injury and death. To determine whether firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours, the author conducted a cross-sectional study using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for eight states in the USA from 1996 to 1997 (the most recent data available). Altogether, 15 474 respondents provided information on firearm exposure. After adjustment for demographics and state of residence, firearm owners were more likely than those with no firearms at home to have ≥5 drinks on one occasion (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.50), to drink and drive (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.39) and to have ≥60 drinks per month (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.83). Heavy alcohol use was most common among firearm owners who also engaged in behaviours such as carrying a firearm for protection against other people and keeping a firearm at home that was both loaded and not locked away. The author concludes that firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours. PMID:21670071

  12. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Walvoort, Serge JW; van der Heijden, Paul T; Kessels, Roy PC; Egger, Jos IM

    2016-01-01

    Aim Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8) was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) and in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73). The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27445476

  13. Thalamic abnormalities are a cardinal feature of alcohol-related brain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Segobin, Shailendra H; Ritz, Ludivine; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    Two brain networks are particularly affected by the harmful effect of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption: the circuit of Papez and the frontocerebellar circuit, in both of which the thalamus plays a key role. Shrinkage of the thalamus is more severe in alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) than in those without neurological complication (AL). In accordance with the gradient effect of thalamic abnormalities between AL and KS, the pattern of brain dysfunction in the Papez's circuit results in anterograde amnesia in KS and only mild-to-moderate episodic memory disorders in AL. On the opposite, dysfunction of the frontocerebellar circuit results in a similar pattern of working memory and executive deficits in the AL and KS. Several hypotheses, mutually compatible, can be drawn to explain that the severe thalamic shrinkage observed in KS has different consequences in the neuropsychological profile associated with the two brain networks. PMID:25108034

  14. Prevalence and predictors of problematic alcohol use, risky sexual practices and other negative consequences associated with alcohol use among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Harmful alcohol use can compromise worker health and productivity. Persons employed in safety-sensitive occupations are particularly vulnerable to hazardous alcohol use and its associated risks. This study describes the patterns of harmful alcohol use, related HIV risks and risk factors for the harmful use of alcohol among a sample of employees in South Africa working in the safety and security sector. Methods A cross-sectional study that formed the baseline for a clustered randomized control trial was undertaken in 2011. A random sample of 325 employees employed within a safety and security sector of a local municipality in the Western Cape Province of South Africa participated in the study. Data were collected by means of an 18-page self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed using SAS/STAT software version 9.2. For all significance testing, the F-statistic and p-values are reported. Results Three hundred and twenty-five employees were surveyed. Findings suggest that more than half (76.1%) of the 78.9% of participants who consumed alcohol engaged in binge drinking, with close to a quarter reporting a CAGE score greater than the cut-off of 2, indicating potentially hazardous drinking patterns. The study further found that employees who use alcohol are more likely to engage in risky sexual practices when under the influence. A favorable drinking climate (p < 0.001) and poor levels of group cohesion (p = 0.009) were significantly correlated to binge drinking. Conclusion This study identifies alcohol-related behaviors and associated risks in the context of safety-sensitive occupations at the workplace. It suggests that persons employed within such positions are at high risk for developing alcohol-related disorders and for contracting HIV. This study highlights the need for testing a comprehensive package of services designed to prevent hazardous alcohol use among safety and security employees. PMID:24593946

  15. “I Will Take a Shot for Every ‘Like’ I Get on This Status”: Posting Alcohol-Related Facebook Content Is Linked to Drinking Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Westgate, Erin C; Neighbors, Clayton; Heppner, Hannes; Jahn, Susanna; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether self-reports of alcohol-related postings on Facebook by oneself or one’s Facebook friends were related to common motives for drinking and were uniquely predictive of self-reported alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings). Method: Pacific Northwest undergraduates completed a survey of alcohol outcomes, drinking motives, and alcoholrelated Facebook postings. Participants completed the survey online as part of a larger study on alcohol use and cognitive associations. Participants were randomly selected through the university registrar’s office and consisted of 1,106 undergraduates (449 men, 654 women, 2 transgender, 1 declined to answer) between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M = 20.40, SD = 1.60) at a large university in the Pacific Northwest. Seven participants were excluded from analyses because of missing or suspect data. Results: Alcohol-related postings on Facebook were significantly correlated with social, enhancement, conformity, and coping motives for drinking (all ps < .001). After drinking motives were controlled for, self–alcohol-related postings independently and positively predicted the number of drinks per week, alcohol-related problems, risk of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol cravings (all ps < .001). In contrast, friends’ alcohol-related postings only predicted the risk of alcohol use disorders (p < .05) and marginally predicted alcohol-related problems (p = .07). Conclusions: Posting alcohol-related content on social media platforms such as Facebook is associated with common motivations for drinking and is, in itself, a strong predictive indicator of drinking outcomes independent of drinking motives. Moreover, self-related posting activity appears to be more predictive than Facebook friends’ activity. These findings suggest that social media platforms may be a useful target for future preventative and intervention efforts. PMID:24766750

  16. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  17. ECONOMIC STRESSORS AND ALCOHOL-RELATED OUTCOMES: EXPLORING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE MEDIATING ROLE OF SOMATIC COMPLAINTS

    PubMed Central

    BROWN, ROBYN LEWIS; RICHMAN, JUDITH A.; ROSPENDA, KATHLEEN M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined processes linking economic stressors, somatic complaints, and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Structural equation models of data from a national survey revealed that somatic complaints partly explain the association between economic stressors and problematic drinking. The associations of both economic stressors and somatic complaints with problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than women. However, the association between economic stressors and somatic complaints was greater for women. These findings clarify the circumstances in which gender matters most for the associations among economy-related stressors, somatic complaints, and drinking. They highlight the significance of difficult economic circumstances for physical health and, in turn, problematic drinking – particularly among men. PMID:25310370

  18. Self-organization of alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs in a campus housing complex: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, M J; Bowen, A

    2001-11-01

    The self-organization of college students' alcohol-related attitudes and their beliefs about other students' attitudes were assessed within a campus housing complex. Pluralistic ignorance was widespread, in that, compared with their own self-ratings, students rated their friends and the "typical" student as being more in favor of alcohol and more lax in the number of drinks per hour that were acceptable and the number of drinks that were acceptable before driving. They also perceived typical students as more risky than their friends. Dynamic social impact theory was also supported, as students' dormitory building and floor of residence reliably predicted both their personal drinking attitudes and their beliefs about the drinking attitudes of other students. PMID:11714185

  19. Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality in Florida: Time-series analyses from 1969–2004

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over a hundred studies have established the effects of beverage alcohol taxes and prices on sales and drinking behaviors. Yet, relatively few studies have examined effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality. We evaluated effects of multiple changes in alcohol tax rates in the State of Florida from 1969–2004 on disease (not injury) mortality. Methods A time-series quasi-experimental research design was used, including non-alcohol deaths within Florida and other states’ rates of alcohol-related mortality for comparison. A total of 432 monthly observations of mortality in Florida were examined over the 36-year period. Analyses included ARIMA, fixed-effects, and random effects models, including a noise model, tax independent variables, and structural covariates. Results We found significant reductions in mortality related to chronic heavy alcohol consumption following legislatively induced increases in alcohol taxes in Florida. The frequency of deaths (t=−2.73, p=.007) and the rate per population (t=−2.06, p=.04) declined significantly. The elasticity effect estimate is −0.22 (t=−1.88, p=.06), indicating a 10% increase in tax is associated with a 2.2% decline in deaths. Conclusions Increased alcohol taxes are associated with significant and sizable reductions in alcohol-attributable mortality in Florida. Results indicate that 600–800 lives per year could be saved if real tax rates were returned to 1983 levels (when the last tax increase occurred). Findings highlight the role of tax policy as an effective means for reducing deaths associated with chronic heavy alcohol use. PMID:20659073

  20. [What are the physician's role and responsibility in the law named "Basic Act on Measures against Alcohol-related Health Harm"?].

    PubMed

    Io, Aro; Yoshimoto, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Japan passed the national law "Basic Act on Measures against Alcohol-related Health Harm" on December 2013. This law is expected to prevent inappropriate drinking that leads to alcohol-related problems such as physical and mental disorder, drunk driving, suicide, domestic violence, child abuse, and poor work performance. The physician's responsibilities under this law are described as follows: i) to provide high quality and appropriate medical care concerning alcohol-related health harm; ii) to reduce or eliminate the consumption of alcohol, thus preventing the progression of alcohol-related health harm; and iii) to coordinate these efforts amongst medical institutions. Based on this law, we believe that Japanese physicians will have essential roles in achieving the goals of this law and that we can fulfill our responsibilities by observing the following aspects: a) changing our message to the patients from "drink sensibly and moderately" to "low-risk drinking; but any drinking has a risk of harm and low-risk drinking is not risk-free"; b) encouraging the spread and use of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT); and c) establishing community healthcare systems for alcohol-related problems, including dementia in the elderly and during alcohol emergencies. PMID:26394525

  1. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huchting, Karie K.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher…

  2. Review article: Emergency department data sharing to reduce alcohol-related violence: a systematic review of the feasibility and effectiveness of community-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Droste, Nicolas; Miller, Peter; Baker, Tim

    2014-08-01

    The present paper aims to review current evidence for the effectiveness and/or feasibility of using inter-agency data sharing of ED recorded assault information to direct interventions reducing alcohol-related or nightlife assaults, injury or violence. Potential data-sharing partners involve police, local council, liquor licensing regulators and venue management. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted. The initial search discovered 19,506 articles. After removal of duplicates and articles not meeting review criteria, n = 8 articles were included in quantitative and narrative synthesis. Seven of eight studies were conducted in UK EDs, with the remaining study presenting Australian data. All studies included in the review deemed data sharing a worthwhile pursuit. All studies attempting to measure intervention effectiveness reported substantial reductions of assaults and ED attendances post-intervention, with one reporting no change. Negative logistic feasibility concerns were minimal, with general consensus among authors being that data-sharing protocols and partnerships could be easily implemented into modern ED triage systems, with minimal cost, staff workload burden, impact to patient safety, service and anonymity, or risk of harm displacement to other licensed venues, or increase to length of patient stay. However, one study reported a potential harm displacement effect to streets surrounding intervention venues. In future, data-sharing systems should triangulate ED, police and ambulance data sources, and assess intervention effectiveness using randomised controlled trials that account for variations in venue capacity, fluctuations in ED attendance and population levels, seasonal variations in assault and injury, and control for concurrent interventions. PMID:24931278

  3. A Study of the Relationship Between Protective Behaviors and Drinking Consequences Among Undergraduate College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delva, Jorge; Smith, Michael P.; Howell, Richard L.; Harrison, Dianne F.; Wilke, Dina; Jackson, D. Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The authors identified the number, type, and frequency of protective behaviors that undergraduate college students who consume alcohol use to prevent alcohol-related consequences. Their hypothesis was that students who engage in more types of protective behaviors with greater frequency would be less likely to experience alcohol-related…

  4. The Role of Monthly Spending Money in College Student Drinking Behaviors and Their Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara Alvarez; McCoy, Thomas P.; Champion, Heather; Parries, Maria T.; DuRant, Robert H.; Mitra, Ananda; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol use among college students is pervasive and affected by economic factors such as personal income and alcohol price. The authors examined the relationship among students' spending money, drinking rate, and alcohol-related consequences. Participants: In 2005, the authors conducted a Web-based survey among a random sample of 3,634…

  5. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants: Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods: Students completed a Web-based survey…

  6. Prevalence of alcohol related attendance at an inner city emergency department and its impact: a dual prospective and retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Kathryn; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Phillipson, Angela; Hindmarch, Paul; Kaner, Eileen; Stamp, Elaine; Vale, Luke; Wright, John; Connolly, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol related hospital attendances are a potentially avoidable burden on emergency departments (EDs). Understanding the number and type of patients attending EDs with alcohol intoxication is important in estimating the workload and cost implications. We used best practice from previous studies to establish the prevalence of adult alcohol related ED attendances and estimate the costs of clinical management and subsequent health service use. Methods The setting was a large inner city ED in northeast England, UK. Data were collected via (i) retrospective review of hospital records for all ED attendances for four pre-specified weeks in 2010/2011 to identify alcohol related cases along with 12 months of follow-up of the care episode and (ii) prospective 24/7 assessment via breath alcohol concentration testing of patients presenting to the ED in the corresponding weeks in 2012/2013. Results The prevalence rates of alcohol related attendances were 12% and 15% for the retrospective and prospective cohorts, respectively. Prospectively, the rates ranged widely from 4% to 60% across week days, rising to over 70% at weekends. Younger males attending in the early morning hours at weekends made up the largest proportion of alcohol related attendances. The mean cost per attendance was £249 (SD £1064); the mean total cost for those admitted was £851 (SD £2549). The most common reasons for attending were trauma related injuries followed by psychiatric problems. Conclusions Alcohol related attendances are a major and avoidable burden on emergency care. However, targeted interventions at weekends and early morning hours could capture the majority of cases and help prevent future re-attendance. PMID:26698364

  7. Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Tirabassi, Christine K; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:26524279

  8. Alcohol-Related Problems among Younger Drinkers Who Misuse Prescription Drugs: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermos, J.; Winter, M.; Heeren, T.; Hingson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors determined whether lifetime prescription drug misuse (PDM) associated with increased risks for alcohol-related problems among 18- to 34-year-old, NESARC respondents. Among 8222 "ever-drinkers," 15.4% reported ever "misusing sedatives, tranquilizers, painkillers or stimulants ... as prescriptions or from indirect sources." Outcomes were…

