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Sample records for alcoholic beverage control

  1. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. The consumption of alcoholic beverages or the possession...

  2. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. The consumption of alcoholic beverages or the possession...

  3. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. The consumption of alcoholic beverages or the possession...

  4. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. The consumption of alcoholic beverages or the possession...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  8. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  9. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  11. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  12. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  13. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  14. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  15. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  16. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  17. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  18. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  19. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  20. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  1. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  2. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  3. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  4. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  5. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  6. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or public facility within the area administered by the Presidio Trust to the consumption of alcoholic... made by the Board that: (A) The consumption of an alcoholic beverage or the possession of an open... consumption of alcoholic beverages are of such magnitude that the diligent application of the authorities...

  8. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... public use area or public facility within a park area to the consumption of alcoholic beverages and/or to... superintendent that: (A) The consumption of an alcoholic beverage or the possession of an open container of an... it is maintained or established; or (B) Incidents of aberrant behavior related to the consumption...

  9. 77 FR 39727 - Poarch Band of Creek Indians-Alcohol Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Indians--Alcohol Beverage Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Amendment to the Poarch Band of Creek Indians--Alcohol Beverage Control... of this Ordinance is to govern the sale, possession and distribution of alcohol within the...

  10. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and §§ 1.5 and 2.34 of this chapter, over a reasonable time period, does not alleviate the problem... of alcohol or a controlled substance to a degree that may endanger oneself or another person,...

  11. Alcohol beverage control, privatization and the geographic distribution of alcohol outlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon. Methods A suite of geospatial data were acquired for Philadelphia, including 1,964 alcohol outlet locations, 569,928 land parcels, and school, church, hospital, park and playground locations. These data were used as inputs for exploratory spatial analysis to estimate the expected number of outlets that would eventually operate in Philadelphia. Constraints included proximity restrictions (based on current ordinances regulating outlet distribution) of at least 200 feet between alcohol outlets and at least 300 feet between outlets and schools, churches, hospitals, parks and playgrounds. Results Findings suggest that current state policies on alcohol outlet distributions in Philadelphia are loosely enforced, with many areas exhibiting extremely high spatial densities of outlets that violate existing proximity restrictions. The spatial model indicates that an additional 1,115 outlets could open in Philadelphia if privatization was to occur and current proximity ordinances were maintained. Conclusions The study reveals that spatial analytical approaches can function as an excellent tool for contingency-based “what-if” analysis, providing an objective snapshot of potential policy outcomes prior to implementation. In this case, the likely outcome is a tremendous increase in alcohol outlets in Philadelphia, with concomitant negative health, crime and quality of life outcomes that accompany such an increase. PMID:23170899

  12. 75 FR 39960 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ..., initiative vote of the people regarding the sale of alcoholic beverages at certain restaurants within the... Sale of Alcoholic Beverages at Certain Restaurants Within the Community. Be it enacted that: Chapter 14... Premises, regardless of whether the sales of Alcoholic Beverages are made under a Restaurant License...

  13. 78 FR 44590 - Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community-Amendment to Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community--Amendment to Alcoholic Beverage... publishes the amendment to the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Chapter 14, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Code of Ordinances to provide...

  14. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  15. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  16. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  17. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  18. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  19. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  20. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  1. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  2. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  3. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  4. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  5. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  7. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  8. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  9. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  10. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  11. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  12. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 159.4 Section 159.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.4 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Quantities subject to duties. Customs duties and internal revenue taxes on alcoholic beverages provided for in headings...

  13. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 159.4 Section 159.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.4 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Quantities subject to duties. Customs duties and internal revenue taxes on alcoholic beverages provided for in headings...

  14. 2 CFR 200.423 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 200.423 Section 200.423 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... Alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable....

  15. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 159.4 Section 159.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.4 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Quantities subject to duties. Customs duties and internal revenue taxes on alcoholic beverages provided for in headings...

  16. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  17. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  18. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  19. College Student Use of Alcoholic Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuder, James M.; Madson, Dennis L.

    1976-01-01

    Colorado State University students responded to a 19-item questionnaire concerning their use of alcoholic beverages. Results indicated a large majority of the students used alcoholic beverages, most students felt that drinking never interfered with their academic work, and alcoholic beverages played an important role in the social aspects of…

  20. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  1. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  2. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  3. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  4. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  5. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  6. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  7. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 159.4 Section 159.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.4 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Quantities subject to duties. Customs duties and internal revenue taxes on alcoholic beverages provided for in headings...

  8. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  9. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  10. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  11. Risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer and type of alcoholic beverage: a European multicenter case-control study.

    PubMed

    Marron, Manuela; Boffetta, Paolo; Møller, Henrik; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Lagiou, Pagona; Lagiou, Areti; Slámová, Alena; Schejbalová, Miriam; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana Victorovna; Macfarlane, Gary John; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Biggs, Anne-Marie; Thomson, Peter; Conway, David Ian; McKinney, Patricia Ann; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire Marie; McCartan, Bernard Eugene; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-07-01

    The general relationship between cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and alcohol drinking is established. Nevertheless, it is uncertain whether different types of alcoholic beverages (wine, beer and liquor) carry different UADT cancer risks. Our study included 2,001 UADT cancer cases and 2,125 controls from 14 centres in 10 European countries. All cases were histologically or cytologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas. Controls were frequency matched by sex, age and centre. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 %CI) adjusted for age, sex, centre, education level, vegetable and fruit intake, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, where appropriate. Risk of beverage-specific alcohol consumption were calculated among 'pure drinker' who consumed one beverage type exclusively, among 'predominant drinkers' who consumed one beverage type to more than 66 % and among 'mixed drinkers' who consumed more than one beverage type to similar proportions. Compared to never drinkers and adjusted for cumulative alcohol consumption, the OR and 95 %CI for wine, beer and liquor drinking, respectively, were 1.24 (0.86, 1.78), 1.54 (1.05, 2.27) and 0.94 (0.53, 1.64) among 'pure drinkers' (p value for heterogeneity across beverage types = 0.306), 1.05 (0.76,1.47), 1.25 (0.87,1.79) and 1.43 (0.95, 2.16) among 'predominant drinkers' (p value = 0.456), and 1.09 (0.79, 1.50), 1.20 (0.88, 1.63) and 1.12 (0.82, 1.53) among 'mixed drinkers' (p value = 0.889). Risk of UADT cancer increased with increasing consumption of all three alcohol beverage types. Our findings underscore the strong and comparable carcinogenic effect of ethanol in wine, beer and liquor on organs of the UADT.

  12. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage. (b) No certificate...

  13. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage. (b) No certificate...

  14. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage. (b) No certificate...

  15. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage. (b) No certificate...

  16. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage. (b) No certificate...

  17. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  18. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  19. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  20. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  1. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  2. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  3. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  4. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  5. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  6. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  7. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  8. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  9. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-05-24

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  10. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  11. Sensorimotor and physiological effects of various alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed Central

    Kalant, H.; LeBlanc, A. E.; Wilson, A.; Homatidis, S.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of a standard dose of alcohol (1.3 g/kg) in the form of Canadian rye whisky, Canadian beer and a sparkling table wine were compared with those of a nonalcoholic carbonated control beverage. Sixteen young male and eight female subjects, all moderate drinkers, were tested in a Latin square design. Measurements were made on the pursuit rotor and quantitative Romberg tests, and of skin temperature, heart rate, malar flush and blood alcohol concentration during the prealcohol baseline period and at regular intervals over the 4-hour drinking period. The three alcoholic beverages produced blood alcohol curves that did not differ significantly. All three alcoholic beverages produced increasing sensorimotor impairment over time, which corresponded in degree to the increasing blood alcohol concentration. There were no significant differences between the three beverages on either the sensorimotor or physiological measures at any blood alcohol value. The results of this study indicate that the degree of impairment after alcohol ingestion in a socially relevant manner is not dependent on the type of beverage consumed, but only on the resulting blood alcohol concentration. PMID:1131767

  12. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  13. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  14. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  15. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  16. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  17. The relationships between the impact of alcoholic beverage control policies, selected contextual determinants, and alcohol drinking in Spain.

    PubMed

    Matrai, Silvia; Casajuana, Cristina; Allamani, Allaman; Baccini, Michela; Pepe, Pasquale; Massini, Giulia; Gual, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol prevention policies alone neither cause nor explain changes in alcohol consumption, nor in related harm. Alcohol consumption in Spain throughout the period 1962-2008 was analyzed considering selected contextual factors and alcohol policies. Increased urbanization was found to be associated with higher consumption, especially of beer. Restrictive policies regulating purchase age, advertising, and licensing premises to sell alcohol were associated with decreased alcohol consumption, while lower blood alcohol concentration limits were followed by an increase. Study limitations are noted. Changes in the evolution of socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and cultural factors should be carefully analyzed to inform alcohol policy planning and evaluation.

  18. 76 FR 22913 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance of the Paiute Tribe of Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ..., and is obtained by fermentation, infusion, or decoction of any malted grain. Such products may or may...% alcohol by volume or 3.2% alcohol by weight and is obtained by fermentation, infusion, or decoction...

  19. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  20. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  1. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  2. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  3. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  4. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  6. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  7. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  8. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  9. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  10. Correlation between cancer mortality and alcoholic beverage in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kono, S.; Ikeda, M.

    1979-01-01

    Geographical correlations between standardized, mortality ratios (SMRs) of cancers and consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages (saké synthetic saké, shochu, beer, wine, and whisky), of cigarettes, and urbanization were examined for all 46 prefectures in Japan. Suggestive correlations were observed between cancer of the oesophagus in males and both shochu and whisky (r = 0.27 and 0.22 respectively), between cancer of the rectum in males and wine (r = 0.45), and between cancer of the prostate and shochu (r = 0.50). These correlations were also confirmed in the partial correlations between SMRs of cancers and consumption of alcoholic beverages, controlling for the two variables urbanization and consumption of cigarettes. Alhtough cancers of other sites were also correlated with certain types of alcoholic beverages, their associations seemed to be secondary to other factors. The validity of higher-order partial correlations and the problems of correlation study are also referred to. PMID:508570

  11. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  12. Young Adults' Knowledge of the Strength of Different Alcoholic Beverages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined college students' (n=113) knowledge of the strength of malt beverages, wines, fortified wines, and distilled spirits. Results indicated rates of correct responses were well below 50 percent for each type of beverage. Alcohol content of malt beverages tended to be less accurately estimated than other beverages. Women's estimates were less…

  13. 75 FR 32813 - St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C. 1161, as interpreted by the Supreme Court in Rice v. Rehner... Constitution of the St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin and the Act of August 15, 1953, Public Law 83-277... 0.5% or more of alcohol by volume. (c) ``License'' shall mean any Class A or Class B Beer...

  14. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  15. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  16. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  17. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  18. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  19. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  20. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  1. Effects of Dram Shop, Responsible Beverage Service Training, and State Alcohol Control Laws on Underage Drinking Driver Fatal Crash Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine whether three minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws—dram shop liability, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, and state control of alcohol sales—have had an impact on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes using annual state-level data, and compared states with strong laws to those with weak laws to examine their effect on beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. Methods Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we calculated the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes as our key outcome measure. We used structural equation modeling to evaluate the three MLDA-21 laws. We controlled for covariates known to impact fatal crashes including: 17 additional MLDA-21 laws; administrative license revocation; blood alcohol concentration limits of .08 and .10 for driving; seat belt laws; sobriety checkpoint frequency; unemployment rates; and vehicle miles traveled. Outcome variables, in addition to the fatal crash ratios of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 included state per capita beer consumption. Results Dram shop liability laws were associated with a 2.4% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .019, p = .018). Similarly, RBS training laws were associated with a 3.6% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .048, p = .001) in the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes. There was a significant relationship between dram shop liability law strength and per capita beer consumption, F (4, 1528) = 24.32, p < .001, partial η2 = .016, showing states with strong dram shop liability laws (Mean (M) = 1.276) averaging significantly lower per capita beer consumption than states with weak laws (M = 1.340). Conclusions Dram shop liability laws and RBS laws were both associated with significantly reduced per capita beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. In practical terms, this means that dram shop liability laws

  2. Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers: II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Robert B.; And Others

    Little is known about very young children's conception of alcoholic beverages and their uses. A study was conducted to determine whether preschool children's ability to correctly access a cognitive network about alcoholic beverages can be related to differences in family exposure to alcohol. Preschoolers (N=57) between the ages of 2.5 and 6 years…

  3. The Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gregory S.; And Others

    When in childhood concepts about alcohol and drinking begin to develop has just begun to be investigated. A study was conducted to examine cognitive, maturational, and differential exposure influences on the acquisition of concepts about alcoholic beverages in preschool children. Knowledge about alcoholic beverages and drinking was assessed in 65…

  4. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  5. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  6. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  7. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  9. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  10. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  11. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  12. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  13. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  14. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open container of...

  15. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of...

  16. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open container of...

  17. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of...

  18. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of...

  19. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open container of...

  20. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Open container of...

  1. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of...

  2. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open container of...

  3. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open container of...

  4. Alcoholic beverages induce superconductivity in FeTe1 - xSx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, K.; Mizuguchi, Y.; Kawasaki, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Tsuda, S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takano, Y.

    2011-05-01

    We found that hot alcoholic beverages were effective in inducing superconductivity in FeTe0.8S0.2. Heating the FeTe0.8S0.2 compound in various alcoholic beverages enhances the superconducting properties compared to a pure water-ethanol mixture as a control. Heating with red wine for 24 h leads to the largest shielding volume fraction of 62.4% and the highest zero resistivity temperature of 7.8 K. Some components present in alcoholic beverages, other than water and ethanol, have the ability to induce superconductivity in the FeTe0.8S0.2 compound.

  5. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined by the method of intragastric titration. Plasma gastrin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: None of the alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation had any significant effect on gastric acid output and release of gastrin compared with control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric acid output by 57% to 95% of maximal acid output (MAO) and release of gastrin up to 5.1-fold compared with control. If beer, wine, and sherry were distilled, only their remaining parts increased gastric acid output by 53% to 76% of MAO and increased release of gastrin up to 4.3-fold compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and release of gastrin; (2) the alcoholic beverage constituents that stimulate gastric acid output and release of gastrin are most probably produced during the process of fermentation and removed during the following process of distillation. PMID:9155575

  6. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    PubMed

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The study was conducted utilizing a 2(3) central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g(-1)), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L(-1). These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L(-1)), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L(-1) and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  7. Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages.

  8. Flavored alcoholic beverages: an international marketing campaign that targets youth.

    PubMed

    Mosher, James F; Johnsson, Diane

    2005-09-01

    Flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) were first introduced into the alcohol market in the early I980s in the form of wine coolers. FABs are sweet, relatively low alcohol content beverages that are designed for "entry-level" drinkers. The alcohol industry has introduced new products and production methods to expand the category's popularity. Research suggests that they are popular with underage drinkers, particularly teenage girls, and that the industry uses marketing practices that appear to target youth. FABs are now marketed globally, and their production and marketing vary by country based on national regulatory restraints. In the United States, industry representations that the products are malt beverages for regulatory purposes appears to violate many state laws because the alcohol in the FABs is derived from distilled spirits. Recommendations for regulatory reform, including new legal definitions of FABs, increased taxes, and restrictions on availability, are applicable at both national and state levels.

  9. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  10. Methanol contamination in traditionally fermented alcoholic beverages: the microbial dimension.

    PubMed

    Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of methanol contamination of traditionally fermented beverages is increasing globally resulting in the death of several persons. The source of methanol contamination has not been clearly established in most countries. While there were speculations that unscrupulous vendors might have deliberately spiked the beverages with methanol, it is more likely that the methanol might have been produced by contaminating microbes during traditional ethanol fermentation, which is often inoculated spontaneously by mixed microbes, with a potential to produce mixed alcohols. Methanol production in traditionally fermented beverages can be linked to the activities of pectinase producing yeast, fungi and bacteria. This study assessed some traditional fermented beverages and found that some beverages are prone to methanol contamination including cachaca, cholai, agave, arak, plum and grape wines. Possible microbial role in the production of methanol and other volatile congeners in these fermented beverages were discussed. The study concluded by suggesting that contaminated alcoholic beverages be converted for fuel use rather than out rightly banning the age-long traditional alcohol fermentation.

  11. The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-06-01

    Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  12. The Impact of Standard Nutrition Labels on Alcoholic Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Julia A.; Dale, Chelsea F.; Fontana, Victoria C.; Collier, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not to mandate nutrition labels on alcoholic beverages is a topic of debate. We examined the effect of nutrition labels on (1) plans for drinking and (2) alcohol expectancies. Study 1, n = 80 underage college drinkers responded to an image of a beer with or without a nutrition label. Study 2, n = 98 community drinkers responded to…

  13. Alcoholic Beverage Buying Habits of University of Delaware Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Goal of study was comparing alcoholic beverage buying habits of University of Delaware students with those of students at other colleges. Random sample of 639 was drawn from 13,000 undergraduates and interviews conducted. Drinking at Delaware was similar to that at other schools. Seniors spent significantly more on alcohol than freshmen. (Author)

  14. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p < 0.05) than with combination X. Analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean K(el) was significantly higher for combination Z than for combinations X and Y (p < 0.05), whereas the mean values of C(max), T(max) and AUCall did not differ significantly among the combinations. Dissolved oxygen in drinks accelerates the decrease in BAC after consuming a large amount of alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  15. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (P<0.05). At 3 h after alcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations. PMID:27069900

  16. Beer consumers' perceptions of the health aspects of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wright, C A; Bruhn, C M; Heymann, H; Bamforth, C W

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions about alcohol are shaped by numerous factors. This environment includes advertisements, public service announcements, product labels, various health claims, and warnings about the dangers of alcohol consumption. This study used focus groups and questionnaires to examine consumers' perceptions of alcoholic beverages based on their nutritional value and health benefits. The overall purpose of this study was to examine beer consumers' perceptions of the health attributes and content of alcoholic beverages. Volunteers were surveyed at large commercial breweries in California, Missouri, and New Hampshire. The anonymous, written survey was presented in a self-explanatory format and was completed in 5 to 10 min. The content and style of the survey were derived from focus groups conducted in California. The data are separated by location, gender, and over or under the age of 30. Parametric data on beverage rating were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while the nonparametric data from True/False or Yes/No questions were analyzed using chi-square. Although statistically significant variances did exist between survey location, gender, and age, general trends emerged in areas of inquiry. The findings indicate that a great opportunity exists to inform consumers about the health benefits derived from the moderate consumption of all alcoholic beverages.

  17. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  18. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  19. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  20. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages,...

  1. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  7. 27 CFR 31.48 - Alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen. 31.48 Section 31.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS...

  8. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beverages; processing of malt beverages. (a) Use of flavors and other nonbeverage ingredients containing alcohol— (1) General. Flavors and other nonbeverage ingredients containing alcohol may be used in... overall alcohol content of the finished product may be derived from the addition of flavors and...

  9. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions to children.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; King, L; Baur, L; Rayner, M; Lobstein, T; Monteiro, C; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing food choices related to non-communicable diseases. The monitoring of populations' exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions, and the content of these promotions, is necessary to generate evidence to understand the extent of the problem, and to determine appropriate and effective policy responses. A review of studies measuring the nature and extent of exposure to food promotions was conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food promotions via dominant media platforms. A step-wise approach, comprising 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' monitoring activities, was designed. This approach can be used to assess the frequency and level of exposure of population groups (especially children) to food promotions, the persuasive power of techniques used in promotional communications (power of promotions) and the nutritional composition of promoted food products. Detailed procedures for data sampling, data collection and data analysis for a range of media types are presented, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators for assessing exposure to and power of food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions. The proposed framework supports the development of a consistent system for monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions for comparison between countries and over time.

  15. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  16. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk.

  17. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Alcoholic beverage preference across Hispanic national groups

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Background U.S. Hispanics come from many countries in Latin America, which can lead to different beverage preferences in the U.S. This paper examines choice for drinking wine, beer, and liquor across 4 Hispanic national groups: Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and South/Central Americans. Methods A sample of 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older was selected using multistage cluster procedures from the household population in 5 metropolitan areas of the U.S.: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey weighted response rate was 76%. Face-to-face interviews lasting 1 hour on average were conducted in the respondents’ homes either in English or Spanish. Results Among men, beer drinkers consume the highest mean number of drinks per week in all national groups. Among women, this is true only of Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Among men who drink beer, beer drinking constitutes 52% to 72% of total alcohol consumption. Among women who drink beer, beer consumption is associated with 32% to 64% of total consumption. Beer is the beverage most associated with binge drinking among Puerto Rican and Mexican American women, while among Cuban American and South/Central American this is seen for wine. Regression analyses showed no significant differences by national group in the likelihood of drinking 2 or fewer drinks (versus no drinks) of wine, beer, or liquor. Puerto Ricans were more likely (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.00–2.14) than Cuban Americans to drink 3 or more drinks (compared to no drinks) of beer. There was no association between the likelihood of binge drinking and Hispanic national group. Conclusions Beverage preference across Hispanic national groups is similar. Beer is the preferred beverage. Alcohol control policies such as taxation and control of sales availability should apply equally to beer, liquor, and wine. Prevention interventions directed at different Hispanic national groups in the U.S. can be relatively

  18. Rapid detection of methanol in artisanal alcoholic beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goes, R. E.; Muller, M.; Fabris, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    In the industry of artisanal beverages, uncontrolled production processes may result in contaminated products with methanol, leading to risks for consumers. Owing to the similar odor of methanol and ethanol, as well as their common transparency, the distinction between them is a difficult task. Contamination may also occur deliberately due to the lower price of methanol when compared to ethanol. This paper describes a spectroscopic method for methanol detection in beverages based on Raman scattering and Principal Component Analysis. Associated with a refractometric assessment of the alcohol content, the method may be applied in field for a rapid detection of methanol presence.

  19. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., entered or withdrawn for consumption. No internal revenue tax shall be collected on distilled spirits in... for consumption. (b) Computation of duties. In the computation of Customs duties on alcoholic... ascertained in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Where...

  20. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  1. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects.

  2. Mixing an Energy Drink with an Alcoholic Beverage Increases Motivation for More Alcohol in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Henges, Amy L.; Ramsey, Meagan A.; Young, Chelsea R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Methods Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink (AmED), or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire-for-Drug questionnaire. Results The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of “desire” for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmED compared to alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. Conclusions An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. PMID:22724427

  3. Polyphenols in alcoholic beverages activating constitutive androstane receptor CAR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Taieishi, Norifumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Kiso, Yoshionobu; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor CAR is a xenosensing nuclear receptor that can be activated by natural polyphenols such as flavonoids and catechins. We examined alcoholic beverage phytochemicals for their ability to activate CAR. HepG2 cells were transfected with CAR expression vector and its reporter gene, and then treated with trans-resveratrol, ellagic acid, β-caryophyllene, myrcene, and xanthohumol. A luciferase assay revealed that ellagic acid and trans-resveratrol activated both human and mouse CAR. Since CAR regulates many genes involved in energy metabolism, the possibility exists that these polyphenols would reduce the risk of certain alcohol-induced metabolic disorders with the help of CAR.

  4. [Exposure to phtalates and their presence in alcoholic beverages].

    PubMed

    Jurica, Karlo; Uršulin-Trstenjak, Natalija; Vukić Lušić, Darija; Lušić, Dražen; Smit, Zdenko

    2013-06-01

    Phthalates are phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol esters used as additives to plastic in order to improve its softness, flexibility, and elongation. Phthalates are highly mobile and migrate easily from plastic products into the environment due to their physical and chemical properties. This study briefly describes the characteristics and distribution of phthalates in the environment, their toxic effects on human health, the legislation regarding the maximum allowed concentration of phthalates in drinking water and products intended for infants, as well as the tolerable daily intake. Special attention is given to the methods of determining phthalates and their levels in alcoholic beverages, with an overview of phthalate occurrences and concentrations in plum brandy made in Croatia. A segment on denatured alcohol and illegally marketed alcohol is also included, as well as guidelines for the effective monitoring of the routes of human exposure to phthalates.

  5. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  6. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  7. Consuming non-alcoholic beer and other beverages during pregnancy and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Adiong, John Patrick; Kim, Eunji; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question An increasing number of my patients are asking about the safety of consuming non-alcoholic beer and other alcohol-free versions of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as they believe that these drinks might be a “safer” alternative to regular alcoholic beverages. What are Motherisk’s recommendations regarding these products? Answer Such drinks might contain higher ethanol levels than what is indicated on their labels. As there is no known safe level of alcohol intake in pregnancy, abstinence from non-alcoholic beverages would eliminate any risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although it is likely that moderate intake of non-alcoholic beverages would pose no harm to breastfed infants, briefly delaying breastfeeding after consumption of such drinks would ensure that the infant is not exposed to alcohol. PMID:25122816

  8. Breeding an amylolytic yeast strain for alcoholic beverage production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Chung; Chang, Rei-Chu; Dent, Der-Feng; Hsieh, Pao-Chuan

    2011-03-01

    A starch-utilizing, yeast-like fusant was successfully created from fused protoplasts of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Monascus anka, and the feasibility of using this fusant as a new strain for alcoholic beverage development was reported. The new fusant utilized various carbon sources more efficiently than its parent cells did. Rice koji prepared separately by cultivating the fusant and its parental strains on rice was compared to explore the effect of yeast strain on the production of α-amylase, glucoamylase, and acid protease that are crucial in wine making using cereal grains. It was found that the fusant produced greater levels of the above-mentioned enzymes than its parental strain does. Consequently, the usage of this fusant in the alcoholic fermentation of polished rice was found to reduce approximately 50% consumption of added glucoamylase than when its parental strain was used. Besides, at the end of fermentation, the fusant yeast resulted in a mash with distribution of flavor components very different from that produced by its parental strains. Thus, the fusant can be used as a new yeast strain for creating novel alcoholic beverages.

  9. The evolution of U.S. temperance movements since repeal: a comparison of two campaigns to control alcoholic beverage marketing, 1950s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Penny

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the politics of a failed religious movement to ban alcohol advertising in the 1950s with the politics of a more secular, and partially successful, movement to regulate alcohol marketing in the 1970s and 1980s. Although the contexts of the two marketing control movements were quite different, the continuities were equally striking. Both employed arguments about youth, social order, and the power of mass media.

  10. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryota; Pechey, Rachel; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-05-01

    In-store product placement is perceived to be a factor underpinning impulsive food purchasing but empirical evidence is limited. In this study we present the first in-depth estimate of the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, focussing on alcohol. Data on store layout and product-level sales during 2010-11 were obtained for one UK grocery store, comprising detailed information on shelf space, price, price promotion and weekly sales volume in three alcohol categories (beer, wine, spirits) and three non-alcohol categories (carbonated drinks, coffee, tea). Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, controlling for price, price promotion, and the number of display locations for each product. End-of-aisle display increased sales volumes in all three alcohol categories: by 23.2% (p = 0.005) for beer, 33.6% (p < 0.001) for wine, and 46.1% (p < 0.001) for spirits, and for three non-alcohol beverage categories: by 51.7% (p < 0.001) for carbonated drinks, 73.5% (p < 0.001) for coffee, and 113.8% (p < 0.001) for tea. The effect size was equivalent to a decrease in price of between 4% and 9% per volume for alcohol categories, and a decrease in price of between 22% and 62% per volume for non-alcohol categories. End-of-aisle displays appear to have a large impact on sales of alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. Restricting the use of aisle ends for alcohol and other less healthy products might be a promising option to encourage healthier in-store purchases, without affecting availability or cost of products.

