Science.gov

Sample records for alcoholic beverage intake

  1. Sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages mediate alcohol intake in of-age undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Sarah A; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2005-01-17

    Alcoholic beverages are complex stimuli, giving rise to sensations that promote or inhibit intake. Previous research has shown associations between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness, one marker of genetic variation in taste, and alcohol behaviors. We tested the PROP bitterness and alcohol intake relationship as mediated by tastes of sampled alcoholic beverages. Forty-nine undergraduates (mean age=22 years) participated. According to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), only 3 of 49 subjects reported patterns indicating problematic drinking. Participants used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate PROP bitterness and tastes from and preference for Pilsner beer, blended scotch whiskey, instant espresso and unsweetened grapefruit juice. Alcohol intake was reported over a typical week. Regression analysis tested the hypothesis that PROP bitterness influenced alcohol bitterness and sweetness, which in turn predicted alcohol intake. Those who tasted less PROP bitterness tasted all beverages as less bitter and more preferred. Sweetness of scotch was significantly greater in those who tasted PROP as least bitter. For scotch, greater sweetness and less bitterness from sampled scotch were direct predictors of greater alcohol intake. For beer, preference ratings were better predictors of alcohol intake than the bitter or sweet tastes of the sampled beer. These findings support that PROP bitterness predicts both positive and negative tastes from alcoholic beverages and that those tastes may predict alcohol intake. The college environment may attenuate direct effects of PROP bitterness and intake. Here, PROP bitterness does not predict alcohol intake directly, but acts instead through sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages. PMID:15639168

  2. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Jensen, U; Fagt, S; Andersen, R

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds with 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was in 2005 lower than the acceptable daily intake of 7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, the 99th percentile for 1-3 year olds with 7.4 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) still exceeded the acceptable daily intake slightly. The 90th percentile for the whole population with 0.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was halved compared with 1999. The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value. PMID:18484294

  3. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fabricius, N; Fagt, S

    2007-03-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mg l(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values of 15, 40 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively. However, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds was close to the ADI value of 7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1); and the 99th percentile in the 1-10 year olds far exceeded the ADI value. Boys aged 7-10 years had a significantly higher estimated intake of cyclamate than girls. The 90th percentile for the whole population was 1.8 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). After the reduction in the maximum permitted level in the European Union in 2004 from 400 to 250 mg cyclamate l-1, the exposure in Denmark can also be expected to be reduced. A new investigation in 2007 should demonstrate whether the problem with high cyclamate intake is now solved. PMID:17364923

  4. Systemic immune modulation induced by alcoholic beverage intake in obese-diabetes (db/db) mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Jang, Ik-Soon; Park, Junsoo; Kim, Seol-Hee; Baek, So-Young; Go, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol over-consumption is generally immunosuppressive. In this study, the effects of single or repetitive alcohol administration on the systemic immunity of db/db mice were observed to clarify the possible mechanisms for the increased susceptibility of obese individuals to alcohol-related immunological health problems. Alcohol (as a form of commercially available 20% distilled-alcoholic beverage) was orally administered one-time or seven times over 2 weeks to db/db mice and normal C57BL/6J mice. Immunologic alterations were analyzed by observation of body weight and animal activity, along with proportional changes of splenocytes for natural killer cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Modulation of plasma cytokine level and immune-related genes were also ascertained by micro-bead assay and a microarray method, respectively. The immune micro-environment of db/db mice was an inflammatory state and adaptive cellular immunity was significantly suppressed. Low-dose alcohol administration reversed the immune response, decreasing inflammatory responses and the increment of adaptive immunity mainly related to CD4(+) T cells, but not CD8(+) T cells, to normal background levels. Systemic immune modulation due to alcohol administration in the obese-diabetic mouse model may be useful in the understanding of the induction mechanism, which will aid the development of therapeutics for related secondary diseases. PMID:23261674

  5. Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nagao, M; Takahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Sugimura, T

    1981-02-01

    The mutagenicities of evaporated residues of alcoholic beverages were tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98. 12 of 13 brands of whisky were mutagenic to TA100 without S9 mix. Addition of S9 mix decreased or abolished these mutagenicities. 5 brands of brandy and 1 apple brandy were tested, and all showed a similar type of mutagenicity to that of whisky. A fraction of brand-K whisky, containing a major mutagen(s), eluted from XAD-2 column with water, gave 3800 revertants of TA100 per plate at a dose equivalent to 10 ml of whisky. PMID:7012607

  6. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  7. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  8. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  9. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  10. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  11. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  12. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  13. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36... § 636.36 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited. (b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any...

  14. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  15. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  16. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  17. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  18. 50 CFR 38.12 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.12 Alcoholic beverages. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Sell any alcoholic beverages to...

  19. College Student Use of Alcoholic Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuder, James M.; Madson, Dennis L.

    1976-01-01

    Colorado State University students responded to a 19-item questionnaire concerning their use of alcoholic beverages. Results indicated a large majority of the students used alcoholic beverages, most students felt that drinking never interfered with their academic work, and alcoholic beverages played an important role in the social aspects of…

  20. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  1. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  2. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  3. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  4. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  5. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  6. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  7. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  8. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  9. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  10. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  11. 2 CFR 200.423 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 200.423 Section 200.423 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... Alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable....

  12. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  13. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of...

  14. 32 CFR 700.1162 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 700.1162 Section 700.1162... and Restrictions § 700.1162 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship,...

  15. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the...

  16. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  17. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  18. Caloric Beverage Intake Among Adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141

  19. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 159.4 Section 159.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.4 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Quantities subject to duties. Customs duties and...

  20. Impact of beverage intake on metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Helm, Laura; Macdonald, Ian A

    2015-09-01

    This review is based on a presentation that was made at a meeting concerning hydration. It summarizes the epidemiological evidence for selected beverages in relation to cardiovascular and/or metabolic health. The review focuses on tea, cocoa, milk, orange juice, alcohol, and beverages sweetened with sugars. These beverage types were chosen because of their widespread consumption, with tea, cocoa, orange juice, and milk being of potential benefit while alcohol and sugars may be detrimental. There is reasonably consistent evidence of reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with high consumption of tea, with the tea flavonoids appearing to be responsible for these benefits. There is also a growing evidence base for cocoa flavanols to have beneficial cardiovascular effects. The bulk of the evidence supporting these conclusions is epidemiological and needs to be confirmed with randomized controlled trials. Milk is associated with reduced risk of CVD, particularly in relation to blood pressure, with certain milk tripeptides being implicated in having effects to reduce angiotensin action. Further work is needed to confirm these potentially beneficial effects. There is some evidence of potentially beneficial effects of orange juice on aspects of cardiovascular function, but this is by no means convincing, and further evidence is needed from randomized controlled trials, together with the elucidation of whether any benefits are linked to the citrus flavanones or simply to the vitamin C content. While there is some evidence that red wine may convey some health benefits, there is also clear evidence that alcoholic beverages can have undesirable effects on blood pressure and increase the risk of CVD. It is possible that low to moderate intakes of alcoholic beverages may be beneficial. There is some evidence that beverages sweetened with sugars may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain, and there is also an indication from longitudinal cohort

  1. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  4. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  5. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  6. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  8. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  9. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  10. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  11. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  12. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  13. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  14. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  15. 27 CFR 27.49 - Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcoholic beverages. 27.49 Section 27.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Taxes § 27.49 Commercial samples of alcoholic beverages. Samples of distilled spirits, beer, and wine, to be used in the United States by persons importing alcoholic beverages in commercial...

  16. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  17. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  18. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  19. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  20. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  1. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  2. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  3. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  4. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  5. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  6. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable....

  7. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable....

  8. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable....

  9. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable....

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable....

  11. Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Knight, Carol A; Hockenberry, Jon; Teplansky, Robyn; Hartman, Terryl J

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ≥ 2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (≤10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population. PMID:24189158

  12. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  13. 32 CFR 636.36 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages. 636.36 Section 636.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... person or being escorted in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.221; or (3) Has a deadly or dangerous weapon accessible to him while aboard the aircraft in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.219, 1544.221, or 1544.223. (c) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... person or being escorted in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.221; or (3) Has a deadly or dangerous weapon accessible to him while aboard the aircraft in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.219, 1544.221, or 1544.223. (c) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... person or being escorted in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.221; or (3) Has a deadly or dangerous weapon accessible to him while aboard the aircraft in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.219, 1544.221, or 1544.223. (c) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... person or being escorted in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.221; or (3) Has a deadly or dangerous weapon accessible to him while aboard the aircraft in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.219, 1544.221, or 1544.223. (c) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... person or being escorted in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.221; or (3) Has a deadly or dangerous weapon accessible to him while aboard the aircraft in accordance with 49 CFR 1544.219, 1544.221, or 1544.223. (c) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section...

  19. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81...

  20. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81...

  1. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81...

  2. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81...

  3. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81...

  4. Young Adults' Knowledge of the Strength of Different Alcoholic Beverages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined college students' (n=113) knowledge of the strength of malt beverages, wines, fortified wines, and distilled spirits. Results indicated rates of correct responses were well below 50 percent for each type of beverage. Alcohol content of malt beverages tended to be less accurately estimated than other beverages. Women's estimates were less…

  5. [Exposure to phtalates and their presence in alcoholic beverages].

    PubMed

    Jurica, Karlo; Uršulin-Trstenjak, Natalija; Vukić Lušić, Darija; Lušić, Dražen; Smit, Zdenko

    2013-06-01

    Phthalates are phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol esters used as additives to plastic in order to improve its softness, flexibility, and elongation. Phthalates are highly mobile and migrate easily from plastic products into the environment due to their physical and chemical properties. This study briefly describes the characteristics and distribution of phthalates in the environment, their toxic effects on human health, the legislation regarding the maximum allowed concentration of phthalates in drinking water and products intended for infants, as well as the tolerable daily intake. Special attention is given to the methods of determining phthalates and their levels in alcoholic beverages, with an overview of phthalate occurrences and concentrations in plum brandy made in Croatia. A segment on denatured alcohol and illegally marketed alcohol is also included, as well as guidelines for the effective monitoring of the routes of human exposure to phthalates. PMID:23819941

  6. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of... INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. (a) The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous, or fermented liquor, containing more than 1 percent of alcohol by...

  7. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  8. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  9. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  10. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  11. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  12. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  13. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was <1 g/kcal. Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks

  14. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2) relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES), TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3) compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015) in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit) was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p < 0.05). In the 2007 survey 23% of children were overweight (17%) or obese (6%) while in the 1995 survey this figure was 21%. The proportion of children consuming SSBs in 1995 and 2007 for selected age groups were: 2-3 years - 25.8% and 12.8% respectively and 4-7 years - 33.6% and 20.5% respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB

  15. The Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gregory S.; And Others

    When in childhood concepts about alcohol and drinking begin to develop has just begun to be investigated. A study was conducted to examine cognitive, maturational, and differential exposure influences on the acquisition of concepts about alcoholic beverages in preschool children. Knowledge about alcoholic beverages and drinking was assessed in 65…

  16. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or...

  17. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Open container of alcoholic... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or...

  18. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or...

  19. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or...

  20. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or...

  1. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or...

  2. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or...

  3. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or...

  4. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  5. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  6. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  7. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  8. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.11 Alcoholic... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  9. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.11 Alcoholic... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  10. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.11 Alcoholic... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  11. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or...

  12. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  13. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or...

  14. Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers: II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Robert B.; And Others

    Little is known about very young children's conception of alcoholic beverages and their uses. A study was conducted to determine whether preschool children's ability to correctly access a cognitive network about alcoholic beverages can be related to differences in family exposure to alcohol. Preschoolers (N=57) between the ages of 2.5 and 6 years…

  15. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  16. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  17. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  18. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  19. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11 Section 386.11 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.11 Alcoholic beverages and controlled...

  20. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  1. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  2. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  3. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  4. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  5. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  6. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  7. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  8. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  9. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  10. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  11. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... it is maintained or established; or (B) Incidents of aberrant behavior related to the consumption of... public use area or public facility within a park area to the consumption of alcoholic beverages and/or to... superintendent that: (A) The consumption of an alcoholic beverage or the possession of an open container of...

  12. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet) was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits), no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference. PMID:23056930

  13. Beverage intake preference and bowel preparation laxative taste preference for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Burnside, Clinton; Laiyemo, Maryam A; Kwagyan, John; Williams, Carla D; Idowu, Kolapo A; Ashktorab, Hassan; Kibreab, Angesom; Scott, Victor F; Sanderson, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether non-alcoholic beverage intake preferences can guide polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based bowel laxative preparation selection for patients. METHODS: We conducted eight public taste test sessions using commercially procured (A) unflavored PEG, (B) citrus flavored PEG and (C) PEG with ascorbate (Moviprep). We collected characteristics of volunteers including their beverage intake preferences. The volunteers tasted the laxatives in randomly assigned orders and ranked the laxatives as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd based on their taste preferences. Our primary outcome is the number of 1st place rankings for each preparation. RESULTS: A total of 777 volunteers completed the study. Unflavored PEG was ranked as 1st by 70 (9.0%), flavored PEG by 534 (68.7%) and PEG with ascorbate by 173 (22.3%) volunteers. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics and beverage intake patterns for coffee, tea, and carbonated drinks did not predict PEG-based laxative preference. CONCLUSION: Beverage intake pattern was not a useful guide for PEG-based laxative preference. It is important to develop more tolerable and affordable bowel preparation laxatives for colonoscopy. Also, patients should taste their PEG solution with and without flavoring before flavoring the entire gallon as this may give them more opportunity to pick a pattern that may be more tolerable. PMID:26261736

  14. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    PubMed

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

  15. Determination of purine contents of alcoholic beverages using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kiyoko; Yamanobe, Tomoyo; Fujimori, Shin

    2009-08-01

    The purine contents of alcoholic beverages were determined in order to utilize them in the dietary care of gout and hyperuricemia. In the management of these diseases, restriction of both alcohol and purine intake are important. The method employed in this study is a quantitative determination of purine contents by HPLC. Alcoholic beverages were hydrolyzed to corresponding purine bases, which were then separated by HPLC, and base peaks were identified using an enzymatic peak-shift technique. This method is sufficiently accurate and reproducible to examine the purine contents of various alcoholic beverages that patients consume. Purine contents were as follows: spirits, 0.7-26.4 micromol/L; regular beer, 225.0-580.2 micromol/L; low-malt beer, 193.4-267.9 micromol/L; low-malt and low-purine beer, 13.3 micromol/L; other liquors, 13.1-818.3 micromol/L. Some local and low-alcohol beers were found to contain about 2.5 times more purines than regular beer. As some alcoholic beverages contain considerable amounts of purines, we recommend that excess consumption of these beverages be avoided. These data should be useful in the management of hyperuricemia and gout, not only for patients but also for physicians. PMID:19353717

  16. Alcohol consumption, types of alcoholic beverages and risk of venous thromboembolism - the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Krone, Ida J; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Enga, Kristin F; Wilsgaard, Tom; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2011-08-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases. The association between alcohol consumption, especially types of alcoholic beverages, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is less well described. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of alcohol consumption and different alcoholic beverages on risk of VTE. Information on alcohol consumption was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire in 26,662 subjects, aged 25-97 years, who participated in the Tromsø Study, in 1994-1995. Subjects were followed through September 1, 2007 with incident VTE as the primary outcome. There were 460 incident VTE-events during a median of 12.5 years of follow-up. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with risk of incident VTE. However, subjects consuming ≥ 3 units of liquor per week had 53% increased risk of VTE compared to teetotalers in analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, cancer, previous cardiovascular disease, physical activity and higher education (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.33). Contrary, subjects with a wine intake of ≥ 3 units/week had 22% reduced risk of VTE (HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.30), further adjustment for liquor and beer intake strengthened the protective effect of wine (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.30-1.00). Frequent binge drinkers (≥ 1/week) had a 17% increased risk of VTE compared to teetotallers (HR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.66-2.09), and a 47% increased risk compared to non-binge drinkers (HR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.85-2.54). In conclusion, liquor consumption and binge drinking was associated with increased risk of VTE, whereas wine consumption was possibly associated with reduced risk of VTE. PMID:21614415

  17. [Influence of alcohol beverage vending machine on alcohol dependence syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ino, A; Fujita, S

    1994-12-01

    The vending machines which sell alcohol beverages (AVM) can be found quite easily in front of shops or on the roadside in this country. Although it is easily supposed that these vending machines might have badly influenced on developing alcohol dependence syndrome, no scientific study has been reported in this regard so far. In this study, we analyzed the present status of alcoholics (n = 759) and their family members (n = 512) and of ordinary people (n = 334) in terms of their "relation" and "attitudes" to the vending machines by a questionnaire method. The results obtained show as follows: The majority of alcoholics (60%) had used AVM a couple of times or more often in a week, and 18% of alcoholics had not used AVM at all. It was found that the natures of AVM such as "machine," "long time operation," "easy accessibility," are closely related to the development of their alcohol seeking behavior, resulting in forming unfavorable drinking patterns such as concealed drinking, gulping, early morning drinking or binge drinking. Unusual patterns of using AVM were also noticed among them, such as, go to AVM before 5 a.m. and wait until it starts to work, go to a far away AVM deliberately, or, visiting AVM one after another. It was noticed that these drinking habits affected seriously not only the alcoholics but their families also. The number of the family members who insisted that AVM affected badly on the course of alcohol dependence syndrome is larger than that of alcoholics who admit the same thing. As for the future abolition of AVM, 91% of the family members, 70% of alcoholics and 39% of ordinary persons agreed with. The rate of "agreed with abolition" is higher than that of "disagreed with abolition" among ordinary persons. PMID:7695515

  18. Estradiol valerate and alcohol intake: dose-response assessments

    PubMed Central

    Quirarte, Gina L; Reid, Larry D; de la Teja, I Sofía Ledesma; Reid, Meta L; Sánchez, Marco A; Díaz-Trujillo, Arnulfo; Aguilar-Vazquez, Azucena; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A

    2007-01-01

    Background An injection of estradiol valerate (EV) provides estradiol for a prolonged period. Recent research indicates that a single 2.0 mg injection of EV modifies a female rat's appetite for alcoholic beverages. This research extends the initial research by assessing 8 doses of EV (from .001 to 2.0 mg/female rat), as well assessing the effects of 2.0 mg EV in females with ovariectomies. Results With the administration of EV, there was a dose-related loss of bodyweight reaching the maximum loss, when it occurred, at about 4 days after injections. Subsequently, rats returned to gaining weight regularly. Of the doses tested, only the 2.0 mg dose produced a consistent increase in intake of ethanol during the time previous research indicated that the rats would show enhanced intakes. There was, however, a dose-related trend for smaller doses to enhance intakes. Rats with ovariectomies showed a similar pattern of effects, to intact rats, with the 2 mg dose. After extensive histories of intake of alcohol, both placebo and EV-treated females had estradiol levels below the average measured in females without a history of alcohol-intake. Conclusion The data support the conclusion that pharmacological doses of estradiol can produce enduring changes that are manifest as an enhanced appetite for alcoholic beverages. The effect can occur among females without ovaries. PMID:17335585

  19. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  20. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  1. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  2. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Balaghi, Sima; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mahdavi, Reza; Ghaemmaghami, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverse effect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluids consumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid were enough and appropriate. Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males) volunteer students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were as­sessed by 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included). Dietary intake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake (drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods) and the rate of metabolic water were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were made using student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were not included in the statistical analysis. Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml) and boys (1861±59ml) reflect the sum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml) and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys, 714±86m). The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40%) and tea (49%) respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13%) and 57.30±11ml (5%), respectively. Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than rec­ommended values. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targeting the young adults to improve their beverage choices. PMID:24688900

  3. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (P<0.05). At 3 h after alcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations. PMID:27069900

  4. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (P<0.05). At 3 h after alcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations. PMID:27069900

  5. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... narcotics. 15.9 Section 15.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21...

  6. Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages. PMID:26760759

  7. Hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nose, Akira; Hojo, Masashi

    2006-10-01

    An alcoholic beverage is a type of water-ethanol solution with flavor and taste. The properties of the hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages have not been clarified sufficiently. We investigated factors that could affect the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol on the basis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) chemical shifts of the OH of water-ethanol and Raman OH stretching spectra. Not only acids (H+ and HA: undissociated acids) but also bases (OH- and A-: conjugate-base anions from weak acids) strengthened the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol. It was also demonstrated that the hydrogen bonding is strengthened by chemical components in alcoholic beverages (whiskey, Japanese sake, shochu). It can be suggested that hydrogen-bonding donors as well as acceptors in alcohol beverages, which exist as the initial components or are gained later on, should cause the tight association between water and ethanol molecules. PMID:17116572

  8. [Application of infrared spectroscopy technique to discrimination of alcoholic beverages].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Ying; Ying, Yi-Bin; Yu, Hai-Yan; Xie, Li-Juan; Fu, Xia-Ping

    2008-04-01

    Infrared spectroscopy technique is a rapid for the discrimination of food samples, and is widely used to detect and discriminate various beverages. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of techniques that have been used to discriminate alcoholic beverages, and the discriminating procedure with infrared spectroscopy technique. Applications of infrared spectroscopy technique to wine, whiskey, Japanese sake and Chinese rice wine etc. is presented too. Finally, problems in applications are analyzed, and the application of infrared spectroscopy technique to the discrimination of our traditional alcoholic beverages is prospected. PMID:18619303

  9. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages. 7.11 Section 7.11 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS...

  10. The Margin of Exposure of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Monakhova, Yulia B

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) regularly occurs in foods and in alcoholic beverages. However, the risk of HMF associated with alcohol consumption has not been systematically studied, so that this study will provide the first quantitative risk assessment of HMF for consumers of alcoholic beverages. Methods Human dietary intake of HMF via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data combined with our own survey data (n=944) and literature data (n=147) about the HMF contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Results For olfactory epithelium metaplasia in female mice, a benchmark dose (BMD) of 127 mg/kg bodyweight (bw)/d and a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 79 mg/kg bw/d were calculated from National Toxicology Program oral long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to HMF from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 6.0E-3 mg/kg bw/d, which is approximately 8.5% of the total dietary exposure. In comparison of the human exposure with BMDL, the MOE was 13,167 for average alcohol consumption scenarios, which is a value that would be generally assumed as safe for threshold based compounds. Conclusions The results show that the risk from HMF to the alcohol-consuming population is rather low and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is also low. Further toxicological research about HMF is required to further elucidate its mechanism. PMID:23106038

  11. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern. PMID:18639604

  12. Glass Shape Influences Consumption Rate for Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Stothart, George; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High levels of alcohol consumption and increases in heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) are a growing public concern, due to their association with increased risk of personal and societal harm. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be sensitive to factors such as price and availability. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of glass shape on the rate of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Methods This was an experimental design with beverage (lager, soft drink), glass (straight, curved) and quantity (6 fl oz, 12 fl oz) as between-subjects factors. Social male and female alcohol consumers (n = 159) attended two experimental sessions, and were randomised to drink either lager or a soft drink from either a curved or straight-sided glass, and complete a computerised task identifying perceived midpoint of the two glasses (order counterbalanced). Ethical approval was granted by the Faculty of Science Research Ethics Committee at the University of Bristol. The primary outcome measures were total drinking time of an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage, and perceptual judgement of the half-way point of a straight and curved glass. Results Participants were 60% slower to consume an alcoholic beverage from a straight glass compared to a curved glass. This effect was only observed for a full glass and not a half-full glass, and was not observed for a non-alcoholic beverage. Participants also misjudged the half-way point of a curved glass to a greater degree than that of a straight glass, and there was a trend towards a positive association between the degree of error and total drinking time. Conclusions Glass shape appears to influence the rate of drinking of alcoholic beverages. This may represent a modifiable target for public health interventions. PMID:22912776

  13. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  14. [Alcohol beverage advertisements--survey of weekly magazines].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, N; Higuchi, S

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of alcohol beverage advertisements appearing in weekly magazines and comics. Few studies have be undertaken on this sector of the mass media in Japan. The results are compared with those of a similar study in the United States. We also review alcohol advertisements on television and the drinking scenes shown in comics. On the average, Japanese magazines tend to contain fewer alcohol advertisements than American magazines. However, 18 (53%) in 34 weekly magazines contained alcohol advertisements showing that such magazines are an important medium for alcoholic beverage advertising in Japan. There were also alcohol advertisements targeting to particular populations, youths and women, which may be connected with the increase in drinking in these groups. Alcohol advertisements in the mass media should be monitored continuously as public health issue. PMID:7726756

  15. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gallon shall be converted to the next full one-tenth gallon. (3) Beer and similar fermented beverages. Customs duties and taxes on beer, ale, porter, stout, and other similar fermented beverages, including... or produced from malt, wholly or in part, or from any substitute therefor, shall be collected...

  16. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gallon shall be converted to the next full one-tenth gallon. (3) Beer and similar fermented beverages. Customs duties and taxes on beer, ale, porter, stout, and other similar fermented beverages, including... or produced from malt, wholly or in part, or from any substitute therefor, shall be collected...

  17. 19 CFR 159.4 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gallon shall be converted to the next full one-tenth gallon. (3) Beer and similar fermented beverages. Customs duties and taxes on beer, ale, porter, stout, and other similar fermented beverages, including... or produced from malt, wholly or in part, or from any substitute therefor, shall be collected...

  18. Alcoholic Beverage Buying Habits of University of Delaware Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Goal of study was comparing alcoholic beverage buying habits of University of Delaware students with those of students at other colleges. Random sample of 639 was drawn from 13,000 undergraduates and interviews conducted. Drinking at Delaware was similar to that at other schools. Seniors spent significantly more on alcohol than freshmen. (Author)

  19. The Impact of Standard Nutrition Labels on Alcoholic Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Julia A.; Dale, Chelsea F.; Fontana, Victoria C.; Collier, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not to mandate nutrition labels on alcoholic beverages is a topic of debate. We examined the effect of nutrition labels on (1) plans for drinking and (2) alcohol expectancies. Study 1, n = 80 underage college drinkers responded to an image of a beer with or without a nutrition label. Study 2, n = 98 community drinkers responded to…

  20. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or public facility within the area administered by the Presidio Trust to the consumption of alcoholic... made by the Board that: (A) The consumption of an alcoholic beverage or the possession of an open... purpose for which it is maintained or established; or (B) Incidents of aberrant behavior related to...

  1. Factors that Affect Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake in Rural, Southern College Students in the US.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Chau, Tak Yan; Rutledge, Julie M; Erickson, Dawn; Lim, Yunsook

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate factors that affect sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in rural, southern college students in the US. The majority of the participants were male (58 %) and Caucasian (63 %). The average total SSB consumption was 79.4 fl oz/day (2.35 L/d). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total SSB intake greater than 57.4 fl oz/day (1.8 L/d) versus less than 57.4 fl oz/day showed that factors associated with greater odds for high SSB intake were age greater than 20 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 3.551, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.385 - 9.104, p = 0.008) and being African American (OR = 3.477, 95 % CI = 1.291 - 9.363, p = 0.013). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total bottled water intake greater than 39.4 fl oz/day (median) versus less than 39.4 fl oz/day showed that consuming alcohol was significantly related to an increased probability of drinking more than 39.4 fl oz (1.17 L/d) of bottled water per day (median; OR = 2.914, 95 % CI = 1.223 - 6.943, p = 0.016). Culturally sensitive strategies are needed to raise awareness for making healthy beverage choices when dining on campus to effectively reduce college student's SSB consumption. PMID:26780272

  2. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Poppitt, Sally D.

    2015-01-01

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of “liquid” energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity. PMID:26270675

  3. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    PubMed

    Poppitt, Sally D

    2015-08-01

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of "liquid" energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity. PMID:26270675

  4. Five-year longitudinal and secular shifts in adolescent beverage intake: findings from project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Melissa C; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Detailed research examining concurrent longitudinal and secular changes in adolescent beverage intake is not currently available, particularly since the year 2000. This study's objective was to evaluate these trends in beverage intake in a large, diverse adolescent cohort. Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II is a 5-year longitudinal study (n=2,516) including two cohorts, which allows for the observation of longitudinal changes from early to mid-adolescence (junior high to high school) and from mid- to late adolescence (high school to post high school). Project EAT-II also examined secular trends in adolescent health behavior from 1999-2004 in mid-adolescence. Daily beverage servings were assessed using the Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire. Longitudinal findings indicate that intake of soda and sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, sweetened iced teas, and fruit drinks) increased significantly among younger males, and alcohol increased across all groups (P<0.01). Consumption of certain beverages decreased with age: fruit juice (among all males and older females, P< or =0.02), milk (older adolescents, P<0.01), other milk beverages (all females and older males, P<0.01), diet soda (younger adolescents, P<0.01), and coffee/tea (all males and younger females, P<0.01). Significant secular decreases were observed in fruit juice and coffee/tea for males and females (P< or =0.05). Overall, these findings reflect recent secular and longitudinal shifts in adolescent beverage consumption during the critical transition period from early to mid-adolescence and mid- to late adolescence. Although additional research is needed to better understand nuances in adolescent consumption patterns, registered dietitians and other health care practitioners working with adolescents should address the importance of limiting sugar-sweetened beverages with low nutrient density. PMID:19167959

  5. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  6. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  7. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  8. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  12. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.405 - What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? 102-74.405 Section 102-74.405 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Alcoholic Beverages § 102-74.405 What is the policy concerning the use of alcoholic beverages? Except where the head of the responsible agency or...

  14. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  15. 27 CFR 31.48 - Alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen. 31.48 Section 31.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS...

  16. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the..., barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather...

  1. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the..., barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather...

  2. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the..., barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather...

  3. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  4. NUCLEAR AND CORTICAL OPACITIES IN RELATION TO ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied lens opacification in relation to alcoholic beverage consumption in 519 nondiabetic Nurses' Health Study participants enrolled in the Nutrition and Vision Project. Odds ratios (ORs) generated by logistic regression analysis (SAS PROC GENMOD) related average weekly consumption of beer, wi...