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Alcohol-Related Behaviors in Mid- to Late Adolescence in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Gardner, Charles O; Hickman, Matt; Heron, Jon; Macleod, John; Lewis, Glyn; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol consumption and problems in adolescence have been inconclusive. Few studies have examined all three major SES indicators and a broad range of alcohol-related outcomes at different ages. Method: In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort, we examined (by logistic regression, with differential weighting to control for attrition) the relationship between family income and parental education and occupational status, and five alcohol outcomes assessed at ages 16 and 18 years. Results: At age 16, high SES—as indexed by income and education—significantly predicted frequent alcohol consumption. Low SES—as measured by education and occupational status—predicted alcohol-related problems. At age 18, high SES—particularly income and education—significantly predicted frequent alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking and, more weakly, symptoms of alcohol dependence. All three measures of SES were inversely related to high-quantity consumption and alcohol behavioral problems. Conclusions: In adolescents in the United Kingdom, the relationship between SES and alcohol-related behaviors is complex and varies as a function of age, SES measure, and specific outcome. High SES tends to predict increased consumption and, in later adolescence, heavy episodic drinking and perhaps symptoms of alcohol dependence. Low SES predicts alcohol-related behavioral problems and, in later adolescence, high-quantity alcohol consumption. PMID:24988252

  10. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  11. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Methods for Assessing Student Use of Alcohol and Other Drugs. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Wechsler, Henry

    Under the Drug-Free Schools and Campuses Act, institutions of higher education are required to review the effectiveness of their alcohol and drug prevention programs biannually. This guide offers a method for gathering and interpreting student survey data on alcohol-related problems based on the methodology of the College Alcohol Survey developed…

  12. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26835604

  13. Effects of Alcohol Tax Increases on Alcohol-Related Disease Mortality in Alaska: Time-Series Analyses From 1976 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Bradley H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated the effects of tax increases on alcoholic beverages in 1983 and 2002 on alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska. Methods. We used a quasi-experimental design with quarterly measures of mortality from 1976 though 2004, and we included other states for comparison. Our statistical approach combined an autoregressive integrated moving average model with structural parameters in interrupted time-series models. Results. We observed statistically significant reductions in the numbers and rates of deaths caused by alcohol-related disease beginning immediately after the 1983 and 2002 alcohol tax increases in Alaska. In terms of effect size, the reductions were –29% (Cohen's d = –0.57) and –11% (Cohen's d = –0.52) for the 2 tax increases. Statistical tests of temporary-effect models versus long-term-effect models showed little dissipation of the effect over time. Conclusions. Increases in alcohol excise tax rates were associated with immediate and sustained reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska. Reductions in mortality occurred after 2 tax increases almost 20 years apart. Taxing alcoholic beverages is an effective public health strategy for reducing the burden of alcohol-related disease. PMID:19008507

  14. Prevalence of excessive or problem drinkers among patients attending somatic outpatient clinics: a study of alcohol related medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, J; Magnusson, P H

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol related morbidity was studied among 2038 patients attending somatic outpatient clinics. A further 76 patients had refused the study, giving an overall drop out rate of 3.6%. Several methods were combined so as to detect as many patients with problem drinking as possible. According to the criteria and definitions employed 17% of men (confidence interval 15% to 19%) and 4% of women (confidence interval 3% to 5%) were excessive consumers of alcohol or problem drinkers. The highest proportion of such patients--that is, 17%--was noted in the emergency rooms (27% of men, 8% of women). At other clinics the proportions varied from 11% to 17% of men and from 2% to 4% of women. The strongest relations between overconsumption of alcohol and consultation at the clinic were among patients attending the medical outpatient clinic and the emergency rooms; in 86% (confidence interval 75% to 97%) and 88% (confidence interval 81% to 95%) of problem drinkers attending these clinics, respectively, alcohol was related to the consultation. Consultations were related to alcohol in 82% of women with excessive or problem drinking and 73% of men defined in this way. There was a tendency to a higher proportion of men with excessive or problem drinking in the age group 40-49 years. These findings show that among patients classified as excessive or problem drinkers attending somatic outpatient clinics there was a close relation between alcohol consumption and utilisation of medical resources, especially in women. PMID:3117173

  15. Procollagen III peptide and fibronectin in alcohol-related chronic liver disease: correlations with morphological features and biochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, G B; Faccioli, G; Casaril, M; Capra, F; Bonazzi, L; Falezza, G; Tomba, A; Baracchino, F; Corrocher, R

    1989-02-22

    In order to clarify the significance of procollagen III peptide (PIIIP) and fibronectin (FN) blood concentration in alcohol related chronic liver disease (ALD), we have investigated their relationships with histological liver features and biochemical liver tests in 44 ALD patients. PIIIP was measured in serum by radioimmunoassay whereas FN was determined in plasma using an immunonephelometric method. In each liver biopsy, steatosis, portal infiltrate, lobular necro-inflammation, portal fibrosis and lobular fibrosis were semiquantitatively assessed by scoring from 0 to 3. A close correlation of PIIIP was found with morphological features of fibrosis (both of lobular and portal type), but not with necro-inflammation or steatosis. PIIIP was also positively correlated with ALP and GGT and exhibited a good diagnostic value in liver fibrosis. On the contrary, FN did not distinguish between normals and patients and was not correlated with any morphological liver feature or biochemical liver test. We also conclude that serum NP3P effectively reflects liver fibrosis, whereas plasma FN seems not related to any of the main histological aspects of liver damage in ALD. PMID:2714004

  16. Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Differences in Alcohol-Related Harm: A Population-Based Study of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Antai, D.; Lopez, G. B.; Antai, J.; Anthony, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and associated alcohol-related harm (ARH) are a prevalent and important public health problem, with alcohol representing about 4% of the global burden of disease. A discussion of ARH secondary to alcohol consumption necessitates a consideration of the amount of alcohol consumed and the drinking pattern. This study examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and self-reported ARH. Pearson chi-square test (χ2) and logistic regression analyses were used on data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). The NCS-R is a cross-sectional nationally representative sample. Data was obtained by face-to-face interviews from 9282 adults aged ≥18 years in the full sample, and 5,692 respondents in a subsample of the full sample. Results presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Alcohol drinking patterns (frequency of drinking, and drinks per occasion) were associated with increased risks of self-reported ARH; binge or “risky” drinking was strongly predictive of ARH than other categories of drinks per occasion or frequency of drinking; and men had significantly higher likelihood of ARH in relation to frequency of drinking and drinks per occasion. Findings provide evidence for public health practitioners to target alcohol prevention strategies at the entire population of drinkers. PMID:25057502

  17. “Let’s get Wasted!” and Other Apps: Characteristics, Acceptability, and Use of Alcohol-Related Smartphone Applications

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Emma R; Horyniak, Danielle R; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Dietze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Smartphone applications (“apps”) offer a number of possibilities for health promotion activities. However, young people may also be exposed to apps with incorrect or poor quality information, since, like the Internet, apps are mostly unregulated. Little is known about the quality of alcohol-related apps or what influence they may have on young people’s behavior. Objective To critically review popular alcohol-related smartphone apps and to explore young people’s opinions of these apps, their acceptability, and use for alcohol-related health promotion. Methods First, a content analysis of 500 smartphone apps available via Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores was conducted. Second, all available blood alcohol concentration (BAC) apps were tested against four individual case profiles of known BAC from a previous study. Third, two focus group discussions explored how young people use alcohol-related apps, particularly BAC apps. Results 384 apps were included; 50% (192) were entertainment apps, 39% (148) were BAC apps, and 11% (44) were health promotion and/or stop drinking–related apps. When testing the BAC apps, there was wide variation in results, with apps tending to overestimate BAC scores compared with recorded scores. Participants were skeptical of the accuracy of BAC apps, and there was an overall concern that these apps would be used as a form of entertainment, further encouraging young people to drink, rather than reduce their drinking and risk taking. Conclusions The majority of popular alcohol-related apps encouraged alcohol consumption. Apps estimating blood alcohol concentration were widely available but were highly unreliable. Health departments and prominent health organizations need to endorse alcohol smartphone apps that are accurate and evidence-based to give specific apps credibility in the ever-expanding market of unregulated apps. PMID:25100681

  18. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples-the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  19. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  20. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  1. Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and Associated Non-Pharmacological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane’s Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals’ sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population. PMID:25288884

  2. The gender specific mediational pathways between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were tested. A two-group SEM path model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, pathological reasons for drinking mediated the impact of neuroticism on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. A different pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genders. Perceptions of having an authoritarian father were positively linked to higher levels of neuroticism among males but this pattern was not found among females. For males, neuroticism mediated the impact of having an authoritarian father on pathological reasons for drinking with pathological reasons for drinking mediating the impact of neuroticism on alcohol-related problems. Perceptions of having a permissive father were linked to lower levels of neuroticism in females (but have been found as a consistent risk factor for other pathways to alcohol use elsewhere). Compared with other work in this area, these findings indicate parental influences regarding vulnerabilities for alcohol use may be specific to parent-child gender matches for some pathways and specific to one parent (irrespective of child gender) for other pathways. PMID:19000941

  3. Health professionals' alcohol-related professional practices and the relationship between their personal alcohol attitudes and behavior and professional practices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E

    2014-01-01

    Health professionals' personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals' alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals' personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007-2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals' alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol (n = 2), and their personal alcohol use (n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base. PMID:24366045

  4. Health Professionals’ Alcohol-Related Professional Practices and the Relationship between Their Personal Alcohol Attitudes and Behavior and Professional Practices: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals’ personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals’ personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007–2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol (n = 2), and their personal alcohol use (n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base. PMID:24366045

  5. Opportunities for prevention of alcohol-related death in primary care: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Margaret; Johnson, David; Morrison, David S

    2012-11-01

    The mortality rate from alcohol-related conditions has risen sharply in the United Kingdom and it is not known whether opportunities for preventive interventions could be improved. The purpose of our study was to identify opportunities to detect, assess, and manage alcohol problems in primary care according to evidence-based guidelines. We carried out a cross-sectional study on patients who died from alcohol-related conditions in the calendar year 2003 within National Health Service Greater Glasgow Health Board area, Scotland (population 920,000). We described patient characteristics and care recorded in health service records, comparing it with best evidence-based practice in Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and Health Technology Board for Scotland recommendations on the management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. 501 deaths occurred from an alcohol-related cause. The mean age at death was 57.5 years and 72% were male. The most common causes of death, recorded by the International Classification of Diseases, revision 10, excluding accidents, were alcoholic liver disease (290, 57.9%) and mental and behavioural disorders due to alcohol (70, 14.0%). Lifetime mean consultations at primary care general practitioner and hospital outpatient departments were 24 in males and 5 in females. All individuals who died from an alcohol-related cause had at least one biochemical or physical indicator suggestive of alcohol misuse. 21% (95% CI 13-33%) had no record of having been advised to abstain from alcohol and 23% (95% CI 15-35%) had received brief interventions. 58% (95% CI 46-70%) had been referred to specialist alcohol services but a third of them did not attend. The majority of patients (83%, 95% CI 72-90%) had no evidence of shared health service and social work care. We concluded that individuals who died from alcohol-related conditions were usually in contact with statutory and voluntary services but further efforts were required to use these

  6. Negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2015-03-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

  7. Alcohol-related road traffic accidents before and after the passing of the Road Traffic Safety Act in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduard; Bozić, Boris; Missoni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gather enough data in order to formulate theory- and research-based recommendations to policy makers with the intention of decreasing the number of alcohol-related accidents and victims on Croatian roads. The data on the injured traffic participants and the share of participants under the influence of alcohol were collected from the police reports of the Traffic Police Department, Ministry of the Interior, written at the scene of the respective accidents. This documentation was then processed by descriptive epidemiology and analysed through a four-year period, before and after the passing of the New Road Traffic Safety Act in the Republic of Croatia, on 20 August 2004. In the first six months of 2005, after the passing of the Act, there were 3,275 accidents caused by the motorists under the influence of alcohol (12.5% of all the accidents), with 64 persons killed. Only 5 fatalities (8%) were caused by the drivers with measured blood alcohol concentration of up to 0.5 per thousand. As much as 27 fatalities (42%) were caused by the drivers with measured more than 1.5 per thousand, while half of the fatalities, 32 (50%), were caused by drivers with 0.5-1.5 per thousand. In this period, more than 451,000 violations were recorded, whereas in the same period of the previous year, the number of violations was about 519,000. A reduction of the total number of accidents is the result of the new regulation provision, according to which the incidents without human victims do not have to be reported to the police. The number of traffic accidents caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol had increased by some dozen per cents, namely: 2005 - 6,219 persons, 2006- 6,590 persons, noting that in 2006 one less person was killed (123) compared to 2005. In 2005, drivers with alcohol concentration of 0-0.5 per thousand caused 1,096 accidents, with 14 fatalities, whereas in 2006 there were 1,164 accidents with 9 fatalities. A total of 2,314 accidents

  8. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Alcohol-Related Attitudinal and Behavioral Change Among Adolescents: Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072

  9. Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Related Outcome Expectancies, and Partner Aggression Among Males Court-Mandated to Batterer Intervention Programs: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Brasfield, Hope; Morean, Meghan E; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C; Moore, Todd M; Zuckosky Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Labrecque, Lindsay; Plasencia, Maribel; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    Additional work is needed to determine how and/or why the relationship between alcohol use and increased risk of partner aggression (PA) exists. Researchers have begun to examine whether alcohol-related outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs about the cognitive and behavioral effects of alcohol) are associated with PA irrespective of alcohol use. We examined the relationship between alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and PA among 360 males arrested for a domestic violence offense and court-mandated to treatment. Results indicate that certain alcohol expectancies do play a role in the relationship between alcohol use and some forms of PA. PMID:25519237

  10. The association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related problems: An examination of race and gender differences among college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; Ray, Anne E; White, Helene R; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alcohol-related problems. There were no significant race effects or race-by-gender interaction effects on alcohol problems. Implementing PBS may be beneficial for all college students. PMID:26114577