  11. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryota; Pechey, Rachel; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2014-01-01

    In-store product placement is perceived to be a factor underpinning impulsive food purchasing but empirical evidence is limited. In this study we present the first in-depth estimate of the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, focussing on alcohol. Data on store layout and product-level sales during 2010–11 were obtained for one UK grocery store, comprising detailed information on shelf space, price, price promotion and weekly sales volume in three alcohol categories (beer, wine, spirits) and three non-alcohol categories (carbonated drinks, coffee, tea). Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, controlling for price, price promotion, and the number of display locations for each product. End-of-aisle display increased sales volumes in all three alcohol categories: by 23.2% (p = 0.005) for beer, 33.6% (p < 0.001) for wine, and 46.1% (p < 0.001) for spirits, and for three non-alcohol beverage categories: by 51.7% (p < 0.001) for carbonated drinks, 73.5% (p < 0.001) for coffee, and 113.8% (p < 0.001) for tea. The effect size was equivalent to a decrease in price of between 4% and 9% per volume for alcohol categories, and a decrease in price of between 22% and 62% per volume for non-alcohol categories. End-of-aisle displays appear to have a large impact on sales of alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. Restricting the use of aisle ends for alcohol and other less healthy products might be a promising option to encourage healthier in-store purchases, without affecting availability or cost of products. PMID:24632050

  12. Magazine alcohol advertising compliance with the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Kati; Donovan, Rob; Howat, Peter; Weller, Narelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and content of alcoholic beverage advertisements and sales promotions in magazines popular with adolescents and young people in Australia, and assess the extent to which the ads complied with Australia's self-regulatory Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Alcohol advertisements and promotions were identified in a sample of 93 magazines popular with young people. The identified items were coded against 28 measures constructed to assess the content of the items against the five sections of the ABAC. Two thirds of the magazines contained at least one alcohol advertisement or promotion with a total of 142 unique items identified: 80 were brand advertisements and 62 were other types of promotional items (i.e. sales promotions, event sponsorships, cross promotions with other marketers and advertorials). It was found that 52% of items appeared to contravene at least one section of the ABAC. The two major apparent breaches related to section B--the items having a strong appeal to adolescents (34%) and to section C--promoting positive social, sexual and psychological expectancies of consumption (28%). It was also found that promotional items appeared to breach the ABAC as often as did advertisements. It is concluded that the self-regulating system appears not to be working for the alcoholic beverages industry in Australia and that increased government surveillance and regulation should be considered, giving particular emphasis to the inclusion of promotional items other than brand advertising.

  13. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a) Application to defer. An importer, including a transferee of alcoholic beverages in a Customs bonded...

  14. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a) Application to defer. An importer, including a transferee of alcoholic beverages in a Customs bonded...

  15. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a) Application to defer. An importer, including a transferee of alcoholic beverages in a Customs bonded...

  16. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a) Application to defer. An importer, including a transferee of alcoholic beverages in a Customs bonded...

  17. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a) Application to defer. An importer, including a transferee of alcoholic beverages in a Customs bonded...

  18. Fortification of alcoholic beverages (12% v/v) with tea (Camellia sinensis) reduces harmful effects of alcohol ingestion and metabolism in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ochanda, S O; Rashid, K; Wanyoko, J K; Ngotho, M; Faraj, A K; Onyango, C A; Wachira, F N; Maranga, D N

    2016-01-01

    Background An animal model was used to study the health benefits inherent in tea fortified alcoholic beverages fed to laboratory mice. Objectives An investigation of the effects of tea fortified alcoholic beverages 12% alcohol (v/v) on antioxidant capacity and liver dysfunction indicators in white Swiss mice including packed cell volume (PCV), albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutathione (GSH) was carried out. Methods Plain, black, green and purple tea fortified alcohols were developed with varying tea concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 g/250 mL in 12% v/v. Control alcoholic beverages without teas were also developed. A permit (number IRC/13/12) was obtained for the animal research from the National Museums of Kenya, Institute of Primate Research prior to the start of the study. Alcoholic beverages were orally administered every 2 days for 4 weeks at 1 mL per mouse, and thereafter animals were euthanised and liver and blood samples harvested for analyses. Assays on body weight (bwt), packed cell volume (PCV) albumin, total protein, ALP and GSH were performed. Results were statistically analysed using GraphPad statistical package and significant differences of means of various treatments determined. Results Consumption of tea fortified alcohols significantly decreased (p=0.0001) bwt at 0.32–9.58% and PCV at 5.56–22.75% for all teas. Total protein in serum and liver of mice fed on different tea fortified alcohols ranged between 6.26 and 9.24 g/dL and 2.14 and 4.02 g/dL, respectively. Albumin, ALP and GSH range was 0.92–2.88 µg/L, 314.98–473.80 µg/L and 17.88–28.62 µM, respectively. Fortification of alcoholic beverages lowered liver ALP, replenished antioxidants and increased liver albumin, improving the nutritional status of the mice. Conclusions The findings demonstrate tea's hepatoprotective mechanisms against alcohol-induced injury through promotion of endogenous antioxidants. The beneficial effects of tea in the

  19. A membraneless biofuel cell powered by ethanol and alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu; Shang, Li; Wen, Dan; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-09-15

    In this study, we reported on the construction of a stable single-chamber ethanol/O(2) biofuel cell harvesting energy from the ethanol and alcoholic beverage. We prepared a composite film which consisted of partially sulfonated (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane sol-gel (PSSG) and chitosan (CHI). The combination of ion-exchange capacity sol-gel and biopolymer chitosan not only provided the attached sites for mediator MDB and AuNPs to facilitate the electron transfer along the substrate reaction, but also gave the suitable microenvironment to retain the enzyme activity in long term. The ethanol bioanode was constructed with the film coimmobilized dehydrogenase (ADH), Meldola's blue (MDB) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The MDB/AuNPs/PSSG-CHI-ADH composite modified electrode showed prominent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ethanol. The oxygen biocathode consisted of laccase and AuNPs immobilized on the PSSG-CHI composite membrane. The AuNPs/PSSG-CHI-laccase modified electrode catalyzed four-electron reduction of O(2) to water, without any mediator. The assembled single-chamber biofuel cell exhibited good stability and power output towards ethanol. The open-circuit voltage of this biofuel cell was 860 mV. The maximum power density of the biofuel cell was 1.56 mWcm(-2) at 550 mV. Most interestingly, this biofuel cell showed the similar performance when the alcoholic beverage acted as the fuel. When this biofuel cell ran with wine as the fuel, the maximum power output density was 3.21 mAcm(-2) and the maximum power density was 1.78 mWcm(-2) at 680 mV of the cell voltage. Our system exhibited stable and high power output in the multi-component substrate condition. This cell has great potential for the development and practical application of bioethanol fuel cell.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Alcohol, Sugar, and Tartaric Acid in Alcoholic Beverages Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, A.; Bajaj, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode was used for quantifying ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid in alcoholic beverages. One hundred synthetic samples were prepared with different ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid concentrations. Experiments were carried out on Bio-Rad 175 C FTS using an ATR accessory. Spectra were recorded in the wavelength region 600–4000 cm −1 . Calibration was performed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Commercially available alcoholic beverages (gin, rum, vodka, etc.) were experimented and concentration of ethanol in these samples was predicted using the developed calibration model. Chemical analysis of these commercial samples was carried out in order to compare the results. The agreement between ATR results with those of chemical analysis revealed good reliability and repeatability of the technique used. PMID:17671618

  1. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  2. The impact of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the production of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Varela, Cristian

    2016-12-01

    The conversion of fermentable sugars into alcohol during fermentation is the key process in the production of all alcoholic beverages. However, microbial activity during fermentation is considerably more complex than merely producing ethanol, usually involving the action of a great diversity of yeasts and bacteria and the production of metabolites that affect the organoleptic properties of fermented beverages. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which are naturally present in un-inoculated, spontaneous fermentations, can provide a means for increasing aroma and flavour diversity in fermented beverages. This review will cover the impacts of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on volatile composition and sensory profile of beer, wine, spirits and other fermented beverages, and look at future opportunities involving yeast interactions and regionality in alcoholic beverages.

  3. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.52 Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation... orderly disposition of stocks of distilled spirits, wines, or malt beverages then held by the permittee...

  4. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.52 Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation... orderly disposition of stocks of distilled spirits, wines, or malt beverages then held by the permittee...

  5. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.52 Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation... orderly disposition of stocks of distilled spirits, wines, or malt beverages then held by the permittee...

  6. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.52 Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation... orderly disposition of stocks of distilled spirits, wines, or malt beverages then held by the permittee...

  7. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.52 Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation... orderly disposition of stocks of distilled spirits, wines, or malt beverages then held by the permittee...

  8. Adolescent Alcohol Beverage Type Choices Reflect Their Substance Use Patterns and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintonen, Tomi P.; Konu, Anne I.

    2003-01-01

    Studied alcoholic beverage type choices in relation to substance use patterns and attitudes toward substance abuse using data from the 1999 Finnish Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey for 4,943 adolescents aged 14 to 16. Frequencies of drinking, drunkenness, and smoking and attitudes toward substance use were all affected by beverage type…

  9. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-09

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  10. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  11. The mechanism of alcoholic beverage induced superconductivity in Fe-chalcogenide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Keita; Demura, Satoshi; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Denholme, Saleem; Fujioka, Masaya; Ozaki, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2013-03-01

    We have clarified the mechanism of alcoholic beverage induced superconductivity in Fe-chalcogenide compounds. Previously we reported that the bulk superconductivity in Fe-based compounds Fe(Te, Se) and Fe(Te, S) is achieved by heating in alcoholic beverages. However, the exact mechanism of how they act to enhance the superconductivity in the compounds remains unsolved. To understand the effect of alcoholic beverage treatment, we investigated the mechanism using a technology of metabolomic analysis. We found that weak acid in alcoholic beverages has the ability to deintercalate the excess Fe, which is not in favor of superconductivity. In this presentation, we will discuss the systematic mechanism to induce superconductivity in Fe-chalcogenide compounds.

  12. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  13. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages.

    PubMed

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  14. Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Alleviation of Alcoholic Fatty Liver by Polyphenols Contained in Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Ushiama, Shota; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Shibata, Hiroshi; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of the polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages on the metabolic stress induced by ethanol consumption, four groups of mice were fed for five weeks on Lieber's diet with or without ethanol, with ethanol plus ellagic acid, and with ethanol plus trans-resveratrol. Alcoholic fatty liver was observed in the group fed the ethanol diet but not in those fed the ethanol plus polyphenol diets. Liver transcriptome analysis revealed that the addition of the polyphenols suppressed the expression of the genes related to cell stress that were up-regulated by ethanol alone. Conversely, the polyphenols up-regulated the genes involved in bile acid synthesis, unsaturated fatty acid elongation, and tetrahydrofolate synthesis that were down-regulated by ethanol alone. Because parts of these genes were known to be regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), we performed the same experiment in the CAR-deficient mice. As a result, fatty liver was observed not only in the ethanol group but also with the ethanol plus polyphenol groups. In addition, there was no segregation of the gene expression profiles among these groups. These results provide a molecular basis for the prevention of alcohol-induced stress by the polyphenols in alcoholic beverages. PMID:24498295

  15. Nuclear receptor-mediated alleviation of alcoholic fatty liver by polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Ushiama, Shota; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Shibata, Hiroshi; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of the polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages on the metabolic stress induced by ethanol consumption, four groups of mice were fed for five weeks on Lieber's diet with or without ethanol, with ethanol plus ellagic acid, and with ethanol plus trans-resveratrol. Alcoholic fatty liver was observed in the group fed the ethanol diet but not in those fed the ethanol plus polyphenol diets. Liver transcriptome analysis revealed that the addition of the polyphenols suppressed the expression of the genes related to cell stress that were up-regulated by ethanol alone. Conversely, the polyphenols up-regulated the genes involved in bile acid synthesis, unsaturated fatty acid elongation, and tetrahydrofolate synthesis that were down-regulated by ethanol alone. Because parts of these genes were known to be regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), we performed the same experiment in the CAR-deficient mice. As a result, fatty liver was observed not only in the ethanol group but also with the ethanol plus polyphenol groups. In addition, there was no segregation of the gene expression profiles among these groups. These results provide a molecular basis for the prevention of alcohol-induced stress by the polyphenols in alcoholic beverages.

  16. Beer and wine consumers' perceptions of the nutritional value of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wright, C A; Bruhn, C M; Heymann, H; Bamforth, C W

    2008-01-01

    In general beer has not been portrayed as part of a balanced diet. However, red wine has been promoted as a beneficial part of a nutritious diet. The evidence is that beer is at least the equal of wine from a nutritional perspective and in countering ailments such as coronary heart disease. This study used surveys to compare beer and wine consumers' perceptions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. The consumers ranked 7 beverages based upon perceived healthfulness both before and after they were exposed to nutritional information about the beverages. The ranked data were analyzed using analysis of variance. The variance due to the 3-way interaction of place of recruitment, beverage, and ranking was found to be significant at P < 0.05. There was no significant difference between genders. Overall, consumers of alcoholic beverages perceived red wine to be more healthful than the other 6 beverages, including beer and white wine. The perceived healthfulness of a beverage does not appear to be the main factor driving the choice of beverage. Nutritional information does impact consumers' perceptions of the healthfulness of beverages. Consumers who are predominately beer drinkers were more heavily influenced by nutritional information than consumers who were predominately wine drinkers.

  17. Simultaneous determination of alcohol and carbohydrate content in commercial beverages by ultrasound frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Dion, Jonathan R; Burns, David H

    2011-10-30

    Controlling the composition of commercial beverages is critical for quality control. Rapid on-line measurements would allow optimization in real time. We have developed a methodology to monitor the volume fraction of ethanol and the carbohydrate concentrations in liquid mixtures using ultrasound frequency analysis. Characteristic distortion to ultrasound waves propagating through liquids is induced by the specific chemical composition of the mixture. The distortion induced by the hydrogen bonding between water, ethanol, and sucrose can be monitored in the frequency domain using 5 MHz wideband ultrasonic transducers. Multilinear regression was used to quantify both ethanol and sucrose over a wide range of concentrations with correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.98. Calibrations based on prepared solutions were then used to estimate the ethanol volume and carbohydrate concentration in 22 commercial beverages ranging from sodas to distilled alcohols. Results indicate that the ethanol and carbohydrates could be estimated with a 3.18% and 0.032 g/mL error, respectively. Further, by focusing the analysis over a limited range, the error could be reduced to 0.81% ethanol. This technique demonstrates a strong potential for rapid, in situ monitoring of beverage production, which excludes sample extraction and pretreatment.

  18. Associations of alcoholic beverage preference with cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors: the NQplus study

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Geelen, Anouk; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The preference for a specific alcoholic beverage may be related to an individual's overall lifestyle and health. The objective was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and several cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors, including adiposity, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver enzymes and dietary patterns. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Dutch Longitudinal Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) Study. Participants 1653 men and women aged 20–77 years. Methods Diet, including alcohol, was assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire. Based on the average number of reported glasses of alcoholic beverage, a person was classified as having a preference for beer, wine, spirit/no specific preference, or as a non-consumer. Mixed linear models were used to calculate crude and adjusted means of cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Primary outcome measures Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, lipids, HbA1c, albumin, creatinine, uric acid, liver enzymes and dietary patterns. Results In the study population, 43% had a wine preference, 13% a beer preference, 29% had a spirit or no specific preference, and 15% did not consume alcohol. Men who preferred wine had lowest measures of adiposity; the preference for alcoholic beverages was not associated with adiposity measures in women. Wine consumers had higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lower HbA1c and were more likely to follow the ‘Salad’ pattern. Beer consumers had highest levels of triglycerides and liver enzymes, and had higher scores for the ‘Meat’ and ‘Bread’ pattern. Conclusions Few differences in dietary patterns across alcoholic beverage preference categories were observed. Those differences in cardiometabolic parameters that were observed according to alcoholic beverage preference, suggested that wine consumers have a better health status than beer consumers. PMID:27311903

  19. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: Linkages and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to increases in obesity in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco and alcohol taxes have proven to be effective tools to reduce tobacco and alcohol use. Many public health advocates propose using similar taxes to reduce consumption of SSBs. South Africa is a middle-income country that is considered a leader in the area of tobacco tax policy. A case study of tobacco and alcohol taxes is used to better understand optimal tax structures for SSBs. The case study tracks aggregate data over time on taxes, prices, consumption, tax revenues, and marketing expenditures at the brand level. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are shown to be effective in reducing the demand for tobacco. Additionally, taxes on the dose of alcohol rather than the volume of the beverage may incentivize producers to reduce the volume of alcohol in beverages through the supply side. While specific taxes based on the volume of beverages are likely to reduce the demand for SSBs, policy makers should also consider taxes on alcohol and SSBs that tax the dose of the alcohol and calories in order to create supply-side incentives for producers to lower alcohol and calorie levels in existing products or promote products with lower levels of alcohol and calories.

  20. Youth and alcoholic beverages: Drinking patterns among high school students in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the drinking patterns of high school students in central Thailand. Eleven thousand three hundred sixty high school students from central Thailand were divided into 2 groups (drinkers and nondrinkers) according to their alcohol consumption. Information was obtained by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts: general characteristics, and characteristics of alcohol drinking behavior. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by a computerized statistical package. The socio-demographic factors related to the student's alcohol consumption during the previous 12 months were: age > 15 years old, male sex, grades 9 and 11 education level, living in a private dormitory, staying with a relative or a friend, having a grade point average <2.0 or >3.0, having a job earning money and having family members with alcohol/drug problems (p<0.05). Drinking patterns were classified into 5 categories: life time drinking, drinking during the previous year, drinking during the previous 30 days, binge drinking during the previous 30 days and drinking until intoxication during the previous 30 days. A higher proportion of drinking was reported by boys than girls. The prevalence of drinking increased in proportion to the educational level. The 3 main drinking places were parties (48.5%), at home or in the dormitory (37.5%) and in shops around the school (12.4%). Boys drank alcohol on average 1-2 times per month in 59.8% and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 38.6%. Eighty point one percent of girls drank alcohol 1-2 times per month and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 55.6%. Drinking alcohol among high school students should be controlled by limiting access to alcoholic beverages in order to reduce accidents, injuries, violence and alcohol-related health problems among young people.

  1. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  2. Risk assessment for the Italian population of acetaldehyde in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Paiano, Viviana; Bianchi, Giancarlo; Davoli, Enrico; Negri, Eva; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Acetaldehyde is a naturally-occurring carcinogenic compound, present in different food items, especially in alcoholic beverages. The aims of this study were to measure acetaldehyde concentration in different beverages consumed in Italy and to estimate the potential cancer risk. The analytical procedure was based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using the isotopic dilution method. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was used for risk characterisation. The highest concentrations (median, min-max) were detected in grappa samples (499, 23.4-1850mg/l), followed by fruit-based liqueurs and spirits (62.0, 5.23-483mg/l) and wine (68.0, 18.1-477mg/l); the lowest were detected in gin (0.91, 0.78-1.90mg/l). The lowest MOE was estimated for high wine consumers (69). These results suggest that regulatory measures and consumer guidance may be necessary for acetaldehyde in beverages.

  3. Determination of purine contents of alcoholic beverages using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kiyoko; Yamanobe, Tomoyo; Fujimori, Shin

    2009-08-01

    The purine contents of alcoholic beverages were determined in order to utilize them in the dietary care of gout and hyperuricemia. In the management of these diseases, restriction of both alcohol and purine intake are important. The method employed in this study is a quantitative determination of purine contents by HPLC. Alcoholic beverages were hydrolyzed to corresponding purine bases, which were then separated by HPLC, and base peaks were identified using an enzymatic peak-shift technique. This method is sufficiently accurate and reproducible to examine the purine contents of various alcoholic beverages that patients consume. Purine contents were as follows: spirits, 0.7-26.4 micromol/L; regular beer, 225.0-580.2 micromol/L; low-malt beer, 193.4-267.9 micromol/L; low-malt and low-purine beer, 13.3 micromol/L; other liquors, 13.1-818.3 micromol/L. Some local and low-alcohol beers were found to contain about 2.5 times more purines than regular beer. As some alcoholic beverages contain considerable amounts of purines, we recommend that excess consumption of these beverages be avoided. These data should be useful in the management of hyperuricemia and gout, not only for patients but also for physicians.

  4. A Qualitative Exploration of Self-Learning to Improve Alcoholic Beverage Server Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Waiters who serve alcoholic beverages at the majority of bars and restaurants in the United States are apt to serve alcohol to patrons who are visually intoxicated, notwithstanding laws prohibiting such service. Adverse effects of this practice include patron injuries, deaths, and law violations resulting in fines, incarceration, and lawsuits.…

  5. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gelder, Boukje M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2014-02-01

    Accelerated cognitive decline increases the risk of dementia. Slowing down the rate of cognitive decline leads to the preservation of cognitive functioning in the elderly, who can live independently for a longer time. Alcohol consumption may influence the rate of cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the total consumption of alcoholic beverages and different types of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age. In 2613 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline (1995-2002), cognitive function (global cognitive function and the domains memory, speed and flexibility) was assessed twice, with a 5-year time interval. In linear regression analyses, the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages was analysed in relation to cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. We observed that, in women, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function over a 5-year period (P for trend = 0·02), while no association was observed in men. Regarding the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages in men and women together, red wine consumption was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function (P for trend < 0·01) as well as memory (P for trend < 0·01) and flexibility (P for trend = 0·03). Smallest declines were observed at a consumption of about 1·5 glasses of red wine per d. No other types of alcoholic beverages were associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, only (moderate) red wine consumption was consistently associated with less strong cognitive decline. Therefore, it is most likely that non-alcoholic substances in red wine are responsible for any cognition-preserving effects.

  6. Non-Alcoholic Beverages from Fermented Cereals with Increased Oligosaccharide Content

    PubMed Central

    Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Tenkanen, Maija; Makaravicius, Tomas; Bartkiene, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye) and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)) to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively. Beverages fermented by LAB had lower pH values and ethanol volume fraction compared to the yeast-fermented beverage. The acceptability of the beverage fermented by Lactobacillus sakei was higher than of Pediococcus pentosaceus- or yeast- -fermented beverages and similar to the acceptability of commercial kvass made from malt extract. The results showed that extruded rye, xylanolytic enzymes and LAB can be used for production of novel and safe high-value non-alcoholic beverages. PMID:27904391

  7. Non-Alcoholic Beverages from Fermented Cereals with Increased Oligosaccharide Content.

    PubMed

    Basinskiene, Loreta; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Tenkanen, Maija; Makaravicius, Tomas; Bartkiene, Elena

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye) and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)) to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively. Beverages fermented by LAB had lower pH values and ethanol volume fraction compared to the yeast-fermented beverage. The acceptability of the beverage fermented by Lactobacillus sakei was higher than of Pediococcus pentosaceus- or yeast- -fermented beverages and similar to the acceptability of commercial kvass made from malt extract. The results showed that extruded rye, xylanolytic enzymes and LAB can be used for production of novel and safe high-value non-alcoholic beverages.

  8. Screening potential intakes of colour additives used in non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2008-06-01

    The Union of European Beverages Associations (UNESDA) has undertaken a screening exercise to determine whether any of the colours used in non-alcoholic beverages has the potential for high consumers to exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The organisation undertook a survey of its membership to identify current use levels in non-alcoholic beverages. Information about the consumption of beverages and other foods that can contain the colours was derived from UK survey data because UK consumers were shown to represent some of the highest in the EU. A methodology was developed which added the intake of high level consumers of beverages to average intakes from all other uses to estimate total high level intake. A hierarchical approach used maximum approved use levels (where available) at the first tier and, if intakes exceed the ADI or maximum use levels were not available, UNESDA usage survey data at the second tier. Of the 33 colours approved for use in beverages nine were eliminated from further consideration at Tier 1. A further 22 colours were eliminated from further consideration at Tier 2. Two colours (E101 riboflavins and E110 sunset yellow) required further evaluation but under practical use conditions neither of these colours had the potential to exceed its ADI. Some colours used in beverages are permitted quantum satis in other foods and so permitted use levels were not available. Further information is required about these uses to determine whether total intakes from all foods have the potential to exceed ADIs.

  9. The Margin of Exposure of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Monakhova, Yulia B

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) regularly occurs in foods and in alcoholic beverages. However, the risk of HMF associated with alcohol consumption has not been systematically studied, so that this study will provide the first quantitative risk assessment of HMF for consumers of alcoholic beverages. Methods Human dietary intake of HMF via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data combined with our own survey data (n=944) and literature data (n=147) about the HMF contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Results For olfactory epithelium metaplasia in female mice, a benchmark dose (BMD) of 127 mg/kg bodyweight (bw)/d and a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 79 mg/kg bw/d were calculated from National Toxicology Program oral long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to HMF from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 6.0E-3 mg/kg bw/d, which is approximately 8.5% of the total dietary exposure. In comparison of the human exposure with BMDL, the MOE was 13,167 for average alcohol consumption scenarios, which is a value that would be generally assumed as safe for threshold based compounds. Conclusions The results show that the risk from HMF to the alcohol-consuming population is rather low and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is also low. Further toxicological research about HMF is required to further elucidate its mechanism. PMID:23106038

  10. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk.

  11. A survey of metal profiles in some traditional alcoholic beverages in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Ojelum, Anwuli L; Bassey, Francisca I

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg, Ca, K, and Na were determined in some traditional alcoholic beverages (oil palm wine, raphia palm wine, burukutu, pito, ogogoro) consumed in southern Nigeria, with a view to providing information on the dietary intakes of essential metals and exposure of humans to toxic metals. The concentrations of these 13 elements were determined by atomic spectrometry after nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide digestion. The mean concentrations of the metals (mg/L) in the samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 for Cd; 0.01 to 0.19 for Pb; nd to 0.11 for Ni, nd to 0.15 for Cr; 0.09 to 0.60 for Cu; 0.01–0.08 for Co; 0.30 to 10.3 for Fe; 0.02 to 3.97 for Mn; 0.12 to 3.84 for Zn; 2.08 to 301.3 for Mg; 2.21 to 49.2 for Ca; 35.05 to 926.1 for K; 6.30–58.1 for Na. The mean concentrations of metals in these alcoholic beverages were below statutory limits for the metals in alcoholic beverages and were similar to concentrations found in other alcoholic beverages in the literature. The estimated daily intakes of metals from the consumption of these alcoholic beverages were less than 2% of the recommended dietary allowance values except for Cd and Pb. The individual and combined metals target hazard quotient values were less than 1 except for raphia palm wine and burukutu. From the estimated target hazard, no long life health concerns of metals are associated with the consumption of these alcoholic beverages. PMID:25493191

  12. A survey of metal profiles in some traditional alcoholic beverages in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Ojelum, Anwuli L; Bassey, Francisca I

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg, Ca, K, and Na were determined in some traditional alcoholic beverages (oil palm wine, raphia palm wine, burukutu, pito, ogogoro) consumed in southern Nigeria, with a view to providing information on the dietary intakes of essential metals and exposure of humans to toxic metals. The concentrations of these 13 elements were determined by atomic spectrometry after nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide digestion. The mean concentrations of the metals (mg/L) in the samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 for Cd; 0.01 to 0.19 for Pb; nd to 0.11 for Ni, nd to 0.15 for Cr; 0.09 to 0.60 for Cu; 0.01-0.08 for Co; 0.30 to 10.3 for Fe; 0.02 to 3.97 for Mn; 0.12 to 3.84 for Zn; 2.08 to 301.3 for Mg; 2.21 to 49.2 for Ca; 35.05 to 926.1 for K; 6.30-58.1 for Na. The mean concentrations of metals in these alcoholic beverages were below statutory limits for the metals in alcoholic beverages and were similar to concentrations found in other alcoholic beverages in the literature. The estimated daily intakes of metals from the consumption of these alcoholic beverages were less than 2% of the recommended dietary allowance values except for Cd and Pb. The individual and combined metals target hazard quotient values were less than 1 except for raphia palm wine and burukutu. From the estimated target hazard, no long life health concerns of metals are associated with the consumption of these alcoholic beverages.