  5. Monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions to children.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; King, L; Baur, L; Rayner, M; Lobstein, T; Monteiro, C; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing food choices related to non-communicable diseases. The monitoring of populations' exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions, and the content of these promotions, is necessary to generate evidence to understand the extent of the problem, and to determine appropriate and effective policy responses. A review of studies measuring the nature and extent of exposure to food promotions was conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food promotions via dominant media platforms. A step-wise approach, comprising 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' monitoring activities, was designed. This approach can be used to assess the frequency and level of exposure of population groups (especially children) to food promotions, the persuasive power of techniques used in promotional communications (power of promotions) and the nutritional composition of promoted food products. Detailed procedures for data sampling, data collection and data analysis for a range of media types are presented, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators for assessing exposure to and power of food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions. The proposed framework supports the development of a consistent system for monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions for comparison between countries and over time. PMID:24074211

  6. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the..., barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather...

  7. Rapid detection of methanol in artisanal alcoholic beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goes, R. E.; Muller, M.; Fabris, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    In the industry of artisanal beverages, uncontrolled production processes may result in contaminated products with methanol, leading to risks for consumers. Owing to the similar odor of methanol and ethanol, as well as their common transparency, the distinction between them is a difficult task. Contamination may also occur deliberately due to the lower price of methanol when compared to ethanol. This paper describes a spectroscopic method for methanol detection in beverages based on Raman scattering and Principal Component Analysis. Associated with a refractometric assessment of the alcohol content, the method may be applied in field for a rapid detection of methanol presence.

  8. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  9. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects. PMID:22645036

  10. Studies on production of alcoholic beverages from some tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Mishra, Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    The varieties of alcoholic beverages from watermelon; watermelon-banana and watermelon-pineapple mixtures were produced by using monoculture and mixed culture fermentation techniques. Three yeast species, namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kleochera apicalata, Torulospora delbruckii and four bacterial species Leuconostoc oenos, Lactobacillus Sp, Micrococcus luteus and Streptococcus lactis were identified during the study. The daily succession of these organisms in the various fermenting samples differed in cell mass and occurrence due to their different growth conditions and factors present. A higher bacterial load (3.9 ± 0.2-4.4 ± 0.3) log (cfu) ml(-1) than yeast (2.8 ± 00-4.6 ± 0.4) log (cfu) ml(-1) counts was observed in the mixed culture fermentation, while in the monoculture fermentation, a higher yeast load (4.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.2) log (cfu) ml(-1) than bacterial loads (2.7 ± 0.1-4.1 ± 0.3) log (cfu) ml(-1) counts was recovered. The results obtained from the present study indicated that monoculture-fermented beverages were of better quality as compared to the mixed culture fermented ones. The monoculture-fermented beverage from watermelon-pineapple mixture was ranked as the best alcoholic beverage based on sensory evaluation score. PMID:22815578

  11. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, F. Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  12. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Hopf, F Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    2014-05-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  13. Juice and water intake in infancy and later beverage intake and adiposity: Could juice be a gateway drink?

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Long, Michael W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the tracking and significance of beverage consumption in infancy and childhood. Design and Methods Among 1163 children in Project Viva, we examined associations of fruit juice and water intake at 1 year (0 oz, 1–7 oz [small], 8–15 oz [medium], and ≥16 oz [large]) with juice and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and BMI z-score during early (median 3.1 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Results In covariate adjusted models, juice intake at one year was associated with greater juice and sugar sweetened beverages intake during early and mid-childhood and also greater adiposity. Children who drank medium and large amounts of juice at 1 year had higher BMI z-scores during both early (Medium: β=0.16 [95%CI=0.01, 0.32]; Large: β=0.28 [95%CI=0.01, 0.56]) and mid-childhood (Medium: β=0.23 [95%CI=0.07, 0.39]; Large: β=0.36 [95%CI=0.08, 0.64]). After covariate adjustment, associations between water intake at 1 year and beverage intake and adiposity later in childhood were null. Conclusions Higher juice intake at 1 year was associated with higher juice intake, sugar sweetened beverage intake, and BMI z-score during early and mid-childhood. Assessing juice intake during infancy could provide clinicians important data regarding future unhealthy beverage habits and excess adiposity during childhood. PMID:25328160

  14. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p < 0.05) beverage type and size interaction for amount of beverage consumed, with the 12 oz. juice condition consuming the greatest amount of beverage (226.6 ± 116.4 g), and for energy consumed from food, with the 12 oz. water condition consuming more than the 12 oz. juice condition (117.7 ± 69.1 kcal vs. 88.5 ± 64.1 kcal). A main effect of beverage type was found on overall snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p < 0.001). Providing preschool-aged children with a larger size of beverage at a snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. PMID:26232137

  15. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

  16. Relationship between alcohol intake and dietary pattern: Findings from NHANES III

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between macronutrient dietary patterns and alcohol consumption using the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. METHODS: A total of 9877 subjects (5144 males) constituted the study cohort. Dietary interviews were conducted with all examinees by a trained dietary interviewer in a mobile examination center (MEC). Subjects reported all foods and beverages consumed except plain drinking water for the previous 24-h time period. Physical examination and history of alcohol consumption were obtained. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the association of the levels of alcohol consumption and the percentage of energy derived from macronutrients. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight to further explore the relationships between alcohol consumption and calories derived from each macronutrient. RESULTS: Subjects who drank were younger than non-drinker controls in both genders (P < 0.01). Alcohol intake was inversely associated with body mass index and body weight in women. Of all macronutrients, carbohydrate intake was the first to decrease with increasing alcohol consumption. In the multivariate analyses, the level of alcohol consumption was found to be an independent predictor associated with lower intake of other macronutrients. CONCLUSION: Our results show that there is an alteration in the daily dietary pattern with increasing alcohol consumption and that energy derived from alcoholic beverages substitutes that from other macronutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, and fat. PMID:20731019

  17. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  18. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  19. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  20. The effect of alcoholic beverage excise tax on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities.

    PubMed

    Son, Chong Hwan; Topyan, Kudret

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the effect of state excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine, and beer) on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities--deaths caused by motor vehicle accidents, suicides, homicides, and falls--in the United States between 1995 and 2004, using state-level panel data. There is evidence that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to changes in state excise taxes on alcohol-specific beverages. This study examines the direct relationship between injury deaths and excise taxes without testing the degree of the association between excise taxes and alcohol consumption. The study finds that beer taxes are negatively related to motor vehicle accident mortality, while wine taxes are negatively associated with suicides and falls. The positive coefficient of the spirit taxes on falls implies a substitution effect between spirits and wine, suggesting that an increase in spirit tax will cause spirit buyers to purchase more wine. This study finds no evidence of a relationship between homicides and state excise taxes on alcohol. Thus, the study concludes that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to the excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:20306111

  1. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  2. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  3. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs. PMID:26668039

  4. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  5. Investigation of ethyl carbamate levels in some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M J; Howarth, N; Key, P E; Pointer, M; Massey, R C

    1989-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of ethyl carbamate in fermented foodstuffs and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations were generally below the 1-5 micrograms/kg detection limit in bread, cheese, yoghurt, beer, gin and vodka. Higher concentrations were found in the other alcoholic beverages examined, which included whisky, fruit brandy, liqueur, wine, sherry and port. PMID:2721787

  6. 75 FR 32813 - St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance...'s certification of the amended St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control... of the tribal government to control the tribe's liquor distribution and possession, and at the...

  7. 77 FR 39727 - Poarch Band of Creek Indians-Alcohol Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Poarch Band of Creek Indians--Alcohol Beverage Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau... Poarch Band of Creek Indians--Alcohol Beverage Control Ordinance. This Ordinance regulates and controls... Poarch Band of Creek Indians, will increase the ability of the tribal government to control the...

  8. Price and income elasticities of demand for alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Ornstein, S I; Levy, D

    1983-01-01

    Estimating the demand for alcoholic beverages represents a difficult statistical problem. A number of studies have attempted to estimate the demand for beer, wine, distilled spirits, or total alcohol consumption. The results vary widely according to country of study, data used, and model and statistical technique. For the United States, most studies find the demand for beer to be relatively price inelastic, at around -0.3. The demand for distilled spirits appears to be unitary price elasticity or somewhat greater, around -1.5. The evidence on wine is too sketchy to draw any conclusions. There is no strong evidence of substitutability among beer, wine, and distilled spirits based on econometric models, nor evidence that advertising plays a strong role in the aggregate demand for beer, wine, or distilled spirits. The main policy implication is that price increases to control consumption will have a stronger impact on the consumption of distilled spirits than on beer. PMID:6390555

  9. Alcoholic beverage consumption by adults 21 years and over in the United States: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study described in the Technical Report was conducted to answer specific questions from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Ethanol Subcommittee. The study uses data from three different instruments pertaining to alcoholic beverage intakes of adults 21 years and older in the Nationa...

  10. Assessment of the Average Price and Ethanol Content of Alcoholic Beverages by Brand – United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    DiLoreto, Joanna T.; Siegel, Michael; Hinchey, Danielle; Valerio, Heather; Kinzel, Kathryn; Lee, Stephanie; Chen, Kelsey; Shoaff, Jessica Ruhlman; Kenney, Jessica; Jernigan, David H.; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no existing data on alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the level of alcohol brand. A comprehensive understanding of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level is essential for the development of effective public policy to reduce alcohol use among underage youth. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the brand level. Methods Using online alcohol price data from 15 control states and 164 online alcohol stores, we estimated the average alcohol price and percentage alcohol by volume for 900 brands of alcohol, across 17 different alcoholic beverage types, in the United States in 2011. Results There is considerable variation in both brand-specific alcohol prices and ethanol content within most alcoholic beverage types. For many types of alcohol, the within-category variation between brands exceeds the variation in average price and ethanol content among the several alcoholic beverage types. Despite differences in average prices between alcoholic beverage types, in 12 of the 16 alcoholic beverage types, customers can purchase at least one brand of alcohol that is under one dollar per ounce of ethanol. Conclusions Relying on data or assumptions about alcohol prices and ethanol content at the level of alcoholic beverage type is insufficient for understanding and influencing youth drinking behavior. Surveillance of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level should become a standard part of alcohol research. PMID:22316218

  11. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  12. Magazine alcohol advertising compliance with the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Kati; Donovan, Rob; Howat, Peter; Weller, Narelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and content of alcoholic beverage advertisements and sales promotions in magazines popular with adolescents and young people in Australia, and assess the extent to which the ads complied with Australia's self-regulatory Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Alcohol advertisements and promotions were identified in a sample of 93 magazines popular with young people. The identified items were coded against 28 measures constructed to assess the content of the items against the five sections of the ABAC. Two thirds of the magazines contained at least one alcohol advertisement or promotion with a total of 142 unique items identified: 80 were brand advertisements and 62 were other types of promotional items (i.e. sales promotions, event sponsorships, cross promotions with other marketers and advertorials). It was found that 52% of items appeared to contravene at least one section of the ABAC. The two major apparent breaches related to section B--the items having a strong appeal to adolescents (34%) and to section C--promoting positive social, sexual and psychological expectancies of consumption (28%). It was also found that promotional items appeared to breach the ABAC as often as did advertisements. It is concluded that the self-regulating system appears not to be working for the alcoholic beverages industry in Australia and that increased government surveillance and regulation should be considered, giving particular emphasis to the inclusion of promotional items other than brand advertising. PMID:17364839

  13. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a) Application to defer. An importer, including a transferee of alcoholic beverages in a Customs bonded...

  14. Chemical Analysis and Risk Assessment of Diethyl Phthalate in Alcoholic Beverages with Special Regard to Unrecorded Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Leitz, Jenny; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates are synthetic compounds with a widespread field of applications. For example, they are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics and food packaging, or are added to personal care products. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) may be used to denature alcohol, e.g., for cosmetic purposes. Public health concerns of phthalates include carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and endocrine effects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for determining phthalates in alcohol samples and to provide a risk assessment for consumers of such products. Methodology/Principal Findings A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized by varying the following parameters: type of extraction solvent (cyclohexane, n-hexane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane), the ratio extraction solvent/sample volume (1∶1 to 50∶1) and the number of extraction repetitions (1–10). The best extraction yield (99.9%) was achieved with the solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, an extraction solvent volume/sample volume ratio of 10∶1 and a double extraction. For quantification, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated internal standards was used. The investigated samples were alcoholic beverages and unrecorded alcohol products from different countries (n = 257). Two unrecorded alcohol samples from Lithuania contained diethyl phthalate in concentrations of 608 mg/L and 210 mg/L. Conclusions/Significance The consumption of the phthalate-positive unrecorded alcohols would exceed tolerable daily intakes as derived from animal experiments. Both positive samples were labelled as cosmetic alcohol, but had clearly been offered for human consumption. DEP seems to be unsuitable as a denaturing agent as it has no effect on the organoleptic properties of ethanol. In light of our results that DEP might be consumed by humans in unrecorded alcohols, the prohibition of its use as a denaturing agent should be considered. PMID:19956573

  15. Mixing alcohol with artificially sweetened beverages: Prevalence and correlates among college students.

    PubMed

    Stamates, Amy L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-11-01

    Mixing alcohol with diet beverages, as compared to mixing the same amount of alcohol with a regular beverage, is associated with greater intoxication. This may occur because diet mixers increase alcohol absorption rates. Thus, it is plausible that the use of diet mixers may increase the risk of alcohol-related harms. The current study sought to (1) determine the rate/frequency of use in among college students, (2) examine the relationship between mixing alcohol with diet beverages and alcohol-related problems, above typical alcohol use and sensation seeking, and (3) explore key traits (gender, restricting food while drinking, and body mass index [BMI]) that may characterize users. Participants were 686 (73% female) undergraduate students who completed self-reports of alcohol use (including diet mixer use), alcohol-related problems, eating behaviors while drinking, sensation seeking, and demographic information. Results revealed that about 36% of the sample reported consuming alcohol with diet mixers, and users typically consumed this beverage at least once a month. Students who reported mixing alcohol with diet beverages experienced more alcohol-related problems. And, the more frequently one consumed this beverage, the more problems were reported. These associations were found after controlling for typical level of alcohol use and sensation seeking. No differences were observed between user-status on gender, eating behaviors while drinking, and BMI. Our findings suggest that mixing alcohol with diet beverages could be a risk factor for experiencing more alcohol-related harms. Further research is needed to understand this relationship, as it may help guide intervening efforts aimed to reduce alcohol-related risks. PMID:27344010

  16. What do preschoolers know about alcohol? Evidence from the electronic Appropriate Beverage Task (eABT).

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Le Mével, Lydie; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    While much is known about alcohol use in adolescence and beyond, factors leading to such behaviors are rooted much earlier in life. To investigate what preschoolers (aged three to six) know about alcohol and adult alcohol use, we developed an electronic version (eABT) of the Appropriate Beverage Task (Zucker, Kincaid, Fitzgerald, & Bingham, 1995). Drawings of adults and children in 11 everyday scenarios and 12 photos of different beverages were shown on a touchscreen computer to 301 three- to six-year-olds (49.5% girls) from 37 preschools and seven nurseries in French-speaking Switzerland. First, the children assigned a beverage to each individual in each drawing, and then were asked if the beverage contained alcohol and if they knew its name. The results revealed that 68.1% correctly classified beer, white wine, red wine and champagne as alcoholic beverages, while 46.4% knew the beverages by name, compared to 83.2% and 73.1% for non-alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic beverages were assigned more often to men (42.2%) than to women (28.7%) or to children (12.7%), and more often to adults at a party (39.4%) than to those playing outdoors (34.7%). In conclusion, children as young as three often have some beverage-specific knowledge. From the age of four onwards, they begin to know that alcoholic beverages contain alcohol. Children aged six and over tend to have some knowledge of adult drinking norms, i.e. who is drinking and in what circumstances. PMID:27240210

  17. Alcohol Intake is Associated with Increased Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: Three US Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, Satu; Han, Jiali; Li, Tricia; Cho, Eunyoung; Nijsten, Tamar; Qureshi, Abrar

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol intake and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is unclear. We studied the association between alcohol intake and incident invasive cSCC in three cohorts of women and men with repeated assessments of alcohol intake in the US. Information on alcohol intake was collected repeatedly during follow-up. Cumulative average of alcohol intakes was used. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent exposure were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals, followed by a meta-analysis. During a follow-up of 4,234,416 person-years, 2,938 cSCC were identified. Alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of cSCC with a dose-response relationship. Each additional drink (12.8 gram of alcohol) per day was associated with a 22% increased risk of cSCC (RR 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.31). White wine consumption of ≥5 times/wk was associated with an increased risk of cSCC (RR 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.59). We found no increased risk of cSCC with other alcoholic beverages. The population-attributable risk associated with alcohol intake of ≥20 grams/d was 3% of cSCCs. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with an elevated risk of cSCC. Among alcoholic beverages, white wine was associated with cSCC. PMID:27145335

  18. 27 CFR 31.48 - Alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen. 31.48 Section 31.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND..., processors, and bonded warehousemen. Brewers and proprietors of distilled spirits plants, bonded wine...

  19. A biocatalyst for the removal of sulfite from alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Chyr; Georgiou, George

    2005-01-01

    The presence of sulfites in alcoholic beverages, particularly in wines, can cause allergic responses with symptoms ranging from mild gastrointestinal problems to life threatening anaphylactic shock in a substantial portion of the population. We have developed a simple and inexpensive biocatalytic method that employs wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) chloroplasts for the efficient oxidation of sulfites in wines to innocuous sulfates. A sufficiently high rate of sulfite oxidation was obtained in the presence of ethanol at concentrations commonly found in most wines. Crude chloroplast preparations at a concentration as low as 5 mg/mL were capable of reducing sulfite in commercial white wines from 150 ppm to under 7.5 ppm within 3 hours. A 93% removal of sulfite in commercial red wines was observed with 1 mg/mL chloroplasts within 45 min. Optimal sulfite removal efficiency was observed at pH 8.5 and was promoted by illumination, indicating the participation of light-induced photosynthetic electron transport processes in sulfite oxidation. Overall, this work indicates that biocatalytic oxidation using wheatgrass chloroplasts can be employed to remove sulfites from beverages prior to consumption. PMID:15540199

  20. Spectrofluorometric determination of histamine in wines and other alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Carou, M C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M L; Mariné-Font, A

    1989-01-01

    The spectrofluorometric determination of histamine in wines, other alcoholic beverages, and vinegars is described. Histamine is extracted with n-butanol, transferred to hydrochloric acid, and subjected to a condensation reaction with o-phthalaldehyde (OPT). The method was tested for sensitivity (0.03 ppm limit of detection and 0.08 ppm limit of determination), precision (6.4% CV for a content of 1.25 ppm and 19.5% CV for a content of 0.25 ppm), accuracy (97.1%), recovery (90.6-96.9%), and lack of interference by histidine. The method can be applied to wine, must, beer, champagne, cider, vermouth, and vinegar with satisfactory results. PMID:2745359

  1. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P < 0.0001) respectively; however, the relative intake of fluid to food (mL/kcal) increased (P < 0.0001). Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P < 0.001) and diet cola (P < 0.0001). Baseline thirst correlated positively with both fluid (r = 0.28; P < 0.001) and food (r = 0.16; P < 0.05) intakes at the meal, whereas baseline appetite associated positively only with mealtime food intake (r = 0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, mealtime fluid and food intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. PMID:25700893

  2. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage. PMID:27356202

  3. Intake of bisphenol A from canned beverages and foods on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Geens, Tinne; Apelbaum, Tali Zipora; Goeyens, Leo; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a contaminant which may be present in the coating of cans, was determined in 45 canned beverages and 21 canned food items from the Belgian market. Beverages had an average BPA concentration of 1.0 ng/ml, while canned foods had a higher average concentration of 40.3 ng/g. The amount of BPA present in food items was dependent on the type of can and sterilisation conditions rather than the type of food. For example, BPA was not detected in non-canned beverages (<0.02 ng/ml), while non-canned food items had a very low average concentration of 0.46 ng/g. Using detailed information from the Belgian food consumption survey, the BPA intake of adults through canned foods and beverages was estimated to be 1.05 µg/day or 0.015 µg/kg body weight/day (assuming an average adult weight of 70 kg). Intake assessments, based on urinary metabolite concentrations from the literature, resulted in slightly higher BPA intakes (range 0.028-0.059 µg/kg body weight/day). This suggests that sources other than canned foods and beverages contribute to BPA exposure in humans. PMID:20835936

  4. Alcoholic beverages induce superconductivity in FeTe1 - xSx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, K.; Mizuguchi, Y.; Kawasaki, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Tsuda, S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takano, Y.

    2011-05-01

    We found that hot alcoholic beverages were effective in inducing superconductivity in FeTe0.8S0.2. Heating the FeTe0.8S0.2 compound in various alcoholic beverages enhances the superconducting properties compared to a pure water-ethanol mixture as a control. Heating with red wine for 24 h leads to the largest shielding volume fraction of 62.4% and the highest zero resistivity temperature of 7.8 K. Some components present in alcoholic beverages, other than water and ethanol, have the ability to induce superconductivity in the FeTe0.8S0.2 compound.

  5. The contribution of beverages to intakes of energy and MyPlate components by current, former, and never smokers in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though beverage intake patterns have been shown to differ by smoking status, it is unknown whether the contributions of beverages to intakes of energy and MyPlate components also differ. The objective of this study was to compare beverage intakes and contributions of energy and MyPlate components by...

  6. Recording of fluid, beverage and water intakes at the population level in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Joan; Le Bellego, Laurent; König, Jürgen; Piekarz, Ana; Tavoularis, Gabriel; Tennant, David R

    2016-08-01

    The European Food Safety Authority's 2010 scientific opinion on dietary reference values for total water intakes was partly based on observed intakes in population groups. Large variability was observed, and it is unlikely that these differences can be explained by differences in climate, activity level and/or culture. This suggests that there are uncertainties in the methodologies used to assess water intake from food and fluids, including all types of beverages. To determine current methods for recording and reporting total water, beverages and fluid intakes, twenty-one European countries were surveyed using an electronic questionnaire. In total, twelve countries responded and ten completed surveys were summarised. Countries reported that their survey was representative of the population in terms of age and socio-economic status. However, a variety of methods were used - that is, repeated 24-h recalls, estimated food diaries and FFQ. None of the methods were validated to assess water and fluid intakes. The methods used to record liquid foods - for example, soup and diluted drinks - were inconsistent. Clarity and consistency on definitions of categories of beverages to facilitate comparisons between countries are needed. Recommendations for a unified approach to surveying and quantifying intake of water from fluids and foods are proposed. PMID:27326891

  7. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  8. Coffee, alcohol and other beverages in relation to cirrhosis mortality: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, George Boon-Bee; Chow, Wan-Cheng; Renwei-Wang; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Limited experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that coffee may reduce hepatic damage in chronic liver disease. The association between consumption of coffee and other beverages, and risk of cirrhosis mortality was evaluated in The Singapore Chinese Health Study. This is a prospective population-based cohort of 63,275 middle-aged and older Chinese subjects who provided data on diet, lifestyle and medical histories through in-person interviews using structured questionnaire at enrollment between 1993 and 1998. Mortality from cirrhosis in the cohort was ascertained through linkage analysis with nationwide death registry. After a mean follow-up of 14.7 years, 114 subjects died from cirrhosis; 33 of them from viral hepatitis B (29%), two from hepatitis C (2%), and 14 from alcohol-related cirrhosis (12%). Compared to non-drinkers, daily alcohol drinkers had a strong dose-dependent positive association between amount of alcohol and risk of cirrhosis mortality. Conversely, there was a strong dose-dependent inverse association between coffee intake and risk of non-viral hepatitis related cirrhosis mortality (p for trend=0.014). Compared to non-daily coffee drinkers, those who drank two or more cups per day had 66% reduction in mortality risk (HR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14–0.81). However, coffee intake was not associated with hepatitis B related cirrhosis mortality. The inverse relationship between caffeine intake and nonviral hepatitis-related cirrhosis mortality became null after adjustment for coffee drinking. The consumption of black tea, green tea, fruit juices or soft drinks was not associated with risk of cirrhosis death. Conclusion This study demonstrates the protective effect of coffee on non-viral hepatitis related cirrhosis mortality, and provides further impetus to evaluate coffee as a potential therapeutic agent in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24753005

  9. 27 CFR 31.154 - Records to be kept by alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records to be kept by alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen. 31.154 Section 31.154 Alcohol, Tobacco... alcohol beverage producers, processors, and bonded warehousemen. Wholesale liquor dealer...

  10. Adolescent Alcohol Beverage Type Choices Reflect Their Substance Use Patterns and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintonen, Tomi P.; Konu, Anne I.

    2003-01-01

    Studied alcoholic beverage type choices in relation to substance use patterns and attitudes toward substance abuse using data from the 1999 Finnish Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey for 4,943 adolescents aged 14 to 16. Frequencies of drinking, drunkenness, and smoking and attitudes toward substance use were all affected by beverage type…

  11. 76 FR 22913 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance of the Paiute Tribe of Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...: A. ``Alcoholic Beverage(s)'' means and shall include beer, wine, and liquor, as herein defined. B... Paiutes. ``Band'' means any one of the five constituent Bands. C. ``Beer'' means a product that contains... not contain hops or other vegetable products. ``Beer'' includes products referred to as light...

  12. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  13. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  14. Implications for cancer epidemiology of differences in dietary intake associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

    1991-01-01

    Several dietary factors are thought to modify risk for cancers that are known to be associated with alcohol intake. In this study, we sought to identify and describe alcohol-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of alcohol-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study that was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products. Study subjects consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on age (+/- 5 yrs). Nutritional data were analyzed as log-transformed frequencies of 30 food items, 9 factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and nutrient scores estimating daily intake of fat, vitamin A, fiber, and cholesterol. We observed many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by alcoholic beverage intake than would be expected merely by chance. For males, the most striking relationships included increased meat and egg consumption with increasing alcohol consumption and higher intake of cantaloupe and cold cereal among lighter drinkers. For females, we observed strong inverse relationships between alcohol consumption and reported intake of fruit, cold cereal, and ice cream. We also observed a direct association between alcohol and meat consumption, though it was weaker than that found among men. Findings based on factors and nutrients followed the pattern observed for the individual food items, with highest fat scores and lowest fruit scores among the heaviest drinkers. Implications for nutrient-alcohol interactions and statistical considerations are discussed. PMID:2038565

  15. Calories Consumed from Alcoholic Beverages by U.S. Adults, 2007-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Nutrition Examination Survey. Are there differences by poverty level in mean calories consumed from alcoholic beverages? ... those living at or above 350% of the poverty level, higher than the average of just over ...

  16. The mechanism of alcoholic beverage induced superconductivity in Fe-chalcogenide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Keita; Demura, Satoshi; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Denholme, Saleem; Fujioka, Masaya; Ozaki, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2013-03-01

    We have clarified the mechanism of alcoholic beverage induced superconductivity in Fe-chalcogenide compounds. Previously we reported that the bulk superconductivity in Fe-based compounds Fe(Te, Se) and Fe(Te, S) is achieved by heating in alcoholic beverages. However, the exact mechanism of how they act to enhance the superconductivity in the compounds remains unsolved. To understand the effect of alcoholic beverage treatment, we investigated the mechanism using a technology of metabolomic analysis. We found that weak acid in alcoholic beverages has the ability to deintercalate the excess Fe, which is not in favor of superconductivity. In this presentation, we will discuss the systematic mechanism to induce superconductivity in Fe-chalcogenide compounds.

  17. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ..., including malt, vinous, spirituous, alcoholic or intoxicating liquors, beer, porter, ale, stout fruit juices..., including among other things, ale, beer, stout, porter, and the like. Malt beverages are exclusive of...

  18. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  19. Associations of alcoholic beverage preference with cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors: the NQplus study

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Geelen, Anouk; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The preference for a specific alcoholic beverage may be related to an individual's overall lifestyle and health. The objective was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and several cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors, including adiposity, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver enzymes and dietary patterns. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Dutch Longitudinal Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) Study. Participants 1653 men and women aged 20–77 years. Methods Diet, including alcohol, was assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire. Based on the average number of reported glasses of alcoholic beverage, a person was classified as having a preference for beer, wine, spirit/no specific preference, or as a non-consumer. Mixed linear models were used to calculate crude and adjusted means of cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Primary outcome measures Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, lipids, HbA1c, albumin, creatinine, uric acid, liver enzymes and dietary patterns. Results In the study population, 43% had a wine preference, 13% a beer preference, 29% had a spirit or no specific preference, and 15% did not consume alcohol. Men who preferred wine had lowest measures of adiposity; the preference for alcoholic beverages was not associated with adiposity measures in women. Wine consumers had higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lower HbA1c and were more likely to follow the ‘Salad’ pattern. Beer consumers had highest levels of triglycerides and liver enzymes, and had higher scores for the ‘Meat’ and ‘Bread’ pattern. Conclusions Few differences in dietary patterns across alcoholic beverage preference categories were observed. Those differences in cardiometabolic parameters that were observed according to alcoholic beverage preference, suggested that wine consumers have a better health status than beer consumers. PMID:27311903

  20. Specific alcoholic beverage and blood pressure in a middle-aged Japanese population: the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) Study.