  11. The relationship between emotion regulation capacity, heart rate variability, and quality of life in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Vögele, Claus; Theisen-Flies, Christiane; Federspiel, Carine; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL) presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores. We observed low to very low heart rate variability scores in our patients in comparison to norm values found in healthy populations. Proxy ratings of the QoL scale "subjective physical and mental performance" and everyday executive dysfunctions were strongly related to vmHRV. Better proxy-rated QoL and fewer dysexecutive symptoms were observed in those patients with higher vmHRV. Overall, patients showed low parasympathetic activation favoring the occurrence of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies. PMID:27616894

  12. The relationship between emotion regulation capacity, heart rate variability, and quality of life in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Vögele, Claus; Theisen-Flies, Christiane; Federspiel, Carine; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL) presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores. We observed low to very low heart rate variability scores in our patients in comparison to norm values found in healthy populations. Proxy ratings of the QoL scale “subjective physical and mental performance” and everyday executive dysfunctions were strongly related to vmHRV. Better proxy-rated QoL and fewer dysexecutive symptoms were observed in those patients with higher vmHRV. Overall, patients showed low parasympathetic activation favoring the occurrence of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies. PMID:27616894

  13. The Inability of Self-Affirmations to Decrease Defensive Bias toward an Alcohol-Related Risk Message among High-Risk College Students

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Lechner, William V.; Lombardi, Nate; Claborn, Kasey R.; Leffingwell, Thad R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of a self-affirmation task in deterring college alcohol misuse and the importance of pre-existing beliefs in predicting subsequent behavior change. Participants Heavy drinking undergraduates (N=110) participated during the 2011–2012 academic year. Methods Participants were randomized to complete an affirmation or control task before reading an alcohol risk message. Alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors were assessed. Participants completed a two-week online follow-up assessing alcohol-related behaviors. Results Both groups reported increased perceived problem importance, but neither group displayed changes in personal risk. Follow-up assessment revealed similar, significant declines in peak consumption in both groups, with no significant between-group differences. Pre-existing beliefs accounted for 5 to 10 percent of variance in drinking outcomes. Conclusions An affirmation task does not seem to decrease defensive processing or alter high-risk drinking behaviors among college students and should not be utilized in lieu of more effective strategies. PMID:25580717

  14. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L.; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms. PMID:24078780

  15. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  16. Clinical use of meconium fatty acid ethyl esters for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities: the first reported case.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium are validated biomarkers of heavy fetal alcohol exposure that may potentially be used clinically for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities. However, until now, FAEEs have been largely used anonymously in epidemiological studies, and by child protection authorities in need for verification of heavy alcohol use in pregnancy. Here we describe the first case of a neonate identified as part of a research study on a pilot neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure. The neonate's meconium tested high for FAEEs (52 nmol/g; positive cut-off ≥ 2 nmol/g), which prompted active follow-up of the infant's development, identifying early neurocognitive problems and allowing initiation of a remedial program. PMID:22247425

  17. Alcohol-related amnesia and dementia: animal models have revealed the contributions of different etiological factors on neuropathology, neurochemical dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Hall, Joseph M; Savage, Lisa M

    2011-11-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with impaired cognitive functioning. Over 75% of autopsied chronic alcoholics have significant brain damage and over 50% of detoxified alcoholics display some degree of learning and memory impairment. However, the relative contributions of different etiological factors to the development of alcohol-related neuropathology and cognitive impairment are questioned. One reason for this quandary is that both alcohol toxicity and thiamine deficiency result in brain damage and cognitive problems. Two alcohol-related neurological disorders, alcohol-associated dementia and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome have been modeled in rodents. These pre-clinical models have elucidated the relative contributions of ethanol toxicity and thiamine deficiency to the development of dementia and amnesia. What is observed in these models--from repeated and chronic ethanol exposure to thiamine deficiency--is a progression of both neural and cognitive dysregulation. Repeated binge exposure to ethanol leads to changes in neural plasticity by reducing GABAergic inhibition and facilitating glutamatergic excitation, long-term chronic ethanol exposure results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss as well as reduced hippocampal neurotrophin protein content critical for neural survival, and thiamine deficiency results in gross pathological lesions in the diencephalon, reduced neurotrophic protein levels, and neurotransmitters levels in the hippocampus and cortex. Behaviorally, after recovery from repeated or chronic ethanol exposure there is impairment in working or episodic memory that can recover with prolonged abstinence. In contrast, after thiamine deficiency there is severe and persistent spatial memory impairments and increased perseverative behavior. The interaction between ethanol and thiamine deficiency does not produce more behavioral or neural pathology, with the exception of reduction of white matter, than long-term thiamine deficiency alone. PMID:21256970

  18. Alcohol-related amnesia and dementia: Animal models have revealed the contributions of different etiological factors on neuropathology, neurochemical dysfunction and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Hall, Joseph M.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with impaired cognitive functioning. Over 75% of autopsied chronic alcoholics have significant brain damage and over 50% of detoxified alcoholics display some degree of learning and memory impairment. However, the relative contributions of different etiological factors to the development of alcohol-related neuropathology and cognitive impairment are questioned. One reason for this quandary is that both alcohol toxicity and thiamine deficiency result in brain damage and cognitive problems. Two alcohol-related neurological disorders, alcohol-associated dementia and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome have been modeled in rodents. These pre-clinical models have elucidated the relative contributions of ethanol toxicity and thiamine deficiency to the development of dementia and amnesia. What is observed in these models—from repeated and chronic ethanol exposure to thiamine deficiency—is a progression of both neural and cognitive dysregulation. Repeated binge exposure to ethanol leads to changes in neural plasticity by reducing GABAergic inhibition and facilitating glutamatergic excitation, long-term chronic ethanol exposure results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss as well as reduced hippocampal neurotrophin protein content critical for neural survival, and thiamine deficiency results in gross pathological lesions in the diencephalon, reduced neurotrophic protein levels, and neurotransmitters levels in the hippocampus and cortex. Behaviorally, after recovery from repeated or chronic ethanol exposure there is impairment in working or episodic memory that can recover with prolonged abstinence. In contrast, after thiamine deficiency there is severe and persistent spatial memory impairments and increased perseverative behavior. The interaction between ethanol and thiamine deficiency does not produce more behavioral or neural pathology, with the exception of reduction of white matter, than long-term thiamine deficiency alone. PMID:21256970

  19. Alcohol use, abuse, and alcohol-related disorders among ethnic groups in Hungary. Part II: Palócs from Mátraderecske.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, D P; Benkmann, H G; Goedde, H W; Püschel, K; Béres, J; Czeizel, A E; Dobos, I; Métneki, J; Szekér, E; Sahegyi, J

    1995-03-01

    An epidemiological study on alcohol drinking habits, alcohol metabolism rate, alcohol-related acute physiological symptoms, and alcohol misuse among Palócs, an ethnic minority in Hungary, was conducted. The demographic and sociocultural correlates revealed their ethnic identity: low to moderate education, relatively low number of children per family and higher percentage of skilled workers among males. Alcohol use survey revealed that frequency of alcohol consumption among Palóc male population is considerably high. While about 41% of the Palóc males reported to drink daily between 30 ml and 90 ml pure alcohol, only 5% of the females reported to consume this amount regularly. 53% of males and less than 1% of females were classified as heavy drinkers (consuming more than 60 ml absolute alcohol per day). While all kinds of alcoholic beverage was reported to be consumed by the males, Pálinka (a kind of brandy) drinking was more common among females. About 45% of the Palócs reported to experience acute reactions after drinking a moderate dose of alcohol. The physical and physiological reactions include facial flushing, higher pulse rate, tachycardia and euphoria. While there was no distinct gender difference in facial flushing response to alcohol drinking, a higher percentage of males (70%) reported symptoms such as sleepiness, euphoria and aggressiveness as compared to about only 36% females reporting such reactions. Distribution of clinical chemical markers, in particular GGT values confirmed a heavier alcohol consumption among males than among females. High GGT value also correlated with a positive alcohol-related facial flushing reaction in males. PMID:7755376

  20. Alcohol-Related Diagnoses and All-Cause Hospitalization Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Patients: A Longitudinal Analysis of United States Veterans from 1997 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Christopher; Tate, Janet P; Akgün, Kathleen M; Crystal, Stephen; Wang, Karen H; Ryan Greysen, S; Wang, Emily A; Bryant, Kendall J; Fiellin, David A; Justice, Amy C; Rimland, David

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with HIV infection are living substantially longer on antiretroviral therapy, but hospitalization rates continue to be relatively high. We do not know how overall or diagnosis-specific hospitalization rates compare between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals or what conditions may drive hospitalization trends. Hospitalization rates among United States Veterans were calculated and stratified by HIV serostatus and principal diagnosis disease category. Because alcohol-related diagnoses (ARD) appeared to have a disproportional effect, we further stratified our calculations by ARD history. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to assess the relative risk of hospitalization controlling for demographic and other comorbidity variables. From 1997 to 2011, 46,428 HIV-infected and 93,997 uninfected patients were followed for 1,497,536 person-years. Overall hospitalization rates decreased among HIV-infected and uninfected patients. However, cardiovascular and renal insufficiency admissions increased for all groups while gastrointestinal and liver, endocrine, neurologic, and non-AIDS cancer admissions increased among those with an alcohol-related diagnosis. After multivariable adjustment, HIV-infected individuals with an ARD had the highest risk of hospitalization (hazard ratio 3.24, 95 % CI 3.00, 3.49) compared to those free of HIV infection and without an ARD. Still, HIV alone also conferred increased risk (HR 2.08, 95 % CI 2.04, 2.13). While decreasing overall, risk of all-cause hospitalization remains higher among HIV-infected than uninfected individuals and is strongly influenced by the presence of an ARD. PMID:25711299

  1. Bullying victimization among college students: Negative consequences for alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Burke, Larisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen, and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at two points in time from a sample of 2118 freshmen from eight colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school, and 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consistently predicted alcohol consumption and problematic drinking, controlling for baseline drinking and other school and work stressors. PMID:24325767

  2. Protective Influences on the Negative Consequences of Drinking among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Russell, David; Tillman, Kathryn Harker; Fincham, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    The prevention of underage drinking and related outcomes focuses on strengthening protective factors. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health ( N = 3,862), the authors examine the effects of protective factors from three domains of adolescents' lives (individual, familial, and extrafamilial) on experiencing negative…

  3. Nutritional interventions to alleviate the negative consequences of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Suagee, Jessica K; Sanders, Sara R

    2013-05-01

    Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

  4. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  5. [Alcohol related problem in the workplace: trial of a screening and brief intervention program for risky drinking in the workplace, via the Internet].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Kaoru; Shimizu, Yukiko; Izumi, Tomoko; Ochiai, Hiroko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Ino, Aro; Ochiai, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the effect of a screening and brief intervention via the Internet (6-month Total health Management Program: TMP, a kind of life evolution program), for improvement of alcohol related problem in the workplace. At a certain company, 2,096 employees were screened.using AUDIT-C and CAGE via the Internet (electronic screening). From those screened, 17 risky drinkers were picked up. The classification of "risky drinker" was determined based on employees scoring over six points on AUDIT-C and over two points on_ AGE. These employees were then called to one-day practical seminar program (including the program of food education, music therapy, aro-atherapy, body conditioning etc.). After which, during 6 months, they were followed up via e-mail every month. After the 6-month follow up, their results of AUDIT-C were significantly decreased. Additionally, aside from the frequency of drinking at bedtime, maximum alcohol consumption per day was also significantly decreased. The Visual Analogue Scale for anxiety captured the initial screen and then again after follow-up was reduced significantly. Moreover, quality-of-life index for sleep and dinner were both significantly improved as well..These results suggest that the SBI (screening and brief intervention: TMP) is effective for reducing drinking behavior, can be used to effectively elevate quality of life. PMID:25831951

  6. Life Course Trajectories of Labour Market Participation among Young Adults Who Experienced Severe Alcohol-Related Health Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Pensola, Tiina; Leinonen, Taina; Herttua, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood. Methods We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18–34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969–1982. Beginning from the year of each subject’s 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7–16 years). We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking. Results Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population. Conclusions These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers. PMID:25938764

  7. Reliability of a flushing questionnaire and the ethanol patch test in screening for inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and alcohol-related cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Ohmori, T; Kumagai, Y; Higuchi, S; Ishii, H

    1997-12-01

    Molecular epidemiology of esophageal and upper aerodigestive tract cancers revealed that alcohol is more carcinogenic in persons with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) than in those with active ALDH2. A simple questionnaire has been developed to screen for the facial flushing that occurs in persons with inactive ALDH2 when they drink even a single glass of beer. In this study, 266 of 284 consecutive male Japanese clinic patients (age > or = 50 years) completed the flushing questionnaire, and 239 underwent the ethanol patch test (a cutaneous model for the flushing response). Blinded genotyping showed inactive ALDH2 for 94.4% (102 of 108) of subjects who reported always flushing (early in their drinking history or currently) and for 47.7% (21 of 44) of those who reported sometimes flushing, whereas 95.6% (109 of 114) of subjects reporting that they never exhibited facial flushing had active ALDH2. When all three categories of flushing (current always, former always, and sometimes) were collapsed into one, the questionnaire's sensitivity and specificity for identifying inactive ALDH2 were 96.1 and 79.0%, respectively, compared with 72.4 and 71.4% for the ethanol patch test. The results suggest the utility of this simple flushing questionnaire in daily practice, as well as large-scale studies to assess cancer risks associated with drinking and ALDH2 and for activities aimed at preventing alcohol-related cancer. PMID:9419411

  8. Mediterranean diet and upper aerodigestive tract cancer: the Greek segment of the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe study.