  13. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  14. [High-sensitivity analysis of purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Kakigi, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we established a high-sensitivity analytical method for purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The alcoholic beverages were hydrolyzed with perchloric acid (60%) and subjected to strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction (Bond Elut SCX). The four purine bases (hypoxanthine, adenine, xanthine, guanine) in the extracted solution were separated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with TSKgel Amide-80 as a separation column, 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.0) as mobile phase A, and acetonitrile/100 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.0) (90/10) as mobile phase B. The detection of purine bases was performed by tandem mass spectrometry with ESI. The linearity of this analytical method was not less than 0.996, and the repeatability was not more than 8.4% for each purine base. The recovery was in the range of 60-105%, and the detection limit was not more than 0.005 mg/100 mL. This established method is expected to be useful for quality control and surveillance of purines in alcoholic beverages.

  15. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages in bottles and similar containers is subject to regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and...

  16. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages in bottles and similar containers is subject to regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and...

  17. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages in bottles and similar containers is subject to regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and...

  18. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages in bottles and similar containers is subject to regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and...

  19. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages in bottles and similar containers is subject to regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and...

  20. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  1. Associations between Responsible Beverage Service Laws and Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Ann C.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wolfson, Julian; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored potential associations between the strength of state Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) laws and self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the U.S. A multi-level logistic mixed-effects model was used, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were conducted on the overall BRFSS sample and drinkers only. Seven…

  2. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for quantitative detection of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danting; Zhou, Haibo; Ying, Yibin; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Ethyl carbamate, a by-product of fermentation and storage with widespread occurrence in fermented food and alcoholic beverages, is a compound potentially toxic to humans. In this work, a new approach for quantitative detection of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages, based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), is reported. Individual silver-coated gold nanoparticle colloids are used as SERS amplifiers, yielding high Raman enhancement of ethyl carbamate in three kinds of alcoholic beverages (vodka, Obstler, and white rum). The characteristic band at 1,003 cm(-1), which is the strongest and best reproducible peak in the SERS spectra, was used for quantitative evaluation of ethyl carbamate. The limit of detection, which corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, was 9.0 × 10(-9) M (0.8 μg · L(-1)), 1.3 × 10(-7) M (11.6 μg · L(-1)), and 7.8 × 10(-8) M (6.9 μg · L(-1)), respectively. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy offers great practical potential for the in situ assessment and identification of ethyl carbamate in the alcoholic beverage industry.

  4. Brand-Specific Consumption of Flavored Alcoholic Beverages among Underage Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600

  5. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  6. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods.

  7. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet) was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits), no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference. PMID:23056930

  8. Alcoholic beverages drinking among female students in a tourist province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittipichai, Wirin; Sataporn, Hatairat; Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2011-12-29

    This study aimed to investigate alcoholic beverages drinking and predictive factors among female students. The participants were 377 subjects from 3 high schools in a tourist province, of Thailand. Data collection was done through self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.84 - 0.88. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed as follows. About half (51%) of them have ever drunk and 10.5% of drinkers have drunk once a week. In addition, 15.6% of drinkers began their first drink when they were under 10 years old. Risk factors for alcohol consumption of female student were age, GPA, drinker in family, peer pressure, advertisement and accessibility to alcoholic beverages while protective factors were perception of drinking impacts on family and moral values. Students who have a drinking family member were 4.6 times more likely to drink than those who do not have.

  9. Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

  10. Effect of alcoholic beverages on surface roughness and microhardness of dental composites.

    PubMed

    DA Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Silva-Júnior, José Ginaldo da; Tonholo, Josealdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of composite resins immersed in alcoholic beverages. Three composite resins were used: Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer), Z250 (3M-ESPE) and Z350 XT (3M-ESPE). The inital surface roughness and microhardness were measured. The samples were divided into four groups (n=30): G1-artificial saliva; G2-beer; G3-vodka; G4-whisky. The samples were immersed in the beverages 3× a day for 15 min and 30 days. The surface roughness and microhardness assays were repeated after immersion period. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test (p<0.05). Surface roughness increased for all composite resins immersed in beer and whisky. Microhardness of all groups decreased after immersion in alcoholic beverages. The effect of these beverages on dental composites is depended upon the chemical composition, immersion time, alcohol content and pH of solutions.

  11. Alcohol Control and Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Sara; Cuellar, Alison; Conrad, Ryan M.; Grossman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parental alcohol consumption is often associated with an increased likelihood of child abuse. As consumption is related to price, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the propensity for increases in the full price of alcohol to influence entry rates and the length of time spent in foster care. Using alcoholic beverage prices and a measure of availability in combination with data on foster care cases, we find that higher alcohol prices are not effective in reducing foster care entry rates; however, once in foster care, the duration of stay may be shortened by higher prices and reduced availability. PMID:25506296

  12. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  13. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group.

    PubMed

    Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2017-01-24

    Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.

  14. Yeasts associated with the production of Mexican alcoholic nondistilled and distilled Agave beverages.

    PubMed

    Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Moreno-Terrazas, Rubén; Arrizón-Gaviño, Javier; Herrera-Suárez, Teófilo; García-Mendoza, Abisaí; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne

    2008-11-01

    The great variety of agaves and their multiple uses have played an important role in the cultural identification of Mexico. They have been exploited in many ways for over 10,000 years, and one of these applications is the production of alcoholic nondistilled and distilled beverages. Most of the production processes of these Mexican beverages involve a complex fermentation in which bacteria (mainly lactic and acetic acid) and yeasts (non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) are present in stable mixed populations, or succeeding one another, and have a significant impact on the sensorial characteristics and nutritive value of the final product. This minireview focuses on several nondistilled and distilled Agave beverages, their production area, the Agave species used in their elaboration, the functional microbiota involved in the fermentation process, their fermentation products (when known), the biochemical changes of these unique fermentations, and their impact on the quality and sensorial characteristics of the product.

  15. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  16. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction for the sensitive determination of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qie Gen; Li, Wei Hong; Luo, Lin Guang

    2013-08-01

    A method based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME) was proposed in this contribution for the determination of ethyl carbamate (EC) in alcoholic beverages using gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. To achieve the determination of EC in alcoholic beverages, the influences on the extraction efficiency of type and volume of extraction solvent, temperature, ionic strength, alcohol content, and extraction time were studied, once the extraction solvent had been selected. The optimized conditions were 200.0 μL of chloroform at 30 °C during 5 min with 15% (m/v) sodium chloride addition. The detection limit, relative standard deviations, linear range, and recoveries under the optimized conditions were 0.03 μg L(-1), 4.2-6.1%, 0.1-50.0 μg L(-1), and 80.5-87.9%, respectively. Moreover, the feasibility of the present method was also validated by real samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that USAEME has been applied to determine a strongly hydrophilic compound in alcoholic beverages.

  17. Is the demand for alcoholic beverages in developing countries sensitive to price? Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guoqiang; Liu, Feng

    2011-06-01

    Economic literature in developed countries suggests that demand for alcoholic beverages is sensitive to price, with an estimated price elasticity ranging from -0.38 for beer and -0.7 for liquor. However, few studies have been conducted in developing countries. We employ a large individual-level dataset in China to estimate the effects of price on alcohol demand. Using the data from China Health and Nutrition Survey for the years 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006, we estimate two-part models of alcohol demand. Results show the price elasticity is virtually zero for beer and only -0.12 for liquor, which is far smaller than those derived from developed countries. Separate regressions by gender reveals the results are mainly driven by men. The central implication of this study is, while alcohol tax increases can raise government revenue, it alone is not an effective policy to reduce alcohol related problems in China.

  18. The life of an anise-flavored alcoholic beverage: does its stability cloud or confirm theory?

    PubMed

    Scholten, Elke; Linden, Erik van der; This, Herve

    2008-03-04

    The well-known alcoholic beverage Pastis becomes turbid when mixed with water due to the poor solubility of trans-anethol, the anise-flavored component of Pastis in the water solution formed. This destabilization appears as the formation of micrometer-sized droplets that only very slowly grow in size, thus expanding the life of the anise-flavored beverage. The slow growth has been attributed to an extremely low interfacial tension of the droplets. Fitting experimental droplet growth rates to an Ostwald ripening model, interfacial tensions were deduced in the past. Direct determination of the interfacial tensions was not yet reported on these systems. We have measured the interfacial tensions and used these data to predict droplet growth rates using an Ostwald ripening model and a model for creaming of the droplets. The interfacial tension was measured to be about 11 mN/m for a 30/70 w/w % ethanol/water mixture, and it decreases slightly to a value of 1.4 mN/m in the case of a 70/30 w/w % ethanol/water mixture. These values are not as low as those deduced in the past. The theoretical predictions for both the Ostwald ripening rates and the creaming rates, using the directly measured interfacial tensions, are found to contradict with the experimental results on Ostwald ripening and creaming. While the experiments on Ostwald ripening show an increase in stability with increasing ethanol concentration, the results based on our interfacial tension measurements in combination with the same Ostwald ripening model show a decrease in stability with an increase in ethanol concentration. Further research is needed to understand fully which parameters play a role in both droplet growth and the stability of these three-component emulsions to elucidate the current discrepancy between model and experiment. This could be useful for a better control of "spontaneous emulsification" processes.

  19. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    PubMed

    Poppitt, Sally D

    2015-08-11

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of "liquid" energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity.

  20. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R.; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E.; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage. PMID:27446061

  1. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Poppitt, Sally D.

    2015-01-01

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of “liquid” energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity. PMID:26270675

  2. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage.

  3. Application of gas chromatography to analysis of spirit-based alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Spirit-based beverages are alcoholic drinks; their production processes are dependent on the type and origin of raw materials. The composition of this complex matrix is difficult to analyze, and scientists commonly choose gas chromatography techniques for this reason. With a wide selection of extraction methods and detectors it is possible to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis for many chemical compounds with various functional groups. This article describes different types of gas chromatography techniques and their most commonly used associated extraction techniques (e.g., LLE, SPME, SPE, SFE, and SBME) and detectors (MS, TOFMS, FID, ECD, NPD, AED, O or EPD). Additionally, brief characteristics of internationally popular spirit-based beverages and application of gas chromatography to the analysis of selected alcoholic drinks are presented.

  4. Composition and Nutrient Information of Non-Alcoholic Beverages in the Spanish Market: An Update.

    PubMed

    Serrano Iglesias, María; de Lourdes Samaniego Vaesken, María; Varela Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-10-08

    The aim of this study was to draw an updated map of the nutrition facts in the different categories of non-alcoholic beverages in the Spanish market based on the information declared on the labels of these products; we expect this first step to justify the need for the coordination and harmonization of food composition tables in Spain so that there will be an updated database available to produce realistic scientific nutrient intake estimates in accordance with the actual market scenario.

  5. Selection of Branded Alcoholic Beverages by Underage Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.; Ostroff, Josh; Naimi, Timothy S.; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify reasons why youth choose to drink specific brands of alcohol and to determine if these reasons are associated with problem drinking patterns and outcomes. Methods We conducted an Internet survey of 1,031 youth ages 13 to 20 who reported drinking within the past 30 days. Of these, 541 youth who reported having a choice of multiple brands of alcohol the last time they drank stated (yes/no) whether each of 16 different reasons had influenced their choice of a specific brand. We reduced these 16 reasons to three principle components and used Latent Class Modeling to identify five groups of youth with similar reasons for selecting a brand, which we then profiled. Results We grouped respondents into the following brand selection groups: “Brand Ambassadors” who were distinguished from other clusters by selecting a brand because they identified with it (32.5% of respondents), “Tasters” who selected a brand because they expected it to taste good (27.2%), “Bargain Hunters” who selected a brand because it was inexpensive (18.5%), “Copycats” who selected a brand because they’d seen adults drinking it or seen it consumed in movies or other media (10.4%), and “Others” (11.5%). Brand Ambassadors and Copycats reported the largest amount of alcohol consumed and had the greatest prevalence of both heavy episodic drinking and negative alcohol-related health consequences. Conclusions Underage drinkers who cite marketing influences and adult or media modeling of brand choices as their reasons for selecting alcohol brands are likely to drink more and incur adverse consequences from drinking. PMID:25907655

  6. A survey of levels of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages in 2009-2012, Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Hu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Results of a survey of levels of ethyl carbamate (EC) (urethane) in alcoholic beverages carried out in four successive years from 2009 to 2012 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are presented. The beverages were purchased for sampling from Hebei Province of China, including eight main areas of production. The samples comprised wines (n = 212), grain spirits (n = 143) and wine sauces (n = 164). The data show that the average EC content in these kinds of alcoholic beverages remains nearly constant over the years. The results provide valuable data for food authorities to establish maximum limits for EC in China.

  7. Composition and Nutrient Information of Non-Alcoholic Beverages in the Spanish Market: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Serrano Iglesias, María; de Lourdes Samaniego Vaesken, María; Varela Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to draw an updated map of the nutrition facts in the different categories of non-alcoholic beverages in the Spanish market based on the information declared on the labels of these products; we expect this first step to justify the need for the coordination and harmonization of food composition tables in Spain so that there will be an updated database available to produce realistic scientific nutrient intake estimates in accordance with the actual market scenario. Materials and Methods: The nutrition facts declared on the labels of non-alcoholic beverages by manufacturers in Spain were compiled and studied. Results: The database included 211 beverages classified in 7 groups with energy/carbohydrate content per 100 mL ranging from 0–55 kcal/0–13 g for soft drinks; 2–60 kcal/0–14.5 g for energy drinks; 24–31 kcal/5.8–7.5 g for sports drinks; 1–32 kcal/0–7.3 g for drinks containing mineral salts in their composition; 14–69 kcal/2.6–17 g for fruit juice, nectar, and grape musts; 43–78 kcal/6.1–14.4 g for vegetable drinks; and 33–88 kcal/3.6–14 g for dairy drinks. Conclusion: The current non-alcoholic beverage market is a dynamic, growing, and highly innovative one, allowing consumers to choose according to their preferences, needs, or level of physical activity at any moment of the day. PMID:27740599

  8. Beverage- and Brand-Specific Binge Alcohol Consumption among Underage Youth in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; O’Doherty, Catherine; Jernigan, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Binge drinking is a common and risky pattern of alcohol consumption among youth; beverage and brand-specific consumption during binge drinking is poorly understood. The objective was to characterize beverage- and brand-specific consumption associated with binge drinking among underage youth in the U.S. Methods An internet panel was used to obtain a sample of 1,032 underage youth aged 13–20, who drank alcohol in the past 30 days. For each brand consumed, youth reported drinking quantity and frequency, and whether they engaged in binge drinking with that brand (≥5 drinks for males, ≥4 for females). Each youth reporting binge drinking with a brand constituted a binge drinking report. Results Overall, 50.9% of youth binge drank with ≥1 brand, and 36.5% of youth who consumed any particular brand reported binge drinking with it. Spirits accounted for 43.8% of binge drinking reports. Twenty-five brands accounted for 46.2% of binge drinking reports. Many of these brands were disproportionately associated with binge drinking relative to their youth market share. Conclusions Binge drinking among youth is most commonly involves spirits, and binge drinking is concentrated within a relatively small number of brands. Understanding factors underlying beverage and brand preference among binge drinking youth could assist prevention efforts. PMID:26425112

  9. Systemic immune modulation induced by alcoholic beverage intake in obese-diabetes (db/db) mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Jang, Ik-Soon; Park, Junsoo; Kim, Seol-Hee; Baek, So-Young; Go, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol over-consumption is generally immunosuppressive. In this study, the effects of single or repetitive alcohol administration on the systemic immunity of db/db mice were observed to clarify the possible mechanisms for the increased susceptibility of obese individuals to alcohol-related immunological health problems. Alcohol (as a form of commercially available 20% distilled-alcoholic beverage) was orally administered one-time or seven times over 2 weeks to db/db mice and normal C57BL/6J mice. Immunologic alterations were analyzed by observation of body weight and animal activity, along with proportional changes of splenocytes for natural killer cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Modulation of plasma cytokine level and immune-related genes were also ascertained by micro-bead assay and a microarray method, respectively. The immune micro-environment of db/db mice was an inflammatory state and adaptive cellular immunity was significantly suppressed. Low-dose alcohol administration reversed the immune response, decreasing inflammatory responses and the increment of adaptive immunity mainly related to CD4(+) T cells, but not CD8(+) T cells, to normal background levels. Systemic immune modulation due to alcohol administration in the obese-diabetic mouse model may be useful in the understanding of the induction mechanism, which will aid the development of therapeutics for related secondary diseases.

  10. Characterization of volatile compounds of Mezcal, an ethnic alcoholic beverage obtained from Agave salmiana.

    PubMed

    De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González-Hernández, Lidia; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; López, Mercedes G

    2006-02-22

    Commercial mezcals (white, white with worm, rested, rested with worm, and aged) produced from Agave salmiana were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Thirty-seven compounds were identified, and nine of them were classified as major compounds of mezcal (MCM). Saturated alcohols, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and acetic acid form the MCM group. Minor compounds of mezcal group include other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, large chain ethyl esters, organic acids, furans, terpenes, alkenes, and alkynes. Most of the compounds found in mezcals in this study are similar to those present in tequilas and other alcoholic beverages. However, mezcals contain unique compounds such as limonene and pentyl butanoate, which can be used as markers for the authenticity of mezcal produced from A. salmiana.

  11. Anesthetic management for magnetic resonance imaging in a pediatric patient addicted to palm wine: An alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Monu; Ram, A Anand; Srikanth, I; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of drug and alcohol abuse is on rise despite increasing awareness and education about health hazards related to it. Anesthesiologist may come across patients with alcohol abuse in elective as well as emergency situations. We report a rare case of excessive requirement of anesthetics in a pediatric patient of only six years for MRI, addicted to palm wine, an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree.

  12. Chemical Analysis and Risk Assessment of Diethyl Phthalate in Alcoholic Beverages with Special Regard to Unrecorded Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Leitz, Jenny; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates are synthetic compounds with a widespread field of applications. For example, they are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics and food packaging, or are added to personal care products. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) may be used to denature alcohol, e.g., for cosmetic purposes. Public health concerns of phthalates include carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and endocrine effects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for determining phthalates in alcohol samples and to provide a risk assessment for consumers of such products. Methodology/Principal Findings A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized by varying the following parameters: type of extraction solvent (cyclohexane, n-hexane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane), the ratio extraction solvent/sample volume (1∶1 to 50∶1) and the number of extraction repetitions (1–10). The best extraction yield (99.9%) was achieved with the solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, an extraction solvent volume/sample volume ratio of 10∶1 and a double extraction. For quantification, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated internal standards was used. The investigated samples were alcoholic beverages and unrecorded alcohol products from different countries (n = 257). Two unrecorded alcohol samples from Lithuania contained diethyl phthalate in concentrations of 608 mg/L and 210 mg/L. Conclusions/Significance The consumption of the phthalate-positive unrecorded alcohols would exceed tolerable daily intakes as derived from animal experiments. Both positive samples were labelled as cosmetic alcohol, but had clearly been offered for human consumption. DEP seems to be unsuitable as a denaturing agent as it has no effect on the organoleptic properties of ethanol. In light of our results that DEP might be consumed by humans in unrecorded alcohols, the prohibition of its use as a denaturing agent should be considered. PMID:19956573

  13. Targeting adolescents? The content and frequency of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage ads in magazine and video formats November 1999-April 2000.

    PubMed

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Hust, Stacey J T

    2005-12-01

    This study compared alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage advertising to which adolescents are exposed. A census of beverage advertising (N = 757) in popular magazines and television during November 1999-April 2000 was analyzed. Most alcohol ads appeared in Sports Illustrated (110), Rolling Stone (98), and Playboy (75) and outnumbered nonalcoholic beverage advertising by 3 to 1. Alcohol was almost never associated with dining. Alcohol ads emphasized sexual and social stereotypes and lacked diversity. One of every 6 magazine alcohol ads, and 1 of every 14 video-based ads, appeared to target teenagers. Many similarities existed between alcohol and nonalcohol ads. We conclude that alcohol is advertised heavily to youth through placement and appeals. The fact that themes in alcohol ads frequently parallel those in nonalcoholic beverage ads may further increase youths' receptivity.

  14. Phthalates in plastic bottled non-alcoholic beverages from China and estimated dietary exposure in adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Yang, Li-Ming; Zheng, Li-Ying; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Cheng-Bin; Luo, Sheng-Lian

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of six phthalates were determined in 69 plastic bottled non-alcoholic beverages collected from marketplaces in China. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) were the most detected compounds with frequencies of 100%. Dimethyl phthalate was found less, with a mean frequency of almost 34%. The samples were divided into seven groups. The frequencies of phthalates in these groups ranged from 6.67% to 100%, which indicated that different types of beverages were differently contaminated by phthalates. DEHP contained the highest mean and median concentrations (1.60 ng g(-1) and 0.62 ng g(-1)), followed by DBP (1.34 ng g(-1) and 0.27 ng g(-1)). For DBP, the highest phthalate concentration of 14.3 ng g(-1) was measured. The results of estimated daily intake (EDI) showed that the risk of Chinese adults exposed to these 6 phthalates in beverages examined was lower than the reference doses as suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The range of EDI values was between 1.77 × 10(-)(4) μg kg-bw(-1) day(-1) and 0.478 μg kg-bw(-1) day(-1).

  15. Fear of negative evaluation and gender interact to predict alcoholic beverage preference.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, K J; Segrist, D J

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to look at the influence of gender, alcohol expectancies, and fear of negative evaluation on beverage selection. Participants tasted pineapple juice, tonic water, beer, and diet cola and were then asked which they would prefer when presented with each of all possible alternative pairings. Results indicated no effect on beer selection due to alcohol expectancies, but fear of negative evaluation and gender interacted to predict beer selection. Post hoc analyses indicated that women with high levels of fear of negative evaluation selected beer significantly less often than any of the other groups. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of considering the interaction of "initial conditions" individuals bring to a situation, which serves as a filter for environmental information.

  16. The potential of CO2 laser photoacoustic spectrometry for detection of methanol in alcoholic beverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-W.; Shaw, S.-Y.

    2009-03-01

    The first use of CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements for detecting the methanol contents in alcohol-like solutions is presented. With an intracavity cell configuration, the minimum detectable concentration was ˜200 ppm for methanol and the linear range of the calibration curve for methanol was from 200 to 70000 ppm. For demonstrating the reliability of analysis in alcoholic beverages, a series of different concentrations of two-component samples was prepared and measured by the same procedures. The results showed the feasibility on determining methanol and ethanol contents accurately within a specific tolerance, limited mainly by background signal and laser stability. This potential method with no pre-treatment of samples takes only ˜10 min to finish one single measurement. It suggests that the PA detection is suitable for routine diagnosis of adulterated wines in commercial products.

  17. Development of a method for the quantitation of chloro-, bromo-, and iodoacetic acids in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-01-25

    Chloroacetic, bromoacetic, and iodoacetic acids can be found in alcoholic beverages when they are used as preservatives/stabilizers or as disinfectants. As they are toxic components, their addition is not permitted under European Union and U.S. regulations. To date, no sensitive methods are available, and those proposed are very laborious. This paper describes a sensitive and straightforward method for the determination of the three monohalogenated acetic acids (m-HAAs) in wines and beers using static headspace extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Prior to extraction, the target analytes were esterified to increase their volatility, and all parameters related to the extraction/methylation process were optimized to achieve high efficiency (>90%). The study examined the influence both of the ethanol concentration on the headspace partitioning and of the primary acids present in wine on the derivatization reaction of the m-HAAs. The proposed method allows the determination of these compounds at microgram per liter levels in alcoholic beverages.

  18. Alcoholic beverages and carbonated soft drinks: consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages (ABs) and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are widely consumed worldwide. Given the high consumption of these beverages, the scientific community has increased its focus on their health impact. There is epidemiological evidence of a causal association between AB intake and digestive cancer, but the role of alcohol in determining cancer is not fully defined. Experimental studies have so far identified multiple mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis; ethanol itself is not carcinogenic but available data suggest that acetaldehyde (AA) and reactive oxygen species-both products of ethanol metabolism-have a genotoxic effect promoting carcinogenesis. Other carcinogenetic mechanisms include nutritional deficits, changes in DNA methylation, and impaired immune surveillance. As CSDs are often suspected to cause certain gastrointestinal disorders, consequently, some researchers have hypothesized their involvement in gastrointestinal cancers. Of all the ingredients, carbon dioxide is prevalently involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal physiology by a direct mucosal effect and indirect effects mediated by the mechanical pressure determined by gas. The role of sugar or artificial sweeteners is also debated as factors involved in the carcinogenic processes. However, several surveys have failed to show any associations between CSDs and esophageal, gastric, or colon cancers. On the other hand, a slight correlation between risk of pancreatic cancer and CSD consumption has been found.

  19. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Altay, Filiz; Karbancıoglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage.

  20. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, p<0.05) and without (258 vs. 89 μmol/l, p<0.05) alcohol ingestion. From 2 min onwards there were no significant differences in the decreasing salivary acetaldehyde concentration, which remained above the level of carcinogenicity still at 10 min. The systemic alcohol distribution from blood to saliva had no additional effect on salivary acetaldehyde after sipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure.

  1. Does instruction to eliminate coffee, tea, alcohol, carbonated, and artificially sweetened beverages improve lower urinary tract symptoms: A Prospective Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Janis M.; Garcia, Caroline E.; Hortsch, Sarah Becker; Guo, Ying; Schimpf, Megan O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Common advice for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of frequency, urgency and related bother includes elimination of potentially irritating beverages (coffee, tea, alcohol, and carbonated and/or artificially sweetened beverages). The purpose of this study was to determine compliance with standardized instruction to eliminate these potentially irritating beverages, whether LUTS improved after instruction, and if symptoms worsened with partial reintroduction. Design The three-phase fixed sequence design was: 1) baseline, 2) eliminate potentially irritating beverages listed above, and 3) reintroduce at 50% of baseline volume, with a washout period between each 3-day phase. We asked participants to maintain total intake volume by swapping in equal amounts of non-potentially irritating beverages (primarily water). Subjects and Setting The study sample comprised 30 community-dwelling women recruited through newspaper advertisement. Methods Quantification measures included 3-day voiding diaries and detailed beverage intake, and LUTS questionnaires completed during each phase. Results During Phase 2, we found significant reduction in potentially irritating beverages but complete elimination was rare. Despite the protocol demands, total beverage intake was not stable; mean (± standard deviation) daily total intake volume dropped by 6.2±14.9oz (p=0.03) during Phase 2. In Phase 3, the volume of total beverage intake returned to baseline, but intake of potentially irritating beverages also returned to near baseline rather than 50% as requested by protocol. Despite this incomplete adherence to study protocols, women reported reduction in symptoms of urge, inability to delay voiding, and bother during both phases (p≤0.01). The number of voids per day decreased on average by 1.3 and 0.9 voids during phases 2 and 3 respectively (p=0.002 and p=0.035). Conclusions Education to reduce potentially irritating beverages resulted in improvement in LUTS. However, eliminating

  2. Flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for bulk carbon stable isotope analysis of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Jochmann, Maik A; Steinmann, Dirk; Stephan, Manuel; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2009-11-25

    A new method for bulk carbon isotope ratio determination of water-soluble samples is presented that is based on flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (FIA-IRMS) using an LC IsoLink interface. Advantages of the method are that (i) only very small amounts of sample are required (2-5 microL of the sample for up to 200 possible injections), (ii) it avoids complex sample preparation procedures such as needed for EA-IRMS analysis (only sample dilution and injection,) and (iii) high throughput due to short analysis times is possible (approximately 15 min for five replicates). The method was first tested and evaluated as a fast screening method with industrially produced ethanol samples, and additionally the applicability was tested by the measurement of 81 alcoholic beverages, for example, whiskey, brandy, vodka, tequila, and others. The minimal sample concentration required for precise and reproducible measurements was around 50 microL L(-1) ethanol/water (1.71 mM carbon). The limit of repeatability was determined to be r=0.49%. FIA-IRMS represents a fast screening method for beverage authenticity control. Due to this, samples can be prescreened as a decisive criterion for more detailed investigations by HPLC-IRMS or multielement GC-IRMS measurements for a verification of adulteration.