    PubMed

    Okamura, T; Tanaka, T; Yoshita, K; Chiba, N; Takebayashi, T; Kikuchi, Y; Tamaki, J; Tamura, U; Minai, J; Kadowaki, T; Miura, K; Nakagawa, H; Tanihara, S; Okayama, A; Ueshima, H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure. We performed a cross-sectional study on 4335 Japanese male workers using baseline data from an intervention study. We defined six groups according to the type of alcoholic beverage that provided two-thirds of the subject's total alcohol consumption: beer, sake (rice wine), shochu (traditional Japanese spirits), whiskey, wine and others. The partial regression coefficients of daily alcohol intake (1 drink=11.5 g of ethanol) to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 0.87(P<0.001, standard error (s.e.)=0.09) and 0.77(P<0.001, s.e.=0.06), respectively. A comparison among the types of alcoholic beverages mainly consumed revealed significant differences in SBP and DBP. Both SBP and DBP were highest in the shochu group. However, an analysis of covariance adjusting for total alcohol consumption resulted in the disappearance of these differences. Although after adjustment for total alcohol consumption, the shochu group exhibited a significant positive association with 'high-normal blood pressure or greater' (odds ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.95) compared with the beer group, this significant relation disappeared after adjusting for the body mass index (BMI), urinary sodium and potassium excretion. The pressor effect, per se, of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure may not be different among the types of alcoholic beverages after adjusting for other lifestyle factors. PMID:14688805

  1. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: Linkages and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to increases in obesity in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco and alcohol taxes have proven to be effective tools to reduce tobacco and alcohol use. Many public health advocates propose using similar taxes to reduce consumption of SSBs. South Africa is a middle-income country that is considered a leader in the area of tobacco tax policy. A case study of tobacco and alcohol taxes is used to better understand optimal tax structures for SSBs. The case study tracks aggregate data over time on taxes, prices, consumption, tax revenues, and marketing expenditures at the brand level. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are shown to be effective in reducing the demand for tobacco. Additionally, taxes on the dose of alcohol rather than the volume of the beverage may incentivize producers to reduce the volume of alcohol in beverages through the supply side. While specific taxes based on the volume of beverages are likely to reduce the demand for SSBs, policy makers should also consider taxes on alcohol and SSBs that tax the dose of the alcohol and calories in order to create supply-side incentives for producers to lower alcohol and calorie levels in existing products or promote products with lower levels of alcohol and calories. PMID:26005761

  2. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.52 Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon...

  3. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.52 Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon...

  4. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.52 Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon...

  5. Risk assessment for the Italian population of acetaldehyde in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Paiano, Viviana; Bianchi, Giancarlo; Davoli, Enrico; Negri, Eva; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Acetaldehyde is a naturally-occurring carcinogenic compound, present in different food items, especially in alcoholic beverages. The aims of this study were to measure acetaldehyde concentration in different beverages consumed in Italy and to estimate the potential cancer risk. The analytical procedure was based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using the isotopic dilution method. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was used for risk characterisation. The highest concentrations (median, min-max) were detected in grappa samples (499, 23.4-1850mg/l), followed by fruit-based liqueurs and spirits (62.0, 5.23-483mg/l) and wine (68.0, 18.1-477mg/l); the lowest were detected in gin (0.91, 0.78-1.90mg/l). The lowest MOE was estimated for high wine consumers (69). These results suggest that regulatory measures and consumer guidance may be necessary for acetaldehyde in beverages. PMID:24518311

  6. Detection of denatonium benzoate (bitrex) remnants in noncommercial alcoholic beverages by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Andrzej; Czerwicka, Małgorzata; Smulko, Janusz; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    Illegal alcoholic beverages are often introduced into market using cheap technical alcohol, which is contaminated by denatonium benzoate (Bitrex) of very small concentration. Bitrex is the most bitter chemical compound and has to be removed before alcohol consumption. The home-made methods utilize sodium hypochlorite to disintegrate particles of denatonium benzoate in alcohol and to remove bitter taste before trading. In this experimental studies, we propose a novel method that detects in a fast way the remnants of denatonium benzoate in dubious alcohol samples by Raman spectroscopy. This method applies a portable Raman spectrometer of excitation wavelength 785 nm and utilizes the effect of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to recognize the suspected alcoholic beverages. High effectiveness (over 98%) of YES/NO classification of the investigated samples was observed when the nonlinear algorithm support vector machine (SVM) was exploited at carefully adjusted detection parameters. The method can identify illicit alcohol within minutes. PMID:24661259

  7. The Nature and Extent of Flavored Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Underage Youth: Results of a National Brand-specific Survey

    PubMed Central

    Giga, Noreen M.; Binakonsky, Jane; Ross, Craig; Siegel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Flavored alcoholic beverages are popular among underage drinkers. Existing studies that assessed flavored alcoholic beverage use among youth relied upon respondents to correctly classify the beverages they consume, without defining what alcohol brands belong to this category. Objectives To demonstrate a new method for analyzing the consumption of flavored alcoholic beverages among youth on a brand-specific basis, without relying upon youth to correctly classify brands they consume. Methods Using a pre-recruited internet panel developed by Knowledge Networks, we measured the brands of alcohol consumed by a national sample of youth drinkers, ages 16-20 years, in the United States. The sample consisted of 108 youths who had consumed at least one drink of an alcoholic beverage in the past 30 days. We measured the brand-specific consumption of alcoholic beverages within the past 30 days, ascertaining the consumption of 380 alcohol brands, including 14 brands of flavored alcoholic beverages. Results Measuring the brand-specific consumption of flavored alcoholic beverages was feasible. Based on a brand-specific identification of flavored alcoholic beverages, nearly half of youth drinkers in the sample reported having consumed such beverages in the past 30 days. Flavored alcoholic beverage preference was concentrated among the top four brands, which accounted for nearly all of the consumption volume reported in our study. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings underscore the need to assess youth alcohol consumption at the brand level and the potential value of such data in better understanding underage youth drinking behavior and the factors that influence it. PMID:21517708

  8. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p < 0.05), but at MS, it was no different either during the SM or the LM. Total kcal intake did not differ at MS after any of the beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (13.8 ± 3.3 ng/ml/min) during SM following B-CO2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1). No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms

  9. Alcohol beverage control, privatization and the geographic distribution of alcohol outlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon. Methods A suite of geospatial data were acquired for Philadelphia, including 1,964 alcohol outlet locations, 569,928 land parcels, and school, church, hospital, park and playground locations. These data were used as inputs for exploratory spatial analysis to estimate the expected number of outlets that would eventually operate in Philadelphia. Constraints included proximity restrictions (based on current ordinances regulating outlet distribution) of at least 200 feet between alcohol outlets and at least 300 feet between outlets and schools, churches, hospitals, parks and playgrounds. Results Findings suggest that current state policies on alcohol outlet distributions in Philadelphia are loosely enforced, with many areas exhibiting extremely high spatial densities of outlets that violate existing proximity restrictions. The spatial model indicates that an additional 1,115 outlets could open in Philadelphia if privatization was to occur and current proximity ordinances were maintained. Conclusions The study reveals that spatial analytical approaches can function as an excellent tool for contingency-based “what-if” analysis, providing an objective snapshot of potential policy outcomes prior to implementation. In this case, the likely outcome is a tremendous increase in alcohol outlets in Philadelphia, with concomitant negative health, crime and quality of life outcomes that accompany such an increase. PMID:23170899

  10. Types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades--four states, 2005.

    PubMed

    2007-07-27

    Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youths in the United States each year (e.g., from homicides, motor-vehicle crashes, and suicides) and an average of 60 years of life lost per death. However, little is known about the specific types of alcoholic beverages consumed by youths. These data are important because numerous evidence-based strategies for reducing underage drinking rates are beverage-specific, including increasing alcohol excise taxes and increasing restrictions on the distribution and sale of alcoholic beverages. To examine types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades, CDC analyzed 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from the four state surveys that included a question on the type of alcohol consumed (Arkansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that liquor (e.g., bourbon, rum, scotch, vodka, or whiskey) was the most prevalent type of alcoholic beverage usually consumed among students in 9th-12th grades who reported current alcohol use or binge drinking. These findings suggest that considering beverage-specific alcohol consumption by youths is important when developing alcohol-control policies, specifically those related to the price and availability of particular types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:17657207

  11. Household production of alcoholic beverages in early eighteenth-century Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Saracino, M E

    1985-05-01

    In light of the recent controversy concerning the applicability of the household economy model to early American history, this study examines the case of alcoholic beverages produced in the households of early-eighteenth-century Connecticut. All probate inventories from Hartford, New London and Fairfield counties for 1700, 1710, 1720, 1730 and 1740 (a total of 274 inventories) were examined with a checklist of items (e.g., hops, malt, cider presses and stills) crucial to the production of alcoholic beverages during that period. The presence of these beverages themselves was also noted. Of the inventories read, 133 (49%) suggested that beverage making took place in the household. The three counties sampled showed surprisingly little deviation in the percentages of inventories suggesting alcohol production and in the preferences for specific types of drinks. Of all inventories bearing references to alcohol production, beer brewing was indicated in 83% and cider in only 55%--despite the traditional opinion of cider's predominance. The independence of cider entries from the seasonal bias of the inventories was also demonstrated. These findings, insofar as they show the pervasiveness of alcohol production within the households inventoried, thus argue strongly for the validity of the household economy model. Some implications of this model for alcohol studies are also discussed. PMID:3892167

  12. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  13. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a..., or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption by him during such a period may apply by letter to...

  14. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a..., or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption by him during such a period may apply by letter to...

  15. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a..., or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption by him during such a period may apply by letter to...

  16. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a..., or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption by him during such a period may apply by letter to...

  17. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  18. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Duchaine, Caroline S.; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation. PMID:25072269

  19. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world’s population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are

  20. Intake of alcohol may modify the risk for non-melanoma skin cancer: results of a large Danish prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Allan; Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Olesen, Anne B; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Kjær, Susanne K

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol has not been linked definitively to non-melanoma skin cancer. We examined whether alcohol intake affects the risks for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using data on 54,766 persons enrolled in the prospective Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort. Statistical analyses were based on the Cox proportional hazards model. All hazard ratios (HRs) were multivariate adjusted. Adjustment for exposure to UVR was not possible, but all analyses were adjusted for factors related to susceptibility to UVR, including sun sensitivity, degree of freckling, and number of nevi. A total of 2,409 BCC cases and 198 SCC cases were diagnosed within a median follow-up of 11.4 years. Total current alcohol intake was not associated with BCC risk, but beverage-specific analyses showed an increased BCC risk associated with intake of wine (HR=1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.08, current average alcohol intake, per 10 g per day) and spirits (HR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.21) and a decreased risk with beer (HR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-1.00). No convincing associations were found between total alcohol intake and risk for SCC, perhaps because of the limited number of cases. Our findings indicate that alcohol intake may increase the risk for BCC, but the relations seemed to depend on beverage type. PMID:22696059

  1. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 27 CFR 1.52 - Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of stocks of alcoholic beverages upon revocation, annulment, or automatic termination of basic permit. 1.52 Section 1.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake among United States high school students.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O'Toole, Terrence

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, availability of school vending machines, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, both overall and by type of SSB, among a nationally representative sample of high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,209 students (grades 9-12) were used. SSB intake was based on intake of 4 nondiet beverages [soda, other (i.e., fruit-flavored drinks, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, or flavored milk), sports drinks, and energy drinks]. Nationwide, 64.9% of high school students drank SSB ≥1 time/d, 35.6% drank SSB ≥2 times/d, and 22.2% drank SSB ≥3 times/d. The most commonly consumed SSB was regular soda. Factors associated with a greater odds for high SSB intake (≥3 times/d) were male gender [OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.41,1.95); P < 0.05], being non-Hispanic black [OR = 1.87 (95% CI = 1.52, 2.29); P < 0.05], eating at fast-food restaurants 1-2 d/wk or eating there ≥3 d/wk [OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 1.05, 1.50); P < 0.05 and OR = 2.94 (95% CI = 2.31, 3.75); P < 0.05, respectively] and watching television >2 h/d [OR = 1.70 (95% CI = 1.44, 2.01); P < 0.05]. Non-Hispanic other/multiracial [OR = 0.67 (95% CI = 0.47, 0.95); P < 0.05] and being physically active ≥60 min/d on <5 d/wk were associated with a lower odds for high SSB intake [OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.95); P < 0.05]. Weight status was not associated with SSB intake. Differences in predictors by type of SSB were small. Our findings of significant associations of high SSB intake with frequent fast-food restaurant use and sedentary behaviors may be used to tailor intervention efforts to reduce SSB intake among high-risk populations. PMID:22223568

  4. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  5. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs. 91.8 Section 91.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS §...

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for quantitative detection of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danting; Zhou, Haibo; Ying, Yibin; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Ethyl carbamate, a by-product of fermentation and storage with widespread occurrence in fermented food and alcoholic beverages, is a compound potentially toxic to humans. In this work, a new approach for quantitative detection of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages, based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), is reported. Individual silver-coated gold nanoparticle colloids are used as SERS amplifiers, yielding high Raman enhancement of ethyl carbamate in three kinds of alcoholic beverages (vodka, Obstler, and white rum). The characteristic band at 1,003 cm(-1), which is the strongest and best reproducible peak in the SERS spectra, was used for quantitative evaluation of ethyl carbamate. The limit of detection, which corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, was 9.0 × 10(-9) M (0.8 μg · L(-1)), 1.3 × 10(-7) M (11.6 μg · L(-1)), and 7.8 × 10(-8) M (6.9 μg · L(-1)), respectively. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy offers great practical potential for the in situ assessment and identification of ethyl carbamate in the alcoholic beverage industry. PMID:24154926

  7. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  8. [Alcohol and energy drink--can combined consumption of both beverages modify automobile driving fitness?].

    PubMed

    Riesselmann, B; Rosenbaum, F; Schneider, V

    1996-07-01

    Various fitness drinks under the designation of "energy or power drinks" or "brain or athletic food" are very popular among young people. For those entrusted with rendering expert opinions that poses the question of whether consumption of these beverages is of any importance when a person's ability to drive or mental capacity has to be assessed, especially in combination with alcoholic beverages imbibed at the same time. In the case discussed here-both the 20-year-old car driver and his passenger suffered not inconsiderable injuries-an alcohol concentration of 1.2 per mille was found at the time a blood sample was taken. Furthermore, a caffeine content of 1.5 micrograms/ml was noted. A value also reached after drinking a cup of filter coffee. In contrast, values of 2 to 10 micrograms/ml are reached when caffeine is used for therapeutic purposes. Values of more than 15 micrograms/ml are considered toxic. The measured caffeine content was thus fully insignificant. The same also applies to the "active ingredients" (taurine, glucuronolactone) contained in the beverage "Red Bull". Another assumption that, namely, the effect of alcohol can be offset by such beverages could lead to a situation in which young people incorrectly assess their ability to drive after imbibing alcohol and fitness drinks. That is naturally given support by corresponding tributes by the manufacturers ("improves performance", "invigorates the mind and body"). PMID:8924273

  9. The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Simon; Burgess, Victoria

    2005-07-16

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are regularly implicated in instances of surreptitious drug administration, particularly in beverages (so-called "spiked drinks"). In order to assist in the interpretation of cases where analysis of the actual beverage is required, over 50 beverages purchased in the UK were analysed for the presence of GHB and GBL. It was found that naturally occurring GHB and GBL were detected in those beverages involving the fermentation of white and particularly red grapes. No GHB or GBL was detected in other drinks such as beer, juice, spirits or liqueurs. GHB/GBL was detected in red wine vermouth (8.2 mg/L), sherry (9.7 mg/L), port (GBL), red wine (4.1-21.4 mg/L) and white wine (<3-9.6 mg/L). The presence of GHB/GBL did not appear to be influenced by the alcohol content or the pH of the beverage. In addition, the concentration in wines did not appear to be related to the geographical origin of the grape type. This is believed to be the first published data concerning the endogenous presence of GHB and GBL in the beverages described. PMID:15939164

  10. Alcoholic beverage consumption in India, Mexico, and Nigeria: a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L A; Campillo, C; Chandrashekar, C R; Gureje, O

    1998-01-01

    Drinking practices vary substantially among different countries. An understanding of such differences can help researchers, clinicians, and policymakers develop prevention, diagnostic, and treatment measures as well as overall alcohol policies that are appropriate for a given country. Accordingly, researchers have conducted cross-cultural analyses of drinking patterns and practices. Three countries included in such analyses are India, Mexico, and Nigeria. These countries differ substantially in their ethnic and cultural characteristics, including the role that alcohol plays in daily life. To gain a better insight into the attitudes toward alcohol in these countries, researchers have analyzed the alcoholic beverage preferences, gender and age differences in alcohol consumption patterns, drinking contexts and drinking patterns, alcohol-related problems, approaches to prevention and treatment, and drinking indicators in each nation. These analyses demonstrate that no single definition of "normal" drinking, problem drinking, or alcohol dependence can apply equally to all countries or cultures. PMID:15706750

  11. Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect?123

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Considine, Robert V

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beverage consumption is implicated in the overweight/obesity epidemic through the weaker energy compensation response it elicits compared with solid food forms. However, plausible mechanisms are not documented. Objective: This study assessed the cognitive and sensory contributions of differential postingestive responses to energy- and macronutrient-matched liquid (in beverage form) and solid food forms and identifies physiologic processes that may account for them. Design: Fifty-two healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 24.7 ± 5.5 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 26.3 ± 6.3] completed this randomized, 4-arm crossover study. Participants consumed oral liquid and solid preloads that they perceived, through cognitive manipulation, to be liquid or solid in their stomach (ie, oral liquid/perceived gastric liquid, oral liquid/perceived gastric solid, oral solid/perceived gastric liquid, or oral solid/perceived gastric solid). However, all preloads were designed to present a liquid gastric challenge. Appetite, gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, and selected endocrine responses were monitored for the following 4 h; total energy intake was also recorded. Results: Oral-liquid and perceived gastric-liquid preloads elicited greater postprandial hunger and lower fullness sensations, more rapid gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, attenuated insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 release, and lower ghrelin suppression than did responses after oral-solid and perceived gastric-solid treatments (all P < 0.05). Faster gastric-emptying times were significantly associated with greater energy intake after consumption of perceived gastric-liquid preloads (P < 0.05). Energy intake was greater on days when perceived gastric-liquid preloads were consumed than when perceived gastric solids were consumed (2311 ± 95 compared with 1897 ± 72 kcal, P = 0.007). Conclusions: These data document sensory and cognitive effects of food form on ingestive behavior and identify physical and

  12. Modeling the Effect of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption with Water on Energy Intake, HBI Score, and Obesity Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Poti, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) contribute to excessive weight gain through added energy intake. Replacing SSB with water is one strategy that has shown promise in helping lower excessive energy intake. Using nationally representative data from US adults (n = 19,718) from NHANES 2007-2012 we examine the impact of replacing SSB with water on Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) scores and obesity prevalence. Replacing an 8-ounce serving of SSB with water lowered the percent of energy from beverages from 17% to 11% (among those consuming 1 serving SSB/day). Reductions in the percent energy from beverages were observed across all SSB consumption groups (1-2 servings/day and >2 servings/day). Among adults there was a 9% to 21% improvement in HBI score when one serving of water replaced one serving of SSB. Using previously published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses of measured weight loss we also predicted a reduction in the prevalence of obesity (observed: 35.2%; predicted 33.5%-34.9%, p < 0.05) and increase in the prevalence of normal weight (observed: 29.7%; high weight loss: 31.3%, p < 0.05). Our findings provide further epidemiologic evidence that water in the place of SSB can be used as a strategy to limit energy intake and help individuals meet beverage intake recommendations. PMID:27367719

  13. Modeling the Effect of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption with Water on Energy Intake, HBI Score, and Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Poti, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) contribute to excessive weight gain through added energy intake. Replacing SSB with water is one strategy that has shown promise in helping lower excessive energy intake. Using nationally representative data from US adults (n = 19,718) from NHANES 2007–2012 we examine the impact of replacing SSB with water on Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) scores and obesity prevalence. Replacing an 8-ounce serving of SSB with water lowered the percent of energy from beverages from 17% to 11% (among those consuming 1 serving SSB/day). Reductions in the percent energy from beverages were observed across all SSB consumption groups (1–2 servings/day and >2 servings/day). Among adults there was a 9% to 21% improvement in HBI score when one serving of water replaced one serving of SSB. Using previously published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses of measured weight loss we also predicted a reduction in the prevalence of obesity (observed: 35.2%; predicted 33.5%–34.9%, p < 0.05) and increase in the prevalence of normal weight (observed: 29.7%; high weight loss: 31.3%, p < 0.05). Our findings provide further epidemiologic evidence that water in the place of SSB can be used as a strategy to limit energy intake and help individuals meet beverage intake recommendations. PMID:27367719

  14. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  15. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  16. Polyphenol levels in human urine after intake of six different polyphenol-rich beverages.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideyuki; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Manach, Claudine; Morand, Christine; Mennen, Louise; Rémésy, Christian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2005-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols are suggested to participate in the prevention of CVD and cancer. It is essential for epidemiological studies to be able to compare intake of the main dietary polyphenols in populations. The present paper describes a fast method suitable for the analysis of polyphenols in urine, selected as potential biomarkers of intake. This method is applied to the estimation of polyphenol recovery after ingestion of six different polyphenol-rich beverages. Fifteen polyphenols including mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone), several phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, m-coumaric, gallic, and 4-O-methylgallic acids), phloretin and various flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, and naringenin) were simultaneously quantified in human urine by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionisation mass-MS (HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry) with a run time of 6 min per sample. The method has been validated with regard to linearity, precision, and accuracy in intra- and inter-day assays. It was applied to urine samples collected from nine volunteers in the 24 h following consumption of either green tea, a grape-skin extract, cocoa beverage, coffee, grapefruit juice or orange juice. Levels of urinary excretion suggest that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin, naringenin or hesperetin could be used as specific biomarkers to evaluate the consumption of coffee, wine, tea or cocoa, and citrus juices respectively. PMID:16197573

  17. Intake of fermented beverages protect against acute myocardial injury: target organ cardiac effects and vasculoprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Casani, Laura; Guerra, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2012-09-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduced risk of morbi/mortality from coronary artery disease. However, whether beer intake affords cardioprotection remains unclear. We investigated whether beer intake (alcohol-containing and alcohol-free brew) provides cardioprotection in a pig model of myocardial infarction (MI). Pigs were randomly assigned to: (1) be fed for 10 days a high-cholesterol diet (HC); (2) HC + low-dose beer (LB; 12.5 g alcohol/day); (3) HC + moderate-dose beer (MB; 25 g alcohol/day); or IV) HC + alcohol-free-MB (0.0 g alcohol/day) before MI induction and kept 21 days with the same regime. Scar size, echocardiography, biochemical and oxidative parameters were assessed. Myocardial tissue was obtained for molecular analysis and histology. All beer-fed animals were less prone to arrhythmogenesis during ischemia. At sacrifice, beer intake was associated with lower oxidative stress and higher HDL-antioxidant capacity. Within the ischemic myocardium beer-fed animals showed higher Akt/eNOS and AMPK activation and reduced sirtuin1-related apoptosis. Compared to controls beer intake was associated with lower lipid infiltration, higher TGFβ-related collagen fibril formation and diminished MMP9 activity in the fibrous tissue limiting scar size (HC + LB and HC + MB P < 0.05 and HC + alcohol-free-MB P = 0.068 vs. HC). Systolic-related parameters were similarly worsen post-MI in all groups and further deteriorated in control animals (P ≤ 0.05 vs. post-MI). At sacrifice, all animals showed a worsening in diastolic-related parameters but overall cardiac performance was improved in beer-fed animals regardless of the dose or alcohol content (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, beer intake reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis, activates RISK components and favors reparative fibrosis improving global cardiac performance. PMID:22878829

  18. Brand-Specific Consumption of Flavored Alcoholic Beverages among Underage Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600

  19. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  20. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  1. Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

  2. Effect of alcoholic beverages on surface roughness and microhardness of dental composites.

    PubMed

    DA Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Silva-Júnior, José Ginaldo da; Tonholo, Josealdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of composite resins immersed in alcoholic beverages. Three composite resins were used: Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer), Z250 (3M-ESPE) and Z350 XT (3M-ESPE). The inital surface roughness and microhardness were measured. The samples were divided into four groups (n=30): G1-artificial saliva; G2-beer; G3-vodka; G4-whisky. The samples were immersed in the beverages 3× a day for 15 min and 30 days. The surface roughness and microhardness assays were repeated after immersion period. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test (p<0.05). Surface roughness increased for all composite resins immersed in beer and whisky. Microhardness of all groups decreased after immersion in alcoholic beverages. The effect of these beverages on dental composites is depended upon the chemical composition, immersion time, alcohol content and pH of solutions. PMID:27477228

  3. Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T J; Vainio, H U; Ojajärvi, I A; Kauppinen, T P

    1997-06-01

    A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Consumption of distilled beverages did not increase risk, but heavy drinking of wine or beer did. History of pancreatitis was a strong risk factor. PMID:9177454

  4. The use of caffeinated alcoholic beverages among underage drinkers: Results of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Kponee, Kalé Z.; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mixing of alcoholic beverages with caffeine has been identified as a public health problem among college students; however, little is known about the consumption of such drinks among younger adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use among a wide age range of underage drinkers, examined differences in traditional (i.e. self-mixed alcoholic beverages with soda, coffee and tea) and non-traditional CAB use (pre-mixed caffeinated alcoholic beverages or self-mixed alcoholic beverages with energy drinks or energy shots) among underage drinkers by age and other demographic characteristics, and examined differences in hazardous drinking behavior between CAB and non-CAB users. Methods We used an existing internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks, Inc. to assess the use of pre-mixed and self-mixed CABs in the past 30 days among a national sample of 1,031 youth drinkers ages 13–20. We conducted logistic regression analyses to estimate the relationship between traditional and non-traditional CAB use and risky drinking behavior as well as adverse outcomes of drinking, while controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, and general risk-taking (seat belt use). Results The overall prevalence of CAB use in the sample of underage drinkers was 52.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4%–57.4%). CAB prevalence was 48.4% among 13–15 year-old drinkers, 45.3% among 16–18 year-old drinkers, and 58.4% among 19–20 year-old drinkers. After controlling for other variables, we found a continuum of risk with non-traditional CAB use most significantly associated with binge drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3), fighting (OR = 4.4), and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 5.6) Conclusions The problem of caffeinated alcoholic beverage use is not restricted to college-aged youth. The prevalence of CAB use among underage drinkers is higher than previously thought and begins in early adolescence. Adolescents who consume CABs, and

  5. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the

  6. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  7. Hydration profile and influence of beverage contents on fluid intake by women during outdoor recreational walking.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, E K; Poulos, S P; Bishop, P A

    2012-12-01

    This study examined hydration status, sweat losses, and the effects of flavoring and electrolytes on fluid intake for women (n = 27, age = 24 ± 4 years) walking at a self-selected pace for ~1 h on a 1 km outdoor path during summer mornings or evenings. Over five consecutive days, participants consumed ad libitum one non-caloric beverage containing: (1) water (W), (2) acidified water (AW), (3) acidified water with electrolytes (AWE), (4) acidified water with flavor (AWF), and (5) acidified water with flavor and electrolytes (AWFE) in a counter-balanced order during walks and a 1-h recovery period. Walk Wet bulb globe temperature (26.2 ± 1.8 °C) and pace (6.0 ± 0.5 km/h) did not differ among beverages (P > 0.05). Thirty-four percent of pre-walk urine specific gravity samples exceeded 1.020. Flavoring (AWF 700 ± 393 mL; AWFE 719 ± 405 mL) did not result in greater consumption (P > 0.05) over W (560 ± 315 mL), with all three beverages exceeding grand mean sweat losses (528 ± 208 mL). Addition of electrolytes did not influence (P > 0.05) the intake between AW versus AWE or AWF versus AWFE. The results of this study indicate that the majority of women will consume fluids in excess of their sweat losses within 1 h post-walk. Over half of consumption took place during walks, highlighting the importance of fluid availability during exercise. Great among-subjects variability in sweat losses and fluid intake support the need for promoting individualized hydration strategies based on the changes in body mass for athletic populations. PMID:22434252

  8. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryota; Pechey, Rachel; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-05-01

    In-store product placement is perceived to be a factor underpinning impulsive food purchasing but empirical evidence is limited. In this study we present the first in-depth estimate of the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, focussing on alcohol. Data on store layout and product-level sales during 2010-11 were obtained for one UK grocery store, comprising detailed information on shelf space, price, price promotion and weekly sales volume in three alcohol categories (beer, wine, spirits) and three non-alcohol categories (carbonated drinks, coffee, tea). Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, controlling for price, price promotion, and the number of display locations for each product. End-of-aisle display increased sales volumes in all three alcohol categories: by 23.2% (p = 0.005) for beer, 33.6% (p < 0.001) for wine, and 46.1% (p < 0.001) for spirits, and for three non-alcohol beverage categories: by 51.7% (p < 0.001) for carbonated drinks, 73.5% (p < 0.001) for coffee, and 113.8% (p < 0.001) for tea. The effect size was equivalent to a decrease in price of between 4% and 9% per volume for alcohol categories, and a decrease in price of between 22% and 62% per volume for non-alcohol categories. End-of-aisle displays appear to have a large impact on sales of alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. Restricting the use of aisle ends for alcohol and other less healthy products might be a promising option to encourage healthier in-store purchases, without affecting availability or cost of products. PMID:24632050

  9. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  10. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  11. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... relating to strip stamps and other matters. (27 CFR parts 5, 201, and 251). Customs officers and employees... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages...

  12. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... relating to strip stamps and other matters. (27 CFR parts 5, 201, and 251). Customs officers and employees... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages...

  13. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... relating to strip stamps and other matters. (27 CFR parts 5, 201, and 251). Customs officers and employees... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages...