    PubMed

    Samoli, Evangelia; Lagiou, Areti; Nikolopoulos, Elias; Lagogiannis, Georgios; Barbouni, Anastasia; Lefantzis, Dimitrios; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Brennan, Paul; Lagiou, Pagona

    2010-11-01

    Several dietary factors have been associated with the occurrence of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, larynx and oesophagus, collectively called upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers, but the evidence is considered as inconclusive. We hypothesised that the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern may be more strongly inversely associated with UADT cancer risk than individual dietary components, and may explain the unexpectedly low incidence of these cancers in Greece. In the context of the European alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe project, we have conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Athens, Greece, comparing 239 incident UADT cases and 194 hospital controls with admission diagnoses unrelated to tobacco, alcohol or diet. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed through a widely used score, which ranges from 0 (minimal adherence) to 9 (maximal adherence) and increases with high consumption of plant foods and olive oil and low consumption of meat, dairy products and saturated lipids. Stricter adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a substantial and significant decrease in UADT cancer risk (30 % for a two-unit increase in score), whereas after mutual adjustment, no individual dietary component of this diet was significantly associated with this risk. Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced risk of UADT cancers, and may explain the lower incidence of UADT cancers in Greece, in spite of the smoking and drinking habits of this population. PMID:20500931

  9. Common genetic variants in the CLDN2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci alter risk for alcohol-related and sporadic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, David C.; LaRusch, Jessica; Krasinskas, Alyssa M.; Klei, Lambertus; Smith, Jill P.; Brand, Randall E.; Neoptolemos, John P.; Lerch, Markus M.; Tector, Matt; Sandhu, Bimaljit S.; Guda, Nalini M.; Orlichenko, Lidiya; Alkaade, Samer; Amann, Stephen T.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Baillie, John; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Coté, Gregory A.; Cotton, Peter B.; DiSario, James; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Forsmark, Chris E.; Johnstone, Marianne; Gardner, Timothy B.; Gelrud, Andres; Greenhalf, William; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Hawes, Robert A.; Lawrence, Christopher; Lewis, Michele; Mayerle, Julia; Mayeux, Richard; Melhem, Nadine M.; Money, Mary E.; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Sherman, Stuart; Simon, Peter; Singh, Vijay K.; Slivka, Adam; Stolz, Donna; Sutton, Robert; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Wilcox, C. Mel; Zarnescu, Narcis Octavian; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Roeder, Kathryn; Barmada, M. Michael; Yadav, Dhiraj; Devlin, Bernie; Albert, Marilyn S.; Albin, Roger L.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Arnold, Steven E.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Barber, Robert; Barnes, Lisa L.; Beach, Thomas G.; Beecham, Gary W.; Beekly, Duane; Bennett, David A.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bird, Thomas D.; Blacker, Deborah; Boxer, Adam; Burke, James R.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Cao, Chuanhai; Carney, Regina M.; Carroll, Steven L.; Chui, Helena C.; Clark, David G.; Cribbs, David H.; Crocco, Elizabeth A.; Cruchaga, Carlos; DeCarli, Charles; Demirci, F. Yesim; Dick, Malcolm; Dickson, Dennis W.; Duara, Ranjan; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Faber, Kelley M.; Fallon, Kenneth B.; Farlow, Martin R.; Ferris, Steven; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Ganguli, Mary; Gearing, Marla; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gilbert, John R.; Gilman, Sid; Glass, Jonathan D.; Goate, Alison M.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Growdon, John H.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Harrell, Lindy E.; Head, Elizabeth; Honig, Lawrence S.; Hulette, Christine M.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Jin, Lee-Way; Jun, Gyungah; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Karydas, Anna; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Ronald; Koo, Edward H.; Kowall, Neil W.; Kramer, Joel H.; Kramer, Patricia; Kukull, Walter A.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Lah, James J.; Leverenz, James B.; Levey, Allan I.; Li, Ge; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Mack, Wendy J.; Marson, Daniel C.; Martin, Eden R.; Martiniuk, Frank; Mash, Deborah C.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann C.; Mesulam, Marsel; Miller, Bruce L.; Miller, Carol A.; Miller, Joshua W.; Montine, Thomas J.; Morris, John C.; Murrell, Jill R.; Naj, Adam C.; Olichney, John M.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Peskind, Elaine; Petersen, Ronald C.; Pierce, Aimee; Poon, Wayne W.; Potter, Huntington; Quinn, Joseph F.; Raj, Ashok; Raskind, Murray; Reiman, Eric M.; Reisberg, Barry; Reitz, Christiane; Ringman, John M.; Roberson, Erik D.; Rosen, Howard J.; Rosenberg, Roger N.; Sano, Mary; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schneider, Julie A.; Schneider, Lon S.; Seeley, William W.; Smith, Amanda G.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Spina, Salvatore; Stern, Robert A.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Valladares, Otto; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vinters, Harry V.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Wang, Li-San; Weintraub, Sandra; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Williamson, Jennifer; Woltjer, Randall L.; Wright, Clinton B.; Younkin, Steven G.; Yu, Chang-En; Yu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR, and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two significant genome-wide associations identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (1×10-12) and x-linked CLDN2 (p < 1×10-21) through a two-stage genome-wide study (Stage 1, 676 cases and 4507 controls; Stage 2, 910 cases and 4170 controls). The PRSS1 variant affects susceptibility by altering expression of the primary trypsinogen gene. The CLDN2 risk allele is associated with atypical localization of claudin-2 in pancreatic acinar cells. The homozygous (or hemizygous male) CLDN2 genotype confers the greatest risk, and its alleles interact with alcohol consumption to amplify risk. These results could partially explain the high frequency of alcohol-related pancreatitis in men – male hemizygous frequency is 0.26, female homozygote is 0.07. PMID:23143602

  10. Post-deployment screening and referral for risky alcohol use and subsequent alcohol-related and injury diagnoses, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Lee

    2015-07-01

    Risky alcohol use among service members is a threat to both military readiness and the health of service members. This report describes an analysis using the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) to identify all active component service members who returned from deployment and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) alcohol use screen as part of the Post Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) and Post Deployment Health Reassessment (PDHRA) during 2008-2014. This analysis identified that 3.4% of PDHA forms and 4.8% of PDHRA forms completed indicated severe risk for alcohol abuse, defined as an AUDIT-C score of 8 or higher. Among those at severe risk on the PDHRA who were not already under care for alcohol abuse, only 37.7% received a referral for treatment: 21.7% to primary care, 13.4% to behavioral health in primary care, 7.5% to mental health specialty care, and 5.6% to a substance abuse program. Referrals for treatment for those at severe risk were lower than their respective counterparts among males, white non-Hispanics, members of the Air Force, junior officers, and pilots/air crew. There were significant trends of increasing frequencies of subsequent injury and alcohol-related conditions as alcohol use levels increased. PMID:26207410

  11. Impact of age at first drink on vulnerability to alcohol-related problems: testing the marker hypothesis in a prospective study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Becker, Katja; Treutlein, Jens; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Laucht, Manfred

    2009-10-01

    There is ample evidence that the early initiation of alcohol use is a risk factor for the development of later alcohol-related problems. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether this association can be explained by indicators of a common underlying susceptibility or whether age at drinking onset may be considered as an independent predictor of later drinking behavior, suggesting a potential causal relationship. Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study of the long-term outcomes of early risk factors followed up from birth onwards. Structured interviews were administered to 304 participants to assess age at first drink and current drinking behavior. Data on risk factors, including early family adversity, parental alcohol use, childhood psychopathology and stressful life events, were repeatedly collected during childhood using standardized parent interviews. In addition, information on genotype was considered. Results confirmed previous work demonstrating that hazardous alcohol consumption is related to early-adolescent drinking onset. A younger age of first drink was significantly predicted by 5-HTTLPR genotype and the degree of preceding externalizing symptoms, and both factors were related to increased consumption or harmful alcohol use at age 19. However, even after controlling for these potential explanatory factors, earlier age at drinking onset remained a strong predictor of heavy alcohol consumption in young adulthood. The present longitudinal study adds to the current literature indicating that the early onset - adult hazardous drinking association cannot solely be attributed to shared genetic and psychopathologic risk factors as examined in this study. PMID:19332346

  12. The Effects of Prices on Alcohol Use and its Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, economists and others have devoted considerable effort to assessing the impact of alcoholic-beverage taxes and prices on alcohol consumption and its related adverse consequences. Federal and State excise taxes have increased only rarely and, when adjusted for inflation, have declined significantly over the years, as have overall prices for alcoholic beverages. Yet studies examining the effects of increases of monetary prices (e.g., through raising taxes) on alcohol consumption and a wide range of related behavioral and health problems have demonstrated that price increases for alcoholic beverages lead to reduced alcohol consumption, both in the general population and in certain high-risk populations, such as heavier drinkers or adolescents and young adults. These effects seem to be more pronounced in the long run than in the short run. Likewise, price increases can help reduce the risk for adverse consequences of alcohol consumption and abuse, including drinking and driving, alcohol-involved crimes, liver cirrhosis and other alcohol-related mortality, risky sexual behavior and its consequences, and poor school performance among youth. All of these findings indicate that increases in alcoholic-beverage taxes could be a highly effective option for reducing alcohol abuse and its consequences. PMID:22330223

  13. Investigation of alcohol-related social norms among youth aged 14–17 years in Perth, Western Australia: protocol for a respondent-driven sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Howat, Peter; Burns, Sharyn; Allsop, Steve; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Lobo, Roanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use among young people is a major public health concern in Australia and internationally. Research elucidating social norms influencing alcohol use supports the desire to conform to peers. However, there is a lack of evidence on how social norms are transmitted from the community to young people and between family members and peers, as previous studies are limited to mainly school and university environments. This article describes the proposed process to investigate common alcohol-related norms held by 14-year-olds to 17-year-olds in Perth, Western Australia, and to clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional quantitative study will use respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit a sample of 672 adolescents from sporting groups, youth programmes and the community in Perth. Data will be collected with a previously developed and validated multidimensional online survey instrument. A variety of strategies will be explored to aid participation including face-to-face recruitment and survey administration, web-based RDS and a ‘mature minor’ consent assessment protocol. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, as well as social network and dyadic analyses, to explore the connections between shared understanding of norms and behaviours among individuals and how these translate into reported practices. Ethics and dissemination This research is expected to extend our understanding of normative development pathways to inform future interventions, and will be widely disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed papers, media channels and community seminars. A study reference group of key health industry stakeholders will be established to encourage integration of study findings into policy and practice, and results will guide the development of community interventions. The Curtin University Human

  14. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children.

    PubMed

    Blechner, Michael; Williamson, Ariel A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has various negative health and behavioral consequences in the pediatric population. As shown in adults, there are metabolic derangements such as obesity, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular derangements like hypertension, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, ventricular size/function abnormalities, and even elevated pulmonary arterial pressures, that can be seen in children with OSAS. The first two sections will discuss the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences on OSAS in children. The last section summarizes selected studies and reviews on the behavioral, neurocognitive and academic consequences of OSAS in children. PMID:26631839

  15. High Consequence System Surety process description

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, G.T.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents work-in-progress accomplished prior to programmatic changes that negated bringing this effort to conclusion as originally intended. The High Consequence System Surety (HCS{sup 2}) project pulls together a multi-disciplinary team to integrate the elements of surety safety, security, control, reliability and quality--into a new, encompassing process. The benefit of using this process is enhanced surety in the design of a high consequence system through an up-front, designed-in approach. This report describes the integrated, high consequence surety process and includes a hypothetical example to illustrate the process.

  16. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  17. The role of an open-space CCTV system in limiting alcohol-related assault injuries in a late-night entertainment precinct in a tropical Queensland city, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pointing, Shane; Hayes-Jonkers, Charmaine; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems which incorporate real-time communication links between camera room operators and on-the-ground security may limit injuries resulting from alcohol-related assault. This pilot study examined CCTV footage and operator records of security responses for two periods totalling 22 days in 2010-2011 when 30 alcohol-related assaults were recorded. Semistructured discussions were conducted with camera room operators during 18 h of observation. Camera operators were proactive, efficiently directing street security to assault incidents. The system intervened in 40% (n=12) of alcohol-related assaults, limiting possible injury. This included three incidents judged as potentially preventable. A further five (17%) assault incidents were also judged as potentially preventable, while 43% (n=13) happened too quickly for intervention. Case studies describe security intervention in each category. Further research is recommended, particularly to evaluate the effects on preventing injuries through targeted awareness training to improve responsiveness and enhance the preventative capacity of similar CCTV systems. PMID:21893611

  18. Affective and Behavioral Consequences of Social Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria N.; Major, Brenda

    Considerable attention in recent years has focused on the consequences of social comparisons and has suggested that learning that one's outcomes or abilities compare unfavorably to others' is an unpleasant, if not painful experience. Indeed, upward comparisons have been shown to result in negative affect, loss of self-esteem, stress symptoms, and…

  19. "Diabetes Has Instant Consequences..."

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Diabetes has instant consequences…" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... you want to chuck it all. But Diabetes has instant consequences. You learn to be responsible pretty ...

  20. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  1. Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

  2. Negative and positive childhood experiences across developmental periods in psychiatric patients with different diagnoses – an explorative study

    PubMed Central

    Saleptsi, Evangelia; Bichescu, Dana; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Margarete; Studer, Karl; Hoffmann, Klaus; Elbert, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Background A high frequency of childhood abuse has often been reported in adult psychiatric patients. The present survey explores the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and positive and negative life events during childhood and adulthood in psychiatric samples. Methods A total of 192 patients with diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders (n = 45), schizophrenic disorders (n = 52), affective disorders (n = 54), and personality disorders (n = 41) completed a 42-item self-rating scale (Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, TAQ). The TAQ assesses personal positive experiences (competence and safety) and negative experiences (neglect, separation, secrets, emotional, physical and sexual abuse, trauma witnessing, other traumas, and alcohol and drugs abuse) during four developmental periods, beginning from early childhood to adulthood. Patients were recruited from four Psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Romania; 63 subjects without any history of mental illness served as controls. Results The amount of positive experiences did not differ significantly among groups, except for safety scores that were lower in patients with personality disorders as compared to the other groups. On the other side, negative experiences appeared more frequently in patients than in controls. Emotional neglect and abuse were reported in patients more frequently than physical and sexual abuse, with negative experiences encountered more often in late childhood and adolescence than in early childhood. The patients with alcohol-related and personality disorders reported more negative events than the ones with schizophrenic and affective disorders. Conclusions The present findings add evidence to the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and psychiatric diagnoses, and emphasize the fact that a) emotional neglect and abuse are the most prominent negative experiences, b) adolescence is a more 'sensitive' period for negative experiences as compared to

  3. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed. PMID:24179461

  4. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25961743

  5. Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references.