  3. Storage of pork meat under modified atmospheres containing vapors from commercial alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kapetanakou, A E; Agathaggelou, E I; Skandamis, P N

    2014-05-16

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of AB vapors on microbial, physicochemical, and sensory profile of pork meat stored in different MAP conditions. Pork pieces (10g) and cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths (2×2cm) were placed into compartmentalized Petri-dishes in two sections. Aliquots (1mL) of water (control), 30% v/v and 40% v/v ethanol, whisky, brandy, tsipouro, raki, and ouzo were added separately to the cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths. Each pork sample was placed in one compartment and cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths supplemented with different ABs were placed in a separate compartment of each Petri-dish. Samples were packaged in 40% CO2: 30% O2: 30% N2 and 80% O2: 20% CO2 and stored at 4 and 10°C. Total viable counts, Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and Enterobacteriaceae, were enumerated during storage. Changes in pH, color (L*, a*, b*), odor, taste, and overall appearance of pork meat were also evaluated along with changes in organic acid levels via HPLC. At 4°C, lactic acid bacteria and B. thermosphacta were the dominant organisms under 40% CO2: 30% N2: 30% O2 and 80% O2: 20% CO2, respectively, while at 10°C, lactic acid bacteria dominated in both MAP conditions. All applied ABs were effective (p<0.05) against lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and B. thermosphacta. The inhibitory effect of ABs was also reflected through lower levels of glucose consumption or accumulation of lactic, acetic, succinic, and formic acid compared to controls. Moreover, packaged samples in 40% CO2: 30% O2: 30% N2 exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) of acetic acid during storage at 4°C, but the concentrations of acetic acid in samples exposed to AB vapors were lower than those in controls. Both antimicrobial active MAPs extended the shelf-life of pork meat by ca. 2-fold, while samples exposed to alcoholic beverages (especially ouzo) under 80% O2: 20% CO2 resulted in better (p<0.05) sensory properties

  4. Children's hedonic responses to the odors of alcoholic beverages: a window to emotions.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A

    2008-06-01

    The present study of 145 children and their mothers aimed to determine whether children's responses to the odors of alcoholic beverages were related to their mothers' reasons for drinking. Mothers completed a series of questionnaires to describe the emotional context in which they drink and whether they use alcohol to "escape" by changing their state of mind and reducing feelings of dysphoria. Children participated in two age-appropriate tasks that focused on the most salient psychological attribute of an odor, its perceived hedonic valence. To this aim, we determined children's liking, reaction times, and identification of individual odors including beer and whiskey in Task 1, and their preference for beer relative to odors that differed in hedonic valence in Task 2. The type of task and behavioral measure revealed different aspects of children's responses, to alcohol odors. In Task 1, verbally identifying an odor was a more difficult task than deciding whether they liked the odor. Although there were few group differences in liking for individual odors, children of Escape drinkers took significantly longer to determine whether they liked the odors. In Task 2, children of Escape drinkers preferred beer less often, particularly when it was compared with less pleasant odors. They preferred coffee to beer odors and, if their mothers did not smoke cigarettes, preferred the odors of cigarette smoke and pyridine to beer. These children experienced the odor of alcohol more frequently and in the context of mood disturbed mothers who felt guilty and worried about their drinking. Whether children who associate the odor of alcohol with such emotional contexts display a trajectory toward or against using alcohol to escape remains unknown.

  5. The role of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism in the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages: evidence from a large chemical survey.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sohnius, Eva-Maria

    2008-08-01

    Acetaldehyde is a volatile compound naturally found in alcoholic beverages, and it is regarded as possibly being carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 2B). Acetaldehyde formed during ethanol metabolism is generally considered as a source of carcinogenicity in alcoholic beverages. However, no systematic data is available about its occurrence in alcoholic beverages and the carcinogenic potential of human exposure to this directly ingested form of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism. In this study, we have analysed and evaluated a large sample collective of different alcoholic beverages (n=1,555). Beer (9+/-7 mg/l, range 0-63 mg/l) had significantly lower acetaldehyde contents than wine (34+/-34 mg/l, range 0-211 mg/l), or spirits (66+/-101 mg/l, range 0-1,159 mg/l). The highest acetaldehyde concentrations were generally found in fortified wines (118+/-120 mg/l, range 12-800 mg/l). Assuming an equal distribution between the beverage and saliva, the residual acetaldehyde concentrations in the saliva after swallowing could be on average 195 microM for beer, 734 microM for wine, 1,387 microM for spirits, or 2,417 microM for fortified wine, which are above levels previously regarded as potentially carcinogenic. Further research is needed to confirm the carcinogenic potential of directly ingested acetaldehyde. Until then, some possible preliminary interventions include the reduction of acetaldehyde in the beverages by improvement in production technology or the use of acetaldehyde binding additives. A re-evaluation of the 'generally recognized as safe' status of acetaldehyde is also required, which does not appear to be in agreement with its toxicity and carcinogenicity.

  6. Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Fifth and Eighth Grade Students Regarding Alcoholic Beverages in Urban Parochial Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Essie E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of fifth- and eighth-grade urban parochial school students (N=3,785) regarding alcoholic beverages. Survey results showed a religiously oriented school environment had little influence on drinking behavior. Family, friends, and cultural norms were strong influences. Sixth and seventh grades appear…

  7. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  8. Effect of ozagrel hydrochloride, a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, on alcoholic beverage-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Myou, Shigeharu; Fujimura, Masaki; Nishi, Kohichi; Kita, Toshiyuki; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Tachibana, Hideki; Ishiura, Yoshihisa; Nakao, Shinji

    2002-04-01

    Acetaldehyde is thought to be a main factor of alcohol-induced asthma. The thromboxane (TX) synthetase inhibitor, ozagrel hydrochloride, inhibits acetaldehyde-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. The present study evaluated the involvement of TXA(2) on alcoholic beverage-induced bronchoconstriction. Four patients with alcohol-induced asthma received ozagrel (400 mg for 4 days) or placebo using a single-blind, randomized, cross-over design. On two separate study days, each subject drank the same brand and volume of alcoholic beverage (beer or Japanese sake) and bronchoconstriction was assessed as the change in peak expiratory flow (PEF). The effect of ozagrel on the aerosolized challenge of acetaldehyde was investigated in the same subjects. Although aerosolized acetaldehyde-induced bronchoconstriction was significantly prevented by ozagrel, there were no differences in the time course of the decrease in PEF or the maximum fall in PEF after alcohol intake between placebo and ozagrel. We conclude that TXA(2) is not involved in alcoholic beverage-induced bronchoconstriction.

  9. Alcoholic beverage preferences and associated drinking patterns by socioeconomic status among high-school drinkers in three metropolises of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Xiaoqi; Chen, Siyu; Wang, Zhengyuan; Lu, Lixin; Ma, Guansheng

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent alcoholic beverage preferences and the associated drinking patterns in China. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 136 junior or senior high schools, using a self-administered questionnaire. A total number of 7,075 subjects of drinking students were selected from three metropolises (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou) via a two-stage stratified sampling method. Among the adolescent drinkers, 87.8% (95% CI: 86.5-89.0) reported that they drunk alcohol during the past years preceding the study, while 42.4% (95% CI: 40.4-44.4) of the subjects stated that they had drunk alcohol during the past 30 days. There were gradual increases in the usual quantity (>1 Standard Drink, SD) of alcoholic beverages with increasing SES, with highest rates reported by the high-level SES. Beer and grape wine were the most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, regardless of SES. Our findings suggest that high-level SES students have an increasing prevalence of drinking behaviour. Their confirmation by future studies which extend the sampling regions is required to further the prevention of adolescent alcohol abuse in China.

  10. Characterisation of aroma volatiles of indigenous alcoholic beverages: burukutu and pito.

    PubMed

    Onyenekwe, Paul C; Erhabor, Graham Osas; Akande, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Pito and burukutu are indigenous alcoholic beverages in Nigeria, and are fermentation products of Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum vulgare. The production is similar to that of beer, which involves steeping, malting, mashing and fermenting. A total of 30 volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography. These compounds can be broadly grouped into alkanols, phenols, acids, esters, ketones and aldehydes. Although few acids are present, they are dominant (30.887% and 27.669%) and followed by esters (26.467% and 27.442%) in pito and burukutu, respectively. Alkanols constitute the next dominant group after acids and esters; however, ethanol was not identified as a constituent. The health and social implication of the constituents are explained.

  11. [Alcohol metabolism at moderate drinking in healthy men. Comparison between differences of alcohol beverages, with and without meal, and genetic polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Shunji; Haseba, Takeshi; Masuda, Chiaki; Abe, Yuko; Sami, Manabu; Kanda, Tomomasa; Ohno, Youkichi

    2011-06-01

    Studies on metabolisms of alcohol and the metabolites (e.g.:acetaldehyde) after drinking give basic and important information to recognize the physiological influence of drinking to human bodies. The aims of these studies were to clarify the influences of ALDH2 genotype difference, kinds of alcohol beverages, and fasted or prandial state to alcohol metabolisms at moderate drinking. The studies were conducted by a randomized cross-over design. After overnight fast, fifteen of ALDH2*1/*1 (Experiment 1) and twenty of ALDH21/*2 (Experiment 2) in Japanese healthy men aged 40 to 59 years old drank beer or shochu at a dose of 0.32g ethanol / kg body weight with or without test meal (460 kcal). The peak of blood ethanol (C(max)) was higher with shochu than with beer in the fasted condition in both ALDH2 genotypes, however, the difference between two types of alcohol beverages went out in the prandial condition. Simultaneous ingestion of test meal with alcohol beverage significantly decreased blood ethanol concentrations and increased ethanol disappearance rate (EDR) in the both genotypes. EDR values were significantly higher in ALDH2*1/*1 type than in ALDH2*1/*2 type in the both beverages with and without meal, whereas beta values showed no significant difference between two genotypes. The concentrations of blood acetaldehyde in ALDH2*1/*2 type were higher in prandial condition than in fasted condition with shochu. These results indicate that meal modified the differences of alcohol metabolism between beer and shochu and also between ALDH2 genotypes. Thus, alcohol metabolism in daily drinking is shown to be regulated by various combinatorial drinking conditions.

  12. Rapid Method for the Determination of the Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Water in Alcoholic Beverages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daobing; Zhong, Qiding; Li, Guohui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-10-28

    This paper demonstrates the first successful application of an online pyrolysis technique for the direct determination of oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of water in alcoholic beverages. Similar water concentrations in each sample were achieved by adjustment with absolute ethyl alcohol, and then a fixed GC split ratio can be used. All of the organic ingredients were successfully separated from the analyte on a CP-PoraBond Q column and subsequently vented out, whereas water molecules were transferred into the reaction furnace and converted to CO. With the system presented, 15-30 μL of raw sample was diluted and can be analyzed repeatedly; the analytical precision was better than 0.4‰ (n = 5) in all cases, and more than 50 injections can be made per day. No apparent memory effect was observed even if water samples were injected using the same syringe; a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9998) was found between the water δ(18)O of measured sample and that of working standards. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mean δ(18)O value and that obtained by the traditional method (CO2-water equilibration/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and the newly developed method in this study. The advantages of this new method are its rapidity and straightforwardness, and less test portion is required.

  13. 75 FR 23280 - Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Alcohol Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... all matters and actions incidental to and necessary to conduct its business and carry out its duties... such business activities related thereto subject to the taxing and regulatory authority of the Alcohol... the Members of the Choctaw Nation Business Committee. C. ``Alcoholic Beverage(s)'' when used in...

  14. Social occasions and the perceived appropriateness of consuming different alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Klein, H; Pittman, D J

    1990-01-01

    Based on a national probability sample of 2,401 Americans aged 21 and over (1,069 of whom were deemed "drinkers" on the basis of having drunk at least one alcoholic beverage within the previous 7 days), this study looks at differences in the perceived situational appropriateness of drinking beer, distilled spirits, wine and wine coolers in each of six social occasions. It was found that wine is usually deemed appropriate in integrative, social enjoyment-enhancing situations. Beer use tends to be viewed ambivalently, with a sort of "cross-situational neutrality"; its use is neither strongly condoned nor strongly condemned in any of the six social contexts under study. People's attitudes toward the use of distilled spirits are best described as allowing for a "cautious indulgence" in this beverage. The respondents tend to favor drinking distilled spirits during integrative social occasions, feel ambivalently toward drinking in social contexts that are simultaneously integrative and disintegrative and disfavor drinking during disintegrative and anxiety-reductive social occasions. Wine cooler use is viewed inconsistently, perhaps with a tendency toward being seen as appropriate for consumption during integrative social occasions that involve having a good time. Sex, income and marital status differences were found to be minimal. Age, though, was found to be a discerning variable in many of these relationships, such that people aged 65 or older were less likely than their younger counterparts to endorse drinking in all of the social contexts under study, except for drinking as a perfect complement to a nice dinner.

  15. Coffee, alcohol and other beverages in relation to cirrhosis mortality: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, George Boon-Bee; Chow, Wan-Cheng; Renwei-Wang; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Limited experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that coffee may reduce hepatic damage in chronic liver disease. The association between consumption of coffee and other beverages, and risk of cirrhosis mortality was evaluated in The Singapore Chinese Health Study. This is a prospective population-based cohort of 63,275 middle-aged and older Chinese subjects who provided data on diet, lifestyle and medical histories through in-person interviews using structured questionnaire at enrollment between 1993 and 1998. Mortality from cirrhosis in the cohort was ascertained through linkage analysis with nationwide death registry. After a mean follow-up of 14.7 years, 114 subjects died from cirrhosis; 33 of them from viral hepatitis B (29%), two from hepatitis C (2%), and 14 from alcohol-related cirrhosis (12%). Compared to non-drinkers, daily alcohol drinkers had a strong dose-dependent positive association between amount of alcohol and risk of cirrhosis mortality. Conversely, there was a strong dose-dependent inverse association between coffee intake and risk of non-viral hepatitis related cirrhosis mortality (p for trend=0.014). Compared to non-daily coffee drinkers, those who drank two or more cups per day had 66% reduction in mortality risk (HR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14–0.81). However, coffee intake was not associated with hepatitis B related cirrhosis mortality. The inverse relationship between caffeine intake and nonviral hepatitis-related cirrhosis mortality became null after adjustment for coffee drinking. The consumption of black tea, green tea, fruit juices or soft drinks was not associated with risk of cirrhosis death. Conclusion This study demonstrates the protective effect of coffee on non-viral hepatitis related cirrhosis mortality, and provides further impetus to evaluate coffee as a potential therapeutic agent in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24753005

  16. The Relation between the Number of Hours That Authorize the Sale of Alcoholic Beverages and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, Hernán; Gonzalez, Marco; Huaco, Carlos; Sotelo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background: La Victoria was considered, the most violent area in Lima City, the local government enforced a public policy regarding number of hours for selling of alcoholic beverages in January 2007. The study was designed to compare its results in Violence between one district with the law and other without the law. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional was an ecological study with a chronological and geographical comparison between La Victoria, with the restriction and Cercado de Lima without the ban. The participants in the study were patients from a local National Hospital, with aggressions from fighting, or were wounded in traffic accidents, and violent death bodies at National Institute of Legal Medicine. Data were analyzed, using clinical histories (2006 vs. 2007-8) and necropsies (2005-6 vs. 2007-8) Results: The reduction of aggression rates at La Victoria in 2007 and 2008 in comparison to 2006, were 40.7% and 36.4% respectively (P< 0.05). It was related to the number of hours of liquor authorized selling Y= -11.25+27.32 X (P<0.05). There was a reduction of 44% in homicide (P<0.05) and 35% in suicide rates between biennia’s. The female/ male ratio of homicides changed from 1/7.3 to 1/4.6. A significant increase in the rate of alcohol positive dead bodies was observed (20.3% to 41.5%), (Relative Risk (RR) = 2.03, (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = (1.09-3.8), χ2(1)=5.24, ( P< 0.05). Conclusions: The reduction of violence was probably due to the ban, indicating the importance of programs to control alcohol consumption which lead to decrease the rate of violence and its’ consequences like homicides, impulsive violence. PMID:24688919

  17. In-depth proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic beverages with peptide ligand libraries. I: Almond milk and orgeat syrup.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-06-10

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, both commercial and home-made, have been adopted to investigate the proteome of non-alcoholic beverages, in order to assess their genuineness and detect also trace proteins, in search of potential allergens. Two such beverages have been studied: almond milk and orgeat syrup. In the first product we have been able to identify 132 unique protein species, the deepest investigation so far of the almond proteome. In the second beverage, a handful of proteins (just 14) have been detected, belonging to a bitter almond extract. In both cases, the genuineness of such products has been verified, as well as the fact that almond milk, judging on the total protein and fat content, must have been produced with 100g ground almonds per litre of beverage, as required by authorities. On the contrary, cheap orgeat syrups produced by local supermarkets and sold as their own brands, where found not to contain any residual proteins, suggesting that they contained only synthetic aromas and no natural plant extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the myriad of beverages that in the last decades have invaded the shelves of supermarkets the world over, whose genuineness and natural origin have never been properly assessed.

  18. Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate and urea in alcoholic beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Guoxin; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Depei; Liu, Hao

    2014-04-02

    On the basis of the similar fluorescence of ethyl carbamate (EC) and urea derivatives, a high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of EC and urea in alcoholic beverages. The chromatographic separation and derivatization conditions of EC and urea were optimized. Under the established conditions, the detection limit, relative standard deviation, linear range, and recovery were 4.8 μg/L, 1.0-4.2%, 10-500 μg/L, and 93.8-104.6%, respectively, for EC; the corresponding values were 0.003 mg/L, 1.2-4.8%, 0.01-100 mg/L, and 90.7-104.8%, respectively, for urea. The method showed satisfactory values for precision, recovery, and sensitivity for both analytes and is well-suited for routine analysis and kinetic studies of the formation of EC from urea alcoholysis in alcoholic beverages.

  19. Dietary exposure of secondary school students in Hong Kong to benzoic acid in prepackaged non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ka Ming; Chan, Cheok Man; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the dietary exposure of secondary school students in Hong Kong to benzoic acid from pre-packaged non-alcoholic beverages. Exposure was estimated using local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000 and the benzoic acid level detected in pre-packaged beverages, including soft drink (both diet/light and regular types), fruit juice, soy milk, Chinese tea and coffee/tea) available locally in late 2006. The estimated dietary exposure to benzoic acid from pre-packaged beverages of average and high consumers (95(th) percentile) was 0.31 and 0.97 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. These exposures accounted for 6.1 and 19.3% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI: 0-5 mg kg(-1) bw) of benzoic acid for average and high consumers, respectively. As in other countries, soft drinks contributed most to dietary exposure to benzoic acid from pre-packaged beverages in Hong Kong.

  20. Concoction of harmful substances in homemade alcoholic beverages in rural areas of Mopani district in Limpopo province-RSA: implications for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Makhubele, J C

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion.

  1. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  2. Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages from Mexico (Tequila, Mezcal, Bacanora, Sotol) and Guatemala (Cuxa): Market Survey and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico. PMID:19440288

  3. Ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Mexico (tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol) and Guatemala (cuxa): market survey and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.

  4. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Jensen, U; Fagt, S; Andersen, R

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds with 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was in 2005 lower than the acceptable daily intake of 7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, the 99th percentile for 1-3 year olds with 7.4 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) still exceeded the acceptable daily intake slightly. The 90th percentile for the whole population with 0.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was halved compared with 1999. The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value.

  5. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fabricius, N; Fagt, S

    2007-03-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mg l(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values of 15, 40 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively. However, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds was close to the ADI value of 7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1); and the 99th percentile in the 1-10 year olds far exceeded the ADI value. Boys aged 7-10 years had a significantly higher estimated intake of cyclamate than girls. The 90th percentile for the whole population was 1.8 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). After the reduction in the maximum permitted level in the European Union in 2004 from 400 to 250 mg cyclamate l-1, the exposure in Denmark can also be expected to be reduced. A new investigation in 2007 should demonstrate whether the problem with high cyclamate intake is now solved.

  6. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2014-07-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N = 102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10 L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects.

  7. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kyle S

    2017-03-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response.Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli.Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments.Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P < 0.001).Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed herein are

  8. Detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages or vapor phase using fluorescent molecules embedded in a nanofibrous polymer.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Masaaki; Mori, Taizo; Okamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Ken; Shiratori, Seimei; Yamamura, Masaki; Nabeshima, Tatsuya; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-03-25

    An alcohol sensor was developed using the solid-state fluorescence emission of terphenyl-ol (TPhOH) derivatives. Admixtures of TPhOH and sodium carbonate exhibited bright sky-blue fluorescence in the solid state upon addition of small quantities of ethanol. A series of terphenol derivatives was synthesized, and the effects of solvent polarities and the structures of these π-conjugated systems on their fluorescence were systematically investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy. In particular, π-extended TPhOHs and TPhOHs containing electron-withdrawing groups exhibited significant solvatochromism, and fluorescence colors varied from blue to red. Detection of ethanol contents in alcohol beverages (detection limit ∼ 5 v/v %) was demonstrated using different TPhOHs revealing the effect of molecular structure on sensing properties. Ethanol contents in alcoholic beverages could be estimated from the intensity of the fluorescence elicited from the TPhOHs. Moreover, when terphenol and Na2CO3 were combined with a water-absorbent polymer, ethanol could be detected at lower concentrations. Detection of ethanol vapor (8 v/v % in air) was also accomplished using a nanofibrous polymer scaffold as the immobilized sensing film.

  9. Vision-based level control for beverage-filling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Dietmar; Braune, Ingolf

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a vision-based on-line level control system which is used in beverage filling machines. Motivation for the development of this sensor system was the need for an intelligent filling valve, which can provide constant filling levels for all container/product combinations (i.e. juice, milk, beer, water, etc. in glass or PET bottles with various transparency and shape) by using a non-tactile and completely sterile measurement method. The sensor concept being presented in this paper is based on several CCD-cameras imaging the moving containers from the outside. The stationary lighting system illuminating the bottles is located within the filler circle. The field of view covers between 5 and 8 bottles depending on the bottle diameter and the filler partitioning. Each filling element's number is identified by the signals of an angular encoder. The electro-pneumatic filling valves can be opened and closed by computer control The cameras continuously monitor the final stages of the filling process, i.e. after the filling height has reached the upper half of the bottle. The sensor system measures the current filling height and derives the filling speed. Based on static a priori- knowledge and dynamic process knowledge the sensor system generates a best estimate of the particular time when the single valve is to be closed. After every new level measurement the system updates the closing time. The measurement process continues until the result of the next level calculation would be available after the estimated closing time would have been passed. The vision-based filling valve control enables the filling machine to adapt the filling time of each valve to the individual bottle shape. Herewith a standard deviation between 2 and 4 mm (depending on the slew rate in the bottle neck) can be accomplished, even at filling speed > 70.000 bottles per hour. 0

  10. Consumption of alcoholic beverages, driving vehicles, a balance of dry law, Brazil 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Berna, Regina Tomie Ivata; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Claro, Rafael Moreira; da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa; dos Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzes the trend in frequency of adults who drive under the influence of alcohol in major Brazilian cities after the passing of laws, which prohibit drunk driving. Data from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. The frequency of adults who drove after abusive alcohol consumption was reduced by 45.0% during this period (2.0% in 2007 to 1.1% in 2013). Between 2007 and 2008 (-0.5%) and between 2012 and 2013 (-0.5%), significant reductions were observed in the years immediately after the publication of these laws that prohibit drunk driving. These improvements towards the control of drunk driving show a change in the Brazilian population’s lifestyle. PMID:25210828

  11. Chemical Components of Noncommercial Alcohol Beverage Samples: A Study With the Viewpoint of Toxic Components in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dadpour, Bita; Hedjazi, Arya; Ghorbani, Hamideh; Khosrojerdi, Hamid; Vaziri, Seyed Mohsen; Malek Zadeh, Haleh; Habibi Tamijani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background Iran has one of the lowest alcoholic beverage use rates in comparison with other countries, because it is legally forbidden and because of religious beliefs. Even so, unrecorded and noncommercial alcohol remains a considerable concern, which needs special attention. Objectives In the current research, we have studied the general composition of noncommercial alcohol samples to identify potentially toxic components in the context of the city of Mashhad in IR Iran. Patients and Methods Using a descriptive study, chemical composition records of alcohol samples obtained from Mashhad and its suburbs (from March 2013 to March 2014) were evaluated in terms of ethanol percentage and methanol percentage using gas chromatography. Likewise, the pH of the alcohol and the location of the sample were also considered. Some substances, such as inorganic elements, were not included because there was no information about these substances in the records. Results Of 877 reports of alcohol samples, more than 50% were obtained from Mashhad and the rest were from the suburbs. Of the reports, 57.5% were in the spring and summer, followed by 42.5% in the fall and winter. The mean (min-max) of ethanol percentage was 30.04% (0 - 98.4). In four cases, methanol was detected. The mean (min-max) of methanol percentage was 23% (4 - 95).The majority of the samples had an acidic pH. Conclusions The composition of unrecorded samples did not raise major toxicological concern beyond ethanol in alcohol products. However, concentration levels of methanol in some unrecorded alcohol samples made these samples detrimental for human consumption. PMID:27622171

  12. DOES BEVERAGE TYPE AND DRINKING CONTEXT MATTER IN AN ALCOHOL-RELATED INJURY? EVIDENCE FROM EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT PATIENTS IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Carvalho, Heraclito B.; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Monteiro, Maristela; Borges, Guilherme; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have already substantiated alcohol’s causal role in injuries. Yet the role that alcoholic beverage preferences and the drinking context play in the risk for injury is still under-investigated. In this study a cross-national comparison of the association between alcohol and injury focusing on beverage type preference and the drinking context is reported. Methods Emergency department injured patients were interviewed in eight countries from the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Data on the type of alcoholic beverage, total alcohol volume, and the place where the injury occurred were obtained from patients who reported any alcohol consumption within 6 hours prior to being injured. Patients who did not drink prior to injury were also asked about their typical drinking pattern and the injury place. Differences within- and between-groups were evaluated regarding patients’ typical drinking and drinking before injury. Results Beer was the most prevalent beverage type usually consumed among injured patients across countries, however, patients who drank before injury had a higher typical consumption of spirits than those not drinking prior to injury. The total alcohol volume typically consumed and drinking in public settings were also found to be positively associated with alcohol-related injury. Conclusions A similar beverage-specific association with alcohol-related injury was found across LAC countries, mainly attributed to beer consumption, and spirits drinkers seem to have a greater chance of becoming involved in injury events. Future prevention strategies should inform the public about harms from drinking associated with the context in which drinking takes place. PMID:24556276

  13. A simple HPLC method for determining the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yasuda, Makoto; Inazawa, Katsunori; Ota, Tatsuhiro; Yamaoka, Noriko; Mawatari, Ken-ichi; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Kaneko, Kiyoko

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for quantifying the purine content in food and drink have been described using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We have developed an improved HPLC method that is based on a method reported by Kaneko et al. and that is more sensitive yet simple, and suitable for determining the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages. Quantitative HPLC separation was performed on a Shodex Asahi Pak GS-320HQ column with an isocratic elution of 150 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer (H(3)PO(4)/NaH(2)PO(4) = 20:100 (v/v)). The retention times for the four analytes, namely, adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, were 19.9, 25.0, 29.3 and 43.0 min, respectively. The resolution was good, and there was no excessive interference from the other compounds in the beverages at these retention times. Furthermore, the detection limit for all the analytes was improved to less than 0.0075 mg/L, and all the calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.999) between 0.013 and 10 mg/L for adenine and guanine, and between 0.025 and 10 mg/L for hypoxanthine and xanthine. The pretreatment was simplified by removing some procedures and optimizing the perchloric acid hydrolysis and the enzymatic peak-shift assay. We reduced the sample dilution rate by almost 50%, and the time spent on pretreatment from 4 days to only 180 min. The recovery of the analytes from spiked samples was 94.8 - 103.8%. This method may be useful for evaluating quantitative and qualitative differences in the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages.