  14. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O’Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. Methods From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. Results In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Discussion This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage

  15. Intake of Caffeinated, Carbonated, or Citrus Beverage Types and Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Maserejian, Nancy N.; Wager, Carrie G.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Curto, Teresa M.; McVary, Kevin T.; McKinlay, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence to substantiate recommendations for restriction of caffeinated or acidic beverages as self-management for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is limited. We examined longitudinal and acute associations between beverage intake and LUTS in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) cohort (n = 4,145) between 2002 and 2010. Multivariable models tested associations between baseline intakes and progression of LUTS at 5-year follow-up, between follow-up intakes and International Prostate Symptom Scores at follow-up, and between 5-year intake changes and LUTS progression. Greater coffee or total caffeine intake at baseline increased the odds of LUTS progression in men (coffee: >2 cups/day vs. none, odds ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 3.40, P-trend = 0.01; caffeine: P-trend < 0.001), particularly storage symptoms. Women who increased coffee intake by at least 2 servings/day during follow-up (compared with categories of decreased or unchanged intakes) had 64% higher odds of progression of urgency (P = 0.003). Women with recently increased soda intake, particularly caffeinated diet soda, had higher symptom scores, urgency, and LUTS progression. Citrus juice intake was associated with 50% lower odds of LUTS progression in men (P = 0.02). Findings support recommendations to limit caffeinated beverage intake for LUTS, and in men, they suggest benefits of citrus juice consumption. Further clinical research is warranted, particularly of the precise role of sodas containing artificial sweeteners in bladder sensations and urological function. PMID:23722012

  16. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet. PMID:19778754

  17. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage. PMID:27446061

  18. Perception of male drinkers as a function of their alcoholic beverage preference.

    PubMed

    Curtin, L; Fisher, R D

    1993-05-01

    The present study examined perception of a man's likelihood of driving after drinking and his ability to do so as a function of his choice of beverage. Perceptions of his social characteristics were also examined. The sample was composed of 200 volunteer undergraduate psychology students. Equal numbers of male and female subjects read one of four vignettes which varied only in the male protagonist's choice of beverage: beer, wine, shots of distilled spirits, or cola. After reading the story, subjects answered multiple-choice questions about the character, tapping social judgments, situational judgments and drinking and driving judgments. Subject drinking habits were also assessed. The most notable result was the consistently positive perception of the protagonist portrayed as an abstainer. The lack of a consistent alcoholic beverage distinction implies that the beer-spirits double standard is far from a clear-cut discrimination. Possible explanations for results are discussed. This study questions the robustness of the alcoholic beverage type bias and reflects the need for future research. PMID:8487540

  19. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R.; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E.; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage. PMID:27446061

  20. ALCOHOL INTAKE AND RISK OF INJURY

    PubMed Central

    CREMONTE, MARIANA; CHERPITEL, CHERYL J.

    2014-01-01

    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context. PMID:25188654

  1. An in vitro-in vivo correlation study for nifedipine immediate release capsules administered with water, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages: Impact of in vitro dissolution media and hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, A; Fares, R; Bresciani, M; Fotaki, N

    2016-02-29

    The impact of hydrodynamics and media composition on nifedipine dissolution profile from IR (immediate release) soft capsules was investigated using dissolution apparatus USP1, USP2, USP3 and USP4 (United State Pharmacopoeia). Media composition was varied in terms of pH and content, to mimic the dosage form intake with water or non-alcoholic beverages (orange juice) and alcoholic beverages (orange juice/ethanol mixture (47% v/v)). Through construction of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) with corresponding in vivo data from the literature, it was possible to evaluate the in vitro conditions that are likely to simulate the in vivo formulation behaviour. Both linear and nonlinear correlations were obtained depending on experimental set-ups. Testing of 20mg nifedipine capsules in FaSSGFst (Fasted State Simulated Gastric Fluid pH 1.6; water administration) produced IVIVC with the USP3 (after time scaling) and USP4 apparatus. IVIVC were obtained for USP2, USP3 and USP4 in FaSSGFoj (Fasted State Simulated Gastric Fluid pH 3.4; orange juice administration). Linear and nonlinear correlations were obtained with the USP1, USP2 and USP3 apparatus when testing the capsules in FaSSGFoj/EtOH (orange juice/ethanol administration). This study highlighted that selection of physiologically relevant dissolution set-ups is critical for predicting the in vivo impact of formulations co-administration with water, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. PMID:26721731

  2. EFFECT OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECTIVE STIMULI AND BEVERAGE CUES ON MEASURES OF CRAVING IN NON TREATMENT-SEEKING ALCOHOLICS

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Barbara J.; Light, John M.; Escher, Tobie; Drobes, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Laboratory paradigms are useful for investigating mechanisms of human alcohol cue reactivity in a highly controlled environment. A number of studies have examined the effects of beverage exposure or negative affective stimuli on cue reactivity independently, but only a few have reported on interaction effects between beverage cue and affective stimuli, and none have evaluated the effects of positive stimuli on beverage cue reactivity. Objectives To assess independent and interactive effects of both positive and negative affective stimuli and beverage cue on psychophysiological and subjective measures of reactivity in alcohol dependence. Methods A total of 47 non treatment-seeking paid volunteers with current alcohol dependence participated in a within-subjects trial where each was exposed to a standardized set of pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant visual stimuli followed by alcohol or water cues. Psychophysiological cue reactivity measures were obtained during beverage presentation, and subjective reactivity measures were taken directly following beverage presentation. Results Mixed-effect models revealed a significant main effect of beverage and positive (but not negative) affective stimuli on subjective strength of craving, and significant main effects of both positive and negative affective stimuli on ratings of emotionality. Despite the power to detect relatively small interaction effects, no significant interactions were observed between affect and beverage conditions on any reactivity measure. A key finding of this study is that positive affective stimuli commonly associated with drinking situations can induce craving in the absence of alcohol cues. Conclusions Main effects of beverage cue replicated results from previous studies. In addition, positive affective stimuli influenced craving strength. Beverage and affective cues showed no interaction effects. PMID:18604601

  3. Polarographic assay based on hydrogen peroxide scavenging in determination of antioxidant activity of strong alcohol beverages.

    PubMed

    Gorjanović, Stanislava Z; Novaković, Miroslav M; Vukosavljević, Predrag V; Pastor, Ferenc T; Tesević, Vele V; Suznjević, Desanka Z

    2010-07-28

    Total antioxidant (AO) activity of strong alcohol beverages such as wine and plum brandies, whiskeys, herbal and sweet fruit liqueurs have been assessed using a polarographic assay based on hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS). Rank of order of total AO activity, expressed as percentage of decrease of anodic oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide, was found analogous with total phenolic content estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) assay and radical scavenging capacity against the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Application of the assay for surveying of a quarter century long maturation of plum brandy in oak barrel was demonstrated. In addition, influence of different storage conditions on preservation of AO activity of some herbal liqueurs was surveyed. Wide area of application of this simple, fast, low cost and reliable assay in analysis and quality monitoring of various strong alcohol beverages was confirmed. PMID:20604507

  4. High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and types of alcoholic beverages consumed among men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D R; McPhillips, J B; Derby, C A; Gans, K M; Lasater, T M; Carleton, R A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Differences by sex in the relationship between high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and consumption of alcoholic beverages were examined in 1516 individuals. METHODS. Questionnaires and blood-sample data from cross-sectional surveys were analyzed. RESULTS. Both beer and liquor were independently associated with increased HDL cholesterol in the total group, in men, and in women after covariates were controlled for. Wine was associated with a significant increase in HDL cholesterol in women only. CONCLUSIONS. Among women and men, amount may be more important than type of alcoholic beverage consumed. The independent effect of wine on HDL cholesterol among men remains unclear since few men in this population consumed wine exclusively or in large quantities. PMID:8669505

  5. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  6. 75 FR 39960 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...This notice publishes the Secretary's certification of the amendment to the Salt River Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Chapter 14, Articles I, II, and III of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community's Code of Ordinances. An amended Chapter 14 of the Code of Ordinance was last published on April 1, 2009 (Vol. 74, No. 61, FR 14813). This amendment repeals Articles I and II of Chapter......

  7. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review123

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages’ high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the relation between SSBs and the risk of weight gain (ie, overweight, obesity, or both). Thirty publications (15 cross-sectional, 10 prospective, and 5 experimental) were selected on the basis of relevance and quality of design and methods. Findings from large cross-sectional studies, in conjunction with those from well-powered prospective cohort studies with long periods of follow-up, show a positive association between greater intakes of SSBs and weight gain and obesity in both children and adults. Findings from short-term feeding trials in adults also support an induction of positive energy balance and weight gain by intake of sugar-sweetened sodas, but these trials are few. A school-based intervention found significantly less soft-drink consumption and prevalence of obese and overweight children in the intervention group than in control subjects after 12 mo, and a recent 25-week randomized controlled trial in adolescents found further evidence linking SSB intake to body weight. The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity. Although more research is needed, sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:16895873

  8. Selection of Branded Alcoholic Beverages by Underage Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.; Ostroff, Josh; Naimi, Timothy S.; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify reasons why youth choose to drink specific brands of alcohol and to determine if these reasons are associated with problem drinking patterns and outcomes. Methods We conducted an Internet survey of 1,031 youth ages 13 to 20 who reported drinking within the past 30 days. Of these, 541 youth who reported having a choice of multiple brands of alcohol the last time they drank stated (yes/no) whether each of 16 different reasons had influenced their choice of a specific brand. We reduced these 16 reasons to three principle components and used Latent Class Modeling to identify five groups of youth with similar reasons for selecting a brand, which we then profiled. Results We grouped respondents into the following brand selection groups: “Brand Ambassadors” who were distinguished from other clusters by selecting a brand because they identified with it (32.5% of respondents), “Tasters” who selected a brand because they expected it to taste good (27.2%), “Bargain Hunters” who selected a brand because it was inexpensive (18.5%), “Copycats” who selected a brand because they’d seen adults drinking it or seen it consumed in movies or other media (10.4%), and “Others” (11.5%). Brand Ambassadors and Copycats reported the largest amount of alcohol consumed and had the greatest prevalence of both heavy episodic drinking and negative alcohol-related health consequences. Conclusions Underage drinkers who cite marketing influences and adult or media modeling of brand choices as their reasons for selecting alcohol brands are likely to drink more and incur adverse consequences from drinking. PMID:25907655

  9. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:26680768

  10. Use of false ID cards and other deceptive methods to purchase alcoholic beverages during high school.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Farrow, J A; Banks, B; Giesel, A E

    1998-01-01

    Altered motor vehicle drivers's licenses or other falsified or counterfeit photo identification cards are widely and illegally used by teenagers to obtain beer and other alcohol beverages. We obtained information on the methods currently used by teenagers to purchase beer and wine by asking nine hundred teenagers, between 16-19 years old to complete a brief, confidential questionnaire. High school students most often obtained alcoholic beverages by requesting someone of legal age to purchase it for them. College students used borrowed, altered, or counterfeit identification (ID) more often than high school students. Photo IDs purchased through mail order from a magazine advertisement were used infrequently and when use was attempted, they were sometimes (25%) unsuccessful. Fifteen percent of high school students, 14% of college freshmen, and 24% of teenage drug abusers were able to purchase beer by the case with borrowed, altered, or fake ID. Suggestions to reduce sales of alcohol-containing beverages to minors include universal "carding" of prospective purchasers, use of two view or hologram photos on a drivers' license, requiring three different ID cards at the point of purchase, and penalties to stores that fail to make a good effort to identify underage customers. PMID:9789157

  11. Occurrence of N-nitrosodimethylamine in South Korean and imported alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Shin, J-H; Chung, M-J; Sung, N-J

    2005-11-01

    Volatile N-nitrosamine (VNA) levels in South Korean and imported alcoholic beverages were determined between 1995 and 2002. A total of 147 alcoholic beverages, including lager beer, whiskey, liqueurs and traditional Korean alcoholic beverages (Chungju, Takju and Soju), were analysed for their VNA content by GC-TEA. Of eight VNAs (N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomorphorine (NMOR), N-nitrosodibuthylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosodiprophylamine (NDPA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA)) only NDMA was detected. In 1995, NDMA was detected in 79.3% of domestic beers; the average was 0.8 microg kg-1. Seven years later, the average NDMA level for 18 domestic beers was 0.3 microg kg-1 and it was positive in 55.6% samples. In whisky and liqueurs, NDMA levels averaged <0.1 microg kg-1 in both 1995 and 2002. Average NDMA levels of Chungju in 1995 were <0.1 microg kg-1, but NDMA was not detected in 2002. Takju had undetectable levels of NDMA both times. In 1995, NDMA was found in four of six Soju samples, but in 2002, NDMA could not be detected. PMID:16332630

  12. Ought low alcohol intake to be promoted for health reasons?

    PubMed Central

    Holman, C D; English, D R

    1996-01-01

    There is increasingly widespread acceptance that alcohol taken in moderation by the population aged 35 years or older reduces the risks of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. Ten causal criteria are used to evaluate the scientific evidence for a protective effect of low alcohol intake on ischaemic heart disease. Inferences for public policy are then assessed using the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and autonomy to support a framework of nine ethical considerations: intervention versus causation; effect modification by gender, smoking, biogenetic and other factors; inappropriate adoption of recommendations; competing hazards between atherosclerotic disease and cancer; opportunity cost; equity of access; the value system used to judge outcomes; the degree of social influence warranted; and consent and responsibility. We conclude that in the absence of more adequate scientific knowledge and informed community debate it is unethical to promote low alcohol intake as a preventive health measure. PMID:8683513

  13. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting. PMID:27153083

  14. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  15. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  16. [The representation of alcoholic beverages consumption for adolescents in a Family Health Unit].

    PubMed

    Souza, Sinara de Lima; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Gomes, Romeu; Souza, Tatiana Costa

    2010-05-01

    Alcoholic beverages consumption by adolescents is a global problem with repercussion on different social sectors. However, the reasons that cause this behavior are still little studied. This qualitative research aimed to understand the socially constructed representations of adolescents about the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in a Family Health Unit in the city of Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, Brazil. Subjects were twenty-one adolescents of both genders. Observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, followed by interpretation of meanings as data analysis. Results showed that this practice represents "to drink much", which is close to the concept of binge drinking and "to be in the group", evidencing the socializing character of drinking. It also means a rite of passage. Among the factors that influence this representation, adults' attitudes to alcohol, especially the father and media, are highlighted. It is concluded that this substance represents a symbolic capital, with contradictions regarding the issue, precariousness of protective factors and existence of vulnerability factors. Rethinking adolescent-targeted and alcohol-related public policies is needed. PMID:20464186

  17. Regional Differences in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; McGuire, Lisa C.; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and the prevalence of obesity varies by geographic region. Although information on whether SSB intake differs geographically could be valuable for designing targeted interventions, this information is limited. Objective This cross-sectional study examined associations between living in specific census regions and frequency of SSB consumption among US adults using 2010 National Health Interview Survey data (n = 25,431). Methods SSB consumption was defined as the consumption of four types of beverages (regular sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, and sweetened coffee/tea drinks). The exposure variable was census region of residence (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs for drinking SSBs after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Approximately 64% of adults consumed SSBs ≥1 time/day. The odds of drinking SSBs ≥1 time/day were significantly higher among adults living in the Northeast (aOR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.26) but lower among adults living in the Midwest (aOR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.64, 0.78) or West (aOR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.71, 0.87) compared with those living in the South. By type of SSB, the odds of drinking regular soda ≥1 time/day was significantly lower among adults living in the Northeast (aOR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.57), Midwest (aOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.96), or West (aOR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.62) than those living in the South. The odds of drinking sports/energy drinks ≥1 time/day were significantly lower among adults living in the West (aOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.64, 0.93) than those living in the South. The odds of drinking a sweetened coffee/tea drink ≥1 time/day were significantly higher among adults living in the Northeast (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.43, 1.78) but lower among adults

  18. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... relating to strip stamps and other matters. (27 CFR parts 5, 201, and 251). Customs officers and employees... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau...

  19. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... relating to strip stamps and other matters. (27 CFR parts 5, 201, and 251). Customs officers and employees... imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 11... other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau...

  20. Flavonoid Values for USDA Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008: Provisional Flavonoid Addendum, FNDDS 4.1 and Flavonoid Intake Data, WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This release of the Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008 makes possible, for the first time, calculation of flavonoid intakes based on all foods and beverages reported in national surveys. This release has two components. The first component is an addendum to USDA’s Food and N...

  1. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk factors: A Mendelian randomisation study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Won, Sungho; Relton, Caroline L; Davey Smith, George; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Mendelian randomisation studies from Asia suggest detrimental influences of alcohol on cardiovascular risk factors, but such associations are observed mainly in men. The absence of associations of genetic variants (e.g. rs671 in ALDH2) with such risk factors in women – who drank little in these populations – provides evidence that the observations are not due to genetic pleiotropy. Here, we present a Mendelian randomisation study in a South Korean population (3,365 men and 3,787 women) that 1) provides robust evidence that alcohol consumption adversely affects several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure, waist to hip ratio, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels. Alcohol also increases HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol. Our study also 2) replicates sex differences in associations which suggests pleiotropy does not underlie the associations, 3) provides further evidence that association is not due to pleiotropy by showing null effects in male non-drinkers, and 4) illustrates a way to measure population-level association where alcohol intake is stratified by sex. In conclusion, population-level instrumental variable estimation (utilizing interaction of rs671 in ALDH2 and sex as an instrument) strengthens causal inference regarding the largely adverse influence of alcohol intake on cardiovascular health in an Asian population. PMID:26687910

  2. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children. PMID:25713788

  3. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Green, Benjamin P.; James, Lewis J.; Stevenson, Emma J.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H2O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H2O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: −2.28, −0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H2O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H2O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  4. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Green, Benjamin P; James, Lewis J; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H₂O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H₂O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: -2.28, -0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H₂O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H₂O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  5. Polyphenol Intake from Beverages in Japan over an 18-Year Period (1996-2013): Trends by Year, Age, Gender and Season.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Yoshida, Daishi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An association between the dietary intake of polyphenols and human health has been shown in many epidemiological studies. Since beverages are rich sources of polyphenols, we aimed to evaluate the polyphenol intake from beverages in Japanese individuals with a focus on differences according to year, age, gender and season. More than 10,000 Japanese male and female subjects aged 1-99 y old participated in this survey every year from 1996 to 2013, and their beverage consumption and amount of polyphenol intake were calculated. Polyphenol intake from beverages in Japan showed no tendency to increase or decrease over the 18-y period, and the major sources of polyphenols in Japanese daily life were coffee and green tea. Polyphenol intake was larger in participants with higher age up to 59 y old in both male and female subjects. There was a slight difference in polyphenol intake by gender, with adult males consuming more polyphenols than adult females. Polyphenols were consumed slightly more in the winter than the summer, although the seasonal difference in polyphenol intake was not large. Our results suggest that polyphenol intake from beverages is influenced by age rather than gender or season in Japan, and may not have changed over time, at least over the 18-y period beginning in 1996 in Japan. PMID:26440642

  6. Alcoholic beverages drinking among female students in a tourist province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittipichai, Wirin; Sataporn, Hatairat; Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate alcoholic beverages drinking and predictive factors among female students. The participants were 377 subjects from 3 high schools in a tourist province, of Thailand. Data collection was done through self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.84 - 0.88. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed as follows. About half (51%) of them have ever drunk and 10.5% of drinkers have drunk once a week. In addition, 15.6% of drinkers began their first drink when they were under 10 years old. Risk factors for alcohol consumption of female student were age, GPA, drinker in family, peer pressure, advertisement and accessibility to alcoholic beverages while protective factors were perception of drinking impacts on family and moral values. Students who have a drinking family member were 4.6 times more likely to drink than those who do not have. PMID:22980102

  7. Fast-Food and Full-service Restaurant Consumption among Children and Adolescents: Impact on Energy, Beverage and Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality. PMID:23128151

  8. Anesthetic management for magnetic resonance imaging in a pediatric patient addicted to palm wine: An alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Monu; Ram, A Anand; Srikanth, I; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of drug and alcohol abuse is on rise despite increasing awareness and education about health hazards related to it. Anesthesiologist may come across patients with alcohol abuse in elective as well as emergency situations. We report a rare case of excessive requirement of anesthetics in a pediatric patient of only six years for MRI, addicted to palm wine, an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree. PMID:26957706

  9. Anesthetic management for magnetic resonance imaging in a pediatric patient addicted to palm wine: An alcoholic beverage

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Monu; Ram, A. Anand; Srikanth, I.; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of drug and alcohol abuse is on rise despite increasing awareness and education about health hazards related to it. Anesthesiologist may come across patients with alcohol abuse in elective as well as emergency situations. We report a rare case of excessive requirement of anesthetics in a pediatric patient of only six years for MRI, addicted to palm wine, an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree. PMID:26957706

  10. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A.; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks. PMID:22778654

  11. A 74-year-old man with memory loss and neuropathy who enjoys alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Brust, John C M

    2008-03-01

    Adverse effects of alcohol on the peripheral and central nervous system can be direct (ie, neurotoxicity) or indirect (eg, nutritional deficiency). Using the case of Mr E, an older, moderate to heavy drinker experiencing memory difficulty, the diagnostic considerations, which include mild cognitive impairment, early Alzheimer dementia, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, and "alcoholic dementia," are discussed. These disorders are not mutually exclusive, and in a patient with either mild cognitive impairment or dementia, the contributory role of alcohol can be difficult to determine. In fact, epidemiological studies suggest that mild to moderate intake of alcohol actually reduces the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer dementia. Appropriate management includes measures to reduce alcohol dependence (eg, behavioral or pharmacological therapy) and to delay progression of the cognitive impairment (eg, engaging in healthy behaviors such as cognitive leisure activities). PMID:18252872

  12. Targeting adolescents? The content and frequency of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage ads in magazine and video formats November 1999-April 2000.

    PubMed

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Hust, Stacey J T

    2005-12-01

    This study compared alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage advertising to which adolescents are exposed. A census of beverage advertising (N = 757) in popular magazines and television during November 1999-April 2000 was analyzed. Most alcohol ads appeared in Sports Illustrated (110), Rolling Stone (98), and Playboy (75) and outnumbered nonalcoholic beverage advertising by 3 to 1. Alcohol was almost never associated with dining. Alcohol ads emphasized sexual and social stereotypes and lacked diversity. One of every 6 magazine alcohol ads, and 1 of every 14 video-based ads, appeared to target teenagers. Many similarities existed between alcohol and nonalcohol ads. We conclude that alcohol is advertised heavily to youth through placement and appeals. The fact that themes in alcohol ads frequently parallel those in nonalcoholic beverage ads may further increase youths' receptivity. PMID:16316938

  13. Fortification of alcoholic beverages (12% v/v) with tea (Camellia sinensis) reduces harmful effects of alcohol ingestion and metabolism in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ochanda, S O; Rashid, K; Wanyoko, J K; Ngotho, M; Faraj, A K; Onyango, C A; Wachira, F N; Maranga, D N

    2016-01-01

    Background An animal model was used to study the health benefits inherent in tea fortified alcoholic beverages fed to laboratory mice. Objectives An investigation of the effects of tea fortified alcoholic beverages 12% alcohol (v/v) on antioxidant capacity and liver dysfunction indicators in white Swiss mice including packed cell volume (PCV), albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutathione (GSH) was carried out. Methods Plain, black, green and purple tea fortified alcohols were developed with varying tea concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 g/250 mL in 12% v/v. Control alcoholic beverages without teas were also developed. A permit (number IRC/13/12) was obtained for the animal research from the National Museums of Kenya, Institute of Primate Research prior to the start of the study. Alcoholic beverages were orally administered every 2 days for 4 weeks at 1 mL per mouse, and thereafter animals were euthanised and liver and blood samples harvested for analyses. Assays on body weight (bwt), packed cell volume (PCV) albumin, total protein, ALP and GSH were performed. Results were statistically analysed using GraphPad statistical package and significant differences of means of various treatments determined. Results Consumption of tea fortified alcohols significantly decreased (p=0.0001) bwt at 0.32–9.58% and PCV at 5.56–22.75% for all teas. Total protein in serum and liver of mice fed on different tea fortified alcohols ranged between 6.26 and 9.24 g/dL and 2.14 and 4.02 g/dL, respectively. Albumin, ALP and GSH range was 0.92–2.88 µg/L, 314.98–473.80 µg/L and 17.88–28.62 µM, respectively. Fortification of alcoholic beverages lowered liver ALP, replenished antioxidants and increased liver albumin, improving the nutritional status of the mice. Conclusions The findings demonstrate tea's hepatoprotective mechanisms against alcohol-induced injury through promotion of endogenous antioxidants. The beneficial effects of tea in the

  14. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time < 0.05). Although the water group had a greater reduction in grain intake at month 3 and a greater increase in fruit and vegetable intake at month 6 (P-group-by-time < 0.05), the DB group had a greater reduction in dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time < 0.05). Conclusions: Participants in both intervention groups showed positive changes in energy intakes and dietary patterns. The DB group showed decreases in most caloric beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  15. The potential of CO2 laser photoacoustic spectrometry for detection of methanol in alcoholic beverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-W.; Shaw, S.-Y.

    2009-03-01

    The first use of CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements for detecting the methanol contents in alcohol-like solutions is presented. With an intracavity cell configuration, the minimum detectable concentration was ˜200 ppm for methanol and the linear range of the calibration curve for methanol was from 200 to 70000 ppm. For demonstrating the reliability of analysis in alcoholic beverages, a series of different concentrations of two-component samples was prepared and measured by the same procedures. The results showed the feasibility on determining methanol and ethanol contents accurately within a specific tolerance, limited mainly by background signal and laser stability. This potential method with no pre-treatment of samples takes only ˜10 min to finish one single measurement. It suggests that the PA detection is suitable for routine diagnosis of adulterated wines in commercial products.

  16. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake. PMID:25821601

  17. Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Food Energy Density and Higher Consumption of Sugary and Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E.; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Methods Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Results Compared to individuals with ≤1 OREB, those with ≥5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001) and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (β 7; 95% CI −7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05) and of alcoholic beverages (β 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001). Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. Conclusions OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake. PMID:24204756

  18. Adolescent neurobehavioral characteristics, alcohol sensitivities, and intake: Setting the stage for alcohol use disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations that include not only the hormonal and physiological changes of puberty but also dramatic changes in the brain as well. Similar neural and physiological changes are associated with the transition from immaturity to maturity across a variety of mammalian species, along with a variety of common adolescent-typical behavioral characteristics. Among the neural systems undergoing alterations during adolescence are those that modulate sensitivity to a variety of alcohol effects, potentially increasing the propensity for relatively high levels of adolescent alcohol use, which in turn may set the stage for later alcohol use disorders. This article reviews research on adolescent alcohol sensitivities and suggests possible implications of these findings for the frequent initiation and relatively high levels of alcohol intake seen at this age. PMID:22328900

  19. Preliminary investigation of thiamine and alcohol intake in clinical and healthy samples.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Phillip S; Sullivan, Karen A

    2004-06-01

    Insufficient thiamine intake during heavy alcohol dependence has been well established as a precursor to alcohol-related brain damage, including Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This study compared the alcohol and thiamine intakes of 35 alcohol-dependent patients upon admission for detoxification with 49 healthy young undergraduates. Subjects were interviewed using a retrospective diary that recorded alcohol and food and vitamin consumption for the previous seven days. As predicted, the clinical group consumed significantly less thiamine than the healthy group, and well below the minimum safe daily intakes. Findings have implications for the prevention of alcohol-related brain damage and public health policy. PMID:15217037

  20. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, p<0.05) and without (258 vs. 89 μmol/l, p<0.05) alcohol ingestion. From 2 min onwards there were no significant differences in the decreasing salivary acetaldehyde concentration, which remained above the level of carcinogenicity still at 10 min. The systemic alcohol distribution from blood to saliva had no additional effect on salivary acetaldehyde after sipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure. PMID:21641957

  1. Serum Levels of Selected Vitamins and Trace Elements in Nigerian Consumers of Alcoholic Beverage: A Suggestion for DNA Hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Ude, A N; Edem, V F; Onifade, A A; Arinola, O G

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid, vitamins and Zinc play essential role in DNA methylation but alcohol consumption is known to affectthe levels of these micronutrients leading to risk of developing various illnesses and certain cancers. This study determinedthe levels of DNA methylation dependent-micronutrients (folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, zinc and selenium) andhomocysteine as a suggestion for DNA methylation status in Nigerian alcohol consumers compared with non-consumers ofalcohol. Venous blood (5ml) was obtained from thirty-four males that consume alcoholic beverages for at least 10 years andthirty-two male controls that did not consume alcoholic beverages at least 10 years. Serum concentrations of folate, vitaminB12, vitamin B6, homocysteine (Hcy), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were determined using High Performance LiquidChromatography (HPLC) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) as appropriate. Independent Student t-test wasused to compare the mean values between alcohol consumers and control. Mean differences were considered significant atp<0.05. The mean serum levels of Zn and Se were significantly raised in alcohol consumers when compared with nonalcohol consumers while the mean levels of Vitamin B6 and Hcy were significantly reduced in alcohol consumers whencompared with non-alcohol consumers. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean serum levels ofVitamin B12 and folate in alcohol consumers when compared with non-alcohol consumers. Since vitamin B6 and Hcy arerequired for DNA methylation, reduced vitamin B6 and Hcy levels in consumers of alcoholic beverages might suggest DNAhypomethylation in alcohol consumers. PMID:27574771

  2. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001). Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls. PMID:26761029

  3. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001). Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls. PMID:26761029

  4. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P<.001 for both), with the CLA and MCT resulting in a lower intake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. PMID:27188898

  5. Children's hedonic responses to the odors of alcoholic beverages: a window to emotions.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A