  6. Meningitis - gram-negative

    MedlinePlus

    Gram-negative meningitis ... Acute bacterial meningitis can be caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Meningococcal and H. influenzae meningitis are caused by Gram-negative bacteria and are covered in detail in other articles. This article ...

  7. The dark side of optimism: unrealistic optimism about problems with alcohol predicts subsequent negative event experiences.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Midboe, Amanda M; Klein, William M P

    2009-11-01

    College students were identified who were unrealistically optimistic about the likelihood they would experience severe problems due to alcohol consumption. These individuals were then followed over a 2-year period to determine whether they were more likely to report experiencing a range of alcohol-related negative events. Unlike the majority of studies on unrealistic optimism, this study (a) assessed bias at the individual rather than group level and (b) used a prospective rather than cross-sectional design. Participants completed measures at four times, each separated by 4-6 months. Findings showed that unrealistic optimism at Time 1 was associated with a greater number of negative events at Times 2, 3, and 4. Similarly, unrealistic optimism at Time 2 was associated with more negative events at Times 3 and 4. In all cases, the relationships were significant when controlling for previous negative events, suggesting the effects of unrealistic optimism can mount over time. PMID:19721102

  8. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    PubMed

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186

  9. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.

  10. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries. PMID:8555952

  11. Are All Alcohol and Energy Drink Users the Same? Examining Individual Variation in Relation to Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use, Risky Drinking and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Marzell, Miesha; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney; Turrisi, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) have been identified as higher-risk drinkers, as they are more prone to drink increased amounts of alcohol and experience more consequences compared to non-AmED users. The present study examined differential AmED use and alcohol consumption simultaneously as multi-dimensional risk behaviors among AmED users. Students who identified as drinkers and current AmED users (n = 195) completed a web-based survey related to their AmED consumption and typical drinking patterns. Latent profile analysis was used to classify participants into distinct AmED user profiles. Profiles were then compared on AmEd-based cognitive factors (e.g., expectancies, norms) and alcohol-related consequences. Four AmED user profiles emerged: Moderate drinker, low proportion AmEd users (ML); Heavy drinker, low proportion AmED users (HL); Moderate drinker, high proportion AmED users (MH); and Heavy drinker, high proportion AmED users (HH). Membership in higher-proportion AmED groups was associated with more positive AmED expectancies and perceived norms. No significant differences were observed in the amount of consequences endorsed by HL and HHs, however MHs experienced significantly more alcohol-related physical consequences than MLs. This suggests increased use of AmEDs is associated with increased risk of experiencing alcohol related consequences for moderate drinkers. Screening students for AmED use could be used as a novel, inexpensive tool to identify high-risk drinkers for targeted interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. PMID:23528198

  12. Data sharing for prevention: a case study in the development of a comprehensive emergency department injury surveillance system and its use in preventing violence and alcohol-related harms

    PubMed Central

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine emergency department (ED) data sharing via a local injury surveillance system and assess its contribution to the prevention of violence and alcohol-related harms. Methods 6-year (2004–2010) exploratory study analysing injury attendances to one ED in the North West of England using descriptive and trend analyses. Results Over the 6-year period, there were 242 796 ED injury attendances, including 21 683 for intentional injuries. Compared with unintentional injury patients, intentional injury patients were more likely to be men, aged 18–34 years, live in the most deprived communities, have attended the ED at night/weekends, have been injured in a public place and have consumed alcohol prior to the injury. Detailed data collected on alcohol and violence-related ED attendances were shared with local partners to monitor local trends and inform prevention activity including targeted policing and licensing enforcement. Over the 6-year period, intentional ED injury attendances decreased by 35.6% and alcohol-related assault attendances decreased by 30.3%. Conclusions The collection of additional ED data on assault details and alcohol use prior to injury, and its integration into multi-agency policy and practice, played an important role in driving local violence prevention activity. Further research is needed to assess the direct contribution ED data sharing makes to reductions in violence. PMID:22210640

  13. The Affective Consequences of Cognitive Inhibition: Devaluation or Neutralization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Ferrey, Anne E.; Burt, Dustin H. R.; Pistchik, Meghan; Fenske, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Affective evaluations of previously ignored visual stimuli are more negative than those of novel items or prior targets of attention or response. This has been taken as evidence that inhibition has negative affective consequences. But inhibition could act instead to attenuate or "neutralize" preexisting affective salience, predicting opposite…

  14. Workplace Bullying: A Tale of Adverse Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  15. Workplace bullying: a tale of adverse consequences.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  16. 10-y Risks of Death and Emergency Re-admission in Adolescents Hospitalised with Violent, Drug- or Alcohol-Related, or Self-Inflicted Injury: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Annie; Gilbert, Ruth; González-Izquierdo, Arturo; Pitman, Alexandra; Li, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospitalisation for adversity-related injury (violent, drug/alcohol-related, or self-inflicted injury) has been described as a “teachable moment”, when intervention may reduce risks of further harm. Which adolescents are likely to benefit most from intervention strongly depends on their long-term risks of harm. We compared 10-y risks of mortality and re-admission after adversity-related injury with risks after accident-related injury. Methods and Findings We analysed National Health Service admissions data for England (1 April 1997–31 March 2012) for 10–19 y olds with emergency admissions for adversity-related injury (violent, drug/alcohol-related, or self-inflicted injury; n = 333,009) or for accident-related injury (n = 649,818). We used Kaplan–Meier estimates and Cox regression to estimate and compare 10-y post-discharge risks of death and emergency re-admission. Among adolescents discharged after adversity-related injury, one in 137 girls and one in 64 boys died within 10 y, and 54.2% of girls and 40.5% of boys had an emergency re-admission, with rates being highest for 18–19 y olds. Risks of death were higher than in adolescents discharged after accident-related injury (girls: age-adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.43–1.82; boys: 2.13, 95% CI 1.98–2.29), as were risks of re-admission (girls: 1.76, 95% CI 1.74–1.79; boys: 1.41, 95% CI 1.39–1.43). Risks of death and re-admission were increased after all combinations of violent, drug/alcohol-related, and self-inflicted injury, but particularly after any drug/alcohol-related or self-inflicted injury (i.e., with/without violent injury), for which age-adjusted hazard ratios for death in boys ranged from 1.67 to 5.35, compared with 1.25 following violent injury alone (girls: 1.09 to 3.25, compared with 1.27). The main limitation of the study was under-recording of adversity-related injuries and misclassification of these cases as accident-related injuries. This misclassification would

  17. Renal consequences of obesity.

    PubMed

    Naumnik, Beata; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2010-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders has risen dramatically within the past 2 decades. Our objective is to review the mechanisms that link obesity with altered kidney function. Current evidence suggests that excess weight gain may be responsible for 65-75% of the risk for arterial hypertension. Impaired renal pressure natriuresis, initially due to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, is a key factor linking obesity with hypertension. Obesity increases renal sodium reabsorption by activating the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems, and by altering intrarenal physical forces. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, secreting hormones/cytokines (e.g., leptin) which may trigger sodium retention and hypertension. Additionally, excess visceral adipose tissue may physically compress the kidneys, increasing intrarenal pressures and tubular reabsorption. Eventually, sustained obesity via hyperinsulinemia, due to resistance to insulin, causes hyperfiltration, resulting in structural changes in the kidneys--glomerular hyperthrophy and occasionally focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The consequences of kidney injury are continuous loss of glomerular filtration rate, further increase of arterial pressure and escalation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is a growing awareness of the renal consequences of obesity, and considerable progress is being made in understanding its pathophysiology. Weight reduction results in lowered proteinuria. Aside from low sodium diet and exercises, more widespread use of renoprotective therapy (e.g., ACE inhibitors and statins) in treatment of hypertension in obese subjects should be advocated. Renal protection should result in reducing the cardiovascular complications of obesity. PMID:20671624

  18. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  19. Simple exposure to alcohol cues causally increases negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Nierula, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that acute alcohol consumption is associated with negative responses toward outgroup members such as sexual minorities. However, simple alcohol cue exposure without actually consuming alcohol also influences social behavior. Hence, it was reasoned that priming participants with words related to alcohol (relative to neutral words) would promote prejudiced attitudes toward sexual minorities. In fact, an experiment showed that alcohol cue exposure causally led to more negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In contrast, participants' explicit attitudes were relatively unaffected by the priming manipulation. Moreover, participants' typical alcohol use was not related to their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In sum, it appears that not only acute alcohol consumption but also the simple exposure of alcohol cues may promote negative views toward lesbians and gay men. PMID:26548738

  20. Negative-ion states

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

  1. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  2. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  3. [Negative symptoms: which antipsychotics?].

    PubMed

    Maurel, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia is a major issue and a challenge for the functional and social prognosis of the disease, to which they are closely linked. First- and second-generation antipsychotics allow a reduction of all negative symptoms. The hope of acting directly on primary negative symptoms with any antipsychotic is not supported by the literature. However, the effectiveness of first- and second-generation antipsychotics is demonstrated on secondary negative symptoms. PMID:26776390

  4. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  5. Suicidal Fantasies and Positive/Negative Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouts, Gregory; Norrie, Janice

    This study attempted to provide some initial normative data to help professionals and researchers to distinguish between playful and stimulating suicidal fantasies as opposed to serious and compulsive thoughts and behaviours characterized by negative affects. It is argued that the former is a natural consequence of cognitive development, the entry…

  6. Consequences of genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    Female genital mutilation is associated with immediate, long-term, pregnancy-related, and psychosexual complications. Immediate complications can cause death and include severe pain, shock, hemorrhage, tetanus or sepsis, urine retention, ulceration of the genital region, and injury to adjacent tissues. Long-term complications include formation of cysts, abscesses, and keloid scars, damage to the urethra resulting in incontinence, painful sexual intercourse, sexual dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infections, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. During child birth, survivors of female genital mutilation may require Cesarean section or suffer obstructed labor leading to fetal death and/or vesico-vaginal fistulae and large perineal tears. The psychological consequences of female genital mutilation may involve loss of trust and confidence in care-givers, feelings of incompleteness, anxiety, depression, chronic irritability, and sexual problems. In many women, flashbacks of the infibulation process are triggered by touch. Deinfibulation must be accompanied by adequate pain relief, but the use of local or epidural anesthesia is not appropriate. PMID:12222523

  7. Eusociality: Origin and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Edward O.; Hölldobler, Bert

    2005-01-01

    In this new assessment of the empirical evidence, an alternative to the standard model is proposed: group selection is the strong binding force in eusocial evolution; individual selection, the strong dissolutive force; and kin selection (narrowly defined), either a weak binding or weak dissolutive force, according to circumstance. Close kinship may be more a consequence of eusociality than a factor promoting its origin. A point of no return to the solitary state exists, as a rule when workers become anatomically differentiated. Eusociality has been rare in evolution, evidently due to the scarcity of environmental pressures adequate to tip the balance among countervailing forces in favor of group selection. Eusociality in ants and termites in the irreversible stage is the key to their ecological dominance and has (at least in ants) shaped some features of internal phylogeny. Their colonies are consistently superior to solitary and preeusocial competitors, due to the altruistic behavior among nestmates and their ability to organize coordinated action by pheromonal communication. PMID:16157878

  8. [Rodenticide resistance and consequences].

    PubMed

    Esther, A; Endepols, S; Freise, J; Klemann, N; Runge, M; Pelz, H-J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, such as warfarin was first described in 1958. Polymorphisms in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene and respective substitutions of amino acids in the VKOR enzyme are the major cause for rodenticide resistance. Resistant Norway rats in Germany are characterized by the Tyr139Cys genotype, which is spread throughout the northwest of the country. Resistant house mice with the VKOR variants Tyr139Cys, Leu128Ser and Arg12Trp/Ala26Ser/Ala48Thr/Arg61Leu (spretus type) are distributed over a number of locations in Germany. Resistance can reduce management attempts with consequences for stored product protection, hygiene and animal health. Anticoagulants of the first generation (warfarin, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl) as well as bromadiolone and difenacoum are not an option for the control of resistant Norway rats. The same applies for house mice whereby the tolerance to compounds can be different between local incidences. Due to the higher toxicity and tendency to persist, the most potent anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone should be applied but only where resistance is known. In other cases less toxic anticoagulants should be preferred for rodent management in order to mitigate environmental risks. Resistance effects of further VKOR polymorphisms and their combinations, the spread of resistant rats and conditions supporting and reducing resistance should be investigated in order to improve resistance management strategies. PMID:24781908

  9. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.