  14. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  15. Cloud point extraction and gas chromatography with direct microvial insert thermal desorption for the determination of haloanisoles in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2016-11-01

    A sensitive analytical procedure for the determination of four haloanisoles (2,4,6 trichloroanisole, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole and pentachloroanisole) related with cork taint defects in wines, in different types of alcoholic beverages has been developed. The analytes were extracted from the matrix samples by cloud point extraction (CPE) using Triton X-114 heated to 75°C, and the surfactant rich phase was separated by centrifugation. By means of direct microvial insert thermal desorption, 20µL of the CPE obtained extract was submitted to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The parameters affecting the CPE and microvial insert thermal desorption were optimized. Quantification was carried by matrix-matched calibration using an internal standard. Detection limits ranged between 12.9 and 20.8ngL(-1), depending on the compound, for beer and wine samples, whereas for whiskies values in the 46.3-48ngL(-1) range were obtained, since these samples were diluted for analysis. Recoveries for alcoholic beverages were in the 89-111% range, depending on the analyte and the sample.

  16. A simple strategy for determining ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages based on its on-line liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform, using a flow injection system and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric detection in the mid-IR.

    PubMed

    Gallignani, Máximo; Ayala, Carlos; Brunetto, Maria Del Rosario; Burguera, Jose Luis; Burguera, Marcela

    2005-12-15

    In this work, a simple strategy for the determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages using Fourier transform infrared spectrometric detection has been developed. The methodological proposal includes the quantitative on-line liquid-liquid extraction of ethanol with chloroform, through a sandwich type cell equipped with a PTFE membrane, using a two-channel manifold; and direct measurement of the analyte in the organic phase, by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The quantification was carried out measuring the ethanol absorbance at 877cm(-1)(,) corrected by means of a baseline established between 844 and 929cm(-1). The procedure, which does not require any sample pretreatment (except for the simple degassing of beer and gassy wine samples, and a simple dilution of spirits with water), was applied to determine ethanol in different alcoholic beverages such as beers, wines and spirits. The results obtained highly agree with those obtained by a derivative FTIR spectrometric procedure, and by head space-gas chromatography with FID detection. The proposed method is simple, fast, precise and accurate. Moreover, it can be easily adapted to any infrared spectrometer equipped with a standard transmission IR cell, and provides attractive analytical features, which are comparable to, or better than those offered by other published methods. In consequence, it represents a valid alternative for the determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages, and could be suitable for the routine control analysis.

  17. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... physician or pharmacist in accordance with applicable law. For the purposes of this paragraph, delivery... valid prescription or order by, a licensed physician or pharmacist, or as otherwise allowed by...

  18. Alcoholic beverage consumption by adults 21 years and over in the United States: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study described in the Technical Report was conducted to answer specific questions from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Ethanol Subcommittee. The study uses data from three different instruments pertaining to alcoholic beverage intakes of adults 21 years and older in the Nationa...

  19. Village Alcohol Control and the Local Option Law. A Report to the Alaska State Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonner, Thomas D.; Duff, J. Kenneth

    This is a report on Alaska's "local option law" which allows villages to choose one of the following four options on alcohol availability in their communities: (1) the sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited unless sold under a community liquor license; (2) the sale of alcoholic beverages is limited to one of several types of retail…

  20. Addressing the Proximal Causes of Obesity: The Relevance of Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Lila

    2012-01-01

    Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance — like food — of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. Alcohol-use control policies restrict where, when, and by whom alcohol can be purchased and used. Access, salience, and impulsive drinking behaviors are addressed with regulations including alcohol outlet density limits, constraints on retail displays of alcoholic beverages, and restrictions on drink “specials.” We discuss 5 regulations that are effective in reducing drinking and why they may be promising if applied to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22554409

  1. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  2. A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase immobilized onto polyaniline film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples.

    PubMed

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-27

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification.

  3. Identification of the environmental neurotoxins annonaceous acetogenins in an Annona cherimolia Mill. Alcoholic Beverage Using HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap.

    PubMed

    Le Ven, Jessica; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Lewin, Guy; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2014-08-27

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have suggested Annonaceaeous acetogenins to be environmental neurotoxins responsible for sporadic atypical parkinsonism/dementia in tropical areas. These compounds are present in the tropical genus Annona (Annonaceae), known for its fruit-yielding cultivated species such as Annona cherimolia. This species is widely cultivated in South America, Spain, and Portugal and yields acetogenins in its seeds, stems, and roots. The presence of these compounds in the pulp of its fruit and in derived food products is unclear. An innovative and sensitive methodology by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap with postcolumn infusion of lithium iodide was used to identify the presence of low levels of acetogenins in an A. cherimolia Mill. fruit-based commercial alcoholic beverage. More than 80 representatives were detected, and the 31 most intense acetogenins were identified. All together these findings indicate that this species should be considered as a risk factor within the framework of a worldwide problem of food toxicity.

  4. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A.

    2009-08-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  5. Acidification of grape marc for alcoholic beverage production: effects on indigenous microflora and aroma profile after distillation.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Barbara; Nardi, Tiziana; Fontana, Federico; Carlot, Milena; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2012-01-16

    Grappa is an Italian alcoholic beverage obtained from distillation of grape marc, the raw material derived from separation of must during the winemaking process. Marc is stored for a period lasting from few days to several weeks, when fermentation of residual sugars occurs mainly by yeast activity. Many distilleries have adopted different solutions to manage this critical phase in order to avoid spoilage microorganisms: marc acidification is the most widely diffused. In this work, Prosecco grape pomace was acidified with sulphuric acid (to pH 2.9) and stored, whereas non-acidified grape marc was used as control (pH 3.9). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected at the beginning of the storage period, after 15 and 43days. At the beginning of the ensilage (time T0) the indigenous microflora was represented both by yeasts and bacteria at a concentration of about 10(6)cfu/g. During the first 15days, when the fermentation generally takes place, yeast population grew considerably (up to 10(7)cfu/g) in acidified grape marc, where bacterial population was maintained at low levels. Moreover, yeast populations recovered at the three sampling times in both treated and untreated marc were genetically characterised. This analysis showed that the species succession lead to non-Saccharomyces species dominance (in particular Issatchenkia and Pichia genera) in both conditions although acidified marc showed a lower percentage of Saccharomyces at any sampling time analysed, this meaning that non-Saccharomyces species were favoured in this environment. Gas chromatographic analysis showed a remarkable change in the aromatic profile of distilled grape marcs at the end of the storage, thus evidencing that concentration of monitored volatile compounds usually produced by microflora was generally lowered by the acidification treatment. This work demonstrates for the first time the strong effect of a persistent acidification treatment both on the microbiota of grape pomace and on

  6. Quantitative determination of five hydroxy acids, precursors of relevant wine aroma compounds in wine and other alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Moreno, Elisa; Lopez, Ricardo; Ferreira, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoic (2OH2MB), 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic (2OH3MB), 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic (3OH3MB), 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic (2OH4MP) and 3-hydroxybutanoic (3OHB) acids has been optimized, validated and applied to a set of wines and other alcoholic beverages. The analytes were preconcentrated in a solid phase extraction cartridge and derivatized with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl bromide at room temperature for 30 min, followed by GC-MS analysis. Detection limits were between 0.5 and 29 μg L(-1), and linearity was maintained up to 3 or 12 mg L(-1), depending on the analyte. Recovery values were between 85 and 106 %, and reproducibility was better than 12 % RSD in most cases. The first specific study of these analytes in wine and other alcoholic beverages is herein reported. Concentrations ranged from the method detection limits to 7820, 519, 8510, 3470 and 2500 μg L(-1) for 2OH2MB, 2OH3MB, 3OH3MB, 2OH4MP and 3OHB, respectively, which may have relevant sensory effects. These products were not found in distillates (except 3OHB) but were all present in beer. 2OH2MB, 3OH3MB and 3OHB were found in unfermented grape derivatives. Sherry wines had the highest levels of all except for 3OHB.

  7. In vitro and in vivo probiotic assessment of Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 isolated from pulque, a Mexican traditional alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Giles-Gómez, Martha; Sandoval García, Jorge Giovanni; Matus, Violeta; Campos Quintana, Itzia; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a Mexican traditional alcoholic, non-distilled, fermented beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap, known as aguamiel, extracted from several maguey (Agave) species. Pulque has traditionally been considered a healthy beverage due to its nutrient content and also a traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal infections. During pulque fermentation, the development of acidity, alcohol and viscosity define its final sensorial properties, developing an enriched environment where dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including diverse Leuconostoc species, are present. Because traditional pulque is consumed directly from the fermentation vessel, the naturally associated LAB are ingested and reach the human small intestine alive. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo probiotic assessment of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain P45 isolated from pulque. This isolated LAB species exhibited lysozyme, acid (pH 3.5) and bile salts (0.1 and 0.3 % oxgall) resistance. Antibacterial activity against the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were observed in assays involving cell-to-cell contact, cell-free 2× concentrated supernatants and cell-to-cell contact under exopolysaccharide-producing conditions. The in vivo probiotic assessment showed an anti-infective activity of L. mesenteroides P45 against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in challenged male and female BALB/c mice. Analysis of the available genome sequence of strain P45 allowed identified a pre-bacteriocin coding gene and six peptidoglycan hydrolase enzymes, probably involved in the antimicrobial activity of this strain. The results presented in this study support some potential microbial mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects on human health of this LAB involved in the fermentation of pulque.

  8. Low/No Calorie Sweetened Beverage Consumption in the National Weight Control Registry

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Thomas, J. Graham; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Roberts, Susan A.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Wing, Rena R.; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence of and strategies behind low/no calorie sweetened beverage (LNCSB) consumption in successful weight loss maintainers. Methods An online survey was administered to 434 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR, individuals who have lost ≥13.6 kg and maintained weight loss for > 1 year). Results While few participants (10%) consume sugar-sweetened beverages on a regular basis, 53% regularly consume LNCSB. The top five reasons for choosing LNCSB were for taste (54%), to satisfy thirst (40%), part of routine (27%), to reduce calories (22%) and to go with meals (21%). The majority who consume LNCSB (78%) felt they helped control total calorie intake. Many participants considered changing patterns of beverage consumption to be very important in weight loss (42%) and maintenance (40%). Increasing water was by far the most common strategy, followed by reducing regular calorie beverages. Conclusions Regular consumption of LNCSB is common in successful weight loss maintainers for various reasons including helping individuals to limit total energy intake. Changing beverage consumption patterns was felt to be very important for weight loss and maintenance by a substantial percentage of successful weight loss maintainers in the NWCR. PMID:25044563

  9. Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2010-02-24

    The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.

  10. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the... by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 3. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained... or drinkable liquids and all preparations or mixtures capable of human consumption and any...

  11. Investigation into the structural composition of hydroalcoholic solutions as basis for the development of multiple suppression pulse sequences for NMR measurement of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Mushtakova, Svetlana P; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-12-01

    An eight-fold suppression pulse sequence was recently developed to improve sensitivity in (1) H NMR measurements of alcoholic beverages [Magn. Res. Chem. 2011 (49): 734-739]. To ensure that only one combined hydroxyl peak from water and ethanol appears in the spectrum, adjustment to a certain range of ethanol concentrations was required. To explain this observation, the structure of water-ethanol solutions was studied. Hydroalcoholic solutions showed extreme behavior at 25% vol, 46% vol, and 83% vol ethanol according to (1) H NMR experiments. Near-infrared spectroscopy confirmed the occurrence of four significant compounds ('individual' ethanol and water structures as well as two water-ethanol complexes of defined composition - 1 : 1 and 1 : 3). The successful multiple suppression can be achieved for every kind of alcoholic beverage with different alcoholic strengths, when the final ethanol concentration is adjusted to a range between 25% vol and 46% vol (e.g. using dilution or pure ethanol addition). In this optimum region, an individual ethanol peak was not detected, because the 'individual' water structure and the 1 : 1 ethanol-water complex predominate. The nature of molecular association in ethanol-water solutions is essential to elucidate NMR method development for measurement of alcoholic beverages. The presented approach can be used to optimize other NMR suppression protocols for binary water-organic solvent mixtures, where hydrogen bonding plays a dominant role.

  12. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks.

  13. Cancer risk assessment of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Brazil with special consideration to the spirits cachaça and tiquira

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a multi-site carcinogen in experimental animals and probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A). Traces of EC below health-relevant ranges naturally occur in several fermented foods and beverages, while higher concentrations above 1 mg/l are regularly detected in only certain spirits derived from cyanogenic plants. In Brazil this concerns the sugarcane spirit cachaça and the manioc (cassava) spirit tiquira, which both regularly exceed the national EC limit of 0.15 mg/l. This study aims to estimate human exposure in Brazil and provide a quantitative risk assessment. Methods The human dietary intake of EC via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data in combination with own surveys and literature data. This data comprises the EC contents of the different beverage groups cachaça, tiquira, other spirits, beer, wine, and unrecorded alcohol (as defined by the WHO; including alcohol which is not captured in routine government statistics nor taxed). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Lifetime cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor. Results Considering differences between pot-still and column-still cachaça, its average EC content would be 0.38 mg/l. Tiquira contained a considerably higher average EC content of 2.34 mg/l. The whole population exposure from all alcoholic beverages was calculated to be around 100 to 200 ng/kg bw/day, with cachaça and unrecorded alcohol as the major contributing factors. The MOE was calculated to range between 400 and 2,466, with the lifetime cancer risk at approximately 3 cases in 10,000. An even higher risk may exist for binge-drinkers of cachaça and tiquira with MOEs of up to 80 and 15, respectively. Conclusions According to our risk assessment, EC poses a significant cancer risk for the alcohol-drinking population in Brazil, in

  14. Influence of high intensity sweeteners and sugar alcohols on a beverage microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Julien; Wolfrum, Stefan; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner

    2015-12-15

    The present paper shows the effects of added sugars and sweeteners on the clearing temperature of a highly water dilutable fatty acid salt microemulsion used as a model of a beverage concentrate. There is a twofold interest in this work. The first one is practical and relates to the fact that many fatty acid salt surfactants can be used in food without major regulatory restrictions. As is shown here, they allow making highly stable microemulsions even at neutral and acidic pH. The second one is more of scientific interest. The model system can be used to study the effect of sugars and sweeteners on the formulation stability depending on their charges, amphiphilic properties, and localization in the microemulsion interfacial film. An important practical result is the discovery of the possibility to formulate highly dilutable microemulsions at neutral or slightly acid pH with a good taste in presence of sucralose. Further, a significant decrease of the pKA of the fatty acid is observed in presence of stevia, thus allowing transparent, fairly stable systems at neutral pH.

  15. Determination of geographical origin of alcoholic beverages using ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uríčková, Veronika; Sádecká, Jana

    2015-09-01

    The identification of the geographical origin of beverages is one of the most important issues in food chemistry. Spectroscopic methods provide a relative rapid and low cost alternative to traditional chemical composition or sensory analyses. This paper reviews the current state of development of ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopic techniques combined with pattern recognition methods for determining geographical origin of both wines and distilled drinks. UV, Vis, and NIR spectra contain broad band(s) with weak spectral features limiting their discrimination ability. Despite this expected shortcoming, each of the three spectroscopic ranges (NIR, Vis/NIR and UV/Vis/NIR) provides average correct classification higher than 82%. Although average correct classification is similar for NIR and MIR regions, in some instances MIR data processing improves prediction. Advantage of using MIR is that MIR peaks are better defined and more easily assigned than NIR bands. In general, success in a classification depends on both spectral range and pattern recognition methods. The main problem still remains the construction of databanks needed for all of these methods.

  16. Determination of geographical origin of alcoholic beverages using ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy: A review.

    PubMed

    Uríčková, Veronika; Sádecká, Jana

    2015-09-05

    The identification of the geographical origin of beverages is one of the most important issues in food chemistry. Spectroscopic methods provide a relative rapid and low cost alternative to traditional chemical composition or sensory analyses. This paper reviews the current state of development of ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopic techniques combined with pattern recognition methods for determining geographical origin of both wines and distilled drinks. UV, Vis, and NIR spectra contain broad band(s) with weak spectral features limiting their discrimination ability. Despite this expected shortcoming, each of the three spectroscopic ranges (NIR, Vis/NIR and UV/Vis/NIR) provides average correct classification higher than 82%. Although average correct classification is similar for NIR and MIR regions, in some instances MIR data processing improves prediction. Advantage of using MIR is that MIR peaks are better defined and more easily assigned than NIR bands. In general, success in a classification depends on both spectral range and pattern recognition methods. The main problem still remains the construction of databanks needed for all of these methods.

  17. Consumption of cranberry beverage improved endogenous antioxidant status and protected against bacteria adhesion in healthy humans: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Bridget D; Kimble, Lindsey L; Kaspar, Kerrie L; Khoo, Christina; Chew, Boon P

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of polyphenol-rich foods is associated with lower risk from many chronic diseases. We hypothesized that a single dose of cranberry beverage would improve indices of oxidative stress, inflammation, and urinary antibacterial adhesion activity in healthy humans. Six males and 6 females (18-35 years; body mass index, 19-25 kg/m(2)) consumed placebo, cranberry leaf extract beverage, or low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (LCJC) once in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design trial. The washout period between beverages was 1 week. Blood was collected 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after beverage consumption for measuring oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. Urine was collected at 0, 0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, and 24 hours postintervention to assess antibacterial adhesion activity. Consumption of cranberry leaf extract beverage elevated (P < .05) blood glutathione peroxidase activity, whereas LCJC consumption increased (P < .05) glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity compared with placebo. Cranberry leaf extract beverage and LCJC consumption had no effect on the inflammatory biomarkers measured as compared with placebo. At 0 to 3 hours postconsumption, urine from participants who consumed cranberry beverages had higher (P < .05) ex vivo antiadhesion activity against P-fimbriated Escherichia coli compared with placebo. An acute dose of cranberry beverages improved biomarkers of antioxidant status and inhibition of bacterial adhesion in urine.

  18. A micellar improved method for trace levels selenium quantification in food samples, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages through CPE/FAAS.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Halil İbrahim; Yılmaz, Oznur; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2013-08-15

    A useful preconcentration and determination method was proposed for trace selenium in food samples. The procedure is based on complex formation of Pyronine B with Se(IV) ions in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Ponpe 7.5. The variables affecting complex formation, extraction and phase separation were studied and optimised. Under the experimental conditions used, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 20-1700 μg L(-1) for Se(IV) ions. The limit of detection was 3.81 μg L(-1) of Se(IV) and the relative standard deviation for 5 replicate determinations at 250 μg L(-1) concentration level was 2.45%. Recovery values were obtained between 97.8% and 102.8% for spiked samples. The method was successfully applied to the determination of total selenium in some food samples and alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Its validity was checked by the analysis of four certified reference materials. The results obtained by the proposed method were quantitatively in good agreement with the certified values.

  19. Power and Control in Families of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that the study of human behavior is the study of social interaction. Describes a theoretical perspective from sociology and shows how it relates to the alcoholic family. Analyzes the dynamics within a family affected by alcoholism to examine who has the power, who maintains control, how one loses power, and how power is exhibited. (NB)

  20. An in vitro-in vivo correlation study for nifedipine immediate release capsules administered with water, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages: Impact of in vitro dissolution media and hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, A; Fares, R; Bresciani, M; Fotaki, N

    2016-02-29

    The impact of hydrodynamics and media composition on nifedipine dissolution profile from IR (immediate release) soft capsules was investigated using dissolution apparatus USP1, USP2, USP3 and USP4 (United State Pharmacopoeia). Media composition was varied in terms of pH and content, to mimic the dosage form intake with water or non-alcoholic beverages (orange juice) and alcoholic beverages (orange juice/ethanol mixture (47% v/v)). Through construction of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) with corresponding in vivo data from the literature, it was possible to evaluate the in vitro conditions that are likely to simulate the in vivo formulation behaviour. Both linear and nonlinear correlations were obtained depending on experimental set-ups. Testing of 20mg nifedipine capsules in FaSSGFst (Fasted State Simulated Gastric Fluid pH 1.6; water administration) produced IVIVC with the USP3 (after time scaling) and USP4 apparatus. IVIVC were obtained for USP2, USP3 and USP4 in FaSSGFoj (Fasted State Simulated Gastric Fluid pH 3.4; orange juice administration). Linear and nonlinear correlations were obtained with the USP1, USP2 and USP3 apparatus when testing the capsules in FaSSGFoj/EtOH (orange juice/ethanol administration). This study highlighted that selection of physiologically relevant dissolution set-ups is critical for predicting the in vivo impact of formulations co-administration with water, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages.

  1. Quinine and the ABCs of Long QT: A Patient's Misfortune with Arthritis, (Alcoholic) Beverages, and Cramps.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Elyce T; Frizzell, Jarrod D; Gabaldon, Jude; West, Michael B

    2016-10-01

    A 91-year-old woman presented to the emergency department by ambulance after her family found her minimally responsive. Telemetry monitoring demonstrated episodes of non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) associated with significantly prolonged repolarization. Her medical history revealed that she was taking quinine or a derivative in three different forms: hydroxychloroquine, quinine sulfate (for leg cramps), and her gin mixed with tonic water (containing quinine). The present case is illustrative of classic etiologies and findings of acquired long QT syndrome, and serves as an important reminder for providers to take a complete medication history, including use of duplicative and alternative medicines and type of alcohol consumption.

  2. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.

  3. Analysis of volatile phenols in alcoholic beverage by ethylene glycol-polydimethylsiloxane based stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Qian, Yanping; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-17

    An ethylene glycol (EG)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) copolymer based stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-GC-MS method was developed for the analysis of volatile phenols (4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol) in alcoholic beverages. The beverage samples were diluted with phosphate buffer (1M, pH 7) and extracted with an EG/PDMS stir bar. Volatile phenols were thermally desorbed and analyzed by GC-MS. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were studied including ionic strength, pH, extraction time, ethanol content and nonvolatile matrix. Good correlation coefficients with R(2) in the range of 0.994-0.999 were obtained for volatile phenol concentration of 5-500μg/L. Recovery for all phenols were from 95.7% to 104.4% in a beer matrix and 81.4% to 97.6% in a wine matrix. The method had a standard deviation less than 5.8% for all volatile phenols. The limit of quantification (LOQs) in beer samples was lower than 3μg/L. The method was further applied to analyze the concentrations of volatile phenols in beer, wine and other alcoholic beverage samples.

  4. Household social characteristics of the demand for alcoholic beverages among Spanish students.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Gil-Lacruz, Marta

    2013-03-01

    This paper studies how household social capital affects adolescents' demand for alcoholic drinks. To that end, we focus on a theoretical framework that combines elements from the Model of Rational Addiction and the Model of Social Economics. For the empirical framework, we use a simultaneous Type II Tobit model, with data drawn from the Spanish National Survey on Drug Use in the School Population (2000, 2002, and 2004). The sample is comprised of 12,627 students aged 17 years old. Our results confirm that parents' decisions about drinking are even more decisive in their children's behavior than socioeconomic variables, such as parents' educative levels or working status. Parental responsibilities go beyond the endowment of health and educational goods and services; so, these results suggest the importance of designing family-drug use prevention programs. The study's limitations are noted.

  5. Survival of foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and Bacillus cereus spores in fermented alcoholic beverages (beer and refined rice wine).

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Kim, N H; Lee, S H; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2014-03-01

    Only limited information is available on the microbiological safety of fermented alcoholic beverages because it is still a common belief that such beverages do not provide a favorable environment for bacterial growth and survival. Thus, in this study, we examined the survival of major foodborne pathogens and spores in fermented alcoholic beverages. Foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) and B. cereus spores (initial population, 3 to 4 log CFU/ml) were inoculated separately into three types of beer and refined rice wine, which were then stored at 5 and 22°C. Bacterial counts were assayed periodically for up to 28 days. Vegetative B. cereus counts decreased rapidly, whereas B. cereus spore counts remained constant (P > 0.05) for a long period of time in all beverages. Vegetative B. cereus cells formed spores in beer at 5 and 22°C, and the spores survived for long periods. Among vegetative cells, E. coli O157:H7 had the highest survival (only 1.49 to 1.56 log reduction during 28 days in beer at 5°C). Beer and refined rice wine supported microbial survival from several days to several weeks. Our results appear to contradict the common belief that pathogens cannot survive in alcoholic beverages. Long-term survival of pathogens (especially B. cereus and E. coli O157:H7) in beer and refined rice wine should be taken into consideration by the manufacturers of these beverages. This study provides basic information that should help further research into microbial survival in alcoholic beverages and increase the microbiological safety regulation of fermented alcoholic beverages.

  6. A Comparison between Locus of Control in Inpatient Alcoholics and Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon K.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Internal-External Control Scale to 22 male alcoholics in residential treatment and 8 adult male children of alcoholics (COAs) in outpatient counseling. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics demonstrated external control orientation. COAs also exhibited external locus of control. Alcoholics in first residential treatment demonstrated more…

  7. Sorghum-based alcoholic beverage, Burukutu, perturbs the redox status of the liver of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Abdulazeez, Azeemat T; Muhammed, Aisha O; Kolawole, Fausat L

    2014-01-01

    The redox status of male rat liver following 28 days consumption of Burukutu was investigated. Twenty rats were randomized into four groups with five rats each. Burukutu consumption at 0.78 g/kg alcohol produced no significant change in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). However, 3.71 and 7.43 g/kg dosages resulted in significant decrease in the activities of ALP, ALT and AST with corresponding increase in serum. The activity of cytochrome P450(CYP 2E1) increased significantly in the liver of rats following consumption of Burukutu at all doses investigated. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in rats treat with 0.78 g/kg, 3.41 and 7.43 g/kg Burukutu. There was a significant increase in the level of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) with reduction in the levels of glutathione reduced (GSH) and GSH:GSSG. The levels of oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl and percentage DNA fragmentation, increased significantly (P < 0.05). It is evident from the alterations in the activities of the hepatocellular enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers that Burukutu mediated its toxicity through the depletion of the antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25473518

  8. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  9. Analysis of bacterial community during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage, using a polyphasic approach.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Adelfo; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Hernández, Georgina; Córdova-Aguilar, María Soledad; López-Munguía, Agustín; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco

    2008-05-31

    In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries from total DNA extracted from the maguey sap (aguamiel) used as substrate, after inoculation with a sample of previously produced pulque and followed by 6-h fermentation. Microbiological diversity results were correlated with fermentation process parameters such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and fermentation product concentrations. In addition, medium rheological behavior analysis and scanning electron microscopy in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation were also performed. Our results showed that both culture and non-culture dependent approaches allowed the detection of several new and previously reported species within the alpha-, gamma-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bacteria diversity in aguamiel was composed by the heterofermentative Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides, L. kimchi, the gamma-Proteobacteria Erwinia rhapontici, Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter radioresistens. Inoculation with previously fermented pulque incorporated to the system microbiota, homofermentative lactobacilli related to Lactobacillus acidophilus, several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important amount of yeasts, creating a starting metabolic diversity composed by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, acetic and ethanol producing microorganisms. At the end of the fermentation process, the bacterial diversity was mainly composed by the homofermentative Lactobacillus acidophilus, the heterofermentative L. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After

  10. Acid and alcohol tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pulque, a typical Mexican beverage.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Díaz-Cruz, Claudio A; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Del Refugio Torres-Vitela, M; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2012-03-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican fermented alcoholic beverage produced from the nectar of maguey agave plants. No data exist on the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in agave nectar and pulque. An initial trial was done of the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 during fermentation of nectar from a single producer, a nectar mixture from different producers and "seed" pulque. A second trial simulating artisanal pulque production was done by contaminating fresh nectar with a cocktail of three E. coli O157:H7 strains, storing at 16 ° and 22 °C for 14 h, adding seed pulque and fermenting until pulque was formed. A third trial used pulque from the second trial stored at 22 °C as seed to ferment fresh nectar at 22 °C for 48 h (fermentation cycle). This procedure was repeated for an additional two fermentation cycles. During incubation at 16 ° or 22 °C in the first trial, the E. coli O157:H7 strains multiplied in both the single producer nectar and nectar mixture, reaching maximum concentration at 12h. E. coli O157:H7 cell concentration then decreased slowly, although it survived at least 72 h in both fermented nectars. E. coli O157:H7 did not multiply in the seed pulque but did survive at least 72 h. In the second trial, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 increased approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml at 22 °C and 1.2 log CFU/ml at 16 °C after 14 h. After seed pulque was added, E. coli O157:H7 concentration decreased to approximately 2 log CFU/ml, and then remained constant until pulque was produced. In the third trial, the E. coli O157:H7 cells multiplied and survived during at least three nectar fermentation cycles. The results suggest that E. coli O157:H7 can develop acid and alcohol tolerance in pulque, and constitutes a public health risk for pulque consumers.