    2008-06-01

    The present study of 145 children and their mothers aimed to determine whether children's responses to the odors of alcoholic beverages were related to their mothers' reasons for drinking. Mothers completed a series of questionnaires to describe the emotional context in which they drink and whether they use alcohol to "escape" by changing their state of mind and reducing feelings of dysphoria. Children participated in two age-appropriate tasks that focused on the most salient psychological attribute of an odor, its perceived hedonic valence. To this aim, we determined children's liking, reaction times, and identification of individual odors including beer and whiskey in Task 1, and their preference for beer relative to odors that differed in hedonic valence in Task 2. The type of task and behavioral measure revealed different aspects of children's responses, to alcohol odors. In Task 1, verbally identifying an odor was a more difficult task than deciding whether they liked the odor. Although there were few group differences in liking for individual odors, children of Escape drinkers took significantly longer to determine whether they liked the odors. In Task 2, children of Escape drinkers preferred beer less often, particularly when it was compared with less pleasant odors. They preferred coffee to beer odors and, if their mothers did not smoke cigarettes, preferred the odors of cigarette smoke and pyridine to beer. These children experienced the odor of alcohol more frequently and in the context of mood disturbed mothers who felt guilty and worried about their drinking. Whether children who associate the odor of alcohol with such emotional contexts display a trajectory toward or against using alcohol to escape remains unknown. PMID:18539246

  6. Local food environments are associated with girls’ energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Design Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Setting Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004–2006. Subjects Girls aged 6–8 years (n 1010). Results Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P < 0·001). Girls’ daily energy, SSB and snack foods/ sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets >1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets >3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Conclusions Girls’ frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets. PMID:24821228

  7. Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Fifth and Eighth Grade Students Regarding Alcoholic Beverages in Urban Parochial Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Essie E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of fifth- and eighth-grade urban parochial school students (N=3,785) regarding alcoholic beverages. Survey results showed a religiously oriented school environment had little influence on drinking behavior. Family, friends, and cultural norms were strong influences. Sixth and seventh grades appear…

  8. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  9. Caregivers' psychosocial factors underlying sugar-sweetened beverage intake among non-Hispanic black preschoolers: an elicitation study.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore caregivers' beliefs and perceptions regarding serving sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to non-Hispanic black preschoolers. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) was used as the framework for conducting elicitation interviews among a sample of (n = 19) caregivers. Thematic coding of interview transcripts revealed that the decision to serve SSBs to preschoolers is driven by numerous individual, familial, cultural, and environmental factors. Salient factors associated with serving SSBs included convenience, cost, taste, potential health consequences, availability, and pressure from other parents. Population-specific interventions aimed at reducing SSB intake among non-Hispanic preschoolers are discussed. PMID:23871263

  10. Alcoholic beverage preferences and associated drinking patterns by socioeconomic status among high-school drinkers in three metropolises of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Xiaoqi; Chen, Siyu; Wang, Zhengyuan; Lu, Lixin; Ma, Guansheng

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent alcoholic beverage preferences and the associated drinking patterns in China. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 136 junior or senior high schools, using a self-administered questionnaire. A total number of 7,075 subjects of drinking students were selected from three metropolises (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou) via a two-stage stratified sampling method. Among the adolescent drinkers, 87.8% (95% CI: 86.5-89.0) reported that they drunk alcohol during the past years preceding the study, while 42.4% (95% CI: 40.4-44.4) of the subjects stated that they had drunk alcohol during the past 30 days. There were gradual increases in the usual quantity (>1 Standard Drink, SD) of alcoholic beverages with increasing SES, with highest rates reported by the high-level SES. Beer and grape wine were the most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, regardless of SES. Our findings suggest that high-level SES students have an increasing prevalence of drinking behaviour. Their confirmation by future studies which extend the sampling regions is required to further the prevention of adolescent alcohol abuse in China. PMID:26965778

  11. The Influence of Different Types of Alcoholic Beverages on Disrupting Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Lewis, John E.; Fishman, Joel; Asthana, Deshratn; Malow, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Studies have yielded conflicting results regarding alcohol's influence on HIV outcomes, particularly after highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Discrepant findings may be related to confounding variables, including gender, patterns of alcohol abuse and type of alcohol beverage beyond the amount consumed. Methods: Using a cohort study, differences in HAART effectiveness after 24 weeks of therapy were compared as a function of amount and preference for alcohol, drinking only liquor (LI, n = 55) or only wine or beer (BW, n = 110). Given the critical role of thymus on HAART response, changes in thymus size, CD4s, naïve lymphocytes and viral loads were assessed. Results: After HAART, positive increases in both CD4s (+12 cell counts/mm3) and thymus size (+0.7 mm3) were evident in the BW group. In contrast, the LI subgroup exhibited a decline in both parameters (−4 CD4 cells/mm3 and −0.6 mm3 in thymus size). Women in the LI group exhibited significantly lower CD4 (163.4 ± 46.2) and naïve counts (178 ± 69.5) than LI men (CD4: 281.6 ± 203, P = 0.05; lymphocytes: 301.4 ± 198, P = 0.04). In adjusted regression models, the LI compared to the BW subgroup had greater odds of maintaining detectable viral loads (RR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.75; P = 0.03), increased thymus volumes (RR = 3.8, P = 0.04) and replenished naïve cells (RR = 13, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Liquor was associated with thymus deterioration and thus with poorer viro-immune outcomes after HAART. Subtyping participants by alcohol consumption patterns seems to be clinically relevant and needs to be accounted for in future studies. PMID:19454401

  12. Characterisation of aroma volatiles of indigenous alcoholic beverages: burukutu and pito.

    PubMed

    Onyenekwe, Paul C; Erhabor, Graham Osas; Akande, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Pito and burukutu are indigenous alcoholic beverages in Nigeria, and are fermentation products of Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum vulgare. The production is similar to that of beer, which involves steeping, malting, mashing and fermenting. A total of 30 volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography. These compounds can be broadly grouped into alkanols, phenols, acids, esters, ketones and aldehydes. Although few acids are present, they are dominant (30.887% and 27.669%) and followed by esters (26.467% and 27.442%) in pito and burukutu, respectively. Alkanols constitute the next dominant group after acids and esters; however, ethanol was not identified as a constituent. The health and social implication of the constituents are explained. PMID:25894868

  13. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  14. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Y.H.; Afeiche, M.C.; Gaskins, A.J.; Williams, P.L.; Mendiola, J.; Jørgensen, N.; Swan, S.H.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009–2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Men aged 18–22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (<0.2 serving/day) (P, trend = 0.03). This association was stronger among lean men (P, trend = 0.005) but absent among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.98). SSB intake was unrelated to other semen quality parameters or reproductive hormones levels. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As in all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. An additional problem is that only single semen sample was obtained from each subject. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents

  15. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I

    2010-11-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster's alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure to either: alcohol, sucrose or saccharin. In Experiments 1 and 2, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v) and water; once alcohol consumption steadied, a bottle containing an ascending concentration of sucrose (99-614 mM) or saccharin (2-10 mM), or water was added. In Experiment 3, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v), sucrose (614 mM), saccharin (4 mM), or a second water bottle for 14 days. After the second bottle was removed, measurements continued for 14days. Sucrose exposure suppressed alcohol consumption at concentrations lower in calories than the alcohol solution. Saccharin exposure failed to suppress alcohol consumption. Exposure to sucrose and alcohol but not saccharin decreased food intake. Decreased alcohol consumption in response to a caloric sweetener and decreased food intake during alcohol exposure support that alcohol consumption by the hamster is mediated by caloric content. However, suppression of alcohol intake by a sucrose solution of lower caloric content and the equivalent intake of individual alcohol, sucrose and saccharin solutions support a role for reward value in alcohol consumption. PMID:20688091

  16. Marchiafawa bignami disease possibly related to consumption of a locally brewed alcoholic beverage: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Jagdeo P.; Pinto, Charles; Kulkarni, Kapil S.; Muthusamy, M. Ananthi K.; Dave, Malay D.

    2014-01-01

    Marchiafava Bignami disease is a rare toxic disease seen mostly in chronic alcoholics, resulting in progressive demyelination and necrosis of the corpus callosum. Initially it was thought to be specific to individuals in central Italy, consuming large amounts of Chianti red wine; however, alcoholic beverages worldwide are presently implicated. In our case series of two cases, locally made “illicit” liquor (Mahuwa Alcohol) could be the causative factor. In radiological point of view typically the corpus callosum is affected, with involvement of the body, genu, and splenium in order of occurrence. Occasionally the entire callosum may be also involved. Clinical presentation varies from case to case. PMID:24574563

  17. Timing Carbohydrate Beverage Intake During Prolonged Moderate Intensity Exercise Does Not Affect Cycling Performance

    PubMed Central

    SCHWEITZER, GEORGE G.; SMITH, JOHN D.; LECHEMINANT, JAMES D.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate beverages consumed during long-term exercise have been shown to attenuate fatigue and improve performance; however, the optimal timing of ingestion is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if timing the carbohydrate ingestion (continual loading (CL), front-loading (FL), and end-loading (EL)) during prolonged exercise influenced exercise performance in competitive cyclists. Ten well-trained cyclists completed three separate exercise bouts on a bicycle ergometer, each lasting 2 hours at an intensity of ~67% VO2 max, followed by a 15-minute “all out” time trial. In the CL trial, a carbohydrate beverage was ingested throughout the trial. In the FL trial, participants ingested a carbohydrate beverage during the first hour and a placebo beverage during the second hour. In the EL trial, a carbohydrate beverage was ingested during the second hour and a placebo during the first hour. The amount of carbohydrate consumed (75 g) was the same among conditions. The order of conditions was single-blinded, counterbalanced, and determined randomly. Performance was measured by the work output during the 15-minute performance ride. There were no differences in work output among the three conditions during the final time trial. In the first hour of exercise, peak venous blood glucose was highest in the FL condition. In the second hour, peak venous blood glucose was highest in the EL condition. Following the time trial, venous blood glucose levels were similar among CL, FL, and EL. Overall, the timing of carbohydrate beverage consumption during prolonged moderate intensity cycling did not alter cycling performance.

  18. Influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on children's dietary intake and preference: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Sadeghirad, B; Duhaney, T; Motaghipisheh, S; Campbell, N R C; Johnston, B C

    2016-10-01

    Marketing of foods and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt are suggested to contribute to poor dietary behaviours in children and diet-related diseases later in life. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials aimed to assess the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on dietary intake (grams or kilocalories) and dietary preference (preference score or percentage of participants who selected specific foods/beverages) among children 2 to 18 years of age. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up to January 2015 for terms related to advertising, unhealthy foods or beverages among children. Randomized trials that assessed the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing compared with non-dietary advertisement or no advertisement in children were considered eligible. Two authors independently extracted information on study characteristics and outcomes of interest and assessed risk of bias and the overall quality of evidence using grade methodology. Meta-analysis was conducted separately for dietary intake and preference using a random-effects model. We identified 29 eligible studies, of which 17 studies were included for meta-analysis of dietary preference and nine for meta-analysis of dietary intake. Almost half of the studies were at high risk of bias. Our meta-analysis showed that in children exposed to unhealthy dietary marketing, dietary intake significantly increased (mean difference [MD] = 30.4 kcal, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9 to 57.9, and MD = 4.8 g, 95%CI 0.8 to 8.8) during or shortly after exposure to advertisements. Similarly, children exposed to the unhealthy dietary marketing had a higher risk of selecting the advertised foods or beverages (relative risk = 1.1, 95%CI 1.0 to 1.2; P = 0.052). The evidence indicates that unhealthy food and beverage marketing increases dietary intake (moderate quality evidence) and preference (moderate to low quality evidence) for energy-dense, low-nutrition food

  19. Alcohol intake and breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Scoccianti, Chiara; Chajès, Véronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Dossus, Laure; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós García, José Ramón; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio

    2015-10-15

    Alcohol intake has been associated to breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women; however results are inconclusive regarding tumor hormonal receptor status, and potential modifying factors like age at start drinking. Therefore, we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer using prospective observational data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Up to 334,850 women, aged 35-70 years at baseline, were recruited in ten European countries and followed up an average of 11 years. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. The study outcomes were the Hazard ratios (HR) of developing breast cancer according to hormonal receptor status. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Alcohol intake was significantly related to breast cancer risk, for each 10 g/day increase in alcohol intake the HR increased by 4.2% (95% CI: 2.7-5.8%). Taking 0 to 5 g/day as reference, alcohol intake of >5 to 15 g/day was related to a 5.9% increase in breast cancer risk (95% CI: 1-11%). Significant increasing trends were observed between alcohol intake and ER+/PR+, ER-/PR-, HER2- and ER-/PR-HER2- tumors. Breast cancer risk was stronger among women who started drinking prior to first full-time pregnancy. Overall, our results confirm the association between alcohol intake and both hormone receptor positive and hormone receptor negative breast tumors, suggesting that timing of exposure to alcohol drinking may affect the risk. Therefore, women should be advised to control their alcohol consumption. PMID:25677034

  20. Rapid Method for the Determination of the Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Water in Alcoholic Beverages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daobing; Zhong, Qiding; Li, Guohui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-10-28

    This paper demonstrates the first successful application of an online pyrolysis technique for the direct determination of oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of water in alcoholic beverages. Similar water concentrations in each sample were achieved by adjustment with absolute ethyl alcohol, and then a fixed GC split ratio can be used. All of the organic ingredients were successfully separated from the analyte on a CP-PoraBond Q column and subsequently vented out, whereas water molecules were transferred into the reaction furnace and converted to CO. With the system presented, 15-30 μL of raw sample was diluted and can be analyzed repeatedly; the analytical precision was better than 0.4‰ (n = 5) in all cases, and more than 50 injections can be made per day. No apparent memory effect was observed even if water samples were injected using the same syringe; a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9998) was found between the water δ(18)O of measured sample and that of working standards. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mean δ(18)O value and that obtained by the traditional method (CO2-water equilibration/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and the newly developed method in this study. The advantages of this new method are its rapidity and straightforwardness, and less test portion is required. PMID:26373434

  1. Hydrogen bonding in alcoholic beverages (distilled spirits) and water-ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Nose, Akira; Hamasaki, Tensei; Hojo, Masashi; Kato, Ryosuke; Uehara, Kenta; Ueda, Tadaharu

    2005-09-01

    The hydrogen-bonding properties of water-ethanol of alcoholic beverages and water-ethanol mixtures of the corresponding ethanol contents were examined on the basis of OH proton NMR chemical shifts and the Raman OH stretching spectra of water and ethanol. Japanese shochu, an unaged distilled spirit of 25% (v/v) alcoholic content made from various grains, was provided for the samples; it is a high-purity spirit as it contains only small amounts of dissolved components, like typical vodka, gin, and white rum. The hydrogen-bonding structure in shochu containing some acids was found to be different from that of the water-ethanol mixture with corresponding ethanol content. It was concluded that, by the presence of small amounts of organic acids, the water-ethanol hydrogen-bonding structure was strengthened, at the same time, the proton exchange between water and ethanol molecules was promoted in shochu, compared with the water-ethanol mixture. The NMR chemical shifts of fruit cocktail drinks suggested that the hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in the solution was developed by organic acids and (poly)phenols from fruit juices. PMID:16131113

  2. Mothers’ Child-Feeding Practices Are Associated with Children’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake1234

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Li, Ruowei; Birch, Leann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is a substantial source of energy in the diet of US children. Objective: We examined the associations between mothers’ child-feeding practices and SSB intake among 6-y-old children. Methods: We analyzed data from the Year 6 Follow-up of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II in 1350 US children aged 6 y. The outcome variable was child’s SSB intake. The exposure variables were 4 child-feeding practices of mothers: setting limits on sweets or junk foods, regulating their child’s favorite food intake to prevent overconsumption, pressuring their child to eat enough, and pressuring their child to “clean the plate.” We used multinomial logistic regression and controlled for child and maternal characteristics. Analyses were stratified on child weight status. Results: The consumption of SSBs ≥1 time/d was observed among 17.1% of underweight/normal-weight children and in 23.2% of overweight/obese children. Adjusted ORs (aORs) of consuming SSBs ≥1 time/d (vs. no SSB consumption) were significantly lower in children whose mothers reported setting limits on sweets/junk foods (aOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.58 for underweight/normal-weight children; aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.79 for overweight/obese children). SSB intake was higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers reported trying to keep the child from eating too much of their favorite foods (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29). Mothers’ tendency to pressure their children to consume more food or to “clean the plate” was not associated with child’s SSB intake. Conclusions: SSBs were commonly consumed by young children. The odds of daily SSB intake were lower among children whose mothers set limits on sweets/junk foods regardless of child’s weight but were higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers restricted the child’s favorite food intake. Future studies can investigate the impact of alternatives to restrictive feeding

  3. In-depth proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic beverages with peptide ligand libraries. I: Almond milk and orgeat syrup.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-06-10

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, both commercial and home-made, have been adopted to investigate the proteome of non-alcoholic beverages, in order to assess their genuineness and detect also trace proteins, in search of potential allergens. Two such beverages have been studied: almond milk and orgeat syrup. In the first product we have been able to identify 132 unique protein species, the deepest investigation so far of the almond proteome. In the second beverage, a handful of proteins (just 14) have been detected, belonging to a bitter almond extract. In both cases, the genuineness of such products has been verified, as well as the fact that almond milk, judging on the total protein and fat content, must have been produced with 100g ground almonds per litre of beverage, as required by authorities. On the contrary, cheap orgeat syrups produced by local supermarkets and sold as their own brands, where found not to contain any residual proteins, suggesting that they contained only synthetic aromas and no natural plant extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the myriad of beverages that in the last decades have invaded the shelves of supermarkets the world over, whose genuineness and natural origin have never been properly assessed. PMID:21440098

  4. Changes in alcohol intake in response to transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karačić, Matislava; Wales, Jackie A.; Arcelus, Jon; Palmer, Robert L.; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine how alcohol intake changes during and after trans-diagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders (CBT-E). Additionally, the paper considers the relationship between alcohol consumption, eating disorder diagnosis and current major depressive episode at the time of first assessment. Method One hundred and forty nine outpatients with an eating disorder (body mass index over 17.5) were divided into high or low alcohol intake groups (HIG and LIG) according to their intake at pre-treatment assessment. Their alcohol intake and eating disorder psychopathology were examined over the course of treatment and follow-up. Results There was no difference between the groups on response of the eating disorder to treatment. The HIG significantly reduced their alcohol intake following treatment whilst the intake of the LIG remained stable over the course of treatment and follow-up. There were no group differences in major depression and overall severity of eating disorder at baseline. Conclusions The response to CBT-E was not influenced by baseline level of alcohol use. The mean alcohol intake of the heavy drinking subjects decreased without being specifically addressed by the treatment. PMID:21704306

  5. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55-75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m², and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student's t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland-Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of -0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R² = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  6. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  7. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five t...

  8. Voluntary Alcohol Intake following Blast Exposure in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yi Wei; Meyer, Nathan P.; Shah, Alok S.; Budde, Matthew D.; Stemper, Brian D.; Olsen, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol naïve rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol naïve Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions) and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake. In a seven-week intermittent two-bottle choice alcohol drinking test, sham and blast exposed rats had comparable levels of alcohol intake. In a short access test session at the conclusion of the two-bottle test, blast rats fell into a bimodal distribution, and among high intake rats, blast treated animals had significantly elevated intake compared to shams. We found no effect of blast when rats were tested for an alcohol deprivation effect or compulsive drinking in a quinine adulteration test. Throughout the experiment, alcohol drinking was modest in both groups, consistent with other studies using Sprague Dawley rats. In conclusion, blast exposure had a minimal impact on overall alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats, although intake was increased in a subpopulation of blast animals in a short access session following intermittent access exposure. PMID:25910266

  9. No harmful effect of different Coca-cola beverages after 6 months of intake on rat testes.

    PubMed

    Tóthová, Lubomíra; Hodosy, Július; Mettenburg, Kathryn; Fábryová, Helena; Wagnerová, Alexandra; Bábíčková, Janka; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a 3-month exposure of rats to cola-like beverages induced sex hormone changes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various types of Coca-cola intake with different composition for 6 months on oxidative status in testes and testosterone in adult male rats. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were divided into control group drinking water, and groups drinking different Coca-cola beverages (regular Coca-cola, Coca-cola caffeine-free, Coca-cola Light and Coca-cola Zero). Oxidative and carbonyl stress markers were measured in the testicular tissue to assess oxidative status together with testicular and plasma testosterone. StAR expression in testes as a marker of steroidogenesis was quantified. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the measured parameters. In conclusion, oxidative and carbonyl stress in testicular tissue were not influenced by drinking any type of Coca-cola. Additionally, testosterone in testes and in plasma, as well as testicular StAR expression were comparable among the groups. PMID:24001441

  10. Effects of beer, wine and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older adult men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. We examined alcohol intake (total and individual types) and BMD in 1251 men, 1317 post-menopausal and 264 pre-menopausal women in the populat...

  11. Prevalence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Adults--23 States and the District of Columbia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Xu, Fang; Town, Machell; Blanck, Heidi M

    2016-02-26

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that the daily intake of calories from added sugars not exceed 10% of total calories. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are significant sources of added sugars in the diet of U.S. adults and account for approximately one third of added sugar consumption. Among adults, frequent (i.e., at least once a day) SSB intake is associated with adverse health consequences, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. According to the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), an in-person and phone follow-up survey, 50.6% of U.S. adults consumed at least one SSB on a given day. In addition, SSB intake varies by geographical regions: the prevalence of daily SSB intake was higher among U.S. adults living in the Northeast (68.4%) and South (66.7%) than among persons living in the Midwest (58.8%). In 2013, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a telephone survey, revised the SSB two-item optional module to retain the first question on regular soda and expand the second question to include more types of SSBs than just fruit drinks. Using 2013 BRFSS data, self-reported SSB (i.e., regular soda, fruit drinks, sweet tea, and sports or energy drinks) intake among adults (aged ≥18 years) was assessed in 23 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The overall age-adjusted prevalence of SSB intake ≥1 time per day was 30.1% and ranged from 18.0% in Vermont to 47.5% in Mississippi. Overall, at least once daily SSB intake was most prevalent among adults aged 18-24 years (43.3%), men (34.1%), non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) (39.9%), unemployed adults (34.4%), and persons with less than a high school education (42.4%). States can use the data for program evaluation and monitoring trends, and information on disparities in SSB consumption could be used to create targeted intervention efforts to reduce SSB consumption. PMID:26914018

  12. Serum Carbon Isotope Values Change in Adults in Response to Changes in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake12

    PubMed Central

    Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Jahren, A. Hope; Appel, Lawrence J.; Chen, Liwei; Alavi, Reza; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Serum carbon isotope values [13C-to-12C serum carbon isotope ratio (δ13C)], which reflect consumption of corn- and cane-based foods, differ between persons consuming high and low amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). In this study, we determined whether serum δ13C changes in response to change in SSB intake during an 18-mo behavioral intervention trial. Data were from a subset of 144 participants from the PREMIER trial, a completed behavioral intervention (Maryland, 1998–2004). SSB intake was assessed using 2 24-h dietary recall interviews. Blinded serum samples were assayed for δ13C by natural abundance stable isotope mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation were used. At baseline, mean SSB intake was 13.8 ± 14.2 fl oz/d, and mean δ13C serum value was −19.3 ± 0.6 units per mil (designated ‰). A reduction of 12 oz (355 mL)/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day) was associated with 0.17‰ (95% CI: 0.08‰, 0.25‰ P < 0.0001) reduction in serum δ13C values over 18 mo (equivalent to a 1% reduction in δ13C from baseline). After adjusting for potential confounders, a reduction of 12 oz/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day), over an 18-mo period, was associated with 0.12‰ (95% CI: 0.01‰, 0.22‰ P = 0.025) reduction in serum δ13C. These findings suggest that serum δ13C can be used as a measure of dietary changes in SSB intake. PMID:24717368

  13. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  14. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  15. Concoction of harmful substances in homemade alcoholic beverages in rural areas of Mopani district in Limpopo province-RSA: implications for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Makhubele, J C

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion. PMID:24066633

  16. Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium intakes, from foods and beverages, of 22,852 persons in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003–2008) were examined by specific food source and by food location of origin. Analyses were based on a single 24-h recall. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6–11 years of age), adolescents (12–19), and adults (20–50 and ≥51 years). Grouping of like foods (e.g., food sources) used a scheme proposed by the National Cancer Institute, which divides foods/beverages into 96 food subgroups (e.g., pizza, yeast breads or cold cuts). Food locations of origin were stores (e.g., grocery, convenience and specialty stores), quick-service restaurant/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurant (FSR), school, or other. Food locations of sodium were also evaluated by race/ethnicity amongst adults. Stores provided between 58.1% and 65.2% of dietary sodium, whereas QSR and FSR together provided between 18.9% and 31.8% depending on age. The proportion of sodium from QSR varied from 10.1% to 19.9%, whereas that from FSR varied from 3.4% to 13.3%. School meals provided 10.4% of sodium for 6–11 year olds and 6.0% for 12–19 year olds. Pizza from QSR, the top away from home food item, provided 5.4% of sodium in adolescents. QSR pizza, chicken, burgers and Mexican dishes combined provided 7.8% of total sodium in adult diets. Most sodium came from foods purchased in stores. Food manufacturers, restaurants, and grocery stores all have a role to play in reducing the amount of sodium in the American diet. PMID:23760055

  17. Lorcaserin, a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist, decreases alcohol intake in female alcohol preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty C; Levin, Edward D

    2014-10-01

    Serotonergic systems in the brain have been found to be important in the addiction to alcohol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel 5-HT2c receptor agonist, lorcaserin for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult female rats were allowed to drink water or alcohol (12%, v/v) using a standard two-bottle choice procedure. Once stable baselines were established, the acute (0, 0.3125, 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg, s.c.), and chronic (0, 0.625 mg/kg, sc for 10 days) effects of lorcaserin on alcohol intake and preference were assessed at different time points. In a separate experiment, the effects of lorcaserin on locomotor activity were determined. Our results show that both 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake at 2, 4 and 6 h. after the drug administration. The chronic administration of 0.625 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake up to 6h every day after the injection and there was no sign of diminished efficacy of the drug during 10-day treatment. To determine the effects of lorcaserin on sucrose intake, rats were put on a two-bottle choice of water vs a solution of 7% sucrose. The high dose of lorcaserin (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced sucrose intake only for up to 2 h. When tested for locomotor activity, lorcaserin injected 20 min before testing significantly reduced locomotor activity at all doses. However, when it was injected 5.5h before the start of the 1-h session, neither dose had a significant effect on locomotor activity. These results show the efficacy of lorcaserin in reducing alcohol intake without a significant effect on water intake and locomotion suggesting the involvement of 5-HT2c receptors in alcohol seeking behavior. Further research is warranted to determine the possible efficacy of lorcaserin or similar drugs as treatments for the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:25109272

  18. Stress history increases alcohol intake in relapse: Relation to phosphodiesterase 10A

    PubMed Central

    Logrip, Marian L.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Stressful experiences in humans can result in elevated alcohol drinking, as exemplified in many individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. However, how stress history, rather than acute stressors, influences alcohol intake remains uncertain. To model the protracted effects of past stress, male Wistar rats were subjected to light-cued footshock stress (Stress History) or light cues alone (Control) prior to their acquisition of alcohol self-administration (1-h sessions, fixed ratio1–3, 100 µl of 10% v/v alcohol as reinforcer). Stress history did not alter mean alcohol intake during acquisition of self-administration, but it increased preference for the alcohol-paired lever over the inactive lever. Following an extinction period, rats with a history of stress exposure and low baseline alcohol intake showed a 2-fold elevation in alcohol self-administration, as compared to low-drinking rats with no stress history. Similar effects were not seen in rats self-administering 0.1% sucrose. Analysis of mRNA levels of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cAMP and cGMP hydrolyzing enzyme, showed that stress history increased Pde10a mRNA levels in the basolateral amygdala and, in low drinking rats, the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC). Pde10a mRNA levels in the plPFC correlated directly with greater alcohol self-administration during the relapse-like phase, and greater BLA Pde10a mRNA levels correlated with increased ethanol preference after acquisition. The data demonstrate that stress history sensitizes otherwise low alcohol drinkers to consume more alcohol in a relapse-like situation, and identify stress-induced neuroadaptations in amygdala and prefrontal cortical Pde10a expression as changes that may drive heightened alcohol intake and preference in susceptible individuals. PMID:22741603

  19. Effect and Process Evaluation of a Cluster Randomized Control Trial on Water Intake and Beverage Consumption in Preschoolers from Six European Countries: The ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinket, An-Sofie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; De Craemer, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the ToyBox-study, a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention was developed to prevent overweight and obesity in European preschoolers, targeting four key behaviours related to early childhood obesity, including water consumption. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention (cluster randomized controlled trial) on water intake and beverage consumption in European preschoolers and to investigate if the intervention effects differed by implementation score of kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Method A sample of 4964 preschoolers (4.7±0.4 years; 51.5% boys) from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain) was included in the data analyses. A standardized protocol was used and parents/caregivers filled in socio-demographic data and a food-frequency questionnaire. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample and for the six country-specific samples. Based on the process evaluation questionnaire of teachers and parents/caregivers, an implementation score was constructed. To assess differences in water intake and beverage consumption by implementation score in the total sample, multilevel repeated measures analyses were performed. Results Limited intervention effects on water intake from beverages and overall beverage consumption were found. However, important results were found on prepacked fruit juice consumption, with a larger decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, also a decline in plain milk consumption was found. Implementation scores were rather low in both kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Nevertheless, more favorable effects on beverage choices were found in preschoolers whose parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers had higher implementation scores compared to those with lower implementation scores. Conclusion The ToyBox-intervention can provide the basis for the

  20. Detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages or vapor phase using fluorescent molecules embedded in a nanofibrous polymer.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Masaaki; Mori, Taizo; Okamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Ken; Shiratori, Seimei; Yamamura, Masaki; Nabeshima, Tatsuya; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-03-25

    An alcohol sensor was developed using the solid-state fluorescence emission of terphenyl-ol (TPhOH) derivatives. Admixtures of TPhOH and sodium carbonate exhibited bright sky-blue fluorescence in the solid state upon addition of small quantities of ethanol. A series of terphenol derivatives was synthesized, and the effects of solvent polarities and the structures of these π-conjugated systems on their fluorescence were systematically investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy. In particular, π-extended TPhOHs and TPhOHs containing electron-withdrawing groups exhibited significant solvatochromism, and fluorescence colors varied from blue to red. Detection of ethanol contents in alcohol beverages (detection limit ∼ 5 v/v %) was demonstrated using different TPhOHs revealing the effect of molecular structure on sensing properties. Ethanol contents in alcoholic beverages could be estimated from the intensity of the fluorescence elicited from the TPhOHs. Moreover, when terphenol and Na2CO3 were combined with a water-absorbent polymer, ethanol could be detected at lower concentrations. Detection of ethanol vapor (8 v/v % in air) was also accomplished using a nanofibrous polymer scaffold as the immobilized sensing film. PMID:25756646

  1. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular disease and mortality: the role of pre‐existing disease

    PubMed Central

    Friesema, I H M; Zwietering, P J; Veenstra, M Y; Knottnerus, J A; Garretsen, H F L; Lemmens, P H H M

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Pre‐existing conditions have been postulated as possible causes of the J‐shaped relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular disease. Two research questions have been addressed in this paper. First, whether never drinkers and former drinkers differ from moderate drinkers in terms of health, and if so, which health problems contribute to this difference. Second, whether the U‐shaped relationship between current alcohol intake and cardiovascular disease or all‐cause mortality could in part be explained by difference in pre‐existing disease burden. Design, setting and participants A prospective case‐cohort, the Lifestyle and Health Study, consisting of 16 210 men and women aged between 45 and 70 years. Alcohol intake and risk factors were assessed at baseline with a self‐administered questionnaire. Medical information was obtained from general practitioners. Cardiovascular events and mortality were followed for a period of 5 years (1996–2001). Main results Never drinkers and former drinkers were less healthy than moderate drinkers. They rated their health more often as poor, and often had more diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and also alcohol‐related diseases. The difference in disease burden did not change the observed relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular events, and only partially changed the U‐shaped relationship between alcohol intake and all‐cause mortality. Conclusions The found difference in health between never drinkers and former drinkers compared with moderate drinkers appeared to be only a partial explanation of the observed relationships between alcohol intake and cardiovascular disease, and between alcohol intake and all‐cause mortality. PMID:17435212

  2. 75 FR 47312 - Seminole Tribe of Florida Alcohol Beverage Control Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... liquor ordinance was published in 60 FR 53431. The tribal lands are located in Indian country and this... beverages. Section 562.51. license suspension. license suspension. Prostitution; Lewd and lascivious...