  10. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) ofmore » nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.« less

  11. The Economic Consequences of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Background: Narcolepsy is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with a typical onset in childhood or early adulthood. Narcolepsy may have serious negative effects on health-, social-, education-, and work-related issues for people with narcolepsy and for their families. The disease may, thus, present a significant socioeconomic burden, but no studies to date have addressed the indirect and direct costs of narcolepsy. Methods: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2005), we identified 459 Danish patients with the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Using a ratio of 1 patient record to 4 control subjects’ records, we then compared the information of patients with narcolepsy with that of 1836 records from age- and sex-matched, randomly chosen citizens in the Danish Civil Registration System Statistics. We calculated the annual direct and indirect health costs, including labor supply and social transfer payments (which include income derived from state coffers, such as subsistence allowances, pensions, social security, social assistance, public personal support for education, etc.). Direct costs included frequencies and costs of hospitalizations and weighted outpatient use, according to diagnosis-related groups, and specific outpatient costs based on data from The Danish Ministry of Health. The use of and costs of drugs were based on data from the Danish Medicines Agency. The frequencies and costs from primary sectors were based on data from The National Health Security. Indirect costs were based on income data derived from data from the Coherent Social Statistics. Results: Patients with narcolepsy had significantly higher rates of health-related contact and medication use and higher expenses, as compared with control subjects. They also had higher unemployment rates. The income level of patients with narcolepsy who were employed was lower than that of employed control subjects. The annual total direct and indirect costs were €11,654 (€ = Eurodollars

  12. Potential negative ecological effects of corridors.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nick M; Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Evans, Daniel M; Johnson, Brenda L; Levey, Douglas J; Orrock, John L; Resasco, Julian; Sullivan, Lauren L; Tewksbury, Josh J; Wagner, Stephanie A; Weldon, Aimee J

    2014-10-01

    Despite many studies showing that landscape corridors increase dispersal and species richness for disparate taxa, concerns persist that corridors can have unintended negative effects. In particular, some of the same mechanisms that underlie positive effects of corridors on species of conservation interest may also increase the spread and impact of antagonistic species (e.g., predators and pathogens), foster negative effects of edges, increase invasion by exotic species, increase the spread of unwanted disturbances such as fire, or increase population synchrony and thus reduce persistence. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of each of these negative effects. We found no evidence that corridors increase unwanted disturbance or non-native species invasion; however, these have not been well-studied concerns (1 and 6 studies, respectively). Other effects of corridors were more often studied and yielded inconsistent results; mean effect sizes were indistinguishable from zero. The effect of edges on abundances of target species was as likely to be positive as negative. Corridors were as likely to have no effect on antagonists or population synchrony as they were to increase those negative effects. We found 3 deficiencies in the literature. First, despite studies on how corridors affect predators, there are few studies of related consequences for prey population size and persistence. Second, properly designed studies of negative corridor effects are needed in natural corridors at scales larger than those achievable in experimental systems. Third, studies are needed to test more targeted hypotheses about when corridor-mediated effects on invasive species or disturbance may be negative for species of management concern. Overall, we found no overarching support for concerns that construction and maintenance of habitat corridors may result in unintended negative consequences. Negative edge effects may be mitigated by widening

  13. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences. Participants Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods Students completed a web-based survey regarding their high-risk drinking behaviors and calorie restriction on intended drinking days. Results Thirty-nine percent of past 30-day drinkers reported restricting calories on days they planned to drink alcohol, of which 67% restricted because of weight concerns. Restricting calories on drinking days was associated with greater odds of getting drunk in a typical week. Women who restricted were more likely to report memory loss, being injured, being taken advantage of sexually and having unprotected sex while drinking. Men were more likely to get into a physical fight. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of considering weight control behaviors in the examination of high-risk college drinking. PMID:19433398

  14. [Relapse: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2013-09-01

    Relapse after a first episode of schizophrenia is the recurrence of acute symptoms after a period of partial or complete remission. Due to its variable aspects, there is no operational definition of relapse able to modelise the outcome of schizophrenia and measure how the treatment modifies the disease. Follow-up studies based on proxys such as hospital admission revealed that 7 of 10 patients relapsed after a first episode of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications on relapse prevention has been widely demonstrated. Recent studies claim for the advantages of atypical over first generation antipsychotic medication. Non-adherence to antipsychotic represents with addictions the main causes of relapse long before some non-consensual factors such as premorbid functioning, duration of untreated psychosis and associated personality disorders. The consequences of relapse are multiple, psychological, biological and social. Pharmaco-clinical studies have demonstrated that the treatment response decreases with each relapse. Relapse, even the first one, will contribute to worsen the outcome of the disease and reduce the capacity in general functionning. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role besides patients and their families. The development of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, access to care and the therapeutic alliance should be promoted. Relapse prevention is a major goal of the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. It is based on adherence to the maintenance treatment, identification of prodromes, family active information and patient therapeutical education. PMID:24084426

  15. Consequences of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the history of research and the results of recent studies on the effects of sleep deprivation in animals and humans. Humans can bear several days of continuous sleeplessness, experiencing deterioration in wellbeing and effectiveness; however, also a shorter reduction in the sleep time may lead to deteriorated functioning. Sleeplessness accounts for impaired perception, difficulties in keeping concentration, vision disturbances, slower reactions, as well as the appearance of microepisodes of sleep during wakefulness which lead to lower capabilities and efficiency of task performance and to increased number of errors. Sleep deprivation results in poor memorizing, schematic thinking, which yields wrong decisions, and emotional disturbances such as deteriorated interpersonal responses and increased aggressiveness. The symptoms are accompanied by brain tissue hypometabolism, particularly in the thalamus, prefrontal, frontal and occipital cortex and motor speech centres. Sleep deficiency intensifies muscle tonus and coexisting tremor, speech performance becomes monotonous and unclear, and sensitivity to pain is higher. Sleeplessness also relates to the changes in the immune response and the pattern of hormonal secretion, of the growth hormone in particular. The risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease increases. The impairment of performance which is caused by 20-25 hours of sleeplessness is comparable to that after ethanol intoxication at the level of 0.10% blood alcohol concentration. The consequences of chronic sleep reduction or a shallow sleep repeated for several days tend to accumulate and resemble the effects of acute sleep deprivation lasting several dozen hours. At work, such effects hinder proper performance of many essential tasks and in extreme situations (machine operation or vehicle driving), sleep loss may be hazardous to the worker and his/her environment. PMID:20442067

  16. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  17. The addiction to negativity.

    PubMed

    Lane, R C; Hull, J W; Foehrenbach, L M

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we have described a type of resistance that has attracted increasing psychoanalytic attention in recent years. Patients exposed to intense negativity during early life may develop an addiction to negative experience as adolescents and adults, and this may constitute a central organizing feature of their personality. In almost all patients, however, some moments of negativity may be observed. We have traced the developmental origins of an attachment to negativity, drawing especially on psychoanalytic investigations of preoedipal pathology. Manifestations and derivatives of early negativity include anhedonia, attachment to physical pain, fear of success, masochism, deprivation of self and others, and negative voyeurism. In discussing the dynamic functions of negativity, we place particular emphasis on two motives: the patient's desires for revenge against early objects that have been a source of deprivation and frustration; and the defensive function of negativity in helping to express as well as ward off dangerous wishes to merge with the object. Deviant forms of autoerotism are likely to be used by these patients to deal with the reactivation of early experiences of neglect and rejection. When negativity is used as a defense or method of relating to others it can lead to a severe disruption of the psychotherapeutic relationship. We have reviewed suggestions for the management of extreme negativity in treatment. Resolution of the therapist's countertransference reactions, especially induced feelings of frustration, rage, and helplessness, is crucial. Emphasis also has been placed on the patient's desires for revenge against self and object, and the manner in which these may be understood and eventually resolved. Only when patient and therapist begin to investigate the adaptive functions of extreme negativity can this pathological symptom be resolved and the patient's awareness of self and sense of autonomy be enhanced. PMID:1763149

  18. Drinking motives mediate the negative associations between mindfulness facets and alcohol outcomes among college students.

    PubMed

    Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R; Brown, David B

    2015-03-01

    Mindfulness and drinking motives have both been linked to affect regulation, yet the relationship between mindfulness and drinking motives is poorly understood. The present study examined whether drinking motives, particularly mood regulatory motives, mediated the associations between facets of mindfulness and alcohol-related outcomes among college students (N = 297). We found 3 specific facets of mindfulness (describing, nonjudging of inner experience, and acting with awareness) to have negative associations with alcohol outcomes. Importantly, specific drinking motives mediated these associations such that lower levels of mindfulness were associated with drinking for distinct reasons (enhancement, coping, conformity), which in turn predicted alcohol use and/or alcohol problems. Our findings suggest that drinking motives, especially mood regulatory and negative reinforcement motives, are important to examine when studying the role of mindfulness in college student drinking behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25546142

  19. The Evolution of Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, William

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a method for extrapolation of diachronic processes from synchronic states, the dynamicization of synchronic typologies, to propose a hitherto unobserved historical source for markers of verbal negation, namely irregular negative existential predicate forms. Explanations are proposed for the occurrence of the attested processes in this…

  20. Learning from Negative Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, Fritz K.

    1996-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the elements and applications of learning from negative morality. Negative morality refers to the experience of learning from mistakes thereby creating a body of personal knowledge about "what not to do." This knowledge not only protects individuals but steers them to the right behavior. (MJP)

  1. On Negative Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belletête, Jonathan; Paranjape, M. B.

    2013-06-01

    The Schwarzschild solution to the matter free, spherically symmetric Einstein equations has one free parameter, the mass. But the mass can be of any sign. What is the meaning of the negative mass solutions? The answer to this question for the case of a pure Schwarzschild negative mass black solution is still elusive, however, in this essay, we will consider negative mass solutions within a Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. We show that there exist reasonable configurations of matter, bubbles of distributions of matter, that satisfy the dominant energy condition everywhere, that are nonsingular and well behaved everywhere, but correspond to the negative mass Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry outside the matter distribution. These negative mass bubbles could occur as the end state of a quantum tunneling transition.

  2. The Consequence of Consequence: Motivation, Anxiety, and Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lisa F.; Smith, Jeffrey K.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships of test consequence, motivation, anxiety, and performance were studied with 158 undergraduates taking a child development course. Results indicated that test consequence (grade or no grade) had a strong influence on motivation and a modest influence on performance. Motivation and anxiety had opposite effects on performance. (SLD)

  3. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  4. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  5. Institutional Consequences of Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joao Rosa, Maria; Tavares, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the opinions of Portuguese university rectors and academics on the quality assessment system and its consequences at the institutional level. The results obtained show that university staff (rectors and academics, with more of the former than the latter) held optimistic views of the positive consequences of quality assessment…

  6. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  7. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  8. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  9. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  10. Negative affixes in medical English.

    PubMed

    Dzuganova, B

    2006-01-01

    Many medical terms have negative meaning expressed by means of a negative prefix or suffix. The most frequently used negative prefixes are: a-, dis-, in-, non-, and un-. There is only one negative suffix -less (Ref. 15). PMID:17125069

  11. Types of Unintended Consequences Related to Computerized Provider Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Emily M.; Sittig, Dean F.; Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.; Dykstra, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify types of clinical unintended adverse consequences resulting from computerized provider order entry (CPOE) implementation. Design An expert panel provided initial examples of adverse unintended consequences of CPOE. The authors, using qualitative methods, gathered and analyzed additional examples from five successful CPOE sites. Methods Using a card sort method, the authors developed a categorization scheme for the 79 unintended consequences initially identified and then iteratively modified the scheme to categorize 245 additional adverse consequences resulting from fieldwork. Because the focus centered on consequences requiring prevention or remedial action, the authors did not further analyze reported unintended beneficial (positive) consequences. Results Unintended adverse consequences (UACs) fell into nine major categories (in order of decreasing frequency): 1) more/new work for clinicians; 2) unfavorable workflow issues; 3) never ending system demands; 4) problems related to paper persistence; 5) untoward changes in communication patterns and practices; 6) negative emotions; 7) generation of new kinds of errors; 8) unexpected changes in the power structure; and 9) overdependence on the technology. Clinical decision support features introduced many of these unintended consequences. Conclusion Identifying and understanding the types and in some instances the causes of unintended adverse consequences associated with CPOE will enable system developers and implementers to better manage implementation and maintenance of future CPOE projects. PMID:16799128

  12. Alcohol-involved Assault: Associations with posttrauma alcohol use, consequences, and expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Kaysen, Debra; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Victim alcohol consumption is common prior to sexual assault, and a burgeoning literature suggests that victims who were intoxicated during assault may differ in post-assault adjustment compared to those who were not impaired. Less is known about potential relationships between experiencing an alcohol-involved assault (AIA) and later drinking behavior. In this study, we examined the relationships between sexual assault, subsequent drinking behavior and consequences, and alcohol expectancies in a sample of 306 undergraduate women who reported current alcohol use and reported either no trauma history (n = 53), non-AIA (n = 69), or AIA (n = 184). Differences emerged for alcohol use (F(2, 298) = 12.78, p < .001), peak blood alcohol content (F(2, 298) = 9.66, p < .001), consequences (F(2, 296) = 7.38, p < .005), and positive alcohol expectancies (F(14, 796) = 1.93, p < .05). In particular, women with an AIA reported greater alcohol use and positive expectancies compared to women with no trauma history and women with a non-alcohol influenced assault. In addition, both assault groups reported greater drinking consequences than women with no trauma history. Findings suggest that it is the women who are assaulted while under the influence of alcohol who evidence more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems following assault. PMID:21813246

  13. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  14. Macrophages and Alcohol-Related Liver Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Cynthia; Mandrekar, Pranoti

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that macrophages have a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver. To define the precise pathogenic function of these cells during alcoholic liver disease (ALD), it is extremely important to conduct extensive studies in clinical settings that further elucidate the phenotypic diversity of macrophages in the context of ALD. Research to date already has identified several characteristics of macrophages that underlie the cells’ actions, including macrophage polarization and their phenotypic diversity. Other analyses have focused on the contributions of resident versus infiltrating macrophages/monocytes, as well as on the roles of macrophage mediators, in the development of ALD. Findings point to the potential of macrophages as a therapeutic target in alcoholic liver injury. Future studies directed toward understanding how alcohol affects macrophage phenotypic switch in the liver and other tissues, whether the liver microenvironment determines macrophage function in ALD, and if targeting of macrophages alleviates alcoholic liver injury, will provide promising strategies to manage patients with alcoholic hepatitis. PMID:26717583