  11. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism: studies in unrelated alcoholics, normal controls and alcoholic families.

    PubMed

    Parsian, A; Suarez, B K; Tabakoff, B; Hoffman, P; Ovchinnikova, L; Fisher, L; Cloninger, C R

    1994-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (A and B) are of great interest in connection with alcoholism. Low MAO activity has been found in the brains and the platelets of alcoholics and their relatives supporting the hypothesis that low MAO activity is a biological marker for vulnerability to misuse. In order to determine the role of the MAO genes in alcoholism we have measured MAO-B activity and typed two simple sequence repeats (one in the MAO-A gene and one in the MAO-B gene) in a sample of 133 unrelated alcoholics, 300 subjects from 30 two- and three-generation pedigrees ascertained through an alcoholic proband, and 92 normal controls. The unrelated alcoholic group did not differ in MAO-B activity from normal controls nor were there significant differences between subtypes. We did, however, find significant differences between alcoholic males and females (t = 2.836, p = .005), a difference that was not present in controls. A two-way analysis of variance of MAO-B activity as a function of the allelic variation of each marker locus and diagnosis among male subjects was performed. There was no evidence for mean differences in activity levels for different alleles. The distribution of MAO-A and MAO-B "alleles" in the alcoholic sample differed from that of the control sample. Affected sib pair linkage analysis of MAO genes and alcoholism showed no evidence for an excess of concordant affected sib pairs suggesting that this region of the X-chromosome does not harbor a susceptibility locus.

  12. Drug Abuse & Alcoholism Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-09-01

    therapeutic program within the halfway house qnd " RAP " center programs. j. Casual Supplier: One who furnishes illegally, wrongfully or improperly to another...34 RAP " Center. f. To meet as often as required, but once a month as a minium. S. ORGANIZATION. a. The AMIIC should be chaired by a senior combat arms...with health and welfare agencies and alcohol and drug prevention programs in the civilian community. b. Halfway House - RAP Center should: (1) Serve

  13. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a shot of whiskey? Can the rate of alcohol-induced harm be affected by altering the population’s beverage choices?

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Pia; Hellman, Matilda; Kerr, William; Room, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and puts into context the findings from the five articles contained in this thematic issue. The question of interest has been the connection between different beverage types and alcohol-induced harm. The key question is whether policy makers can affect rates of harm by affecting beverage choice. In the discussion, four different potential pathways for such an effect are differentiated. The first is the direct effect of the beverage over and above the effect of the ethanol it contains. The review of results suggests that the size of this effect may be modest, and it is clearly overmatched by cultural factors relating to who chooses to drink which beverage and how. However, even more relevant than the direct effect may be the other three mechanisms, which potentially affect the amounts of alcohol drunk or allow the influencing of drinker groups of interest. PMID:24431477

  14. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a shot of whiskey? Can the rate of alcohol-induced harm be affected by altering the population's beverage choices?

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Pia; Hellman, Matilda; Kerr, William; Room, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and puts into context the findings from the five articles contained in this thematic issue. The question of interest has been the connection between different beverage types and alcohol-induced harm. The key question is whether policy makers can affect rates of harm by affecting beverage choice. In the discussion, four different potential pathways for such an effect are differentiated. The first is the direct effect of the beverage over and above the effect of the ethanol it contains. The review of results suggests that the size of this effect may be modest, and it is clearly overmatched by cultural factors relating to who chooses to drink which beverage and how. However, even more relevant than the direct effect may be the other three mechanisms, which potentially affect the amounts of alcohol drunk or allow the influencing of drinker groups of interest.

  15. The Rapid Measurement of Benzodiazepines in a Milk-Based Alcoholic Beverage Using QuEChERS Extraction and GC-MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Famiglini, Giorgio; Capriotti, Fabiana; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Cappiello, Achille

    2015-05-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are widely used as tranquilizers and anti-depressive drugs in common clinical practice. However, their ready availability and their synergistic effects with alcohol make them attractive for criminal intentions. To prove criminal action for legal reasons, it is often necessary to analyze beverage residues from a crime scene. Milk-based alcoholic drinks (whiskey creams) are gaining popularity due to their lower alcohol content pleasant taste. However, the complexity of this sample, containing proteins and fatty acids, can mask the presence of drugs or other substances in standard analysis methods. These characteristics make whiskey creams highly suitable for illicit purposes. In this study, eight BDZs, including diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, flunitrazepam, bromazepam, flurazepam, nitrazepam and clonazepam, were extracted from whiskey cream using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and analyzed using GC-MS. The QuEChERS protocol can efficiently separate most of the matrix from the target compounds while maintaining acceptable recoveries. The presented method is simple and rapid and has been validated in terms of precision, accuracy and recoveries. Limits of detection and limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.02-0.1 and 0.1-0.5 µg/mL, respectively. Whiskey cream beverages, fortified with commercial drugs at 20 µg/mL, were extracted and analyzed demonstrating the applicability of the method in forensic analysis.

  16. Microbiological Spoilage of Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, Kathleen A.; Schuman, James D.; Simpson, Peter G.; Taormina, Peter J.

    Commercially packaged, non-alcoholic, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages comprise a diverse group of products, both carbonated (sparkling) and non-carbonated (still), that appeal to consumers of all ages and provide refreshment, hydration, energy, and nutrition at home and "on-the-go." Examples of such products include purified, mineral, and spring waters, flavored or enhanced waters, colas, fruit-flavored sodas, sports and energy drinks, fruit or vegetable juices, teas, coffees, smoothies, dairy and yogurt drinks, and fusion beverages (hybrid products that bridge multiple beverage categories).

  17. Alcohol Policy Considerations for Indian Reservations and Bordertown Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading health problems among American Indian communities. Public policy options that address these problems include controlling the supply of alcoholic beverages; shaping drinking practices directly; or reducing physical and social environmental risks. Discusses alcohol-related death rates and community…

  18. Clarification as to why alcoholic beverages have the ability to induce superconductivity in Fe1+dTe1-xSx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, K.; Sato, D.; Sugimoto, M.; Hara, H.; Kawasaki, Y.; Demura, S.; Watanabe, T.; Denholme, S. J.; Okazaki, H.; Ozaki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeya, H.; Soga, T.; Tomita, M.; Takano, Y.

    2012-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism as to why alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity in Fe1+dTe1-xSx samples, we performed component analysis and found that a weak acid such as an organic acid has the ability to induce superconductivity. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was performed on weak acid solutions post-annealing. We found that the mechanism of inducement of superconductivity in Fe1+dTe1-xSx is the deintercalation of excess Fe from the interlayer sites.

  19. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  20. Consumption of orange fermented beverage reduces cardiovascular risk factors in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Berná, Genoveva; Ortega, Ángeles; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Cerrillo, Isabel; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of fruits prevents the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Alcoholic fermentation has been carried out in fruits resulting in products which provide high concentration of bioactive compounds and variable alcohol content. The aim of this study was to assess the potential beneficial effect of an orange beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation and pasteurization of orange juice on cardiovascular risk biomarkers. For this purpose, four mice groups (n = 8) ingested orange beverage (equivalent volume to 250 mL/day in human), orange juice, alcoholic solution (at the proportional amount of orange beverage) or water during 12 weeks. The equivalent amount to double serving of orange beverage (500 mL/day) was administered to mice in a subsequent intervention, and a control group was also evaluated. Orange beverage consumption increased levels of glutathione and uric acid, improved lipid profile, decreased oxidized LDL and maintained levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Synergistic effects between the bioactive compounds and the alcohol content of orange beverage may occur. The intake of double serving also increased antioxidant enzyme activities, bilirubin content and plasma antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that orange beverage may produce greater protection against cardiovascular risk factors than orange juice in healthy mice.

  1. Development of a dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled to GC-qMSD for evaluation the chemical profile in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, F; Caldeira, M; Câmara, J S

    2008-02-18

    In the present study, a simple and sensitive methodology based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography with quadrupole mass detection (GC-qMSD), was developed and optimized for the determination of volatile (VOCs) and semi-volatile (SVOCs) compounds from different alcoholic beverages: wine, beer and whisky. Key experimental factors influencing the equilibrium of the VOCs and SVOCs between the sample and the SPME fibre, as the type of fibre coating, extraction time and temperature, sample stirring and ionic strength, were optimized. The performance of five commercially available SPME fibres was evaluated and compared, namely polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100 microm); polyacrylate (PA, 85 microm); polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB, 65 microm); carboxentrade mark/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS, 75 microm) and the divinylbenzene/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS, 50/30 microm) (StableFlex). An objective comparison among different alcoholic beverages has been established in terms of qualitative and semi-quantitative differences on volatile and semi-volatile compounds. These compounds belong to several chemical families, including higher alcohols, ethyl esters, fatty acids, higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters, carbonyl compounds, furanic compounds, terpenoids, C13-norisoprenoids and volatile phenols. The optimized extraction conditions and GC-qMSD, lead to the successful identification of 44 compounds in white wines, 64 in beers and 104 in whiskys. Some of these compounds were found in all of the examined beverage samples. The main components of the HS-SPME found in white wines were ethyl octanoate (46.9%), ethyl decanoate (30.3%), ethyl 9-decenoate (10.7%), ethyl hexanoate (3.1%), and isoamyl octanoate (2.7%). As for beers, the major compounds were isoamyl alcohol (11.5%), ethyl octanoate (9.1%), isoamyl acetate (8.2%), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (5.9%), and octanoic acid (5

  2. Anticipated effects of alcohol stimulate craving and impair inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Jennings, Emily; Rose, Abigail K

    2016-05-01

    A considerable evidence base has demonstrated that priming doses of alcohol impair inhibitory control and activate motivation to consume alcohol. There is, however, a lack of studies investigating the effect of placebo-alcohol on these processes and their association with alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE). We investigated the effect of placebo-alcohol on craving and inhibitory control, and the extent to which placebo effects correlated with AOE in 32 nondependent drinkers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing typical alcohol use (fortnightly alcohol consumption, AUDIT) and AOE (measured using the Alcohol Outcome Expectancy Scale). On a within-subjects basis participants consumed a placebo-alcohol drink and control drink. Measures of craving were taken pre- and postdrink, and participants completed a go/no-go task following the drink. Craving was increased by the placebo-alcohol and, importantly, placebo-alcohol impaired inhibitory control. Furthermore expectancies of cognitive and behavioral impairment were correlated with go/no-go task performance following a placebo. Increases in craving were associated with a range of elevated outcome expectancies. This suggests that the anticipated effects of alcohol can impair inhibitory control and increase craving; therefore studies using placebo versus alcohol comparisons relative to studies using a pure no-alcohol control are underestimating the real-world effect of alcohol on these processes, which is a combination of pharmacological and anticipated effects of alcohol. Furthermore, individual differences in AOE may influence reactivity to the anticipated effects of alcohol. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Nondairy beverage produced by controlled fermentation with potential probiotic starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ana Luiza; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa Souza, Patrícia Nirlane; Cardoso, Mauro Guilherme Barros; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2017-02-21

    This work aimed to develop a nondairy fermented beverage from a blend of cassava and rice based on Brazilian indigenous beverage cauim using probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast. The indigenous strains Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0743 (from cauim) and Torulaspora delbrueckii CCMA 0235 (from tarubá), and the commercial probiotic, L. acidophilus LAC-04, were used as starter cultures in single and co-cultivations. The bacteria populations were around 8.0 log (CFU/mL) at the end of all fermentations as recommended for probiotic products. Higher residual starch contents were noted in the single LAB cultures (10.6% [w/w]) than in co-cultures (<6% [w/w]), showing that co-culture may help the digestibility. For all different assays (single and co-culture), lactic acid was the main organic acid detected (>1.6g/L) and ethanol was lower than 0.5% (w/v) consisting in a non-alcoholic beverage. The assays containing yeast showed the highest antioxidant activity (around 10% by DPPH and ABTS methods). Therefore, a nondairy fermented beverage was successfully obtained, and the co-culture of LAB and T. delbrueckii could increase the product's functional properties.

  4. Control Characteristics of Alcohol-Impaired Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, Henry R.; McRuer, Duane T.; Allen, R. Wade; Klein, Richard H.

    1974-01-01

    Although the operation of vehicles like airplanes, cars, and bicycles involves a complex array of perceptual, decision and control activities, most accident statistics clearly show that intoxicated operators are a dominant cause of accidents, and not the difficulty of the task itself. This paper summarizes some recent research on the nature of the impairment of operator control under blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) up to above 0.16 percent. Alcohol toxicity is shown to be quite specific with respect to visual-motor functions involved in control of a vehicle, and experiments with a generalized workload task and special driving simulator show how these are reflected in terms of changes in operator control parameters such as response latency, gains, stability margins, and coherency.

  5. 27 CFR 19.58 - Use of taxpaid distilled spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. Bitters, patent medicines, and similar alcoholic preparations which are fit for beverage purposes, although held out as having certain medicinal properties, are also alcoholic beverages... spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use. 19.58 Section 19.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  6. ALCOHOL-RELATED CUES POTENTIATE ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL IN DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023

  7. Microbiological diversity and prevalence of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in commercial fermented alcoholic beverages (beer, fruit wine, refined rice wine, and yakju).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Hui; Kim, Nam Hee; Shim, Moon Bo; Jeon, Young Wook; Ahn, Ji Hye; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gyun; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined 469 commercially available fermented alcoholic beverages (FABs), including beer (draft, microbrewed, and pasteurized), fruit wine (grape and others), refined rice wine, and yakju (raw and pasteurized). Samples were screened for Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica), and the aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, fungi, and total coliforms were also enumerated. Microbrewed beer contained the highest number of microorganisms (average aerobic plate count, 3.5; lactic acid bacteria, 2.1; acetic acid bacteria, 2.0; and fungi, 3.6 log CFU/ml), followed by draft beer and yakju (P < 0.05), whereas the other FABs contained , 25 CFU/25 ml microorganisms. Unexpectedly, neither microbial diversity nor microbial count correlated with the alcohol content (4.7 to 14.1%) or pH (3.4 to 4.2) of the product. Despite the harsh conditions, coliforms (detected in 23.8% of microbrewed beer samples) and B. cereus (detected in all FABs) were present in some products. B. cereus was detected most frequently in microbrewed beer (54.8% of samples) and nonpasteurized yakju (50.0%), followed by pasteurized yakju (28.8%), refined rice wine (25.0%), other fruit wines (12.3%), grape wine (8.6%), draft beer (5.6%), and pasteurized beer (2.2%) (P < 0.05). The finding that spore-forming B. cereus and coliform bacteria can survive the harsh conditions present in alcoholic beverages should be taken into account (alongside traditional quality indicators such as the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, acetic acid-producing bacteria, or both) when developing manufacturing systems and methods to prolong the shelf life of high-quality FAB products. New strategic quality management plans for various FABs are needed.

  8. The Effect of Different Beverage Consumption (Dough, Non-Alcoholic Beer, Carbohydrated Replacement Drink) on Performance, Lipids Profile, Inflammatory Biomarkers After Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test in Taekwondo Players

    PubMed Central

    Shiranian, Afshin; Darvishi, Leila; Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feyzi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Mehrabani, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: After exercise, recovery is very essential in professional sport. Athletes use sport beverages to enhance endurance and physical performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Dough versus non-alcoholic beer and carbohydrate (CHO) fluid on performance, lipids profile, inflammatory biomarkers after Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (R.A.S.T) in Taekwondo players. Methods: This study was conducted as repeated measures crossover design with 22 men Taekwondo player. Subjects completed standard protocol R.A.S.T so that immediately and 1 h posterior R.A.S.T protocol received number 1 beverage. Subjects spend 2 h recovery periods. Second and third sessions trial were similar to prior trial, separated by at least 4 days, instead of number 1 beverage, participants received number 2 and number 3 beverage. Results: Data showed that average pre- and post-recovery in C-reactive protein (CRP) or Dough significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while for CHO drink and non-alcoholic beer, were not statistically significant. Moreover, the mean pre- and post-recovery in VO2 max for Dough and non-alcoholic beer significantly increased, but for other beverages, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). About mean pre- and post-recovery in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) there were no significant differences in all three beverages. Besides, amount of CRP was significant between three beverages (P < 0.05). There were no other within-subject differences for any of the other variables measured, including HDL, LDL, and VO2max. In addition, no significant different (P > 0.05) in dietary intake were observed between three treatment periods. Conclusions: Dough was effective in reducing LDL and reducing inflammatory biomarkers including CRP with little effect on performance in subjects. PMID:23717770

  9. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  10. Caloric Beverage Intake Among Adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141

  11. Liquid chromatography-electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry with the Direct-EI interface in the fast determination of diazepam and flunitrazepam in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Famiglini, Giorgio; Termopoli, Veronica; Palma, Pierangela; Cappiello, Achille

    2016-04-01

    This is the first application based on electron ionization (EI) using a Direct-EI LC interface and MS/MS to detect unequivocally target compounds in a very small real sample. The determination and quantification of benzodiazepines in very small residues of beverages, collected at the scene of drug-facilitated crimes are mandatory in legal procedures. A specific and sensitive analytical instrumentation is needed, involving little or no sample preparation. Here, a direct flow injection analysis of alcoholic beverages spiked with commercially available drugs containing diazepam and flunitrazepam is presented. The method proposed is very fast and requires neither sample preparation nor chromatographic separation. Linearity (R(2) ) was between 0.9977 and 0.9992; LOD and LOQ spanned from 0.01 to 0.02 ng/μL and from 0.1 to 0.5 ng/μL, respectively; intra- and interday repeatabilities were between 1 and 8%. No matrix effects were observed from the comparison of the linear regression curves obtained in real fortified samples and in pure ethanol. Vodka, whisky, and white wine specimens were fortified with commercial drugs, Valium(®) and Rohypnol(®) , at two different concentrations (20 and 50 ng/μL) to simulate the typical amounts found in adulterated real samples and analyzed to demonstrate the method applicability to forensic analyses.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 Isolated from Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage

    PubMed Central

    Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Campos, Itzia; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 was isolated from the traditional Mexican pulque beverage. We report its draft genome sequence, assembled in 6 contigs consisting of 1,874,188 bp and no plasmids. Genome annotation predicted a total of 1,800 genes, 1,687 coding sequences, 52 pseudogenes, 9 rRNAs, 51 tRNAs, 1 noncoding RNA, and 44 frameshifted genes. PMID:25377708

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 Isolated from Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    PubMed

    Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Campos, Itzia; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2014-11-06

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 was isolated from the traditional Mexican pulque beverage. We report its draft genome sequence, assembled in 6 contigs consisting of 1,874,188 bp and no plasmids. Genome annotation predicted a total of 1,800 genes, 1,687 coding sequences, 52 pseudogenes, 9 rRNAs, 51 tRNAs, 1 noncoding RNA, and 44 frameshifted genes.

  14. Characterization of bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, as determined by 16S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Adelfo; Rodríguez, María Elena; Martínez, Alfredo; López-Munguía, Agustín; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2004-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, was studied in 16S rDNA clone libraries from three pulque samples. Sequenced clones identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus strain ASF360, L. kefir, L. acetotolerans, L. hilgardii, L. plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Microbacterium arborescens, Flavobacterium johnsoniae, Acetobacter pomorium, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Hafnia alvei, were detected for the first time in pulque. Identity of 16S rDNA sequenced clones showed that bacterial diversity present among pulque samples is dominated by Lactobacillus species (80.97%). Seventy-eight clones exhibited less than 95% of relatedness to NCBI database sequences, which may indicate the presence of new species in pulque samples.

  15. Validation (in-house and collaboratory) of the quantification method for ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhu; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Chen, Qing; Han, Jian-Long; Shen, Xiang-Hong

    2013-12-15

    A method for ethyl carbamate (EC) determination in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce was developed by GC-MS. We adopted the diatomaceous earth solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and elution solvent of ethyl acetate/diethyl ether (5:95 v/v) for sample cleaning. The in-house validation showed the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5.0 μg/kg. In the accuracy assay, the total average recovery for was 96.7%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <5%. Subsequently, a collaborative trial was organized for the further validation. The RSDs for repeatability and reproducibility were 1.2-7.8% and 2.3-9.6% respectively. It indicated that the present method performed well in different laboratories.

  16. 78 FR 37991 - Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 655 RIN 2132-AB09 Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing... to revise sections of the Alcohol and Controlled Substances (D&A) Testing regulation to reflect... changes to FTA's drug and alcohol testing program and makes other minor technical amendments....

  17. Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Food Energy Density and Higher Consumption of Sugary and Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E.; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Methods Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Results Compared to individuals with ≤1 OREB, those with ≥5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001) and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (β 7; 95% CI −7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05) and of alcoholic beverages (β 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001). Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. Conclusions OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake. PMID:24204756

  18. A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support. PMID:21272368

  19. Use of alcoholic beverages and other psychoactive substances among women in Turkey: medical, biological, and social consequences. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dişsiz, Melike; Oskay, Umran Yesiltepe; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya

    2010-06-01

    This research was planned for determining the genitourinary health problems of alcohol and other psychoactive substance-dependent women. This research was conducted using a descriptive method at the Alcohol-Substance Research, Treatment and Education Center (ASRTEC). The research sample comprised 126 women who presented at ASRTEC clinic between September 15, 2006 and March 15, 2007, and were diagnosed as being alcohol/drug dependent according to DSM-IV. The data were collected using an Addicted Women's Genitourinary Health Evaluation Form and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale. In this study 37.3% of the women were alcohol dependent and 62.7% were substance dependent. It was determined that alcohol and other psychoactive substance-dependent women experience a high rate of genitourinary health problems, such as unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners, irregular menstrual cycles, sexual dysfunction, unwanted pregnancies, and abortions.

  20. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a comprehensive accreditation intervention to reduce alcohol consumption at community sports clubs: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Tindall, Jennifer; Gillham, Karen E; McElduff, Patrick; Rogerson, John C; Wiggers, John H

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs consume alcohol at levels above that of communities generally. Despite the potential benefits of interventions to address alcohol consumption in sporting clubs, there have been no randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of these interventions. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a comprehensive accreditation intervention with community football clubs (Rugby League, Rugby Union, soccer/association football and Australian Rules football) in reducing excessive alcohol consumption by club members. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in New South Wales, Australia, and employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Half of the football clubs recruited to the trial will be randomised to receive an intervention implemented over two and a half winter sporting seasons. The intervention is based on social ecology theory and is comprehensive in nature, containing multiple elements designed to decrease the supply of alcohol to intoxicated members, cease the provision of cheap and free alcohol, increase the availability and cost-attractiveness of non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages, remove high alcohol drinks and cease drinking games. The intervention utilises a three-tiered accreditation framework designed to motivate intervention implementation. Football clubs in the control group will receive printed materials on topics unrelated to alcohol. Outcome data will be collected pre- and postintervention through cross-sectional telephone surveys of club members. The primary outcome measure will be alcohol consumption by club members at the club, assessed using a graduated frequency index and a seven day diary. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by The University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (reference: H-2008-0432). Study

  1. Novel method for identification and quantification of methanol and ethanol in alcoholic beverages by gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba Prasad; Lahiri, Sujit Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Numerous methods are being used to identify and quantify methanol and ethanol in alcoholic beverages, including country liquors. Some of the known methods are density and refractive index measurements, and spectrophotometric measurements using Schiff's reagent or chromatropic acid. Other advanced techniques involve head space gas chromatography (GC), GC-flame ionization detection, high-performance liquid chromatography, enzymatic reactions, and biosensors. However, identification and quantification of methanol and ethanol in beverages can be accurately done using GC-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR)-FTIR. Identification of alcohols is possible from library matching of the IR spectra obtained from GC-FTIR. In water, methanol and ethanol show a very strong peak for C-O, stretching at 1015.3 and 1044.2 cm(-1), respectively. The strong absorption of vibrational stretching frequency of C-O present in alcohols was used for quantification purposes. The absorptions of C-O group frequency of alcohols in water mixtures were measured using HATR-FTIR with a zinc-selenide crystal. Samples were placed directly on the HATR crystal, with alcohol concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 50.0% (v/v). The plot of absorptions against concentrations of methanol and ethanol obeyed Beer's law (r2 = 0.9998 and 0.9987, respectively), from which alcohol in the mixtures was quantified. Propan-2-ol and n-butanol showed no interference. The method is validated from absorption measurements of known mixtures of standard ethanol in water. This is a simple, specific, rapid, accurate, and nondestructive method of identification and quantification of methanol and ethanol in mixtures. It can be used to ascertain methanol contamination in alcoholic beverages that can lead to death or methanol poisoning by alcohol consumption.

  2. Results of the "In Control: No Alcohol!" Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; van der Vorst, Haske; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of Dutch 12-year olds already started drinking. Since it is known that delaying the onset of alcohol use results in a lower risk of alcohol-related problems, the recently developed "In control: No alcohol!" prevention program is targeted at elementary school children and their mothers. In this pilot study, the success of…

  3. Locus of Control Correlates in an Alcoholic Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Hopper, Allen E.

    1974-01-01

    Assesses the locus of control orientation within an alcoholic population and relates this orientation to the degree of cognitive dysfunction. Results suggest that female alcoholics, specifically those who need inpatient treatment, may be a relatively more disturbed group compared to alcoholic male inpatients. (Author/PC)

  4. Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Raluca M.; Hahn, Austin M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Gaster, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in…

  5. The design of controlled-release formulations resistant to alcohol-induced dose dumping--a review.

    PubMed

    Jedinger, N; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2014-07-01

    The concomitant intake of alcoholic beverages together with oral controlled-release opioid formulations poses a serious safety concern since alcohol has the potential to alter the release rate controlling mechanism of the dosage form which may result in an uncontrolled and immediate drug release. This effect, known as alcohol-induced dose dumping, has drawn attention of the regulatory authorities. Thus, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that in vitro drug release studies of controlled-release dosage forms containing drugs with narrow therapeutic range should be conducted in ethanolic media up to 40%. So far, only a limited number of robust dosage forms that withstand the impact of alcohol are available and the development of such dosage forms is still a challenge. This review deals with the physico-chemical key factors which have to be considered for the preparation of alcohol-resistant controlling dosage forms. Furthermore, appropriate matrix systems and promising technological strategies, which are suitable to prevent alcohol-induced dose dumping, are discussed.