  3. Viral vector-induced amygdala NPY overexpression reverses increased alcohol intake caused by repeated deprivations in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Thorsell, Annika; Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; O'Dell, Laura E.; Chen, Scott A.; King, Alvin R.; Lekic, Dusan; Koob, George F.; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Acute administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates alcohol intake in genetic and chemical models of high intake, while leaving intake unaffected during ‘normal’ or baseline conditions. In non-selected, normal rat lines, alcohol consumption can be increased by prolonged exposure to alcohol, and it is unclear what effect a constitutive increase in NPY function will have on alcohol intake. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects on alcohol intake of an inducible, constitutive overexpression of NPY, one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the central nervous system. A liquid diet was used in combination with repeated alcohol deprivation sessions to increase alcohol intake in normal Wistar rats. We then examined the effect of NPY overexpression in the amygdala on excessive alcohol intake produced by prolonged exposure to alcohol and alcohol deprivation. Repeated withdrawal increased alcohol consumption in a 24-h continuous access two-bottle choice model. Both the number of withdrawals as well as the length of the withdrawal periods affected alcohol consumption with an increased intake resulting from multiple withdrawals and the alcohol deprivation effect being enhanced by longer periods of abstinence. The increase in intake following repeated abstinence was blunted by intra-amygdala administration of a Sindbis viral vector containing NPY cDNA. Amygdala NPY overexpression also was demonstrated to be anxiolytic in the open field test. Repeated withdrawal in combination with a history of alcohol consumption significantly elevated alcohol intake, and the amygdala may mediate the transition to high-drinking states in this model. PMID:17405766

  4. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Blanchette, Jason G.; Nguyen, Thien H.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Nelson, Toben F.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Design Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Findings In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (−0.09, P=0.02 versus −0.005, P=0.63) and price elasticity (−1.40, P<0.01 versus −0.76, P=0.15) compared with models using only the volume-based tax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P=0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (P<0.01). Conclusions Compared with volume-based tax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. PMID:25428795

  5. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. PMID:25636235

  6. Long-time alcohol intake modifies resistin secretion and expression of resistin gene in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Pravdová, E; Macho, L; Hlavácová, N; Ficková, M

    2007-09-01

    Elevated serum resistin is implicated in insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alcohol consumption interferes with the nutritional status, metabolic and hormonal activity of the drinker. Impact of ethanol intake on resistin level and resistin metabolic effects is unknown. Effect of long-time (28 days) ad libitum moderate alcohol (6% ethanol solution) intake on serum resistin and resistin mRNA level in adipose tissue of rats (A) was compared to control (C) and pair-fed (PF) animals. PF rats were fed the same caloric amount as A rats on previous day. Alcohol consumption resulted in reduction of food and energy intake, decreased body mass gain, epididymal fat pads mass and smaller adipocytes (vs. C rats). Alcohol intake significantly increased serum resistin and glucose, insulinemia remained unchanged. Systemic insulin resistance was not proved by HOMA, QUICKI and McAuley indexes, but impaired insulin effect on glucose transport in isolated adipocytes was present. Elevated serum resistin was positively correlated with glycemia (r = 0.88, p < 0.01) and negatively with fat cell size (r = -0.73, p < 0.05). High resistin level as the consequence of long-time alcohol intake could contribute to smaller adipocytes, higher glycemia, attenuation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes. Diminished resistin gene expression in adipose tissue of A and PF rats was present. PMID:18063850

  7. Storage of pork meat under modified atmospheres containing vapors from commercial alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kapetanakou, A E; Agathaggelou, E I; Skandamis, P N

    2014-05-16

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of AB vapors on microbial, physicochemical, and sensory profile of pork meat stored in different MAP conditions. Pork pieces (10g) and cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths (2×2cm) were placed into compartmentalized Petri-dishes in two sections. Aliquots (1mL) of water (control), 30% v/v and 40% v/v ethanol, whisky, brandy, tsipouro, raki, and ouzo were added separately to the cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths. Each pork sample was placed in one compartment and cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths supplemented with different ABs were placed in a separate compartment of each Petri-dish. Samples were packaged in 40% CO2: 30% O2: 30% N2 and 80% O2: 20% CO2 and stored at 4 and 10°C. Total viable counts, Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and Enterobacteriaceae, were enumerated during storage. Changes in pH, color (L*, a*, b*), odor, taste, and overall appearance of pork meat were also evaluated along with changes in organic acid levels via HPLC. At 4°C, lactic acid bacteria and B. thermosphacta were the dominant organisms under 40% CO2: 30% N2: 30% O2 and 80% O2: 20% CO2, respectively, while at 10°C, lactic acid bacteria dominated in both MAP conditions. All applied ABs were effective (p<0.05) against lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and B. thermosphacta. The inhibitory effect of ABs was also reflected through lower levels of glucose consumption or accumulation of lactic, acetic, succinic, and formic acid compared to controls. Moreover, packaged samples in 40% CO2: 30% O2: 30% N2 exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) of acetic acid during storage at 4°C, but the concentrations of acetic acid in samples exposed to AB vapors were lower than those in controls. Both antimicrobial active MAPs extended the shelf-life of pork meat by ca. 2-fold, while samples exposed to alcoholic beverages (especially ouzo) under 80% O2: 20% CO2 resulted in better (p<0.05) sensory properties

  8. Chemical Components of Noncommercial Alcohol Beverage Samples: A Study With the Viewpoint of Toxic Components in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dadpour, Bita; Hedjazi, Arya; Ghorbani, Hamideh; Khosrojerdi, Hamid; Vaziri, Seyed Mohsen; Malek Zadeh, Haleh; Habibi Tamijani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background Iran has one of the lowest alcoholic beverage use rates in comparison with other countries, because it is legally forbidden and because of religious beliefs. Even so, unrecorded and noncommercial alcohol remains a considerable concern, which needs special attention. Objectives In the current research, we have studied the general composition of noncommercial alcohol samples to identify potentially toxic components in the context of the city of Mashhad in IR Iran. Patients and Methods Using a descriptive study, chemical composition records of alcohol samples obtained from Mashhad and its suburbs (from March 2013 to March 2014) were evaluated in terms of ethanol percentage and methanol percentage using gas chromatography. Likewise, the pH of the alcohol and the location of the sample were also considered. Some substances, such as inorganic elements, were not included because there was no information about these substances in the records. Results Of 877 reports of alcohol samples, more than 50% were obtained from Mashhad and the rest were from the suburbs. Of the reports, 57.5% were in the spring and summer, followed by 42.5% in the fall and winter. The mean (min-max) of ethanol percentage was 30.04% (0 - 98.4). In four cases, methanol was detected. The mean (min-max) of methanol percentage was 23% (4 - 95).The majority of the samples had an acidic pH. Conclusions The composition of unrecorded samples did not raise major toxicological concern beyond ethanol in alcohol products. However, concentration levels of methanol in some unrecorded alcohol samples made these samples detrimental for human consumption. PMID:27622171

  9. The ALDH2 genotype, alcohol intake, and liver-function biomarkers among Japanese male workers.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, T; Yang, X; Morimoto, K

    2000-06-01

    A highly prevalent, atypical genotype in low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) may influence alcohol-induced liver injury because of higher production of acetaldehyde in the liver. In the present study, we examined relationships between the ALDH2 genotype, alcohol intake, and liver-function biomarkers among Japanese male workers. Study subjects were 385 male workers in a metal plant in Japan, who were free from hepatic viruses and did not have higher aminotransferase activities (<100). The subjects completed a questionnaire on alcohol drinking habits and other lifestyles. The ALDH2 genotype was determined by the PCR method followed by restriction-enzyme digestion. In the moderately and heavily drinking groups, those with ALDH2*1/*2 exhibited significantly lower levels than those with ALDH2*1/*1 for all three parameters of liver function, whereas no such differences were observed in the least-drinking group. Multiple linear-regression analysis, adjusting for age, obesity, and smoking habits, revealed that aspartate aminotransferase activity was positively associated with alcohol intake only in those with ALDH2*1/*1. On the other hand, alanine transferase activity was negatively associated with alcohol intake only in those with ALDH2*1/*2. The present study indicates that effects of alcohol intake on liver-function biomarkers are likely to be modified by the ALDH2 genotype in adult males. PMID:10942105

  10. Cloud point extraction and gas chromatography with direct microvial insert thermal desorption for the determination of haloanisoles in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2016-11-01

    A sensitive analytical procedure for the determination of four haloanisoles (2,4,6 trichloroanisole, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole and pentachloroanisole) related with cork taint defects in wines, in different types of alcoholic beverages has been developed. The analytes were extracted from the matrix samples by cloud point extraction (CPE) using Triton X-114 heated to 75°C, and the surfactant rich phase was separated by centrifugation. By means of direct microvial insert thermal desorption, 20µL of the CPE obtained extract was submitted to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The parameters affecting the CPE and microvial insert thermal desorption were optimized. Quantification was carried by matrix-matched calibration using an internal standard. Detection limits ranged between 12.9 and 20.8ngL(-1), depending on the compound, for beer and wine samples, whereas for whiskies values in the 46.3-48ngL(-1) range were obtained, since these samples were diluted for analysis. Recoveries for alcoholic beverages were in the 89-111% range, depending on the analyte and the sample. PMID:27591615

  11. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  12. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  13. Interpersonal Perception and Alcohol Expectancies Predict Beverage Selection in Opposite Sex Dyadic Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Kevin J.; Michels, Jennifer L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines cognitive-personality and situational factors which contribute to the decision to consume alcohol in a mixed sex interaction among college students. Reports that men were more likely to choose alcohol, as were those with positive alcohol expectancies and those who perceived their partner as anxious. Typical alcohol consumption and fear of…

  14. Trends in purchases and intake of foods and beverages containing caloric and low-calorie sweeteners over the last decade in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Background Current food databases might not capture rapidly occurring changes in the food supply, such as the increased use of caloric (CS) and low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in products. Objective We explored trends in purchases and intake of foods and beverages containing LCS, CS or both sweeteners over the last decade in the U.S., as well as household and SES predictors of these trends. Methods We analyzed household purchases from Homescan 2000–10 (n=140,352 households; 408,458 individuals); and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–10 (n=34,391 individuals). We estimated per-capita purchases and intake (g or mL/d) and percent of consumers of foods and beverages containing LCS, CS, or both LCS+CS. We estimated change in purchases associated with SES and household composition using random-effects longitudinal models. Results From 2000–10, percent of households purchasing CS products decreased, whereas for LCS and LCS+CS products increased among all types of households and particularly among those with children. African-American, Hispanic, and households with children had a higher % CS beverage purchases (+9%; +4%; +3% respectively, P<0.001) and lower % LCS beverage purchases (−12%; −5%; −2% respectively, P<0.001). Conclusions During a period of declining purchases and consumption of CS products, we have documented an increasing trend in products that contain LCS and a previously unexplored trend in products with both LCS and CS, especially important among households with children. PMID:23529974

  15. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  16. Can Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash be Measured in Epidemiological Studies? Development and Validation of Mouthwash Use Questionnaire with Particular Attention to Measuring Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Tanja; Kawecki, Michal M.; Reeve, Janice; Cunningham, Claudia; Bovaird, Iain

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the mouthwash use questionnaire to determine the lifetime exposure to alcohol from mouthwash and verify that it was suitable for use in general population. Material and Methods Data were available from three consecutive studies, all collecting information on mouthwash use. In addition, supermarkets and online stores were screened for the brands of mouthwash they sold. Alcohol content of mouthwash was identified from various sources, including laboratory measurements. Alcohol-containing mouthwash use was converted to glasses of wine equivalent. Results Mouthwash was used by 62% of the participants, and the main benefits reported were refreshment of bad breath (75%), elimination of bacteria (68%) and reduction of plaque formation (47%). Majority mouthwashes used by the participants contained alcohol (61%). Life-time exposure from alcohol in mouthwash was relatively small for most of the study participants: 79% had rinsed for less than one year with alcohol equivalent of one glass of wine per day. There was substantial agreement in mouthwash reporting between different occasions (Kappa > 0.62). Conclusions The questionnaire can be used to investigate mouthwash use in the general population and to measure alcohol intake from mouthwash. PMID:24422013

  17. Alcohol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: Weighing the Overall Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Goyal, Abhishek; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to an approximate 30-50% increased risk in breast cancer. Case-control and cohort studies have consistently observed this modest increase. We highlight recent evidence from molecular epidemiologic studies and studies of intermediate markers like mammographic density that provide additional evidence that this association is real and not solely explained by factors/correlates of the exposure and outcome present in non-randomized studies. We also review evidence from studies of higher risk women including BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the incidence of heart disease is higher than breast cancer and modest alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of heart disease, we examine the latest evidence to evaluate if alcohol reduction should be targeted to women at high risk for breast cancer. We also review the most recent evidence on the effect of alcohol use on tumor recurrence and survival for those diagnosed with breast cancer. PMID:24265860

  18. Adolescents and alcohol: acute sensitivities, enhanced intake, and later consequences.

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period characterized by notable maturational changes in the brain along with various age-related behavioral characteristics, including the propensity to initiate alcohol and other drug use and consume more alcohol per occasion than adults. After a brief review of adolescent neurobehavioral function from an evolutionary perspective, the paper will turn to assessment of adolescent alcohol sensitivity and consequences, with a focus on work from our laboratory. After summarizing evidence showing that adolescents differ considerably from adults in their sensitivity to various effects of alcohol, potential contributors to these age-typical sensitivities will be discussed, and the degree to which these findings are generalizable to other drugs and to human adolescents will be considered. Recent studies are then reviewed to illustrate that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence induces behavioral, cognitive, and neural alterations that are highly specific, replicable, persistent and dependent on the timing of the exposure. Research in this area is in its early stages, however, and more work will be necessary to characterize the extent of these neurobehavioral alterations and further determine the degree to which observed effects are specific to alcohol exposure during adolescence. PMID:24291291

  19. Adolescents and Alcohol: Acute Sensitivities, Enhanced Intake, and Later Consequences*

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period characterized by notable maturational changes in brain along with various age-related behavioral characteristics, including the propensity to initiate alcohol and other drug use and consume more alcohol per occasion than adults. After a brief review of adolescent neurobehavioral function from an evolutionary perspective, the paper will turn to assessment of adolescent alcohol sensitivity and consequences, with a focus on work from our laboratory. After summarizing evidence showing that adolescents differ considerably from adults in their sensitivity to various effects of alcohol, potential contributors to these age-typical sensitivities will be discussed, and the degree to which these findings are generalizable to other drugs and to human adolescents will be considered. Recent studies are then reviewed to illustrate that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence induces behavioral, cognitive, and neural alterations that are highly specific, replicable, persistent and dependent on the timing of the exposure. Research in this area is in its early stages, however, and more work will be necessary to characterize the extent of these neurobehavioral alterations and further determine the degree to which observed effects are specific to alcohol exposure during adolescence. PMID:24291291

  20. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  1. Interrelationship between alcohol intake and endogenous sex-steroid hormones on diabetes risk in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Rachelle D.; Liu, Simin; You, Nai-Chieh; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Song, Yiqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones, including estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), were associated with alcohol intake or mediated the alcohol-type 2 diabetes (T2D) association. Methods Among women not using hormone replacement therapy and free of baseline cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes in the Women’s Health Study, 359 incident cases of T2D and 359 matched controls were chosen during 10 years of follow-up. Results Frequent alcohol intake (≥1 drink/day) was positively and significantly associated with higher plasma estradiol concentrations in an age-adjusted model (β=0.14, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.26), as compared with rarely/never alcohol intake. After adjusting for additional known covariates, this alcohol-estradiol association remained significant (β=0.19, 95% CI, 0.07, 0.30). Testosterone (β=0.13, 95% CI, −0.05, 0.31), SHBG (β=0.07, 95% CI, −0.07, 0.20), and DHEAS (β=0.14, 95% CI, −0.04, 0.31) showed positive associations without statistical significance. Estradiol alone or in combination with SHBG appeared to influence the observed protective association between frequent alcohol consumption and T2D risk, with a 12–21% reduction in OR in the multivariate-adjusted models. Conclusions Our cross-sectional analysis showed positive associations between alcohol intake and endogenous estradiol concentrations. Our prospective data suggested that baseline concentrations of estradiol, with or without SHBG, might influence the alcohol-T2D association in postmenopausal women. PMID:25759186

  2. Hypothesizing Darkness Induced Alcohol Intake Linked to Dopaminergic Regulation of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra; Braverman, Eric R.; Gold, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex and mesolimbic brain regions has become the subject of intensive neuroscience research worldwide. In the 1970s, our group provided evidence that rats exposed to darkness significantly augmented their alcohol intake. At that time, we proposed that melatonin was the culprit. At around the same time, our laboratory, amongst a few others, proposed that dopamine-adducts with acetaldehyde to induce alcohol intake both in rodents and in humans. While the work in these areas has declined considerably over the years, more recent scientifically sound studies continue to show the importance of these earlier controversial ideas involving alcohol abuse and alcoholism. A review of the literature has provided impetus to systematically access the newer genetic and molecular neurobiological findings relevant to the physiological and psychological motives for high alcohol consumption in animals and humans alike. Thus, we hypothesize that darkness-induced alcohol intake is linked not only to serotonergic-melatonin mechanisms, but also to dopaminergic regulation of brain mesolimbic pathways involving neuronal expression switching in response to long photoperiods affecting gene expression. PMID:25009759

  3. D-Serine and D-Cycloserine Reduce Compulsive Alcohol Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    Seif, Taban; Simms, Jeffrey A; Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott; Bonci, Antonello; Messing, Robert O; Hopf, F Woodward

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable interest in NMDAR modulators to enhance memory and treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. D-serine and D-cycloserine, the NMDAR activators at the glycine site, are of particular interest because they have been used in humans without serious adverse effects. Interestingly, D-serine also inhibits some NMDARs active at hyperpolarized potentials (HA-NMDARs), and we previously found that HA-NMDARs within the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) are critical for promoting compulsion-like alcohol drinking, where rats consume alcohol despite pairing with an aversive stimulus such as quinine, a paradigm considered to model compulsive aspects of human alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Here, we examined the impact of D-serine and D-cycloserine on this aversion-resistant alcohol intake (that persists despite adulteration with quinine) and consumption of quinine-free alcohol. Systemic D-serine reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, without altering consumption of quinine-free alcohol or saccharin with or without quinine. Importantly, D-serine within the NAcore but not the dorsolateral striatum also selectively reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking. In addition, D-serine inhibited EPSCs evoked at -70 mV in vitro by optogenetic stimulation of mPFC-NAcore terminals in alcohol-drinking rats, similar to reported effects of the NMDAR blocker AP5. Further, D-serine preexposure occluded AP5 inhibition of mPFC-evoked EPSCs, suggesting that D-serine reduced EPSCs by inhibiting HA-NMDARs. Systemic D-cycloserine also selectively reduced intake of quinine-adulterated alcohol, and D-cycloserine inhibited NAcore HA-NMDARs in vitro. Our results indicate that HA-NMDAR modulators can reduce aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, and support testing of D-serine and D-cycloserine as immediately accessible, FDA-approved drugs to treat AUDs. PMID:25801502

  4. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. PMID:26210606

  5. Managing sales of beverages in schools to preserve profits and improve children's nutrition intake in 15 Mississippi schools.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denise M; Tammineni, Suresh K

    2009-12-01

    School environments that provide consistent and reliable nutrition information promote the development of healthful eating in children. High-energy, nutrient-poor beverages offered for sale to children during the school day compete with healthful choices. The primary objective of this prospective, quasiexperimental study was to encourage children to choose more healthful beverages during the school day without adversely affecting the profits realized from vending sales. Fifteen of 18 schools completed voluntary changes to beverage sales practices during the school day between August 2005 and May 2006. Twelve of 15 schools reported increased profits from the previous year (2004-2005) while offering more healthful beverage choices at discounted prices. Units of carbonated soft drinks sold declined when sports drinks, 100% fruit juice, and water were made available in their place. Passive marketing in the form of vending machine fronts, attractive pricing with a nominal 10% to 25% discount, and changing the types and proportions of beverages offered encouraged children to make more healthful choices. Local school administrators were receptive to making changes to beverage sales when local needs were incorporated into the study design. Profit information from this study informed state legislators and the Mississippi State Board of Education in the development and adoption of statewide snack and beverage vending guidelines. Registered dietitians serve as advocates to foster these collaborative efforts, inform key decision makers, and work in their local communities to develop and promote healthful practices in K-12 school settings. PMID:19942021

  6. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  7. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  8. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  9. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  10. A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase immobilized onto polyaniline film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples.

    PubMed

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  11. Flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for bulk carbon stable isotope analysis of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Jochmann, Maik A; Steinmann, Dirk; Stephan, Manuel; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2009-11-25

    A new method for bulk carbon isotope ratio determination of water-soluble samples is presented that is based on flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (FIA-IRMS) using an LC IsoLink interface. Advantages of the method are that (i) only very small amounts of sample are required (2-5 microL of the sample for up to 200 possible injections), (ii) it avoids complex sample preparation procedures such as needed for EA-IRMS analysis (only sample dilution and injection,) and (iii) high throughput due to short analysis times is possible (approximately 15 min for five replicates). The method was first tested and evaluated as a fast screening method with industrially produced ethanol samples, and additionally the applicability was tested by the measurement of 81 alcoholic beverages, for example, whiskey, brandy, vodka, tequila, and others. The minimal sample concentration required for precise and reproducible measurements was around 50 microL L(-1) ethanol/water (1.71 mM carbon). The limit of repeatability was determined to be r=0.49%. FIA-IRMS represents a fast screening method for beverage authenticity control. Due to this, samples can be prescreened as a decisive criterion for more detailed investigations by HPLC-IRMS or multielement GC-IRMS measurements for a verification of adulteration. PMID:19856915

  12. Simultaneous determination of selected biogenic amines in alcoholic beverage samples by isotachophoretic and chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Piasta, Anna; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A simple and useful method for the determination of biogenic amines in beverage samples based on isotachophoretic separation is described. The proposed procedure permitted simultaneous analysis of histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine. The data presented demonstrate the utility, simplicity, flexibility, sensitivity and environmentally friendly character of the proposed method. The precision of the method expressed as coefficient of variations varied from 0.1% to 5.9% for beverage samples, whereas recoveries varied from 91% to 101%. The results for the determination of biogenic amines were compared with an HPLC procedure based on a pre-column derivatisation reaction of biogenic amines with dansyl chloride. Furthermore, the derivatisation procedure was optimised by verification of concentration and pH of the buffer, the addition of organic solvents, reaction time and temperature. PMID:24350674

  13. Flavored Alcoholic Beverage Use, Risky Drinking Behaviors, and Adverse Outcomes Among Underage Drinkers: Results From the ABRAND Study

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Alison Burke; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between consumption of different types of flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) and risky drinking and drinking-related harms among underage drinkers. Methods. For the Alcohol Brand Research among Underage Youth study, we applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to data from underage drinkers (n = 1031, aged 13–20 years), recruited from a national Internet panel in 2011 to 2012, to estimate associations between consumption of malt-based drinks; spirits-based, premixed- or ready-to-drink cocktails; and supersized alcopops, alone or in combination, and alcohol-related outcomes. Results. After adjustment for confounding variables, the exclusive consumption of alcopops was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 15.31; P < .05) and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 6.25; 95% CI = 1.34, 29.10; P < .05). Exclusive consumption of cocktails was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.26, 5.41; P < .05) and injuries requiring medical attention (OR = 6.50; 95% CI = 2.09, 20.17; P < .001. Exclusive consumption of 2 or more FABs was associated with episodic heavy drinking (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.25, 6.16; P < .05), fighting (OR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.46, 7.47; P < .001), and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 2.83; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.58; P < .001). Conclusions. FABs present an emerging public health problem among youths. PMID:25713955

  14. Identification of the environmental neurotoxins annonaceous acetogenins in an Annona cherimolia Mill. Alcoholic Beverage Using HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap.

    PubMed

    Le Ven, Jessica; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Lewin, Guy; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2014-08-27

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have suggested Annonaceaeous acetogenins to be environmental neurotoxins responsible for sporadic atypical parkinsonism/dementia in tropical areas. These compounds are present in the tropical genus Annona (Annonaceae), known for its fruit-yielding cultivated species such as Annona cherimolia. This species is widely cultivated in South America, Spain, and Portugal and yields acetogenins in its seeds, stems, and roots. The presence of these compounds in the pulp of its fruit and in derived food products is unclear. An innovative and sensitive methodology by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap with postcolumn infusion of lithium iodide was used to identify the presence of low levels of acetogenins in an A. cherimolia Mill. fruit-based commercial alcoholic beverage. More than 80 representatives were detected, and the 31 most intense acetogenins were identified. All together these findings indicate that this species should be considered as a risk factor within the framework of a worldwide problem of food toxicity. PMID:25088119

  15. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A.