  15. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000). PMID:21118043

  16. The 'negative cost' of value engineering.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Martin Wilkinson, national sales manager at system protection specialist, Spirotech UK, highlights the 'potential negative consequences' of value engineering in heating system specification in the healthcare sector, and argues that system protection products such as de-aerators and dirt separators have considerable value in preventative maintenance, and in helping to extend the useful life of both the system as a whole, and its vital parts. PMID:22764628

  17. The physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences of Internet use in college students.

    PubMed

    Clark, Deborah J; Frith, Karen H; Demi, Alice S

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences of Internet use in undergraduate college students; and to evaluate whether time, social norms, and adopter category predict the consequences of Internet use. Rogers' model for studying consequences of innovation was adapted for this study. A descriptive, correlational design was used. Convenience sampling yielded 293 undergraduate students who answered the online survey. Consequences of Internet use were assessed with the researcher-developed instrument, the Internet Consequences Scale (ICONS). Mean scores on the behavioral and psychosocial subscales of the ICONS indicated positive consequences of Internet use, while the physical consequences subscale revealed negative consequences. Multiple regression analyses revealed a small, but significant, amount of variance in consequences of Internet use that could be explained by time, social norms, and adopter category, thus supporting the adapted model for the study of consequences of Internet use in college students. PMID:15520585

  18. Proactive Disciplinary Consequences in Three Illinois High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Disciplinary codes of conduct guide administrators when determining the consequences for student misconduct. The codes of conduct commonly found in schools rely on exclusionary measures that have been associated with negative student outcomes and controversy but little is being done to provide positive model for these written policies. Schools…

  19. AACSB Accreditation and Possible Unintended Consequences: A Deming View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanovich, Paul; Mueller, James; Benson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The AACSB accreditation process reflects basic quality principles, providing standards and a process for feedback for continuous improvement. However, implementation can lead to unintended negative consequences. The literature shows that while institutionalism and critical theory have been used as a theoretical base for evaluating accreditation,…

  20. Software Systems: Consequence versus Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Ray; Winter, Victor L.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this panel is to present different perspectives and opinions regarding the issues surrounding why software should or shouldn't be entrusted with critical (high consequence) functionality.

  1. Negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James T; Marks, Malcolm W

    2007-10-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy has become an increasingly important part of wound management. Over the last decade, numerous uses for this method of wound management have been reported, ranging from acute and chronic wounds, to closure of open sternal and abdominal wounds, to assistance with skin grafts. The biophysics behind the success of this treatment largely have focused on increased wound blood flow, increased granulation tissue formation, decreased bacterial counts, and stimulation of wound healing pathways through shear stress mechanisms. The overall success of negative pressure wound therapy has led to a multitude of clinical applications, which are discussed in this article. PMID:17967622

  2. A multimodal analysis of personal negativity.

    PubMed

    Furr, R M; Funder, D C

    1998-06-01

    This study examined how unhappiness and self-dissatisfaction are related to behavior, self-perception, social reputation, and the way one is treated by others. Varying in personal negativity (PN)--a composite of unhappiness, dissatisfaction with life, low self-esteem, and nonclinical depression--146 undergraduates (82 women and 64 men) engaged in 3 interactions. Participants' behavior and the behavior of their interaction partners was coded from videotapes. Personality ratings were obtained from participants and from 2 close acquaintances. PN was closely associated with maladaptive social interactions, negative behavioral responses by others, and a negative social reputation and self-image. Although women more clearly expressed PN behaviorally, men and women showed generally similar patterns of correlates. These results suggest that even subclinical levels of unhappiness and self-dissatisfaction may have important consequences. PMID:9654761

  3. A Field Investigation of the Effects of Drinking Consequences on Young Adults’ Readiness to Change

    PubMed Central

    Usala, Julie M.; Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.; Day, Anne M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    In the research on readiness to change (RTC) one’s drinking, there has been little assessment of the influence of positive drinking consequences or other potential moderating variables. To address these limitations, we examined how young adults’ RTC their alcohol consumption shortly following a drinking episode was associated with self-reported drinking consequences, as well as any potential moderating effects of gender and Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC). In street interviews outside bars, 238 young adults were administered questionnaires about their drinking, including a measure examining participants’ current readiness to reduce their alcohol consumption. Within 72 hours of their drinking episode, 67 participants (36 males; Entire Sample Mage = 20.90 years, Range = 18–26 years) completed an online survey, once again measuring RTC as well as positive and negative drinking consequences. Consistent with our hypothesis, positive drinking consequences were negatively associated with participants’ changes in RTC. Additionally, a three-way interaction of gender x BrAC x Positive Drinking Consequences on RTC showed that females with low BrACs reported higher RTC scores when they had endorsed fewer positive drinking consequences. Interestingly, negative drinking consequences alone did not impact individuals’ RTC. Because positive drinking consequences were a significantly better predictor of RTC than were negative drinking consequences, researchers are advised to examine both types of consequences in future studies. Finally, effective alcohol education programs for those who have never consumed alcohol as well as social drinkers should include consideration of the experience of positive outcomes. PMID:25452061

  4. A field investigation of the effects of drinking consequences on young adults' readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Usala, Julie M; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Day, Anne M; Spear, Linda P

    2015-02-01

    In the research on readiness to change (RTC) one's drinking, there has been little assessment of the influence of positive drinking consequences or other potential moderating variables. To address these limitations, we examined how young adults' RTC their alcohol consumption shortly following a drinking episode was associated with self-reported drinking consequences, as well as any potential moderating effects of gender and Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC). In street interviews outside bars, 238 young adults were administered questionnaires about their drinking, including a measure examining participants' current readiness to reduce their alcohol consumption. Within 72h of their drinking episode, 67 participants (36 males; entire sample Mage=20.90years, Range=18-26years) completed an online survey, once again measuring RTC as well as positive and negative drinking consequences. Consistent with our hypothesis, positive drinking consequences were negatively associated with participants' changes in RTC. Additionally, a three-way interaction of gender×BrAC×positive drinking consequences on RTC showed that females with low BrACs reported higher RTC scores when they had endorsed fewer positive drinking consequences. Interestingly, negative drinking consequences alone did not impact individuals' RTC. Because positive drinking consequences were a significantly better predictor of RTC than were negative drinking consequences, researchers are advised to examine both types of consequences in future studies. Finally, effective alcohol education programs for those who have never consumed alcohol as well as social drinkers should include consideration of the experience of positive outcomes. PMID:25452061

  5. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  6. [Chemotherapies of negative schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Petit, M; Dollfus, S

    1991-01-01

    Five years ago, Goldberg claimed that negative symptoms of schizophrenia do respond to neuroleptics. This apparent discovery is, in fact, a very common way of thinking for European schools of psychiatry, specially the French one guided by Delay and Deniker. Initially focused on reserpine and some alerting phenothiazines such as thioproperazine, this opinion has been extended to benzamides in the 1970s. The analysis of the publications devoted to this point indicates that several drugs are actually considered as potent disinhibitors (i.e. active on negative symptoms of schizophrenia): Phenothiazines: As shown in the controlled studies by Itil (1971), Poirier-Littré (1988), fluphenazine and pipotiazine improve the BPRS anergia factor and the SANS score. Butyrophenones: The first description of the "imipramine like" effect of trifluperidol by Janssen (1959) initiated the studies by Gallant (1960), Fox (1963). They compared trifluperidol at low doses versus haloperidol and chlorpromazine at medium and high doses, BPRS anergia factor improved only at low doses. Diphenylbutylpiperidines (DPBP): Meltzer's review (1986) concluded to the efficacy of such drugs on negative symptoms appearing as a specific biochemical relationship effect. A definite analysis about doses leads to a very different interpretation: DPBP low doses and only low doses improved negative symptoms as much as some low doses of phenothiazines. On the opposite, DPBP, phenothiazines and butyrophenones high doses are inefficient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1683624

  7. Negative refraction and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Forcella, Davide; Mariotti, Alberto; Siani, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of the energy flux, is expected for low enough frequencies. We corroborate this general idea by analyzing a holographic superconductor in the AdS/CFT correspondence, where the response functions can be explicitly computed. We study the dual gravitational theory both in the probe and in the backreacted case. We find that, while in the first case the refractive index is positive at every frequency, in the second case there is negative refraction at low enough frequencies. This is in agreement with hydrodynamic considerations.

  8. Think (Gram) negative!

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Europe is a worrisome phenomenon. Extended spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are widespread in the community and are frequently imported into the hospital. Of even more concern is the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella spp. from regions where they are already endemic. Antibiotic use is a main driver of antibiotic resistance, which again increases broad spectrum antibiotic use, resulting in a vicious circle that is difficult to interrupt. The present commentary highlights important findings of a surveillance study of antimicrobial use and resistance in German ICUs over 8 years with a focus on Gram-negative resistance. PMID:20587087

  9. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  10. Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.

    1996-03-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.

  11. The negative repetition effect.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Peterson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising negative repetition effect, in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and across pairs, the target words were drawn from a small set of categories. In the repetition condition, the pairs were initially presented in a random order and then presented a 2nd time blocked by the category of the target words. In the single presentation condition, the pairs were presented only in the blocked order. Participants in the former condition recalled fewer target words on a free recall test despite having seen the word pairs twice (the negative repetition effect). This phenomenon is explored in a series of 5 experiments assessing 3 theoretical accounts of the effect. The experiments demonstrate that the negative repetition effect generalizes over multiple encoding conditions (reading and generative encoding), over different memory tests (free and cued recall), and over delay (5 min and 2 days). The results argue against a retrieval account and a levels-of-processing account but are consistent with the item-specific-relational account, the account upon which the effect was initially predicated. PMID:23421508

  12. Aspects of abuse: consequences of childhood victimization.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is unfortunately a common occurrence in the United States, affecting 1 in 8 children annually.(1) The consequences of maltreatment can be considerable, and exact a heavy toll on the individual, family, and society. Child abuse and neglect can cause permanent, heritable changes in the body׳s response to stress, which in turn inflicts profound changes in the developing brain. While these changes allow a child to contend with a neglectful, chaotic, or possibly violent environment, they strongly influence an individual׳s behavioral, educational, physical, and mental functioning and well-being throughout his/her lifetime, long after the maltreatment has ended. As the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) studies clearly demonstrate, adult survivors of maltreatment experience significant health harms that can cause significant morbidity and contribute to early death. Further, the lifetime economic cost to society of childhood maltreatment is estimated to be $124 billion dollars.(2) The study of resilient individuals who appear to suffer fewer negative consequences of their maltreatment offers insights into possible interventions for clinical practice as well as advocacy and public policy opportunities that would begin to lessen the significant burdens of childhood maltreatment. PMID:25834940

  13. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  14. The disembodiment effect of negation: negating action-related sentences attenuates their interference on congruent upper limb movements.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Eleonora; Tettamanti, Andrea; Farronato, Paolo; Caporizzo, Armanda; Moro, Andrea; Gatti, Roberto; Perani, Daniela; Tettamanti, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Human languages can express opposite propositions by means of the negative operator "not," which turns affirmative sentences into negative ones. Psycholinguistic research has indicated that negative meanings are formed by transiently reducing the access to mental representations of negated conceptual information. Neuroimaging studies have corroborated these findings, showing reduced activation of concept-specific embodied neural systems by negative versus affirmative sentences. This "disembodiment effect" of sentential negation should have two distinct consequences: first, the embodied systems should be computationally more free to support concurrent tasks when processing negative than affirmative sentences; second, the computational interference should only be reduced when there is a strict semantic congruency between the negated concept and the referent targeted by concurrent tasks. We tested these two predictions in two complementary experiments involving the comprehension of action-related sentences and kinematic measurements of its effects on concurrent, congruent actions. Sentences referred to actions involving either proximal or distal arm musculature. In experiment 1, requiring a proximal arm movement, we found interference reduction for negative proximal sentences. In experiment 2, requiring a distal arm movement, we found interference reduction for negative distal sentences. This dissociation provides the first conclusive evidence in support of a disembodiment theory of negation. We conclude that the computational cost resulting from the insertion of an additional lexical item ("not") in negative sentences is compensated by solely storing a concept in affirmative form in semantic memory, since its negative counterpart can be produced by transiently reducing the access to such stored semantic information. PMID:23307950

  15. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  16. Deep impact: unintended consequences of journal rank

    PubMed Central

    Brembs, Björn; Button, Katherine; Munafò, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Most researchers acknowledge an intrinsic hierarchy in the scholarly journals (“journal rank”) that they submit their work to, and adjust not only their submission but also their reading strategies accordingly. On the other hand, much has been written about the negative effects of institutionalizing journal rank as an impact measure. So far, contributions to the debate concerning the limitations of journal rank as a scientific impact assessment tool have either lacked data, or relied on only a few studies. In this review, we present the most recent and pertinent data on the consequences of our current scholarly communication system with respect to various measures of scientific quality (such as utility/citations, methodological soundness, expert ratings or retractions). These data corroborate previous hypotheses: using journal rank as an assessment tool is bad scientific practice. Moreover, the data lead us to argue that any journal rank (not only the currently-favored Impact Factor) would have this negative impact. Therefore, we suggest that abandoning journals altogether, in favor of a library-based scholarly communication system, will ultimately be necessary. This new system will use modern information technology to vastly improve the filter, sort and discovery functions of the current journal system. PMID:23805088

  17. Deep impact: unintended consequences of journal rank.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn; Button, Katherine; Munafò, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Most researchers acknowledge an intrinsic hierarchy in the scholarly journals ("journal rank") that they submit their work to, and adjust not only their submission but also their reading strategies accordingly. On the other hand, much has been written about the negative effects of institutionalizing journal rank as an impact measure. So far, contributions to the debate concerning the limitations of journal rank as a scientific impact assessment tool have either lacked data, or relied on only a few studies. In this review, we present the most recent and pertinent data on the consequences of our current scholarly communication system with respect to various measures of scientific quality (such as utility/citations, methodological soundness, expert ratings or retractions). These data corroborate previous hypotheses: using journal rank as an assessment tool is bad scientific practice. Moreover, the data lead us to argue that any journal rank (not only the currently-favored Impact Factor) would have this negative impact. Therefore, we suggest that abandoning journals altogether, in favor of a library-based scholarly communication system, will ultimately be necessary. This new system will use modern information technology to vastly improve the filter, sort and discovery functions of the current journal system. PMID:23805088

  18. Psychological consequences of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Mason, Fiona; Lodrick, Zoe

    2013-02-01

    Sexual violence is an important issue worldwide and can have long-lasting and devastating consequences. In this chapter, we outline the psychological reactions to serious sexual assault and rape, including development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Myths and stereotypes surrounding this subject, and their potential effect on the emotional response and legal situation, are discussed. PMID:23182852

  19. Maternal Gatekeeping: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined maternal gatekeeping, its background and psychological antecedents, and its consequences for paternal and maternal involvement in child care. In sum, 209 couples with 6- to 36-month-old children completed extensive questionnaires. Analyses revealed that various dimensions of gate-keeping were differentially associated with the…

  20. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  1. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  2. Bereavement: course, consequences, and care.