  6. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: Risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Bardgett, Mark E.; Howard, Meagan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmEDs have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Methods Participants (n=56) attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of four doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment and level of intoxication were recorded. Results Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment and level of intoxication and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone. Conclusions An energy drink appears to alter some of alcohol’s objective and subjective impairing effects, but not others. Thus AmEDs may contribute to a high risk scenario for the drinker

  7. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. I. Studies in unrelated alcoholics and normal controls

    SciTech Connect

    Parsian, A.; Suarez, B.K.; Fisher, L.

    1995-10-09

    Low platelet MAO activity has been associated with alcoholism. In order to evaluate the role of MAO genes in susceptibility to alcoholism, we have taken a biochemical and molecular genetic approach. The sample consisted of 133 alcoholic probands who were classified by subtypes of alcoholism and 92 normal controls. For those subjects typed for platelet MAO activity, alcoholics (N = 74) were found not to differ from the non-alcoholic controls (N = 34). Neither was there a significant difference between type I and type II alcoholics or between either subtype and normal controls. However, we do find significant differences between male and female alcoholics, but not between male and female controls. The allele frequency distribution for the MAO-A and MAO-B dinucleotide repeats is different between the alcoholic sample (N = 133) and the normal control sample (N = 92). In a two-way analysis of variance of MAO-B activity as a function of the allelic variation of each marker locus and diagnosis, there is no evidence for mean differences in activity levels for the different alleles. Our findings do not rule out a role for the MAO-B gene in controlling the enzyme activity because the dinucleotide repeats are located in introns. 52 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Rehydration beverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel rehydration beverage containing sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and aspartame useful for rapid restoration of hydration homeostasis is disclosed. The beverage is particularly useful for restoration of normal body fluid volumes and their intracellular and extracellular distribution during a hypohydration state observed in astronauts and air passengers.

  9. Determination of 2-, 3-, 4-methylpentanoic and cyclohexanecarboxylic acids in wine: development of a selective method based on solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry and its application to different wines and alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Moreno, Elisa; Lopez, Ricardo; Ferreira, Vicente

    2015-02-13

    A method to analyse 2-methylpentanoic, 3-methylpentanoic and 4-methylpentanoic acids as well as cyclohexanecarboxylic acid has been developed and applied to wine and other alcoholic beverages. Selective isolation with solid phase extraction, derivatization with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl bromide at room temperature for 30 minutes, and further analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode provides detection limits between 0.4 and 2.4 ng/L. Good linearity up to 3.6 μg/L, satisfactory reproducibility (RSD<10%) and signal recovery of around 100% represent a robust method of analysis. Concentration data of these analytes in wine and other alcoholic beverages are reported for the first time. The levels found ranged from the method detection limits to 2630 ng/L, 2040 ng/L and 3810 ng/L for 2-, 3- and 4-methylpentanoic acids, respectively, and to 1780 ng/L for cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. There are significant differences depending on the type of wine or beverage. Distilled beverages, beer and aged wines have higher contents in methylpentanoic and cyclohexanecarboxylic acids.

  10. [The role of surrogate alcoholic beverages in the development of hemorrhage in the patients presenting with Mallory-Weiss syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, A L; Bogomolov, D V; Savin, A A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the pathological changes in various organs and tanatogenesis associated with Mallory-Weiss syndrome making use of the forensic medical and clinical materials. It was shown that the main cause of unrestrained vomiting resulting from alcoholic intoxication and leading to perfusive bleeding is not only the direct action of ethanol and surrogate alcohol on gastroesophageal mucosa and induced thrombocytopenia. Another cause may be brain oedema with subsequent cerebral herniation and irritation of the pseudobulbar centres responsible for the initiation of the vomiting reflex. The authors propose recommendations for forensic medical diagnostics of the cases of such hemorrhage.

  11. Metabolic Effects of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages with Artificially-Sweetened Beverages in Overweight Subjects with or without Hepatic Steatosis: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Vanessa; Despland, Camille; Brandejsky, Vaclav; Kreis, Roland; Schneiter, Philippe; Boesch, Chris; Tappy, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Addition of fructose to the diet of normal weight and overweight subjects can increase postprandial plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentration. We, therefore, assessed whether replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) with artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) in the diet of overweight and obese subjects would decrease these parameters. Methods: Twenty-six participants of the REDUCS study, which assessed the effects of replacing SSB by ASB over 12 weeks on intra-hepatocellular lipid concentration, were included in this sub-analysis. All were studied after a four-week run-in period during which they consumed their usual diet and SSBs, and after a 12-week intervention in which they were randomly assigned to replace their SSBs with ASBs (ASB arm) or to continue their usual diet and SSBs (control arm, CTRL). At the end of run-in (week 4) and again at the end of intervention (week 16), they took part in an 8.5 h metabolic investigation during which their plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and uric acid concentrations were measured over a 30 min fasting period (−30–0 min), then every 2 h over 480 min. with ingestion of standard breakfast at time 0 min and a standard lunch at time 240 min. Breakfast and lunch were consumed together with a 3.3 dL SSB at week 4 and with either an ASB (ASB arm) or a SSB (CTRL arm) at week 16. After analyzing the whole group, a secondary analysis was performed on 14 subjects with hepatic steatosis (seven randomized to ASB, seven to CTRL) and 12 subjects without hepatic steatosis (six randomized to ASB and six to CTRL). Results: Ingestion of meals increased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, and TG concentrations and decreased NEFA concentrations, but with no significant difference of integrated postprandial responses between week 4 and week 16 in both ASB and CTRL, except for a slightly decreased glucagon response in ASB. There was, however, no

  12. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O’Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. Methods From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. Results In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Discussion This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage

  13. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of dipeptides in alcoholic beverages by tag-based separation and determination using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Tokuoka, Masafumi; Kohno, Hiromi; Sawamura, Nobuko; Myoken, Yuka; Mizuno, Akihiro

    2012-06-15

    Fermented foods and beverages contain several different types of dipeptides, which are believed to be important components for taste. To date, however, a method for the comprehensive analysis of dipeptides in these products has not yet been established. In this study, comprehensive analysis of dipeptides in alcoholic beverages was performed by a high-resolution separation method based on the structural characteristics of 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC)-derivatized dipeptides as well as dipeptide quantification and structural estimation using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and UHPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOFMS), respectively. Dipeptide content was found to differ considerably among Japanese sake, beer, and wine; UHPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that many types of dipeptides are present in sake. Dipeptide quantification analysis identified 32 types of dipeptides within the concentration range of 1.1-97.2 μM in sake. The analysis was validated by dipeptide recovery of 64.0-107.2% (2.5 μM of standard) with a relative standard deviation of ≤33.2% from an actual alcoholic sample. Furthermore, UHPLC-Q-TOFMS analysis suggested the existence of more than 35 types of dipeptides in sake. Thus, by the combined analysis methods, we discovered that more than 60 dipeptides are present in sake. This research is the first report of dipeptide profiling of fermented alcoholic beverages by comprehensive analysis.

  15. [Biosynthesis of congeners during alcohol fermentation].

    PubMed

    Santillán-Valverde, M C; García-Garibay, M

    1998-01-01

    The flavor of alcoholic beverages is a consequence of a complex mixture of many compounds, including small concentrations of some volatile metabolites known as congeners, which are produced by the yeast during the fermentation. The more important compounds are those that can be found in all the alcoholic beverages in different concentrations, and they can be grouped on the following chemical species: higher alcohols, esters, and carboniles. In the current paper the biochemical pathways that produce these compounds from the raw materials are reviewed. Research done in this field has led to a more complete knowledge concerning to organoleptic profiles of alcoholic beverages and to a better control for the production of the final product.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2014-07-01

    Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains.

  17. Fast and direct screening of copper in micro-volumes of distilled alcoholic beverages by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ajtony, Zsolt; Laczai, Nikoletta; Dravecz, Gabriella; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Marosi, Áron; Marlok, Bence; Streli, Christina; Bencs, László

    2016-12-15

    HR-CS-GFAAS methods were developed for the fast determination of Cu in domestic and commercially available Hungarian distilled alcoholic beverages (called pálinka), in order to decide if their Cu content exceeds the permissible limit, as legislated by the WHO. Some microliters of samples were directly dispensed into the atomizer. Graphite furnace heating programs, effects/amounts of the Pd modifier, alternative wavelengths (e.g., Cu I 249.2146nm), external calibration and internal standardization methods were studied. Applying a fast graphite furnace heating program without any chemical modifier, the Cu content of a sample could be quantitated within 1.5min. The detection limit of the method is 0.03mg/L. Calibration curves are linear up to 10-15mg/L Cu. Spike-recoveries ranged from 89% to 119% with an average of 100.9±8.5%. Internal calibration could be applied with the assistance of Cr, Fe, and/or Rh standards. The accuracy of the GFAAS results was verified by TXRF analyses.

  18. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity.

  19. Development of a novel solid-phase extraction, LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages: application to South African wine and spirits.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Philippus; Stander, Maria A; De Villiers, André

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a known genotoxic carcinogen that is frequently present in alcoholic beverages and is therefore a public health concern. As a consequence, maximum concentration levels for EC in these commodities are legislated in several countries. Quantitative analytical methods are therefore essential to monitor EC levels in beverages. Most published analytical methods for the determination of EC in alcoholic beverages utilise elaborate sample pre-treatment procedures to obtain injectable samples, or yield low sensitivity, for example where direct injection is used. In addition, these procedures often require large volumes of toxic solvents and are not generally applicable to diverse alcoholic beverages. This paper describes a novel procedure for the determination of EC in wines, fortified wines and spirits. The procedure is based on reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up combined with normal-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometric (NP-LC-APCI-MS/MS) analysis. This method provides a rapid, robust and simple analytical procedure suitable for the analysis of a diverse range of alcoholic beverages. The accuracy of the method (expressed as average recovery from diverse matrices) is 94.5%, with limits of detection (LODs) ranging between 0.25 and 0.63 µg l(-1) for different matrices. Benefits such as simplified sample preparation, low detection limits, low solvent consumption and good selectivity render the methodology ideally suited to study the occurrence of EC in diverse commodities. The method was applied to study the occurrence of EC in South African wines, fortified wines and spirits. South African wines, aged 1-9 years, contained 1.8-31 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 69%, n = 106), fortified wines aged 2-34 years contained 2.8-79 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 89%, n = 21), and brandies aged 3-20 years contained 4.4-95 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 105%, n = 26). Factors

  20. Alcohol Consumption-Related Metabolites in Relation to Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma: Two Case-Control Studies Using Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Troche, Jose Ramon; Mayne, Susan T.; Freedman, Neal D.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Guertin, Kristin A.; Cross, Amanda J.; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a known carcinogen that may be associated with colorectal cancer. However, most epidemiologic studies assess alcoholic beverage consumption using self-reported data, leading to potential exposure misclassification. Biomarkers of alcohol consumption may provide an alternative, complementary approach that reduces misclassification and incorporates individual differences in alcohol metabolism. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between previously identified alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer and adenoma using serum metabolomics data from two studies. Data on colorectal cancer were obtained from a nested case-control study of 502 US adults (252 cases, 250 controls) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Data on colorectal adenoma were obtained from a case-control study of 197 US adults (120 cases, 77 controls) from the Navy Colon Adenoma Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for eight alcohol consumption-related metabolites identified in a previous analysis: ethyl glucuronide; 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1; 5-alpha-androstan-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate; 16-hydroxypalmitate; bilirubin (E,Z or Z,E); cyclo (-leu-pro); dihomo-linoleate (20:2n6); and palmitoleate (16:1n7). We found no clear association between these alcohol consumption-related metabolites and either endpoint. However, we did observe an inverse association between cyclo (-leu-pro) and colorectal adenoma that was only observed in the highest metabolite quantile (OR 4th vs. 1st Quantile = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12–0.78; P-trend = 0.047), but no association for colorectal cancer. In conclusion, there were no adverse associations between alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer or adenoma. PMID:26967509

  1. Perry: american renaissance of an ancient beverage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burgeoning world interest in cider and perry (pear cider, which is an alcoholic beverage) has created a strong demand for unique perry pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars. The history of perry dates to the ancient Romans. This beverage has been very popular through the centuries in Europe. The U.S. Department...

  2. A Survey of Alcohol Law Instructors' and Students' Perceptions on Social Learning and Training Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altamirano, Jesus Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages in the State of Arizona are regulated by the Arizona Department of Liquor Licenses and Control (ADLLC). Education programs in the alcohol industry must align with the needs of students working in the industry and with the criteria set forth by the ADLLC. Prior research has concentrated on irresponsible alcohol consumption…

  3. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Koyin; Wu, Chin-Chih; Ying, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-03-01

    Multiple alcohol control policies have been enacted since the early 1980s to keep drunk drivers off the roads and to prevent more alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In this paper, we analyze nine traffic policies to determine the extent to which each policy contributes to effective alcohol-related fatality prevention. Compared with the existing literature, this paper addresses a more comprehensive set of traffic policies. In addition, we used a panel GLS model that holds regional effects and state-specific time effects constant to analyze their impact on alcohol-related fatalities with two distinct rates: alcohol-related traffic deaths per capita and alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths. While per capita alcohol-related traffic deaths is used more often in other studies, alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths better reflects the impact of policies on deterring drunk driving. In addition, regional analyses were conducted to determine the policies that are more effective in certain regions. The findings of this study suggest that zero tolerance laws and increased beer taxes are the most effective policies in reducing alcohol-related fatalities in all regions.

  4. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  5. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  8. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  9. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  11. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  12. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  13. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  14. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  15. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  16. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the bacterial anti-adhesion effects of cranberry extract beverages.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kerrie L; Howell, Amy B; Khoo, Christina

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examined the ex vivo urinary anti-adhesion activity of low-calorie cranberry extract beverages in both a pilot study (n = 10) and a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial (n = 59). In the pilot study, subjects consumed a cranberry extract beverage (CEB) or a cranberry extract and juice beverage (CEJB), compared to placebo. Both cranberry beverages utilized a standardized cranberry extract powder at a level equivalent to low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (LCJC) on a PAC content basis. Clean-catch urine samples collected at baseline and post intervention were tested for anti-adhesion activity utilizing a mannose-resistant human red blood cell hemagglutination assay specific for P-fimbriated E. coli. Results from the pilot study indicated that ex vivo anti-adhesion activity for both cranberry treatments were higher (p < 0.05) than placebo. In the clinical trial, we compared CEJB to LCJC and a placebo beverage. Post-consumption urine from both cranberry treatment groups showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) anti-adhesion activity compared to placebo. There were no differences observed in anti-adhesion activity between CJEB and LCJC, indicating similar bioactivity. Therefore, acute beverage consumption of cranberry extract and/or juice provides ex vivo anti-adhesion activity, which may help to improve urinary tract health.

  17. Caffeinated beverages and decreased fertility.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, A; Weinberg, C; Baird, D

    104 healthy women who had been attempting to become pregnant for three months were interviewed about their use of caffeinated beverages, alcohol, and cigarettes. In their subsequent cycles, women who consumed more than the equivalent of one cup of coffee per day were half as likely to become pregnant, per cycle, as women who drank less. A dose-response effect was present.

  18. Formaldehyde in Alcoholic Beverages: Large Chemical Survey Using Purpald Screening Followed by Chromotropic Acid Spectrophotometry with Multivariate Curve Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jendral, Julien A.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    A strategy for analyzing formaldehyde in beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol was developed, and 508 samples from worldwide origin were analyzed. In the first step, samples are qualitatively screened using a simple colorimetric test with the purpald reagent, which is extremely sensitive for formaldehyde (detection limit 0.1 mg/L). 210 samples (41%) gave a positive purpald reaction. In the second step, formaldehyde in positive samples is confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometry of the chromotropic acid-formaldehyde derivative combined with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). Calculation of UV-VIS and 13C NMR spectra confirmed the monocationic dibenzoxanthylium structure as the product of the reaction and disproved the widely cited para,para-quinoidal structure. Method validation for the spectrophotometric procedure showed a detection limit of 0.09 mg/L and a precision of 4.2–8.2% CV. In total, 132 samples (26%) contained formaldehyde with an average of 0.27 mg/L (range 0–14.4 mg/L). The highest incidence occurred in tequila (83%), Asian spirits (59%), grape marc (54%), and brandy (50%). Our survey showed that only 9 samples (1.8%) had formaldehyde levels above the WHO IPCS tolerable concentration of 2.6 mg/L. PMID:21760790

  19. Formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: large chemical survey using purpald screening followed by chromotropic Acid spectrophotometry with multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Jendral, Julien A; Monakhova, Yulia B; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    A strategy for analyzing formaldehyde in beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol was developed, and 508 samples from worldwide origin were analyzed. In the first step, samples are qualitatively screened using a simple colorimetric test with the purpald reagent, which is extremely sensitive for formaldehyde (detection limit 0.1 mg/L). 210 samples (41%) gave a positive purpald reaction. In the second step, formaldehyde in positive samples is confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometry of the chromotropic acid-formaldehyde derivative combined with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). Calculation of UV-VIS and (13)C NMR spectra confirmed the monocationic dibenzoxanthylium structure as the product of the reaction and disproved the widely cited para,para-quinoidal structure. Method validation for the spectrophotometric procedure showed a detection limit of 0.09 mg/L and a precision of 4.2-8.2% CV. In total, 132 samples (26%) contained formaldehyde with an average of 0.27 mg/L (range 0-14.4 mg/L). The highest incidence occurred in tequila (83%), Asian spirits (59%), grape marc (54%), and brandy (50%). Our survey showed that only 9 samples (1.8%) had formaldehyde levels above the WHO IPCS tolerable concentration of 2.6 mg/L.

  20. Liquid density analysis of sucrose and alcoholic beverages using polyimide guided Love-mode acoustic wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turton, Andrew; Bhattacharyya, Debabrata; Wood, David

    2006-02-01

    A liquid density sensor using Love-mode acoustic waves has been developed which is suitable for use in the food and drinks industries. The sensor has an open flat surface allowing immersion into a sample and simple cleaning. A polyimide waveguide layer allows cheap and simple fabrication combined with a robust chemically resistant surface. The low shear modulus of polyimide allows thin guiding layers giving a high sensitivity. A dual structure with a smooth reference device exhibiting viscous coupling with the wave, and a patterned sense area to trap the liquid causing mass loading, allows discrimination of the liquid density from the square root of the density-viscosity product (ρη)0.5. Frequency shift and insertion loss change were proportional to (ρη)0.5 with a non-linear response due to the non-Newtonian nature of viscous liquids at high frequencies. Measurements were made with sucrose solutions up to 50% and different alcoholic drinks. A maximum sensitivity of 0.13 µg cm-3 Hz-1 was achieved, with a linear frequency response to density. This is the highest liquid density sensitivity obtained for acoustic mode sensors to the best of our knowledge.

  1. Rapid determination of phthalate esters in alcoholic beverages by conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingying; Liu, Shuhui; Xie, Qilong

    2014-02-01

    A very simple, fast and environmentally friendly sample extraction method was proposed for the analysis of phthalate esters (PAEs, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)) in alcoholic beverages by using conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The samples were extracted by 160 μL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the presence of appropriate amount of ethanol and 10% (w/v) sodium chloride solution; the enriched analytes in sedimented phases were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Under the optimum conditions, a satisfactory linearity (in the range of 0.02-1 μg mL(-1) for white spirits and 0.01-0.5 μg mL(-1) for red wines with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9983 to 1), acceptable recovery rates (88.5-103.5% for white spirits and 91.6-104.6% for red wines), good repeatability (RSD ≤ 8.0%) and low detection limits (3.1-4.2 ng mL(-1) for white spirits and 1.5-2.2 ng mL(-1) for red wines) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the four PAEs in 30 white spirits and 11 red wines collected locally, and the DBP content in 63% (19:30) white spirits exceeded the specific migration limit of 0.3 mg kg(-1) established by international regulation.

  2. Alcohol control in the news: the politics of media representations of alcohol policy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lawhon, Mary; Herrick, Clare

    2013-10-01

    Media coverage of the "problems" associated with alcohol is widespread in countries of the global North and now, increasingly, in those of the global South. However, despite this mounting ubiquity, there have been very few analyses either of newspaper coverage of alcohol or of media coverage of alcohol policy, especially outside Europe and North America. This article argues that given international concern with the long-term health, economic, social, and developmental consequences of risky drinking in the global South, an exploration of newspaper coverage of nascent alcohol policy in such a context is both timely and valuable. Indeed, such analyses bring to the fore the deeply contextual and contingent nature of alcohol's problematization in politics, policy, and public life. To examine these assertions, we explore the "attention allocation" processes of two South African alcohol control policies--the Western Cape Liquor Bill and the city of Cape Town's liquor bylaws--in two regional English-language newspapers between 2007 and 2011. In so doing, the article highlights the particularities of the political valence of alcohol in the South African context. Furthermore, it also draws out the tensions between alcohol as a source of livelihoods in a context of endemic unemployment and chronic poverty and alcohol as a causal factor in poverty, crime, violence, and social disintegration. In contrast to media coverage of alcohol policy in Europe and North America, this analysis of the South African press suggests that liquor consumption is far less likely to be framed as an express health risk, forcing us to question how preventative policy efforts should best proceed.

  3. [Consumption of sweetened, energy and alcoholic beverages among college students in the México-US border].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Miranda, Luis Mario; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Caravalí-Meza, Nuris Yohana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2014-09-28

    Introducción: El consumo de bebidas azucaradas, energéticas y alcohólicas en universitarios puede ser un riesgo para la salud. Objetivo: Determinar el consumo de bebidas azucaradas, energéticas, y alcohólicas y compararlo con el estado del IMC en universitarios. Metodología: Se evaluaron estudiantes de segundo y tercer año de la UABC. Se midieron el peso, la talla y la circunferencia de cintura, y se calculó el IMC. Se aplicó un cuestionario sobre consumo de 19 bebidas. Resultados: Participaron 1138 estudiantes. La prevalencia de obesidad y obesidad abdominal fue de 12 y 33% y de 14 y 17% en mujeres y hombres respectivamente. El 55% de las mujeres y el 68% de los hombres consumían más de 25g de azúcar de bebidas al día; 12% consumían más de 100g de azúcar al día. El consumo calórico diario proveniente de bebidas fue mayor de 450 kcal en hombres y de 350kcal en mujeres. Diez por ciento de mujeres y 15% de hombres consumen más de 30g de alcohol diarios. Las bebidas que contienen carbohidratos y que se consumen con mayor frecuencia son los zumos de frutas (90%), la leche entera (69%), los refrescos regulares (83%), las cervezas (37%), los licores (27%) y las bebidas energéticas (12%). Conclusiones: El consumo de bebidas azucaradas, alcohólicas y energéticas es muy alto, lo que podría ser un riesgo para la salud en esta población.

  4. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  5. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  6. Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking: a case-control study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Jesus; Barber, Xavier; Bolumar, Francisco; Porta, Miquel; Santibáñez, Miguel; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Background The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC) has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma) in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. Methods We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202). Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455). Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to never-drinkers, the risk for heaviest drinkers (≥ 75 g/day of pure ethanol) was 7.65 (95%CI, 3.16–18.49); and compared with never-smokers, the risk for heaviest smokers (≥ 30 cigarettes/day) was 5.07 (95%CI, 2.06–12.47). A low consumption of only wine and/or beer (1–24 g/d) did not increase the risk whereas a strong positive trend was observed for all types of alcoholic beverages that included any combination of hard liquors with beer and/or wine (p-trend<0.00001). A significant increase in EC risk was only observed for black-tobacco smoking (2.5-fold increase), not for blond tobacco. The effects for alcohol drinking were much stronger when the analysis was limited to the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 160), whereas a lack of effect for adenocarcinoma was evidenced. Smoking cessation showed a beneficial effect within ten years whereas drinking cessation did not. Conclusion Our study shows that the risk of EC, and

  7. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  8. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...: Pursuant to the Act of August 15, 1953; Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C. 1161, as interpreted by... Indian Country of the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana in accordance with federal law, the laws of the State of Louisiana and the laws of the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana. Section 3. Definitions As used in...

  9. 75 FR 47312 - Seminole Tribe of Florida Alcohol Beverage Control Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Amended Ordinance contains provisions requiring the Tribe to issue licenses to all businesses that intend... to day operations of the applicant's business. 207. ``Sale'' and ``Sell'' means the exchange, barter... Tribe of Florida. 209. ``Person'' means any natural person or business entity or organization....

  10. Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Barış K.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States. Design State-level per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits was analyzed using difference-in-differences econometric methods. Setting United States. Participants 5 treatment states that repealed their laws restricting Sunday alcohol sales during 1990–2007 and 12 control states that retained their Sunday alcohol laws during the same period. Measurements Outcome measures are state-level per capita consumption of overall alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits. Findings Among the states that legalized Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Mexico experienced significant increases in overall alcohol consumption (P<0.05). However, the effect of the legalization of Sunday alcohol sales in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on per capita alcohol consumption was insignificant (P=0.964 and P=0.367). Conclusions Three out of five states in the USA that repealed their laws restricting Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages during 1990–2007, experienced significant increases in per capita alcohol consumption. This finding implies that increased alcohol availability leads to an increase in alcohol consumption. PMID:24103041

  11. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. A comparison of the anticipated and pharmacological effects of alcohol on cognitive bias, executive function, craving and ad-lib drinking.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Rose, Abigail K; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Acute alcohol administration alters automatic processing of alcohol-related cues, impairs executive functions and increases alcohol seeking. Few studies have investigated the effects of expecting to receive alcohol on these measures. Thirty-one social drinkers completed three experimental sessions receiving either 0.65 g/kg alcohol, a placebo and a control beverage (which they knew was not alcoholic) before reporting craving and completing a test battery including a measure of automatic alcohol-approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility task), a measure of executive function (Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT)) and a taste test assessing ad-lib drinking. Results indicated that alcohol administration impaired performance on the COWAT and increased ad-lib drinking; however, there were no significant differences on these measures after administration of placebo versus control beverages. Craving was increased after alcohol and (to a lesser extent) after placebo. Automatic alcohol-approach tendencies were pronounced after both alcohol and placebo compared to the control beverage, with no difference between alcohol and placebo. Results suggest craving is sensitive to the anticipated and pharmacological effects of alcohol, alcohol-approach tendencies are particularly sensitive to the anticipated effects of alcohol, and measures of executive function and ad-lib drinking are affected by the pharmacological, but not the anticipated, effects of alcohol.

  15. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  16. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  17. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  18. Green tea beverages enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety reduce body fat in moderately obese adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Kawano, Takanori; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Fukuhara, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether ingesting a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults. Design Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Subjects A total of 126 obese subjects (25 ≤ body mass index < 30 kg m(-2)) were randomly assigned to a group receiving green tea beverages without catechins (placebo), or a group receiving green tea beverages with a low or high content of catechins with a galloyl moiety. Each subject ingested 500 mL bottled green tea beverages containing 25, 180, or 279.5 mg green tea catechins (0, 149.5, or 246.5 mg catechins with a galloyl moiety, respectively), at mealtimes for 12 weeks; the subjects were instructed to ingest the beverage during the meal that had the highest fat content on that day. Methods Anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry analysis were performed during the run-in period; at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the intake period; and at the end of the withdrawal period. Abdominal fat area was measured by computed tomography at weeks 0, 8, and 12 of the intake period and at the end of the withdrawal period. Results Both the low- and high-dose groups exhibited significant reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas compared to the control group at 12 weeks post-intervention. Conclusion Ingestion of a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a high-fat meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults.