    2009-08-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  16. Brucine suppresses ethanol intake and preference in alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-ling; Liu, Qing; Gong, Qi; Li, Jun-xu; Wei, Shou-peng; Wang, Yan-ting; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Jing, Li; Yong, Zheng; Lawrence, Andrew J; Liang, Jian-hui

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Brucine (BRU) extracted from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L is glycine receptor antagonist. We hypothesize that BRU may modify alcohol consumption by acting at glycine receptors, and evaluated the pharmacodynamic profiles and adverse effects of BRU in rat models of alcohol abuse. Methods: Alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rats were administered BRU (10, 20 or 30 mg/kg, sc). The effects of BRU on alcohol consumption were examined in ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigm and 5-d ethanol deprivation test. In addition, open field test was used to assess the general locomotor activity of FH/Wjd rats, and conditioned place preference (CPP) was conducted to assess conditioned reinforcing effect. Results: In ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, treatment with BRU for 10 consecutive days dose-dependently decreased the ethanol intake associated with a compensatory increase of water intake, but unchanged the daily total fluid intake and body weight. In ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigms, BRU (30 mg/kg) administered before each testing session significantly decreased the number of lever presses for ethanol and the ethanol intake, without affecting the number of sucrose (10%) responses, total sucrose intake, and the number of lever presses for water. Acute treatment with BRU (30 mg/kg) completely suppressed the deprivation-induced elevation of ethanol consumption. Treatment with BRU (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) did not alter locomotion of FH/Wjd rats, nor did it produce place preference or aversion. Conclusion: BRU selectively decreases ethanol consumption with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, BRU may represent a new pharmacotherapy for alcoholism. PMID:24909512

  17. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood. PMID:26037264

  18. In vitro and in vivo probiotic assessment of Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 isolated from pulque, a Mexican traditional alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Giles-Gómez, Martha; Sandoval García, Jorge Giovanni; Matus, Violeta; Campos Quintana, Itzia; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a Mexican traditional alcoholic, non-distilled, fermented beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap, known as aguamiel, extracted from several maguey (Agave) species. Pulque has traditionally been considered a healthy beverage due to its nutrient content and also a traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal infections. During pulque fermentation, the development of acidity, alcohol and viscosity define its final sensorial properties, developing an enriched environment where dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including diverse Leuconostoc species, are present. Because traditional pulque is consumed directly from the fermentation vessel, the naturally associated LAB are ingested and reach the human small intestine alive. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo probiotic assessment of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain P45 isolated from pulque. This isolated LAB species exhibited lysozyme, acid (pH 3.5) and bile salts (0.1 and 0.3 % oxgall) resistance. Antibacterial activity against the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were observed in assays involving cell-to-cell contact, cell-free 2× concentrated supernatants and cell-to-cell contact under exopolysaccharide-producing conditions. The in vivo probiotic assessment showed an anti-infective activity of L. mesenteroides P45 against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in challenged male and female BALB/c mice. Analysis of the available genome sequence of strain P45 allowed identified a pre-bacteriocin coding gene and six peptidoglycan hydrolase enzymes, probably involved in the antimicrobial activity of this strain. The results presented in this study support some potential microbial mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects on human health of this LAB involved in the fermentation of pulque. PMID:27375977

  19. Alcohol and metal determination in alcoholic beverages through high-temperature liquid-chromatography coupled to an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Terol, Amanda; Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador E; Prats, Soledad; Todolí, José L

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system was used as a high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) detector for the determination of alcohols and metals in beverages. For the sake of comparison, a refractive index (RI) detector was also employed for the first time to detect alcohols with HTLC. The organic compounds studied were methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol (in the 10-125 mg/L concentration range) and the elements tested were magnesium, aluminum, copper, manganese and barium at concentrations included between roughly 0.01 and 80 mg/L. Column heating temperatures ranged from 80 to 175 °C and the optimum ones in terms of peak resolution, sensitivity and column lifetime were 125 and 100 °C for the HTLC-RI and HTLC-ICP-AES couplings, respectively. The HTLC-ICP-AES interface design (i.e., spray chamber design and nebulizer type used) was studied and it was found that a single pass spray chamber provided about 2 times higher sensitivities than a cyclonic conventional design. Comparatively speaking, limits of detection for alcohols were of the same order for the two evaluated detection systems (from 5 to 25 mg/L). In contrast, unlike RI, ICP-AES provided information about the content of both organic and inorganic species. Furthermore, temperature programming was applied to shorten the analysis time and it was verified that ICP-AES was less sensitive to temperature changes and modifications in the analyte chemical nature than the RI detector. Both detectors were successfully applied to the determination of short chain alcohols in several beverages such as muscatel, pacharan, punch, vermouth and two different brands of whiskeys (from 10 to 40 g of ethanol/100 g of sample). The results of the inorganic elements studied by HTLC-ICP-AES were compared with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) obtaining good agreement between them. Recoveries found for spiked samples

  20. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in ventral striatum

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin JM; Lorenz, Robert C.; Buchert, Ralph; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Plotkin, Michail; Kumakara, Yoshitaka; Cumming, Paul; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Grace, Anthony A.; Rapp, Michael A.; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug related reward. Indeed, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas of patients with alcohol dependence is shifted from non-drug related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked‘ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug related rewards and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used fMRI to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N=27). The same subjects also underwent FDOPA PET to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation by RPEs, nor striatal dopamine synthesis capacity differed between patients and controls. However, the ventral striatal coding of RPEs was negatively correlated with craving in patients. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between ventral striatal coding of RPEs and dopamine synthesis capacity in healthy controls, but not in alcohol-dependent patients. Moderator analyses showed that the magnitude of the association between RPE coding and dopamine synthesis capacity depended on the amount of chronic-habitual alcohol intake. Using a multimodal imaging approach, this study suggests that dopaminergic modulation of neural learning signals is disrupted in alcohol dependence and this is linked to long-term alcohol intake of patients. Drug intake may thus perpetuate itself by interfering with dopaminergic modulation of neural learning signals in the ventral striatum, thus increasing craving for habitual drug intake. PMID:25546072

  1. Consumption of orange fermented beverage reduces cardiovascular risk factors in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Berná, Genoveva; Ortega, Ángeles; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Cerrillo, Isabel; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of fruits prevents the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Alcoholic fermentation has been carried out in fruits resulting in products which provide high concentration of bioactive compounds and variable alcohol content. The aim of this study was to assess the potential beneficial effect of an orange beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation and pasteurization of orange juice on cardiovascular risk biomarkers. For this purpose, four mice groups (n = 8) ingested orange beverage (equivalent volume to 250 mL/day in human), orange juice, alcoholic solution (at the proportional amount of orange beverage) or water during 12 weeks. The equivalent amount to double serving of orange beverage (500 mL/day) was administered to mice in a subsequent intervention, and a control group was also evaluated. Orange beverage consumption increased levels of glutathione and uric acid, improved lipid profile, decreased oxidized LDL and maintained levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Synergistic effects between the bioactive compounds and the alcohol content of orange beverage may occur. The intake of double serving also increased antioxidant enzyme activities, bilirubin content and plasma antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that orange beverage may produce greater protection against cardiovascular risk factors than orange juice in healthy mice. PMID:25666657

  2. Low level alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer in Asian-American women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H; Falk, Roni T; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N; West, Dee W; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Pike, Malcolm C; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G

    2010-02-01

    Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach US incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the breast cancer incidence rates observed among Asian migrants to the United States. Study subjects in this population-based case-control study included 597 incident cases of breast cancer of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino ethnicity living in San Francisco-Oakland, Los Angeles, and Oahu, Hawaii, and 966 population controls frequency matched on age, ethnicity, and area of residence. The fraction of smokers and drinkers was significantly higher in women born in Western compared with Eastern countries. However, breast cancer risk was not significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.9-1.6) or alcohol drinking (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.1) in this population of low consumers of alcohol (median intake among drinkers in grams per day was 0.48 for cases and 0.40 for controls). These data suggest that low alcohol intake is not related to increased breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and that neither alcohol nor cigarette use contributed to the elevated risks in Asian-American women associated with migration patterns and Westernization. PMID:19597702

  3. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Anita J.; Fink, Birgit A.; Eckerle, Judith K.; Boys, Christopher J.; Hoecker, Heather L.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, doubleblind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5 – 4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food were averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2 – 5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007–2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. PMID:23871794

  4. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. PMID:23871794

  5. Beverage Habits and Mortality in Chinese Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited research examining beverage habits, one of the most habitual dietary behaviors, with mortality risk. Objective: This study examined the association between coffee, black and green tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks and juice), and alcohol and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods: A prospective data analysis was conducted with the use of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, including 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 y) free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993–1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. Beverages were examined with all-cause and cause-specific (cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease) mortality risk with the use of Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The associations between coffee, black tea, and alcohol intake and all-cause mortality were modified by smoking status. Among never-smokers there was an inverse dose-response association between higher amounts of coffee and black tea intake and all-cause, respiratory-related, and CVD mortality (black tea only). The fully adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for coffee for <1/d, 1/d, and ≥2/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.89, 0.86, and 0.83, respectively (P-trend = 0.0003). For the same black tea categories the HRs were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.72, respectively (P-trend = 0.0005). Among ever-smokers there was no association between coffee or black tea and the outcomes. Relative to no alcohol, light to moderate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) in never-smokers with a similar magnitude of association in ever-smokers. There was no association between heavy alcohol intake and all-cause mortality in never-smokers and a strong positive association in ever-smokers (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 1.74). Green tea and sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality. Conclusions: Higher coffee and black tea intake was

  6. Relationship between alcohol intake, body fat, and physical activity – a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.; Qi, Rong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Aside from fat, ethanol is the macronutrient with the highest energy density. Whether the energy derived from ethanol affects the body composition and fat mass is debatable. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake, body composition, and physical activity in the US population using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods Ten thousand five hundred and fifty subjects met eligible criteria and constituted our study cohort. Estimated percent body fat and resting metabolic rate were calculated based on the sum of the skinfolds. Multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight. Results In both genders, moderate and hazardous alcohol drinkers were younger (p<0.05), had significantly lower BMI (P<0.01) and body weight (p<0.01) than controls, non drinkers. Those with hazardous alcohol consumption had significantly less physical activity compared to those with no alcohol use and moderate drinkers in both genders. Female had significantly higher percent body fat than males. In the multivariate linear regression analyses, the levels of alcohol consumption were found to be an independent predictor associated with lower percent body fat only in male subjects. Conclusions Our results showed that alcoholics are habitually less active and that alcohol drinking is an independent predictor of lower percent body fat especially in male alcoholics. PMID:20696406

  7. An Indian herbal formula (SKV) for controlling voluntary ethanol intake in rats with chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, E R; Shanmugasundaram, K R

    1986-08-01

    Chronic ethanol ingestion in rats showed metabolic and physiological changes similar to alterations reported in human alcoholics. There was a lowering of blood glucose concentration, urea and plasma proteins and elevated concentrations of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Administration of SKV, an Ayurvedic formula produced by fermentation of cane sugar with raisins and 12 herbal ingredients brought down voluntary ethanol ingestion in the rats and increased food intake. ECG and EEG studies in alcoholic rats showed cardiac depression, augmentation of frequency and amplitude of the alpha, delta and theta waves and weakness in the beta waves. These changes were reversed during SKV-induced voluntary alcohol restriction. The involvement in the ECG and EEG wave patterns was associated with improvement in blood glucose, plasma protein levels and reduction in gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities. SKV appeared to have no adverse reaction with ethanol (it contains 1-2% ethanol) and appears to be a promising way to combat alcoholism. PMID:3796018

  8. Caffeine Intake from Food and Beverage Sources and Trends among Children and Adolescents in the United States: Review of National Quantitative Studies from 1999 to 201112345

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Herrick, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern about potential adverse effects of caffeine in children. Our understanding of caffeine intake relies on studies dating to the late 1990s. This article synthesizes information from national studies since then to describe caffeine consumption, its association with sociodemographic factors, key dietary sources including caffeine-containing energy drinks (CCEDs), and trends in caffeine intake and sources among US children. Findings from the Kanter Worldpanel (KWP) Beverage Consumption Panel and the NHANES showed that caffeine consumption prevalence was generally consistent across studies and over time; more than one-half of 2- to 5-y-olds and ∼75% of older children (>5 y) consumed caffeine. The usual intakes of caffeine were 25 and 50 mg/d for children and adolescents aged 2–11 and 12–17 y, respectively (NHANES 2007–2010). Caffeine consumption correlated with age and was higher in non-Hispanic white children. The key sources of caffeine were soda and tea as well as flavored dairy (for children aged <12 y) and coffee (for those aged ≥12 y). The frequency of CCED use varied (2–30%) depending on study setting, methods, and demographic characteristics. A statistically significant but small decline in caffeine intake was noted in children overall during the 10- to 12-y period examined; intakes remained stable among older children (≥12 y). A significant increasing trend in CCED and coffee consumption and a decline in soda intake were noted (1999–2010). In 2009–2010, 10% of 12- to 19-y-olds and 10–25% of caffeine consumers (aged 12–19 y) had intakes exceeding Canadian maximal guidelines. Continued monitoring can help better understand changes in caffeine consumption patterns of youth. PMID:25593149

  9. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance. PMID:25994135

  10. Psychophysiological Responses to Stress Following Alcohol Intake in Social Drinkers Who Are at Risk of Hazardous Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa; Kumar, Santosh; Wittmers, Lorentz; Scott, Marcia S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether social drinkers whose drinking behavior poses a risk for harmful consequences exhibit altered psychobiological responses to stress following moderate alcohol intake. At risk (n = 17) and low risk drinkers (n = 27), as identified by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, completed two laboratory stress sessions, one in which they consumed a drink with alcohol and one without alcohol. Subjective and physiological measures were obtained throughout the study. Reported stimulation following alcohol consumption and sedation post-stress on alcohol day were greater than the no alcohol day in at risk drinkers (ps < .05). Low risk drinkers exhibited stress dampening effects on cortisol levels (p < .05). This was not the case among the high risk drinkers. These results indicate that acute alcohol intake may be associated with enhanced subjective and altered hormonal responses to stress in individuals who are at risk for becoming problem drinkers. PMID:23313460

  11. Effects of Voluntary Alcohol Intake on Risk Preference and Behavioral Flexibility during Rat Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Matthew S.; Amodeo, Leslie R.; Roitman, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30–50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses. PMID:25007338

  12. Patterns and trends of beverage consumption among children and adults in Great Britain, 1986-2009.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jebb, Susan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-08-01

    Many dietary recommendations include reduction of excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and other energy-rich beverages such as juices and alcohol. The present study examines surveys of both individual dietary intake data and household food expenditure surveys to provide a picture of patterns and trends in beverage intake and purchases in Great Britain from 1986 to 2009, and estimates the potential for pricing policy to promote more healthful beverage purchase patterns. In 2008-9, beverages accounted for 21, 14 and 18 % of daily energy intake for children aged 1·5-18 and 4-18 years, and adults (19-64 years), respectively. Since the 1990s, the most important shifts have been a reduction in consumption of high-fat dairy products and an increased consumption of fruit juices and reduced-fat milk among preschoolers, children and adolescents. Among adults, consumption of high-fat milk beverages, sweetened tea and coffee and other energy-containing drinks fell, but reduced-fat milk, alcohol (particularly beer) and fruit juice rose. In testing taxation as an option for shifting beverage purchase patterns, we calculate that a 10 % increase in the price of SSB could potentially result in a decrease of 7·5 ml/capita per d. A similar 10 % tax on high-fat milk is associated with a reduction of high-fat milk purchases by 5 ml/capita per d and increased reduced-fat milk purchase by 7 ml/capita per d. This analysis implies that taxation or other methods of shifting relative costs of these beverages could be a way to improve beverage choices in Great Britain. PMID:22186747

  13. The Relation between the Number of Hours That Authorize the Sale of Alcoholic Beverages and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, Hernán; Gonzalez, Marco; Huaco, Carlos; Sotelo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background: La Victoria was considered, the most violent area in Lima City, the local government enforced a public policy regarding number of hours for selling of alcoholic beverages in January 2007. The study was designed to compare its results in Violence between one district with the law and other without the law. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional was an ecological study with a chronological and geographical comparison between La Victoria, with the restriction and Cercado de Lima without the ban. The participants in the study were patients from a local National Hospital, with aggressions from fighting, or were wounded in traffic accidents, and violent death bodies at National Institute of Legal Medicine. Data were analyzed, using clinical histories (2006 vs. 2007-8) and necropsies (2005-6 vs. 2007-8) Results: The reduction of aggression rates at La Victoria in 2007 and 2008 in comparison to 2006, were 40.7% and 36.4% respectively (P< 0.05). It was related to the number of hours of liquor authorized selling Y= -11.25+27.32 X (P<0.05). There was a reduction of 44% in homicide (P<0.05) and 35% in suicide rates between biennia’s. The female/ male ratio of homicides changed from 1/7.3 to 1/4.6. A significant increase in the rate of alcohol positive dead bodies was observed (20.3% to 41.5%), (Relative Risk (RR) = 2.03, (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = (1.09-3.8), χ2(1)=5.24, ( P< 0.05). Conclusions: The reduction of violence was probably due to the ban, indicating the importance of programs to control alcohol consumption which lead to decrease the rate of violence and its’ consequences like homicides, impulsive violence. PMID:24688919

  14. Alcoholic fatty liver in rats: Role of fat and ethanol intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W. ); Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. )

    1991-03-11

    The claim that high intake of both ethanol and fat is essential to induce fatty liver and high blood alcohol levels (BAL) was tested. Two groups of rats were fed liquid diets containing 26% and 36% of calories as ethanol respectively. After 4 weeks, all rats were bled for BAL and some were sacrificed to obtain liver morphology. Remaining rats in Group 1 (26% ethanol) were switched to 36% ethanol diet and Group 2 (36% ethanol) to 26% ethanol diet. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks to obtain blood for BAL and liver morphology. The results indicate that high ethanol intake and high fat ingestion is not the criterion for induction of fatty liver. Inadequate ingestion of macronutrients plays a major role in alcoholic fatty liver and BAL.

  15. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks. PMID:25471292

  16. Alcohol intake and risk of colorectal cancer: Results from the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Park, J Y; Dahm, C C; Keogh, R H; Mitrou, P N; Cairns, B J; Greenwood, D C; Spencer, E A; Fentiman, I S; Shipley, M J; Brunner, E J; Cade, J E; Burley, V J; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D; Stephen, A M; White, I R; Luben, R N; Mulligan, A A; Khaw, K-T; Rodwell, S A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have suggested that excessive alcohol intake increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, findings regarding tumour subsites and sex differences have been inconsistent. Methods: We investigated the prospective associations between alcohol intake on overall and site- and sex-specific CRC risk. Analyses were conducted on 579 CRC cases and 1996 matched controls nested within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium using standardised data obtained from food diaries as a main nutritional method and repeated using data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Results: Compared with individuals in the lightest category of drinkers (>0–<5 g per day), the multivariable odds ratios of CRC were 1.16 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.88, 1.53) for non-drinkers, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.24) for drinkers with 5–<15 g per day, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.25) for drinkers with 15–<30 g per day, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.58) for drinkers with 30–<45 g per day and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.91) for drinkers with ⩾45 g per day. No clear associations were observed between site-specific CRC risk and alcohol intake in either sex. Analyses using FFQ showed similar results. Conclusion: We found no significantly increased risk of CRC up to 30 g per day of alcohol intake within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium. PMID:20648013

  17. Assessment of Body Mass Index, Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake and Time Spent in Physical Activity of American Indian Children in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Michelle E; Sisson, Susan B; Lora, Karina; Stephens, Lancer D; Copeland, Kenneth C; Caudillo, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    American Indian (AI) children have a combined overweight and obesity prevalence of 53%. Behaviors that contribute to obesity, such as sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and time spent in physical activity (PA), have been poorly explored in this population. The purpose of this study is to report body mass index (BMI), SSB intake, and time spent in PA of 7-to-13-year-old AI children who reside in rural and urban areas in Oklahoma. Cross-sectional survey study. Self-reported SSB intake in the last month, and time spent in PA were collected via questionnaires. Height and weight were professionally measured. The sample included 124 7-to-13-year-old AI children who attended a diabetes prevention summer camp in 2013. BMI percentile, overweight and obesity prevalence, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and number of participants meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Descriptive characteristics for BMI percentile, overweight and obesity, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and meeting PA recommendations were calculated using means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Independent t test and Chi square analyses were used to test for gender differences. Participants were 10.2 ± 1.5 years old and 57% female. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese. Children consumed 309 ± 309 kcal/day of SSB and spent 4.4 ± 3.8 h per week in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Approximately 32% met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. No gender differences were observed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher than previously reported in a similar population, and higher than that of US children in the general population. SSB intake and physical activity levels were also found to be higher in this group than in the general population. PMID:25750107

  18. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: Differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R.; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  19. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2014-11-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  20. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S.; Jacques, Paul F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ~30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Methods Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to <1 serving/week, 1 serving/week to <1 serving/-day, and ⩾1 serving/day) of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. Results After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend = 0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend = 0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. Conclusion In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. PMID:26055949

  1. Precipitants of adolescent suicide: possible interaction between allergic inflammation and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gloria M; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Anthony, Bruno J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of mortality among adolescents. There is a pressing public health need to investigate triggers and novel vulnerabilities for suicide in order to improve risk assessment and develop innovative prevention strategies. Alcohol is a well established risk factor for adolescent suicide. In this paper, we outline a novel mechanism linking allergy, alcohol, and suicide, reviewing (a) the association between allergic inflammation, depression, and suicide; and (b) the role of alcohol in inducing phosphorylation and rearrangement of tight junction proteins of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) resulting in increased "leakiness", i.e. passage of cells and molecules. Seasonal peaks of suicide in spring have been consistently reported, but their causality is poorly understood. A preliminary epidemiologic study found increased nonviolent suicide rates in females in spring during intervals of high tree pollen, in comparison to similar intervals of low tree pollen. This initial report added to the emerging literature proposing a relationship between allergy and depression, and is being further pursued at clinical, epidemiological, animal and postmortem tissue levels. We propose that allergic inflammation influences depression-related brain function via molecular and cellular mediators, but those mediators have a very limited access to the brain when the BBB is intact. Alcohol intake disrupts BBB, allowing increased brain exposure to cellular mediators of allergy. Considering the greater prevalence of allergy in adolescence when alcohol use starts, studies investigating the connection between allergy, alcohol, and suicide should be expanded to also include a focus on youth. PMID:17458322

  2. Does the flushing response modify the relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension in the Japanese population? NIPPON DATA2010.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Mana; Tsuchiya, Naho; Hozawa, Atsushi; Nakaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Tanaka, Hideo; Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Higashiyama, Aya; Okuda, Nagako; Takashima, Naoyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2016-09-01

    The influence of alcohol intake on hypertension may vary depending on the flushing response, but this relationship has not been confirmed. The relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension was examined according to the flushing response in a representative sample of the Japanese population. Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2010 were asked to participate in the baseline survey of NIPPON DATA2010. Here, we investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension according to the flushing response. Statistical analyses were performed in a cross-sectional manner using multiple logistic regression models after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, present illness of diabetes mellitus and present illness of dyslipidemia. Of the 1139 men and 1263 women, 659 and 463, respectively, had hypertension. Among the men, alcohol intake was positively associated with hypertension, regardless of the flushing response (P for linear trend both <0.05). This positive relationship was observed for both users and non-users of antihypertensive drugs. No interaction with the flushing response was observed (P for interaction=0.360). In women, although the direction differed between flushers and non-flushers, the association between alcohol intake and hypertension was not significant, regardless of flushing response. In conclusion, In Japanese men, alcohol intake was positively associated with hypertension in a manner that was not influenced by the flushing response. PMID:27169399

  3. Risk of pneumonia in central nervous system injury with alcohol intake: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunming; Shen, Liang; Li, Xuetao; Liu, Chuanjin; Zhou, Youxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Central nervous system (CNS) injury can increased the risk of secondary mortality because of its late inflammatory complications. Alcohol intake increases the risk of damage and complications subsequent to a (CNS) injury. How about the risk of pneumonia after CNS injury under the effect of alcoholic drink? Though animal trails of material prosperity and studies for human have been investigated in recent decades, the outcome maintains poor understanding. Pneumonia is one of the serious complication at the time of hospitalization and it should be known as more as possible for steadying patient conditions in intensive care unit and shortening length of stay. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of published materials to assess the association between alcohol intake and pneumonia in CNS injury. Methods: Two authors searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and web of science up to September, 2014 for published literatures without any limitations. Reference lists from identified studies were also screened carefully by us for additional data. The summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by statistical analysis software (Stata 12.0) with fixed-effects models to estimate the risk. Result: The results indicated that a higher incidence of pneumonia was found in CNS injury under the influence of alcohol (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.21-1.43), and the risk has no relation to blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (BAC ≥ 80 mg/dl vs < 80 mg/dl, BAC ≥ 100 mg/dl vs < 100 mg/dl). Conclusion: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury patients who are under the influence of alcoholic drink have a higher risk of pneumonia. PMID:26629070

  4. [Evaluation of results of a program of Responsible Alcoholic Beverage Dispensing].

    PubMed

    Terradillos, J; López-Goñi, J J; Olleta, A Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    Selective prevention programs in the Responsible Dispensing of Beverages (DRA - Dispensación Responsable de Bebidas Alcohólicas) have provided varying evidence of their effectiveness in other countries. In Spain, however, data is only available for the implementation of DRA in Barcelona. This article has two aims: to assess the effectiveness of an intervention in DRA with waiters in Pamplona, and to evaluate individual and group results in order to identify areas for improvement. The sample consisted of 40 hostelry professionals who participated in one of the 4 courses of DRA. Questionnaires were used to measure pre-/post-knowledge, attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and expectations about the training. We present descriptive analyses of all the variables and individual and overall results of the evolution of each participant. The DRA program provides overall data of significant improvements in knowledge, attitudes and expectations. The results show the need to consider the analysis of the evolution of individual subjects in each item. PMID:22233842

  5. Determination of geographical origin of alcoholic beverages using ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uríčková, Veronika; Sádecká, Jana

    2015-09-01

    The identification of the geographical origin of beverages is one of the most important issues in food chemistry. Spectroscopic methods provide a relative rapid and low cost alternative to traditional chemical composition or sensory analyses. This paper reviews the current state of development of ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopic techniques combined with pattern recognition methods for determining geographical origin of both wines and distilled drinks. UV, Vis, and NIR spectra contain broad band(s) with weak spectral features limiting their discrimination ability. Despite this expected shortcoming, each of the three spectroscopic ranges (NIR, Vis/NIR and UV/Vis/NIR) provides average correct classification higher than 82%. Although average correct classification is similar for NIR and MIR regions, in some instances MIR data processing improves prediction. Advantage of using MIR is that MIR peaks are better defined and more easily assigned than NIR bands. In general, success in a classification depends on both spectral range and pattern recognition methods. The main problem still remains the construction of databanks needed for all of these methods.

  6. Influence of high intensity sweeteners and sugar alcohols on a beverage microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Julien; Wolfrum, Stefan; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner

    2015-12-15

    The present paper shows the effects of added sugars and sweeteners on the clearing temperature of a highly water dilutable fatty acid salt microemulsion used as a model of a beverage concentrate. There is a twofold interest in this work. The first one is practical and relates to the fact that many fatty acid salt surfactants can be used in food without major regulatory restrictions. As is shown here, they allow making highly stable microemulsions even at neutral and acidic pH. The second one is more of scientific interest. The model system can be used to study the effect of sugars and sweeteners on the formulation stability depending on their charges, amphiphilic properties, and localization in the microemulsion interfacial film. An important practical result is the discovery of the possibility to formulate highly dilutable microemulsions at neutral or slightly acid pH with a good taste in presence of sucralose. Further, a significant decrease of the pKA of the fatty acid is observed in presence of stevia, thus allowing transparent, fairly stable systems at neutral pH. PMID:26319326

  7. Consumption of alcoholic beverages, driving vehicles, a balance of dry law, Brazil 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Berna, Regina Tomie Ivata; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Silva Júnior, Jarbas Barbosa da; Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro dos

    2014-08-01

    The study analyzes the trend in frequency of adults who drive under the influence of alcohol in major Brazilian cities after the passing of laws, which prohibit drunk driving. Data from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. The frequency of adults who drove after abusive alcohol consumption was reduced by 45.0% during this period (2.0% in 2007 to 1.1% in 2013). Between 2007 and 2008 (-0.5%) and between 2012 and 2013 (-0.5%), significant reductions were observed in the years immediately after the publication of these laws that prohibit drunk driving. These improvements towards the control of drunk driving show a change in the Brazilian population's lifestyle. PMID:25210828

  8. Microbiological Analyses of Traditional Alcoholic Beverage (Chhang) and its Starter (Balma) Prepared by Bhotiya Tribe of Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Kailash N; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2016-03-01

    Present article depicts microbiology of starter (Balma) used in traditional solid-state fermentation of alcoholic beverage (Chhang) by Bhotiya tribe of Uttarakhand. It also highlights the importance of herbs in Balma preparation and kinetics of lactic acid and ethanol fermentation under Chhang preparation using Balma. Balma contains 214 × 10(6) cfu/g yeasts, 2.54 × 10(6) cfu/g lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 1.4 × 10(6) cfu/g other mesophilic bacteria. ITS sequence analysis revealed a rich diversity of yeast comprising of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Saccharomycopsis malanga in Balma. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus among LAB, while amylolytic Bacillus subtilis and B. aerophilus among other bacteria in Balma. Based on the results, it is speculated that herbs such as Inula cuspidata, Micromeria biflora, Origanum vulgare, Rubus sp. and Thymus linearis used earlier by Bhotiya in Balma preparation contribute as a source of yeasts, LAB and amylolytic bacilli. Study also demonstrates that Bhotiya tribe is rational in preparation of starter as they have circumvented the need of plants by using previous year Balma as inoculum and possibility of deficient quality of Balma due to weak colonization of phyllosphere and rhizosphere microbiota. Results suggest that simultaneous saccharification and lactic acid-ethanol fermentation take place in traditional cereal based Chhang fermentation system of Bhotiya. PMID:26843694

  9. Bitter Receptor Gene (TAS2R38), 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Bitterness and Alcohol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Valerie B.; Davidson, Andrew C.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Speed, William C.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Reed, Danielle R.; Snyder, Derek J.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), chemically related compounds, are probes for genetic variation in bitter taste, although PROP is safer with less sulfurous odor. Threshold for PROP distinguishes nontasters (increased threshold) from tasters (lower threshold); perceived intensity subdivides tasters into medium tasters (PROP is bitter) and supertasters (PROP is very bitter). Compared with supertasters, nontasters have fewer taste papillae on the anterior tongue (fungiform papillae) and experience less negative (e.g., bitterness) and more positive (eg, sweetness) sensations from alcohol. We determined whether the TAS2R38 gene at 7q36 predicted PROP bitterness, alcohol sensation and use. Methods Healthy adults (53 women, 31 men; mean age 36 years)—primarily light and moderate drinkers—reported the bitterness of five PROP concentrations (0.032–3.2 mM) and intensity of 50% ethanol on the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. PROP threshold and density of fungiform papillae were also measured. Subjects had common TAS2R38 gene haplotypes [alanine-valine-isoleucine (AVI) and proline-alanine-valine (PAV)]. Results PROP bitterness varied significantly across genotypes with repeated measures ANOVA: 26 AVI/AVI homozygotes tasted less bitterness than either 37 PAV/AVI heterozygotes or 21 PAV/PAV homozygotes. The PAV/PAV group exceeded the PAV/AVI group for bitterness only for the top PROP concentrations. The elevated bitterness was musch less than if we defined the groups using psychophysical criteria. With multiple regression analyses, greater bitterness from 3.2 mM PROP was a significant predictor of greater ethanol intensity and less alcohol intake—effects separate from age and sex. Genotype was a significant predictor of alcohol intake, but not ethanol intensity. With ANOVA, AVI/AVI homozygotes reported higher alcohol use than either PAV/AVI heterozygotes or PAV/PAV homozygotes. When age effects were minimized, PROP bitterness

  10. Flavonoid intake from food and beverages: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008, Tables 1-4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has released 4 flavonoid intake data tables that make available, for the first time, nationally representative estimates of the intake of 29 individual flavonoids in six classes (as well as the sum of those flavonoids)...