    PubMed

    Zisook, Sidney; Iglewicz, Alana; Avanzino, Julie; Maglione, Jeanne; Glorioso, Danielle; Zetumer, Samuel; Seay, Kathryn; Vahia, Ipsit; Young, Ilanit; Lebowitz, Barry; Pies, Ronald; Reynolds, Charles; Simon, Naomi; Shear, M Katherine

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses each of several potential consequences of bereavement. First, we describe ordinary grief, followed by a discussion of grief gone awry, or complicated grief (CG). Then, we cover other potential adverse outcomes of bereavement, each of which may contribute to, but are not identical with, CG: general medical comorbidity, mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and substance use. PMID:25135781

  3. Leadership Styles and Their Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…

  4. Reducing Risk for Sexual Victimization: An Analysis of the Perceived Socioemotional Consequences of Self-Protective Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Untied, Amy S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined college women's perceptions of the positive and negative socioemotional consequences associated with engaging in self-protective behaviors to reduce risk for sexual victimization. At baseline, women completed assessments of the extent to which they would experience positive or negative socioemotional consequences as a…

  5. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  6. Positive fitness consequences of interspecific interaction with a potential competitor.

    PubMed Central

    Forsman, J T; Seppänen, J -T; Mönkkönen, M

    2002-01-01

    The coexistence of species sharing mutual resources is usually thought to be limited by negative processes such as interspecific competition. This is because an overlap in resource use leads to negative fitness consequences, and traits favouring avoidance of potential competitors, for example in habitat selection, are therefore selected for. However, species interactions are acknowledged to vary from negative (competition) to mutualism, although empirical evidence for positive interspecific interactions from natural communities of other than plants and sessile animals is scarce. Here, we experimentally examined the habitat selection and its fitness consequences of a migrant bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), in relation to the presence of competitively superior birds, resident titmice (Parus spp.). Experiments were conducted on two spatial scales: landscape and nest-site scale. We demonstrate that pied flycatchers were attracted to and accrued fitness benefits from the presence of titmice. Flycatchers breeding in tight association with titmice initiated breeding earlier, had larger broods and heavier young than solitarily breeding flycatchers. This paradoxical result indicates that species interactions may switch from negative to positive and that the coexistence of species is not always restricted by negative costs caused by other species. PMID:12184832

  7. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  8. Functions, Consequences, and Frequency of Non-suicidal Self-Injury.

    PubMed

    Saraff, Pooja D; Trujillo, Natasha; Pepper, Carolyn M

    2015-09-01

    We examined the correspondence between reported reasons and consequences for a specific act of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and their relationship with lifetime NSSI frequency. College students with a history of NSSI (n = 52) indicated reasons for and consequences from their most recent NSSI episode. A match was coded when a reason and its corresponding consequence(s) were both endorsed by the participant. Reasons and consequences were significantly correlated, but their correspondence was not related to lifetime NSSI frequency. Automatic negative reasons explained lifetime NSSI frequency, but consequences and match between reasons and consequences did not. Reported reasons for NSSI may be more important in understanding maintenance of NSSI than either consequences or match. PMID:25597028

  9. Consequence Management (CM) program overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Laiche, Thomas P.

    2010-06-01

    The missions is to Provide the Highest Quality Materiel Solution to our Consequence Management DoD Responder's Requirements by Applying Rapid Acquisition. To Interface With Customers in Respect to the Assessment of Needs, to Deliver Products That Exceed Expectations, to Optimize Safety, Performance, Cost, Schedule, and Sustainability, Throughout the Life Cycle of Each COTS Item. On Order, Support Other Federal, State Agencies, and Local First Responders.

  10. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

  11. Scalar field collapse with negative cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, R.; Nishimura, H.; Stricker, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    The formation of black holes or naked singularities is studied in a model in which a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field with an exponential potential couples to four-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. An analytic solution is derived and its consequences are discussed. The model depends only on one free parameter, which determines the equation of state and decides the fate of the spacetime. Without fine tuning the value of this parameter the collapse ends in a generic formation of a black hole or a naked singularity. The latter case violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  12. Stable Postdivorce Family Structures during Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2008-01-01

    Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large…

  13. Psychosocial Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence for Women and Men in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Donna L.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the negative health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are well documented, most research has conceptualized IPV as a unitary construct and has primarily focused on the impact of physical violence. However, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that IPV may be heterogeneous, with different consequences associated…

  14. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  15. Negative Optical Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-09-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of ``negative optical torque'', meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  16. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  17. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  18. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  19. Negative Optical Torque

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of “negative optical torque”, meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained. PMID:25226863

  20. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  1. The consequences of suggesting false childhood food events.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Scoboria, Alan; Arnold, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We combined data across eight published experiments (N=1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related event in the past and current preference for that food. Suggestion indirectly affected intention to eat the food via change in autobiographical belief. The development of belief with and without memory produced similar changes in food preferences and behavior intention, indicating that belief in the event drives changes in suggestion-related attitudes. Finally, positive suggestions (e.g., "you loved asparagus the first time you tried it") yielded stronger effects than negative suggestions (e.g., "you got sick eating egg salad"). These findings show that false autobiographical suggestions lead to the development of autobiographical beliefs, which in turn, have consequences for one's attitudes and behaviors. PMID:25613303

  2. 19. Print from copy negative (original glass plate negative in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Print from copy negative (original glass plate negative in Tippecanoe County Historical Society.) Original photo dated May 7, 1893. View north, south side. - Big Four Depot, 10 South Second Street, Lafayette, Tippecanoe County, IN

  3. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  4. Non-native plants add to the British flora without negative consequences for native diversity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Palmer, G

    2015-04-01

    Plants are commonly listed as invasive species, presuming that they cause harm at both global and regional scales. Approximately 40% of all species listed as invasive within Britain are plants. However, invasive plants are rarely linked to the national or global extinction of native plant species. The possible explanation is that competitive exclusion takes place slowly and that invasive plants will eventually eliminate native species (the "time-to-exclusion hypothesis"). Using the extensive British Countryside Survey Data, we find that changes to plant occurrence and cover between 1990 and 2007 at 479 British sites do not differ between native and non-native plant species. More than 80% of the plant species that are widespread enough to be sampled are native species; hence, total cover changes have been dominated by native species (total cover increases by native species are more than nine times greater than those by non-native species). This implies that factors other than plant "invasions" are the key drivers of vegetation change. We also find that the diversity of native species is increasing in locations where the diversity of non-native species is increasing, suggesting that high diversities of native and non-native plant species are compatible with one another. We reject the time-to-exclusion hypothesis as the reason why extinctions have not been observed and suggest that non-native plant species are not a threat to floral diversity in Britain. Further research is needed in island-like environments, but we question whether it is appropriate that more than three-quarters of taxa listed globally as invasive species are plants. PMID:25831537

  5. Mathematics Anxiety and Stereotype Threat: Shared Mechanisms, Negative Consequences and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Erin A.; Schaeffer, Marjorie W.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2013-01-01

    Proficiency in mathematics is a major advantage in industrialised nations. Here we discuss several emotional impediments to mathematics achievement, namely mathematics anxiety and stereotype threat. Synthesising findings from empirical studies in the fields of cognitive, social, and educational psychology, as well as neuroscience, we discuss some…

  6. Employee adiposity and incivility: establishing a link and identifying demographic moderators and negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Katherine A; Sliter, Michael T; Withrow, Scott A; Jex, Steve M

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of increased adiposity among employees in the American workplace has resulted in significant economic costs to organizations. Unfortunately, relatively little research has examined the effects of excess adiposity on employees themselves. As a step toward remedying this, the current study examined a previously unknown link between adiposity and incivility, and how this might impact employee burnout and withdrawal. A student sample was used to initially establish a link between incivility and adiposity, and an applied sample of employees from across the United States was used to more fully test the relationships among incivility, adiposity, burnout, and withdrawal. Finally, the moderating effects of sex and race on these relationships were examined. Preliminary data from 341 student employees revealed that being overly adipose was related to greater reports of workplace incivility, with the effect strongest for those classified as obese. An interaction between sex and adiposity was also found, as well as a three-way interaction among sex, race, and adiposity. These relationships were replicated using a nationwide sample of 528 full-time employees. An interaction between race and adiposity was also found in this second sample. Finally, a model was tested in which incivility was shown to partially mediate the positive relationship between adiposity and the outcome of withdrawal, with both sex and race acting as moderators. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings and future directions are discussed. PMID:23066694

  7. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  8. Who Should We Help? The Negative Social Consequences of Merit Scholarships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E., Ed.; Marin, Patricia, Ed.

    This is a collection of papers from a 2001 symposium at Harvard University entitled "State Merit Aid Programs: College Access and Equity." After a Foreword by Gary Orfield, the seven papers are (1) "State Merit Scholarship Programs: An Introduction" (Donald E. Heller); (2) "Merit Scholarships and College Access: Evidence from Florida and Michigan"…

  9. Perceived Consequences of Evolution: College Students Perceive Negative Personal and Social Impact in Evolutionary Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Examines how college-educated adults (n=135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. Identifies a continuum of perspectives ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Reports differences between evolutionists and creationists in their prior exposure to…

  10. Non-native plants add to the British flora without negative consequences for native diversity

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D.; Palmer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are commonly listed as invasive species, presuming that they cause harm at both global and regional scales. Approximately 40% of all species listed as invasive within Britain are plants. However, invasive plants are rarely linked to the national or global extinction of native plant species. The possible explanation is that competitive exclusion takes place slowly and that invasive plants will eventually eliminate native species (the “time-to-exclusion hypothesis”). Using the extensive British Countryside Survey Data, we find that changes to plant occurrence and cover between 1990 and 2007 at 479 British sites do not differ between native and non-native plant species. More than 80% of the plant species that are widespread enough to be sampled are native species; hence, total cover changes have been dominated by native species (total cover increases by native species are more than nine times greater than those by non-native species). This implies that factors other than plant “invasions” are the key drivers of vegetation change. We also find that the diversity of native species is increasing in locations where the diversity of non-native species is increasing, suggesting that high diversities of native and non-native plant species are compatible with one another. We reject the time-to-exclusion hypothesis as the reason why extinctions have not been observed and suggest that non-native plant species are not a threat to floral diversity in Britain. Further research is needed in island-like environments, but we question whether it is appropriate that more than three-quarters of taxa listed globally as invasive species are plants. PMID:25831537

  11. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  12. Consequences of the Confucian Culture: High Achievement but Negative Psychological Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    In "Unforgiving Confucian culture: A breeding ground for high academic achievement, test anxiety and self-doubt?" Stankov (in press) provides three reasons for caution against over-glorifying the academic excellence of Confucian Asian learners, namely that it may lead to a reluctance to change their rote learning approach which is not conducive to…

  13. Nutritional Interventions to Alleviate the Negative Consequences of Heat Stress12

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Suagee, Jessica K.; Sanders, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

  14. Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively. PMID:27107893

  15. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations. PMID:20426616

  16. Ethics committees, principles and consequences.

    PubMed

    Häyry, M

    1998-04-01

    When ethics committees evaluate the research proposals submitted to them by biomedical scientists, they can seek guidance from laws and regulations, their own beliefs, values and experiences, and from the theories of philosophers. The starting point of this paper is that philosophers can only be helpful to the members of ethics committees if they take into account in their models both the basic moral intuitions that most of us share and the consequences of people's choices. A moral view which can be labelled as a consequentialist interpretation of mid-level principlism is developed, defended and applied to some real-life and hypothetical research proposals. PMID:9602993

  17. Mechanisms and consequences of entosis.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Shefali; Overholtzer, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Multiple mechanisms have emerged where the engulfment of whole live cells, leading to the formation of what are called 'cell-in-cell' structures, induces cell death. Entosis is one such mechanism that drives cell-in-cell formation during carcinogenesis and development. Curiously, entotic cells participate actively in their own engulfment, by invading into their hosts, and are then killed non-cell-autonomously. Here we review the mechanisms of entosis and entotic cell death and the consequences of entosis on cell populations. PMID:27048820

  18. Quantum Consequences of Parameterizing Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    The marriage between geometrization and quantization is not successful, so far. It is well known that quantization of gravity , using known quantization schemes, is not satisfactory. It may be of interest to look for another approach to this problem. Recently, it is shown that geometries with torsion admit quantum paths. Such geometries should be parameterizied in order to preserve the quantum properties appeared in the paths. The present work explores the consequences of parameterizing such geometry. It is shown that quantum properties, appeared in the path equations, are transferred to other geometric entities.

  19. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  20. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.