  19. 49 CFR 382.121 - Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Employee admission of alcohol and controlled... SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.121 Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use. (a) Employees who admit to alcohol misuse or...

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Control of Carbonated Cola Beverages Using 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (400 MHz) was used in the context of food surveillance to develop a reliable analytical tool to differentiate brands of cola beverages and to quantify selected constituents of the soft drinks. The preparation of the samples required only degassing and addition of 0.1% of TSP in D2O for locking and referencing followed by adjustment of pH to 4.5. The NMR spectra obtained can be considered as “fingerprints” and were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Clusters from colas of the same brand were observed, and significant differences between premium and discount brands were found. The quantification of caffeine, acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate, benzoate, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), sulfite ammonia caramel (E 150D), and vanillin was simultaneously possible using external calibration curves and applying TSP as internal standard. Limits of detection for caffeine, aspartame, acesulfame-K, and benzoate were 1.7, 3.5, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. Hence, NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics is an efficient tool for simultaneous identification of soft drinks and quantification of selected constituents. PMID:22356160

  2. Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2004-11-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.

  3. Effect and Process Evaluation of a Cluster Randomized Control Trial on Water Intake and Beverage Consumption in Preschoolers from Six European Countries: The ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinket, An-Sofie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; De Craemer, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the ToyBox-study, a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention was developed to prevent overweight and obesity in European preschoolers, targeting four key behaviours related to early childhood obesity, including water consumption. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention (cluster randomized controlled trial) on water intake and beverage consumption in European preschoolers and to investigate if the intervention effects differed by implementation score of kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Method A sample of 4964 preschoolers (4.7±0.4 years; 51.5% boys) from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain) was included in the data analyses. A standardized protocol was used and parents/caregivers filled in socio-demographic data and a food-frequency questionnaire. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample and for the six country-specific samples. Based on the process evaluation questionnaire of teachers and parents/caregivers, an implementation score was constructed. To assess differences in water intake and beverage consumption by implementation score in the total sample, multilevel repeated measures analyses were performed. Results Limited intervention effects on water intake from beverages and overall beverage consumption were found. However, important results were found on prepacked fruit juice consumption, with a larger decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, also a decline in plain milk consumption was found. Implementation scores were rather low in both kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Nevertheless, more favorable effects on beverage choices were found in preschoolers whose parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers had higher implementation scores compared to those with lower implementation scores. Conclusion The ToyBox-intervention can provide the basis for the

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  5. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level.

  6. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  7. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  8. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  9. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  10. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages after derivatization with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jain, Archana; Gupta, Manju; Verma, Krishna K

    2015-11-27

    A new method for determining biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages is described involving reaction of biogenic amines with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate followed by extraction of 1-naphthylthiourea derivatives with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when solvents phase separation occurred using ammonium sulphate, a process called salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 254nm. The new reagent avoided many of the inconveniences as observed with existing derivatizing agents, such as dansyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, in regard to their inselectivity, instability, adverse effect of excess reagent, and necessity to remove excess reagent. The procedure has been optimized with respect to reaction time and temperature, water-miscible extraction solvent, and salt for solvents phase separation. Use of reagent as dispersed phase in aqueous medium produced derivatives in high yield. A linear calibration was obtained between the amount of biogenic amines in range 1-1000μgL(-1) and peak areas of corresponding thioureas formed; the correlation coefficient was 0.9965, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification found were 1.1μgL(-1) and 3.2μgL(-1), respectively. The pre-concentration method gave an average enrichment factor of 94. The application of the method has been demonstrated in the determination of biogenic amines in commercial samples of fruit juices and alcoholic beverages. In spiking experiments to real samples, the average recovery found by the present method was 94.5% that agreed well with 95.8% obtained by established comparison methods.

  11. The Role of Hybrid Make-to-Stock (MTS) - Make-to-Order (MTO) and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Inventory Control Models in Food and Beverage Processing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najhan Mohd Nagib, Ahmad; Naufal Adnan, Ahmad; Ismail, Azianti; Halim, Nurul Hayati Abdul; Syuhadah Khusaini, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    The inventory model had been utilized since the early 1900s. The implementation of the inventory management model is generally to ensure that an organisation is able to fulfil customer's demand at the lowest possible cost to improve profitability. This paper focuses on reviewing previous published papers regarding inventory control model mainly in the food and beverage processing industry. The author discusses four inventory models, which are the make-to-stock (MTS), make-to-order (MTO), economic order quantity (EOQ), and hybrid of MTS-MTO models. The issues raised by the researchers on the above techniques as well as the elements need to be considered upon selection have been discussed in this paper. The main objective of the study is to highlight the important role played by these inventory control models in the food and beverage processing industry.

  12. Trends and social differences in alcohol consumption during the postcommunist transition in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994-2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20-64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania.

  13. Alcohol Sensitivity Moderates the Indirect Associations between Impulsive Traits, Impaired Control over Drinking, and Drinking Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Quilty, Lena C.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine impaired control over drinking behavior as a mediator of unique pathways from impulsive traits to alcohol outcomes in young adults and to investigate the moderating influence of self-reported sensitivity to alcohol on these pathways. Method Young adult heavy drinkers (N=172; n=82 women) recruited from the community completed self-report measures of impulsive traits (positive urgency, negative urgency, sensation seeking), alcohol sensitivity (Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol scale), impaired control over drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Multiple-groups path analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Path coefficients between urgency and impaired control were larger for individuals with lower versus higher self-reported sensitivity to alcohol. The same was true for the association between impaired control and alcohol problems. For participants lower on alcohol sensitivity, significant indirect paths were observed from both positive and negative urgency to all alcohol outcomes (quantity, frequency, and problems) mediated via impaired control. For participants higher on alcohol sensitivity, only the paths from negative urgency (but not positive urgency) to the three alcohol outcomes via impaired control were statistically significant. Sensation seeking was not uniquely associated with impaired control. Conclusions The findings indicate that relatively low sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of alcohol may exacerbate the association of urgency – especially positive urgency – with impaired control, supporting the notion that personality and level of response to alcohol may interact to increase risk for impaired control over drinking. PMID:25785803

  14. 49 CFR 382.413 - Inquiries for alcohol and controlled substances information from previous employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inquiries for alcohol and controlled substances... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Handling of Test Results, Records Retention, and Confidentiality § 382.413 Inquiries for alcohol and controlled...

  15. School-Age Children of Alcoholics and Non-Alcoholics: Their Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Phyllis; Robinson, Bryan E.

    1998-01-01

    Using sample of 108 students from fourth to eighth grades, study seeks to further clarify three major psychological dimensions among school-aged young children of alcoholics (YCOAs). Self-esteem, anxiety level, and locus of control were compared among school-aged children with and without alcoholic parents. YCOAs reported lower self-esteem, higher…

  16. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  17. Cannabis effects on driving longitudinal control with and without alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Pierce, Russell S; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    Although evidence suggests cannabis impairs driving, its driving-performance effects are not fully characterized. We aimed to establish cannabis' effects on driving longitudinal control (with and without alcohol, drivers' most common drug combination) relative to psychoactive ∆(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) blood concentrations. Current occasional (≥1×/last 3 months, ≤3 days per week) cannabis smokers drank placebo or low-dose alcohol, and inhaled 500 mg placebo, low (2.9%), or high (6.7%) THC vaporized cannabis over 10 min ad libitum in separate sessions (within-subject, six conditions). Participants drove (National Advanced Driving Simulator, University of Iowa) simulated drives 0.5-1.3 h post-inhalation. Blood and breath alcohol samples were collected before (0.17 and 0.42 h) and after (1.4 and 2.3 h) driving. We evaluated the mean speed (relative to limit), standard deviation (SD) of speed, percent time spent >10% above/below the speed limit (percent speed high/percent speed low), longitudinal acceleration, and ability to maintain headway relative to a lead vehicle (headway maintenance) against blood THC and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). In N=18 completing drivers, THC was associated with a decreased mean speed, increased percent speed low and increased mean following distance during headway maintenance. BrAC was associated with increased SD speed and increased percent speed high, whereas THC was not. Neither was associated with altered longitudinal acceleration. A less-than-additive THC*BrAC interaction was detected in percent speed high (considering only non-zero data and excluding an outlying drive event), suggesting cannabis mitigated drivers' tendency to drive faster with alcohol. Cannabis was associated with slower driving and greater headway, suggesting a possible awareness of impairment and attempt to compensate. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Underage drinking, alcohol sales and collective efficacy: Informal control and opportunity in the study of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R

    2012-07-01

    Underage drinking among American youth is a growing public concern. However, while extensive research has identified individual level predictors of this phenomenon, few studies have theorized and tested the effect of structural social forces on children's and youths' alcohol consumption. In an attempt to address this gap, we study the effects of residential environments on children's and youths' underage drinking (while accounting for personality and familial processes). Integrating informal social control and opportunity explanations of deviance, we first suggest that while neighborhood collective efficacy prevents adolescents' underage drinking, individuals' access to local alcohol retail shops encourages such behavior. Focusing on the interactive effects of communal opportunities and controls, we then suggest that high presence of alcohol outlets and sales in the neighborhood is likely to increase youths' probability of alcohol consumption in the absence of communal mechanisms of informal social control. We test our theoretical model using the unprecedented data design available in the PHDCN. Results from a series of multilevel logit models with robust standard errors reveal partial support for our hypotheses; specifically, we find that alcohol sales in a given neighborhood increase adolescents' alcohol use. In addition, while the direct effect of collective efficacy is insignificantly related to children's and youths' alcohol consumption, our models suggest that it significantly attenuates the effect of local alcohol retailers and sales on underage drinking.

  19. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    PubMed

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  20. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use: the moderating role of executive control.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use.

  1. A novel fiber composite ingredient incorporated into a beverage and bar blunts postprandial serum glucose and insulin responses: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-03-01

    Previous research supports that consumption of resistant starch and guar gum independently influences insulin-mediated glucose responses to meals. This research assessed a novel co-processed fiber composite (FC) ingredient comprising whole-grain high-amylose maize flour and viscous guar gum on glucose and insulin responses to co-consumed and subsequent meals in humans. It was hypothesized that a smoothie-type beverage or a cold-pressed snack bar containing the FC would blunt and sustain serum glucose and insulin postprandial responses compared with maltodextrin (MD). The beverage and bar were assessed in 2 separate studies using identical protocols. Young, nondiabetic, nonobese adults participated in 2 testing days (randomized crossover design) separated by at least 1 week for both food forms. On each testing day, the FC or MD product was consumed with a low-fiber standardized breakfast followed by a low-fiber standardized lunch (with no FC or MD) 4 hours later. Blood samples were collected at baseline and incrementally throughout the 8-hour testing day. One-tailed paired t tests were performed to compare treatment areas under the curve, and a doubly repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to compare treatment responses at individual time points (P< .05, Bonferroni corrected). The FC blunted the postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with MD, including a robust glucose and insulin response reduction after breakfast and a continued modest glycemic second-meal reduction after lunch in both the beverage and the bar. These findings support the use of this novel whole-grain FC ingredient in a beverage or bar for insulin-mediated glucose control in young healthy adults.

  2. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maximums or minimums. (2) For malt beverages containing 0.5 percent or more alcohol by volume, statements...) Tolerances. (1) For malt beverages containing 0.5 percent or more alcohol by volume, a tolerance of 0.3... is labeled as containing 0.5 percent or more alcohol by volume may not contain less than 0.5...

  3. In Search of an Alcohol Knowledge Quotient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodman, Frank

    1985-01-01

    Canadian and American adults responded to a questionnaire regarding knowledge of alcoholic beverages. A high, positive correlation coefficient was obtained between the males and females in the total sample based on a rank order of item accuracy. Results indicated that alcohol users are poorly informed about the composition of alcoholic beverages.…

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  5. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  6. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  7. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  8. Alcohol-adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the six-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for six months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients. PMID:26387049

  9. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  10. Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5 MPa, 8% CO₂, 6.5 min, and 40 °C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75 °C for 15 s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4 °C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14 weeks of storage.

  11. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  12. Role of Protein Quality Control Failure in Alcoholic Hepatitis Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    French, Samuel W; Masouminia, Maryam; Samadzadeh, Sara; Tillman, Brittany C; Mendoza, Alejandro; French, Barbara A

    2017-02-08

    The mechanisms of protein quality control in hepatocytes in cases of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) including ufmylation, FAT10ylation, metacaspase 1 (Mca1), ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation), JUNQ (juxta nuclear quality control), IPOD (insoluble protein deposit) autophagocytosis, and ER stress are reviewed. The Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation develops in the hepatocytes in alcoholic hepatitis as a consequence of the failure of these protein quality control mechanisms to remove misfolded and damaged proteins and to prevent MDB aggresome formation within the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The proteins involved in the quality control pathways are identified, quantitated, and visualized by immunofluorescent antibody staining of liver biopsies from patients with AH. Quantification of the proteins are achieved by measuring the fluorescent intensity using a morphometric system. Ufmylation and FAT10ylation pathways were downregulated, Mca1 pathways were upregulated, autophagocytosis was upregulated, and ER stress PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) and CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein) mechanisms were upregulated.

  13. 27 CFR 20.190 - Diversion of articles for internal human use or beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... internal human use or beverage use. 20.190 Section 20.190 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL....190 Diversion of articles for internal human use or beverage use. An appropriate TTB officer who has... human use may direct the permittee to modify an approved formula to prevent the reclamation or...

  14. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  15. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  16. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  17. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  18. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  19. 27 CFR 20.190 - Diversion of articles for internal human use or beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... internal human use or beverage use. 20.190 Section 20.190 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL....190 Diversion of articles for internal human use or beverage use. An appropriate TTB officer who has... human use may direct the permittee to modify an approved formula to prevent the reclamation or...

  20. Foetal alcohol syndrome: a cephalometric analysis of patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Harris, Angela; Swanevelder, Sonja; Lombard, Carl

    2006-06-01

    Foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) consists of multi-system abnormalities and is caused by the excessive intake of alcohol during pregnancy. The teratogenic effect of alcohol on the human foetus has now been established beyond reasonable doubt and FAS is the most important human teratogenic condition known today. The purpose of this study was to analyse the craniofacial parameters of children with FAS and compare them with matched controls. Ninety children diagnosed with FAS (45 males, 45 females) and 90 controls were matched for age, gender, and social class. The mean age of the FAS children was 8.9 years with the controls slightly older at 9.1 years. This age difference was not significant (P = 0.34). A standard lateral cephalometric radiograph of each subject was taken. The radiographs were digitized for 20 linear and 17 angular measurements. These 37 variables were formulated to assess the size, shape, and relative position of three craniofacial complexes: (1) the cranial base, (2) midface, and (3) mandible. In addition, nine variables were computed to compare the soft tissue profiles. The study showed that measurements related to face height and mandibular size appear to be the most important features when distinguishing FAS children. Overall, the FAS children in the present study presented with vertically and horizontally underdeveloped maxillae, together with features of long face syndrome with large gonial angles and a short ramus in relation to total face height. There was also a tendency for the development of an anterior open bite, which appears to be compensated for by an increase in the vertical dimension of the anterior alveolar process to bring the incisor teeth into occlusion. The latter adaptation occurred mainly in the mandible.

  1. 41 CFR 109-27.5008 - Control of drug substances and potable alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substances and potable alcohol. 109-27.5008 Section 109-27.5008 Public Contracts and Property Management..., and Guidelines § 109-27.5008 Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. Effective procedures and... alcohol from receipt to the point of use. Such procedures shall, as a minimum, provide for...

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.5008 - Control of drug substances and potable alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substances and potable alcohol. 109-27.5008 Section 109-27.5008 Public Contracts and Property Management..., and Guidelines § 109-27.5008 Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. Effective procedures and... alcohol from receipt to the point of use. Such procedures shall, as a minimum, provide for...

  3. What Is Alcohol? And Why Do People Drink? Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Alcoholic beverages have been used throughout American history but their use has always been controversial. Ethyl alcohol is one of the few alcohols man is able to drink, although it is never full strength. The fermentation process is used to manufacture alcoholic beverages. Wines are made from a variety of fruits. Beer is made from yeast and a…

  4. Health claims and other health-related statements in the labeling and advertising of alcohol beverages (99R-199P). Final rule, Treasury decision.

    PubMed

    2003-03-03

    TTB is amending the regulations to prohibit the appearance on labels or in advertisements of any health-related statement, including a specific health claim, that is untrue in any particular or tends to create a misleading impression. A specific health claim on a label or in an advertisement is considered misleading unless the claim is truthful and adequately substantiated by scientific evidence; properly detailed and qualified with respect to the categories of individuals to whom the claim applies; adequately discloses the health risks associated with both moderate and heavier levels of alcohol consumption; and outlines the categories of individuals for whom any levels of alcohol consumption may cause health risks. In addition, TTB will consult with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as needed, on the use of specific health claims on labels. If FDA determines that a specific health claim is a drug claim that is not in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, TTB will not approve the use of such statement on a label. Health-related statements that are not specific health claims or health-related directional statements will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if they tend to mislead consumers. The final rule provides that health-related directional statements (statements that direct or refer consumers to a third party or other source for information regarding the effects on health of alcohol consumption) will be presumed misleading unless those statements include a brief disclaimer advising consumers that the statement should not encourage consumption of alcohol for health reasons, or some other appropriate disclaimer to avoid misleading consumers. TTB believes that the final regulations will ensure that labels and advertisements do not contain statements or claims that would tend to mislead the consumer about the significant health consequences of alcohol consumption.

  5. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  6. Identification of sex-specific quantitative trait loci controlling alcohol preference in C57BL/ 6 mice.

    PubMed

    Melo, J A; Shendure, J; Pociask, K; Silver, L M

    1996-06-01

    Mice from various inbred strains consume alcoholic beverages at highly reproducible and strain-specific levels. While most mice consume alcohol in moderate amounts, C57BL/6J animals exhibit sustained oral ingestion of high levels of alcohol in the presence of competing water and food. We now report a genetic investigation of this phenotype as one potential model for alcoholism. An intercross-backcross breeding protocol was used to identify two recessive alcohol preference quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that are both sex-restricted in expression. A comparison of our results with those of an earlier morphine preference study argues against the hypothesis of a single unified phenotype defined by a preference for all euphoria-producing drugs.

  7. [Effects of alcoholic beverages on the fatty acid spectrum of the expired air condensate lipids in patients with tuberculosis of the respiratory organs].

    PubMed

    Pikas, O B

    2000-01-01

    Results are highlighted of the study into the pulmonary surfactant in healthy subjects. as well as in those afflicted with pulmonary tuberculosis who abused alcoholic drinks, with the aid of the chromotography techniques. It has been ascertained that activity of the pulmonary surfactant is dependent upon the clinical form of tuberculosis, its extension and presence of alcoholism. The lipid polyunsaturated fatty acids, with the linoleic (C18:2) and arachidonic (C20:4) acids being the most sensitive ones to the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the study into the spectrum of lipid fatty acids in the expired air consensate suggest intencity of LPO in the pulmonary surfactant and permit carrying out its correction in a timely fashion during the process of treatment.

  8. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption.

  9. Impulsivity, Working Memory, and Impaired Control over Alcohol: A Latent Variable Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Quilty, Lena C.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol is an important risk factor for heavy drinking among young adults and may mediate, in part, the association between personality risk and alcohol problems. Research suggests that trait impulsivity is associated with impaired control over alcohol; however, few studies of this association have included a range of impulsivity facets. The purpose of this study was to examine specific pathways from higher-order impulsivity factors to alcohol problems mediated via impaired control over alcohol. We also examined the moderating role of working memory in these associations. Young heavy drinkers (N=300) completed two multidimensional impulsivity measures (UPPS-P and BIS-11) along with self-report measures of impaired control over alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. Working memory was assessed using a computerized digit span task. Results showed that the impulsivity facets loaded onto two higher-order factors that were labeled response and reflection impulsivity. Response impulsivity predicted unique variance in self-reported impaired control and alcohol problems, whereas reflection impulsivity predicted unique variance in heavy drinking frequency only. Further, significant indirect associations were observed from response and reflection impulsivity to alcohol problems mediated via impaired control and heavy drinking frequency, respectively. Working memory and sensation seeking were not uniquely associated with the alcohol variables, and no support was found for the moderating role of working memory. The results help to clarify associations among impulsivity, impaired control, and alcohol problems, suggesting that impaired control may play a specific role in the pathway to alcohol problems from response impulsivity but not from reflection impulsivity. PMID:27269291

  10. 49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... controlled substances test. 382.211 Section 382.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. No driver shall refuse...

  11. Alcohol as a cause of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D B

    1995-01-01

    This is a review of the epidemiologic literature on alcohol and risks of various cancers. Alcohol has consistently been related to risks of squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth, oral pharynx, larynx, and esophagus in multiple studies of varying design. The joint effects of alcohol and smoking are greater than additive, and are probably multiplicative, suggesting biological synergism. All major types of alcoholic beverages have been casually implicated in the genesis of these diseases. The influence of alcohol on risks of upper aerodigestive tract cancers may be greater in persons with marginal nutritional status than in better-nourished individuals. Alcohol also has been associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction, and gastric cardia, but the relationship is not as strong as for squamous cell esophageal carcinomas. Alcohol and tobacco account for over 80% of the squamous carcinomas of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus in the United States. Risks of cancers of the distal stomach, pancreas, colon, and rectum have not been consistently related to alcohol, although possible relationships between beer drinking and rectal cancer and between heavy use of alcohol and pancreatic cancer warrant further study. Studies of alcohol and liver cancer, in which the confounding influence of hepatitis B was considered, have yielded inconsistent results and should be replicated. An association between heavy alcohol use and breast cancer has been observed in most studies, even after controlling for known risk factors for breast cancer, and additional investigations of this issue are warranted. PMID:8741776

  12. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  13. Youth and Alcohol: A National Survey. Do They Know What They're Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In response to public health concerns and the adverse health consequences of alcohol abuse, a national sample of junior and senior high school (7th through 12th grade) students (N=956) was surveyed to determine their knowledge about alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages from stores close to each school were…

  14. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  15. Alcohol-related stimuli reduce inhibitory control of behavior in drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Jessica, Weafer; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Poor behavioral control and heightened attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli have independently received considerable attention in regard to their roles in alcohol abuse. Theoretical accounts have begun to speculate as to potential reciprocal interactions between these two mechanisms that might promote excessive alcohol consumption, yet experimental evidence is lacking. Objectives The objective of the study was to integrate these two lines of research through the development of a novel laboratory task that examines the degree to which alcohol cues serve to disrupt mechanisms of behavioral control. Methods Fifty adult drinkers were recruited to perform the attentional bias–behavioral activation (ABBA) task. The ABBA task, an adaptation of traditional cued go/no-go tasks, is a reaction time model that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can increase behavioral activation of a drinker and reduce the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses. Participants also completed a novel measure of attentional bias, the scene inspection paradigm (SIP), that measures fixation time on alcohol content imbedded in complex scenes. Results As hypothesized, the proportion of inhibitory failures on the ABBA task was significantly higher following alcohol images compared to neutral images. Correlational analyses showed that heightened attentional bias on the SIP was associated with greater response activation following alcohol images on the ABBA task. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol stimuli serve to disrupt mechanisms of behavioral control, and that heightened attentional bias is associated with greater disruption of control mechanisms following alcohol images. PMID:22358851

  16. Intoxicated prejudice: The impact of alcohol consumption on implicitly and explicitly measured racial attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Loersch, Chris; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Manning, Mark; Calanchini, Jimmy; Sherman, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that alcohol consumption can exacerbate expressions of racial bias by increasing reliance on stereotypes. However, little work has investigated how alcohol affects intergroup evaluations. The current work sought to address the issue in the context of the correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of anti-black attitudes. Participants were randomly assigned to consume an alcoholic (target BAC of 0.08%), placebo, or control beverage prior to completing implicit and explicit measures of racial attitudes. Although beverage condition did not affect prejudice levels on either measure, it did change the correlation between them. Implicitly measured attitudes significantly predicted explicit reports of prejudice and discrimination only for participants who consumed alcohol. We discuss the implications of our findings for debates regarding dissociations between implicit and explicit measures and the cultural phenomenon of intoxicated individuals attributing prejudiced statements to alcohol consumption rather than personal attitudes. PMID:26330762

  17. Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS)-UHPLC-UV: A simple and efficient method for the determination of five benzodiazepines in an alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Laura; Cappiello, Achille; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela

    2016-06-05

    This article describes a nano-scale method for the determination and quantification of five benzodiazepines (BDZ) in an alcoholic grappa drink (chlordiazepoxide; lorazepam; diazepam; oxazepam; medazepam). BDZ are typically used in drug-facilitated crimes (DFC) for their accessibility and synergistic effects with alcohol. Specimens collected on the crime scene must be rapidly analyzed to prove the crime, though, in most cases, a very small amount is available. Off-line MEPS extraction of diluted grappa samples proved to be an efficient and reliable method for the recovery of the selected compounds. Requiring a very small amount of extraction solvents, MEPS is an environment-friendly technique. LC separation with UV detection was used as the analytical technique because it is simple, robust, relatively economic and easy-to-find in most laboratories. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy and recovery. Limits of detection and quantitation were in the range of 0.5-2ng/μL. Linearity (R(2)) spanned from 0.9994 and 1.0000. Intra- and inter-day repeatabilities were lower than 12% at any concentration. Recovery percentages of an equivalent-to-real sample at three different concentrations were between 70.7 and 74.1%.

  18. Relationships among aging, IQ, and intracranial volume in alcoholics and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Schottenbauer, Michele A; Momenan, Reza; Kerick, Michael; Hommer, Daniel W

    2007-05-01

    The current article examined the relationships among aging, intelligence, intracranial volume, and brain shrinkage in alcoholics and nonalcoholic controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure intracranial and cerebral volumes in 146 subjects with alcohol use disorders and 42 comparison subjects who were not alcoholic. The authors' findings show that performance on Block Design decreases as alcoholics age, and this decrease is predicted by brain shrinkage. This is consistent with a process of cumulative brain damage related to alcohol use. However, the authors' data also show that vocabulary does not decrease with age and is correlated with premorbid brain size as measured by intracranial volume, suggesting that lower verbal ability precedes heavy alcohol use and may be a risk factor for alcoholism.

  19. Temperature-controlled ultrasound- and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction combined with GC for the determination of the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides in beverage samples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Zhao, Wenting; Yang, Zhonghua; Gao, Haixiang; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to develop temperature-controlled ultrasound- and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction as a fast and efficient approach for the extraction of nine organophosphorus pesticides in beverage samples followed by GC with flame photometric detection analysis. The combination of ultrasonication and vortexing were used to assist the microextraction, and the use of a dispersion solvent was avoided. Several variables that could potentially affect the extraction efficiency, namely, the type and volume of extraction solvent, sequence, and time of ultrasonication and vortexing, ultrasonication bath temperature and ionic strength were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.5-200 μg/L. The LOD (S/N = 3) was between 0.01 and 0.05. The optimized method exhibited a good precision level with RSD values between 4.5 and 9.8%. The enrichment factors for the nine organophosphorus pesticides were between 224 and 339. Four beverage samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method.

  20. Alcohol and Drug Use in Young Apprentices: Effect of Social Control in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burcu, Esra

    2003-01-01

    Examined the social control used by families of young apprentices in Turkey in relation to deviant behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use. Data for 397 apprentices show that those who use alcohol are most frequently exposed to stringent controls and oral and physical violence, and those who use drugs frequently were exposed to battering by their…