  11. Anesthetic effects changeable in habitual drinkers: Mechanistic drug interactions with neuro-active indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products associated with alcoholic beverage consumption.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hironori

    2016-07-01

    Clinicians often experience the reduced efficacy of general and local anesthetics and anesthesia-related drugs in habitual drinkers and chronic alcoholics. However, the mechanistic background underlying such anesthetic tolerance remains unclear. Biogenic indoleamines condense with alcohol-derived aldehydes during fermentation processes and under physiological conditions to produce neuro-active tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines, many of which are contained not only in various alcoholic beverages but also in human tissues and body fluids. These indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products are increased in the human body because of their exogenous and endogenous supply enhanced by alcoholic beverage consumption. Since tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines target receptors, ion channels and neuronal membranes which are common to anesthetic agents, we propose a hypothesis that they may pharmacodynamically interact at GABAA receptors, NMDA receptors, voltage-gated Na(+) channels and membrane lipid bilayers to attenuate anesthetics-induced positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulation, NMDA receptor antagonism, ion channel blockade and neuronal membrane modification, thereby affecting anesthetic efficacy. The condensation products may also cooperatively interact with ethanol that induces adaptive changes and cross-tolerance to anesthetics and with dopamine-aldehyde adducts that act on GABAA receptors and membrane lipids. Because tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines are metabolized to lose or decrease their neuro-activities, induction of the relevant enzymes by habitual drinking could produce an inter-individual difference of drinkers in susceptibility to anesthetic agents. The present hypothesis would also provide a unified framework for different modes of anesthetic action, which are inhibited by neuro-active indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products associated with alcoholic beverage consumption. PMID:27241259

  12. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary.

    PubMed

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use. PMID:27626443

  13. Microbiological and physicochemical characterisation of caxiri, an alcoholic beverage produced by the indigenous Juruna people of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Claudia Cristina Auler do Amaral; Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga de; Melo, Gilberto Vinícius Pereira de; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-05-15

    Caxiri is a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage produced from cassava and sweet potatoes by the indigenous Juruna or Yudjá people in Brazil. Our results showed that caxiri fermentation is invariably associated with the following: (i) an increase in the total microbial population, with yeast being the largest group detected; (ii) a decrease in reducing sugars, malic, tartaric, succinic, oxalic and propionic acid; and (iii) a final product characterised by a high content of ethanol and a high concentration of lactic acid. The microbial community dynamics were investigated by culture-based and culture-independent approaches. Fermentation was assisted by a complex microbial community that changed in structure and composition during the fermentative process. The bacterial population ranged from 3.05 to 5.33 log/mL, and the yeast population varied from 3.27 log CFU/mL to 7.34 log CFU/mL, showing that yeasts dominated the fermentation process after 48 h. A total of 343 colonies of bacteria and 205 colonies of yeasts were isolated and initially grouped by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and by biochemical features. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of representative isolates showed that the bacteria were mainly represented by endospore-forming low-G+C content Gram-positive bacilli (Bacillus spp.; 61.5% of the isolates), with Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus spp. (Bacillus cereus group), and Bacillus subtilis being the main species identified. The species Sphingomonas sp. and Pediococcus acidilactici were also found. The dominant yeast identified was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia membranifaciens, Pichia guilliermondii and Cryptococcus luteolus were also found. According to the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, the microbial communities present during fermentation were probably from the raw materials, ambient or present on the utensils used during

  14. Association Between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Proxies of Acculturation Among U.S. Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and acculturation among a sample representing civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Design Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Setting National. Subjects The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 17,142 Hispanics and U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites (≥18 years). Measures The outcome variable was daily SSB intake (nondiet soda, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and sweetened coffee/tea drinks). Exposure variables were Hispanic ethnicity and proxies of acculturation (language of interview, birthplace, and years living in the United States). Analysis We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the exposure variables associated with drinking SSB ≥ 1 time/d after controlling for covariates. Results The adjusted odds of drinking SSB ≥ 1 time/d was significantly higher among Hispanics who completed the interview in Spanish (OR = 1.65) than U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Compared with those who lived in the United States for <5 years, the adjusted odds of drinking SSB ≥ 1 time/d was higher among adults who lived in the United States for 5 to <10 years (OR = 2.72), those who lived in the United States for 10 to <15 years (OR = 2.90), and those who lived in the United States for ≥15 years (OR = 2.41). However, birthplace was not associated with daily SSB intake. Conclusion The acculturation process is complex and these findings contribute to identifying important subpopulations that may benefit from targeted intervention to reduce SSB intake. PMID:27404644

  15. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  16. Self-reported alcohol intake and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wetherbee, Erin E; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Sisson, Joseph H; Lindberg, Sarah M; Connett, John E; Kunisaki, Ken M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Methods and measurements We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (<1 drink/month), light-to-moderate (1–60 drinks/month), or heavy alcohol users (>60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period. Results Of the 1,142 enrolled participants, 1,082 completed baseline alcohol questionnaires and were included in this analysis. Six hundred and forty-five participants reported minimal alcohol intake, 363 reported light-to-moderate intake, and 74 reported heavy intake. There were no statistically significant differences in median time to first AECOPD among minimal (195 days), light-to-moderate (241 days), and heavy drinkers (288 days) (P=0.11). The mean crude rate of AECOPD did not significantly differ between minimal (1.62 events per year) and light-to-moderate (1.44 events per year) (P=0.095), or heavy drinkers (1.68 events per year) (P=0.796). There were no significant differences in hazard ratios for AECOPD after adjustment for multiple covariates. Conclusion Among persons with COPD at high risk of exacerbation, we found no significant relationship between self-reported baseline alcohol intake and subsequent exacerbations. The number of patients reporting heavy alcohol intake was small and further study is needed to determine the effect of heavy alcohol intake on AECOPD risk. PMID:26229455

  17. Liquid chromatographic determination of sugar alcohols in beverages and foods after nitrobenzoylation.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, S; Saito, K; Taguchi, N; Oishi, M; Maki, T

    1999-01-01

    Use of p-nitrobenzoyl chloride (PNBC) to form an ultraviolet-absorbing derivative was attempted to determine the sugar alcohols meso-erythritol, xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol by liquid chromatography (LC). LC determination of derivatives was performed on an ODS column with acetonitrile-water (65 + 35) as mobile phase. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range 0.01-100 micrograms/mL. Method sensitivity is 10 to 1000 times higher than that of LC with refractive index detection and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Recoveries of sugars added to various foods at 0.1 and 1% ranged from 91 to 102% for meso-erythritol, 75 to 115% for xylitol, 81 to 105% for D-sorbitol, and 81 to 108% for D-mannitol. PMID:10028682

  18. Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S.; Kellogg, Mark D.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes. Few studies have tested for a relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD), or intermediate biomarkers. The role of artificially sweetened beverages is also unclear. Methods and Results We performed an analysis of the Health Professionals Follow-up study, a prospective cohort study including 42 883 men. Associations of cumulatively averaged sugar-sweetened (e.g. sodas) and artificially sweetened (e.g. diet sodas) beverage intake with incident fatal and non-fatal CHD (myocardial infarction) were examined using proportional hazard models. There were 3683 CHD cases over 22 years of follow-up. Participants in the top quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake had a 20% higher relative risk of CHD than those in the bottom quartile (RR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.33, p for trend < 0.01) after adjusting for age, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, multivitamins, family history, diet quality, energy intake, BMI, pre-enrollment weight change and dieting. Artificially sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with CHD (multivariate RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.12, p for trend = 0.28). Adjustment for self-reported high cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure and diagnosed type 2 diabetes slightly attenuated these associations. Intake of sugar-sweetened but not artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with increased triglycerides, CRP, IL6, TNFr1, TNFr2, decreased HDL, Lp(a), and leptin (p values < 0.02). Conclusions Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of CHD and some adverse changes in lipids, inflammatory factors, and leptin. Artificially sweetened beverage intake was not associated with CHD risk or biomarkers. PMID:22412070

  19. Hyperlipoproteinaemia in primary gout: hyperlipoproteinaemic phenotype and influence of alcohol intake and obesity in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, S; Kameda, K; Matsuzawa, Y; Tarui, S

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were investigated in 108 male patients with primary gout before treatment to elucidate the prevalence of each individual phenotype of coexisting hyperlipoproteinaemia and pathogenic factors responsible for it. The mean serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels in the patients with gout were 2.10 +/- 0.14 mmol/l and 5.26 +/- 0.10 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) respectively, which were significantly higher (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05 respectively) than the levels in age matched controls without gout (1.30 +/- 0.07 mmol/l and 4.77 +/- 0.08 mmol/l respectively). Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were slightly decreased in patients with gout compared with controls (1.24 +/- 0.08 mmol/l v 1.40 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, p less than 0.05). Hyperlipoproteinaemia was seen in 61 patients (56%), of whom patients with type IIa, IIb, and IV hyperlipoproteinaemia formed 13, 15, and 69% respectively. Thus the prevalence of type IV hyperlipoproteinaemia was high in primary gout as compared with primary hyperlipoproteinaemia with primary hyperlipoproteinaemia (69% v 43%, p less than 0.01). The independent and relative influences of clinical data of the patients upon the concentrations of serum lipids were assessed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Two major predictors of serum TG level were alcohol intake (p less than 0.01) and serum uric acid level (p less than 0.05). The most significant predictive variable was alcohol intake, but its influence was judged to be small (r2 = 0.067). None of the other variables, including obesity index, had any significant influence. The relationships between any of these variables and serum TC or HDL-C levels were not significant. In addition, serum lipid levels were investigated in patients with neither obesity (defined as 120% or more of ideal body weight) nor a history of alcohol intake. Their serum TG and TC concentrations were also significantly higher than the respective

  20. A Snapshot of the Hepatic Transcriptome: Ad Libitum Alcohol Intake Suppresses Expression of Cholesterol Synthesis Genes in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonathon D.; Sherrill, Jeremy B.; Morello, Gabriella M.; San Miguel, Phillip J.; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P) rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼7.43 g ethanol/kg/day) in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a) rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake. PMID:25542004

  1. Calorie intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity among New York City adults: findings from a 2013 population study using dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Ryan Richard; Akhund, Ali; Adjoian, Tamar; Kansagra, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight-obesity have contributed to increases in early mortality and noncommunicable disease incidence. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to obesity, weight gain, and metabolic syndrome. To further explore this relationship in a large urban environment, we assessed disparities in calorie intake between SSB and non-SSB consumers and determine the association between varying SSB consumption, obesity, and overweight-obesity using data from a 2013 representative dietary survey conducted in New York City. Results show that adult SSB drinkers consume 193 kcal/day from SSBs, approximately 10% of daily caloric needs. Compared to non-SSB drinkers, those who consume SSBs have a 572 kcal greater daily intake. Total calorie differences are due to greater SSB calorie and food calorie consumption. Among SSB consumers, each 10-oz increase in SSB consumption is associated with a greater likelihood of obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.05, 2.05) and overweight-obesity (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.31, 3.80). Additionally, each 10-kcal SSB increase is related to obesity (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01, 1.08) and overweight-obesity (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11). PMID:24671367

  2. Alcohol-free fermented blueberry-blackberry beverage phenolic extract attenuates diet-induced obesity and blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle H; Wallig, Matthew; Luna Vital, Diego A; de Mejia, Elvira G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of phenolic compounds from a fermented blackberry-blueberry beverage to reduce diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia in mice fed a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 10weeks after 1week of pretreatment. C57BL/6J mice were randomized into six groups and allowed to drink (ad libitum) an alcohol-free blackberry-blueberry beverage [alcohol-free fermented beverage (AFFB), 8.4mg anthocyanin (ANC)/kg body weight (BW)/day]; three doses of a phenolic extract [postamberlite extract (PAE)] from AFFB at 0.1×, 1× and 2× ANC concentrations; sitagliptin (hypoglycemic positive control); or water (negative control). Weight and fat mass gain were attenuated in mice receiving the highest doses of PAE (18.9mg ANC/kg BW/day, P<.05). There were also reductions (P<.05) in percent fat mass, epididymal fat pad weights, mean adipocyte diameters and plasma triglycerides and cholesterol associated with PAE treatments. By the end of the study, fasting blood glucose for mice receiving 9mg (1×) or 18.9mg (2×) ANC/kg BW/day was significantly lower than in the water and the sitagliptin groups (P<.05). Histological and histochemical analyses revealed an unexpected change in liver of mice fed ANC at 1× or 2× doses consisting of liver enlargement and increased lipid deposition. PAE also induced the most differential gene expression changes, including highly significant downstream effects at all doses to reduce d-glucose concentrations. Overall, phenolic compounds from the fermented blueberry-blackberry beverage had an impact to attenuate the development of obesity and fasting blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:27133423

  3. Naltrexone treatment produces dose-related effects on food and water intake but daily alcohol consumption is not affected.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Jorge; Barrios De Tomasi, Eliana

    2008-08-01

    There is evidence that naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, affects alcohol and food consumption. Though food intake is inherently involved when naltrexone effects on alcohol consumption have been studied, the differential effect of this opioid antagonist on both food and alcohol intake has not yet been reported. The present study analyzed the effect of a single daily dose of naltrexone on alcohol, food and water intake when these substances were available on a continuous basis. Wistar male rats were treated with s.c. injections of either naltrexone (2 or 10 mg/kg/day/rat) or a saline solution, 0.2 ml/day/rat for 7 days. This period was followed by a lapse of 7 days with no treatment (PT period), and this sequence of naltrexone or saline treatment followed by a period without treatment was repeated four times. Neither 2 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg of naltrexone affected alcohol consumption, though the higher dose of naltrexone (10 mg/kg) increased food intake with respect to both the PT periods and the saline group and decreased water consumption with respect to the corresponding PT periods. Naltrexone at 2 mg/kg produced a decrease in food intake but only with respect to the PT periods. These results suggest that the effects of a single dose of naltrexone on alcohol consumption may not be evident when 24-h access to alcohol is assessed; however, naltrexone may produce different dose-related effects on food and water intake, suggesting that they may be mediated by distinct opioid system mechanisms. PMID:18681987

  4. Analysis of bacterial community during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage, using a polyphasic approach.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Adelfo; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Hernández, Georgina; Córdova-Aguilar, María Soledad; López-Munguía, Agustín; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco

    2008-05-31

    In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries from total DNA extracted from the maguey sap (aguamiel) used as substrate, after inoculation with a sample of previously produced pulque and followed by 6-h fermentation. Microbiological diversity results were correlated with fermentation process parameters such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and fermentation product concentrations. In addition, medium rheological behavior analysis and scanning electron microscopy in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation were also performed. Our results showed that both culture and non-culture dependent approaches allowed the detection of several new and previously reported species within the alpha-, gamma-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bacteria diversity in aguamiel was composed by the heterofermentative Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides, L. kimchi, the gamma-Proteobacteria Erwinia rhapontici, Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter radioresistens. Inoculation with previously fermented pulque incorporated to the system microbiota, homofermentative lactobacilli related to Lactobacillus acidophilus, several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important amount of yeasts, creating a starting metabolic diversity composed by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, acetic and ethanol producing microorganisms. At the end of the fermentation process, the bacterial diversity was mainly composed by the homofermentative Lactobacillus acidophilus, the heterofermentative L. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After

  5. Effects of Dram Shop, Responsible Beverage Service Training, and State Alcohol Control Laws on Underage Drinking Driver Fatal Crash Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine whether three minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws—dram shop liability, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, and state control of alcohol sales—have had an impact on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes using annual state-level data, and compared states with strong laws to those with weak laws to examine their effect on beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. Methods Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we calculated the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes as our key outcome measure. We used structural equation modeling to evaluate the three MLDA-21 laws. We controlled for covariates known to impact fatal crashes including: 17 additional MLDA-21 laws; administrative license revocation; blood alcohol concentration limits of .08 and .10 for driving; seat belt laws; sobriety checkpoint frequency; unemployment rates; and vehicle miles traveled. Outcome variables, in addition to the fatal crash ratios of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 included state per capita beer consumption. Results Dram shop liability laws were associated with a 2.4% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .019, p = .018). Similarly, RBS training laws were associated with a 3.6% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .048, p = .001) in the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes. There was a significant relationship between dram shop liability law strength and per capita beer consumption, F (4, 1528) = 24.32, p < .001, partial η2 = .016, showing states with strong dram shop liability laws (Mean (M) = 1.276) averaging significantly lower per capita beer consumption than states with weak laws (M = 1.340). Conclusions Dram shop liability laws and RBS laws were both associated with significantly reduced per capita beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. In practical terms, this means that dram shop liability laws

  6. Acid and alcohol tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pulque, a typical Mexican beverage.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Díaz-Cruz, Claudio A; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Del Refugio Torres-Vitela, M; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2012-03-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican fermented alcoholic beverage produced from the nectar of maguey agave plants. No data exist on the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in agave nectar and pulque. An initial trial was done of the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 during fermentation of nectar from a single producer, a nectar mixture from different producers and "seed" pulque. A second trial simulating artisanal pulque production was done by contaminating fresh nectar with a cocktail of three E. coli O157:H7 strains, storing at 16 ° and 22 °C for 14 h, adding seed pulque and fermenting until pulque was formed. A third trial used pulque from the second trial stored at 22 °C as seed to ferment fresh nectar at 22 °C for 48 h (fermentation cycle). This procedure was repeated for an additional two fermentation cycles. During incubation at 16 ° or 22 °C in the first trial, the E. coli O157:H7 strains multiplied in both the single producer nectar and nectar mixture, reaching maximum concentration at 12h. E. coli O157:H7 cell concentration then decreased slowly, although it survived at least 72 h in both fermented nectars. E. coli O157:H7 did not multiply in the seed pulque but did survive at least 72 h. In the second trial, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 increased approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml at 22 °C and 1.2 log CFU/ml at 16 °C after 14 h. After seed pulque was added, E. coli O157:H7 concentration decreased to approximately 2 log CFU/ml, and then remained constant until pulque was produced. In the third trial, the E. coli O157:H7 cells multiplied and survived during at least three nectar fermentation cycles. The results suggest that E. coli O157:H7 can develop acid and alcohol tolerance in pulque, and constitutes a public health risk for pulque consumers. PMID:22240059

  7. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior. PMID:17720324

  8. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a shot of whiskey? Can the rate of alcohol-induced harm be affected by altering the population's beverage choices?

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Pia; Hellman, Matilda; Kerr, William; Room, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and puts into context the findings from the five articles contained in this thematic issue. The question of interest has been the connection between different beverage types and alcohol-induced harm. The key question is whether policy makers can affect rates of harm by affecting beverage choice. In the discussion, four different potential pathways for such an effect are differentiated. The first is the direct effect of the beverage over and above the effect of the ethanol it contains. The review of results suggests that the size of this effect may be modest, and it is clearly overmatched by cultural factors relating to who chooses to drink which beverage and how. However, even more relevant than the direct effect may be the other three mechanisms, which potentially affect the amounts of alcohol drunk or allow the influencing of drinker groups of interest. PMID:24431477

  9. Fluid intake and incidence of renal cell carcinoma in UK women

    PubMed Central

    Allen, N E; Balkwill, A; Beral, V; Green, J; Reeves, G

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the apparent protective effect of alcohol intake on renal cell carcinoma may be due to the diluting effect of carcinogens by a high total fluid intake. We assessed the association between intakes of total fluids and of specific beverages on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in a large prospective cohort of UK women. Methods: Information on beverage consumption was obtained from a questionnaire sent ∼3 years after recruitment into the Million Women Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for renal cell carcinoma associated with beverage consumption adjusted for age, region of residence, socioeconomic status, smoking, and body mass index. Results: After an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 588 cases of renal cell carcinoma were identified among 779 369 women. While alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell carcinoma (RR for ⩾2 vs <1 drink per day: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61–0.96; P for trend=0.02), there was no association with total fluid intake (RR for ⩾12 vs <7 drinks per day: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.91–1.45; P for trend=0.3) or with intakes of specific beverages. Conclusions: The apparent protective effect of alcohol on the risk of renal cell carcinoma is unlikely to be related to a high fluid intake. PMID:21407222

  10. Health Benefits of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in High Risk Populations of California: Results from the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Policy Model

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Tekeshe A.; Odden, Michelle C.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Guzman, David; Lightwood, James; Wang, Y. Claire; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified. Methods We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model – CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10–20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars. Results Over the next decade, a 10–20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8–3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5–1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5–0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320–620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14–27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided. Conclusions A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits. PMID:24349119

  11. The Rapid Measurement of Benzodiazepines in a Milk-Based Alcoholic Beverage Using QuEChERS Extraction and GC-MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Famiglini, Giorgio; Capriotti, Fabiana; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Cappiello, Achille

    2015-05-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are widely used as tranquilizers and anti-depressive drugs in common clinical practice. However, their ready availability and their synergistic effects with alcohol make them attractive for criminal intentions. To prove criminal action for legal reasons, it is often necessary to analyze beverage residues from a crime scene. Milk-based alcoholic drinks (whiskey creams) are gaining popularity due to their lower alcohol content pleasant taste. However, the complexity of this sample, containing proteins and fatty acids, can mask the presence of drugs or other substances in standard analysis methods. These characteristics make whiskey creams highly suitable for illicit purposes. In this study, eight BDZs, including diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, flunitrazepam, bromazepam, flurazepam, nitrazepam and clonazepam, were extracted from whiskey cream using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and analyzed using GC-MS. The QuEChERS protocol can efficiently separate most of the matrix from the target compounds while maintaining acceptable recoveries. The presented method is simple and rapid and has been validated in terms of precision, accuracy and recoveries. Limits of detection and limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.02-0.1 and 0.1-0.5 µg/mL, respectively. Whiskey cream beverages, fortified with commercial drugs at 20 µg/mL, were extracted and analyzed demonstrating the applicability of the method in forensic analysis. PMID:25712439

  12. Microbiological Spoilage of Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, Kathleen A.; Schuman, James D.; Simpson, Peter G.; Taormina, Peter J.

    Commercially packaged, non-alcoholic, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages comprise a diverse group of products, both carbonated (sparkling) and non-carbonated (still), that appeal to consumers of all ages and provide refreshment, hydration, energy, and nutrition at home and "on-the-go." Examples of such products include purified, mineral, and spring waters, flavored or enhanced waters, colas, fruit-flavored sodas, sports and energy drinks, fruit or vegetable juices, teas, coffees, smoothies, dairy and yogurt drinks, and fusion beverages (hybrid products that bridge multiple beverage categories).

  13. Energy intake from foods and beverages consumed between meals by adolescents ages 12–18 years: NHANES, 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to describe meal patterns of adolescents ages 12–18 years (n = 5,811), and energy intake from snacks/drinks consumed between meals. NHANES, 1999–2004, Day 1, 24-h recall data were classified by food group, meal type, and time of day. Snacks/drinks were consumed by 90% of ad...

  14. Ligularia fischeri extract attenuates liver damage induced by chronic alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongyeop; Kim, Gyeong-Woo; Lee, Seon-Ho; Han, Gi Dong

    2016-08-01

    Context Ligularia fischeri (Ledebour) Turcz. (Compositae) has been used as a leafy vegetable and in traditional medicine to treat hepatic disorder in East Asia. Objective The present study explores the antioxidant activity of LF aqueous extract on EtOH-induced oxidative stress accompanied by hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods In vitro study using the mouse liver NCTC-1469 cell line was conducted to estimate the cytotoxicity as well as the inhibitory effect of LF extract against alcohol-treated cell damage. In vivo study used an alcohol-fed Wister rat model orally administered EtOH (3.95 g/kg of body weight/d) with or without LF extract (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected to evaluate hepatic injury and antioxidant-related enzyme activity. Results The EC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of LF extract was 451.5 μg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of LF extract in terms of EtOH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was 98.3 μg/mL without cell cytotoxicity. LF extract (200 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the triglyceride content of serum (33%) as well as hepatic lipid peroxidation (36%), whereas SOD activity was elevated three-fold. LF extract suppressed expression of CYP2E1 and TNF-α, and attenuated alcohol-induced abnormal morphological changes. Discussion and conclusion LF extract attenuated liver damage induced by alcoholic oxidative stress through inhibition of ROS generation, down-regulation of CYP2E1, and activation of hepatic antioxidative enzymes. Homeostasis of the antioxidative defence system in the liver by LF extract mitigated hepatic disorder following chronic alcohol intake. PMID:26799831

  15. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  16. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  17. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  18. Clarification as to why alcoholic beverages have the ability to induce superconductivity in Fe1+dTe1-xSx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, K.; Sato, D.; Sugimoto, M.; Hara, H.; Kawasaki, Y.; Demura, S.; Watanabe, T.; Denholme, S. J.; Okazaki, H.; Ozaki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeya, H.; Soga, T.; Tomita, M.; Takano, Y.

    2012-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism as to why alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity in Fe1+dTe1-xSx samples, we performed component analysis and found that a weak acid such as an organic acid has the ability to induce superconductivity. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was performed on weak acid solutions post-annealing. We found that the mechanism of inducement of superconductivity in Fe1+dTe1-xSx is the deintercalation of excess Fe from the interlayer sites.

  19. Dopamine Release Dynamics Change during Adolescence and after Voluntary Alcohol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with high impulsivity and risk taking, making adolescent individuals more inclined to use drugs. Early drug use is correlated to increased risk for substance use disorders later in life but the neurobiological basis is unclear. The brain undergoes extensive development during adolescence and disturbances at this time are hypothesized to contribute to increased vulnerability. The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use and addiction involve long-lasting changes in neural networks including a shift from the nucleus accumbens, mediating acute reinforcing effects, to recruitment of the dorsal striatum and habit formation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis of increased dopamine release after a pharmacological challenge in adolescent rats. Potassium-evoked dopamine release and uptake was investigated using chronoamperometric dopamine recordings in combination with a challenge by amphetamine in early and late adolescent rats and in adult rats. In addition, the consequences of voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence on these effects were investigated. The data show a gradual increase of evoked dopamine release with age, supporting previous studies suggesting that the pool of releasable dopamine increases with age. In contrast, a gradual decrease in evoked release with age was seen in response to amphetamine, supporting a proportionally larger storage pool of dopamine in younger animals. Dopamine measures after voluntary alcohol intake resulted in lower release amplitudes in response to potassium-chloride, indicating that alcohol affects the releasable pool of dopamine and this may have implications for vulnerability to addiction and other psychiatric diagnoses involving dopamine in the dorsal striatum. PMID:24788731

  20. Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Zachary A.; Bell, Richard L.; Kuc, Kelly A.; Murphy, James M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; McBride, William J.

    2010-01-01

    High-alcohol-drinking rats, given access to 10% ethanol, expressed an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) only after multiple deprivations. In alcohol-preferring (P) rats, concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations combined with repeated cycles of EtOH access and deprivation produced excessive ethanol drinking. The current study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated alcohol deprivations with concurrent access to multiple concentrations of ethanol on ethanol intake of HAD replicate lines of rats. HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats received access to 10, 20 and 30% (v/v) ethanol for 6 weeks. Rats from each replicate line were assigned to: (1) a non-deprived group; (2) a group initially deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks; or (3) a group initially deprived for 8 weeks. Following the restoration of the ethanol solutions, cycle of 2 weeks of ethanol exposure and 2 weeks of alcohol deprivation was repeated three times for a total of four deprivations. Following the initial ethanol deprivation period, deprived groups significantly increased ethanol intakes during the initial 24-hour re-exposure period. Multiple deprivations increased ethanol intakes, shifted preference to higher ethanol concentrations and prolonged the duration of the elevated ethanol intakes for up to 5 days. In addition, repeated deprivations increased ethanol intake in the first 2-hour re-exposure period as high as 5–7 g/kg (which are equivalent to amounts consumed in 24 hours by HAD rats), and produced blood ethanol levels in excess of 150 mg%. The results indicate that HAD rats exhibit ‘loss-of-control’ of alcohol drinking with repeated deprivations when multiple ethanol concentrations are available. PMID:19076927

  1. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs. PMID:22408581

  2. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs. PMID:22408581

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  4. Alcohol intake alters immune responses and promotes CNS viral persistence in mice.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Jennifer M; Taylor, Jonathan; Raué, Hans-Peter; Slifka, Mark K; Huang, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to progressive liver disease and is associated with a variety of extrahepatic effects, including central nervous system (CNS) damage and neuropsychiatric impairments. Alcohol abuse can exacerbate these adverse effects on brain and behavior, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the role of alcohol in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a model for HCV infections in humans. Female and male BALB/c mice (n=94) were exposed to alcohol (ethanol; EtOH) and water (or water only) using a two-bottle choice paradigm, followed one week later by infection with either LCMV clone 13 (causes chronic infection similar to chronic HCV), LCMV Armstrong (causes acute infection), or vehicle. Mice were monitored for 60days post-infection and continued to receive 24-h access to EtOH and water. Animals infected with LCMV clone 13 drank more EtOH, as compared to those with an acute or no viral infection. Six weeks after infection with LCMV clone 13, mice with EtOH exposure evidenced higher serum viral titers, as compared to mice without EtOH exposure. EtOH intake was also associated with reductions in virus-specific CD8(+) T cell frequencies (particularly CD11a(hi) subsets) and evidence of persistent CNS viremia in chronically infected mice. These findings support the hypothesis that EtOH use and chronic viral infection can result in combined toxic effects accelerating CNS damage and neuropsychiatric dysfunction and suggest that examining the role of EtOH in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with LCMV can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of comorbid alcohol use disorder and chronic viral infection. PMID:27269869

  5. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. PMID:22126215

  6. Pharmacologically Relevant Intake During Chronic, Free-Choice Drinking Rhythms in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Liana M.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-h daily access over a four-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3, and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral, and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. PMID:22126215

  7. Drinking patterns and beverage preferences of liver cirrhosis patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campollo, O; Martínez, M D; Valencia, J J; Segura-Ortega, J

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of alcoholism in a special group of alcoholics (alcoholic cirrhotics) in a hospital-based population in west central Mexico and assess the role of regional spirits such as tequila. A complete alcohol drinking history and a structured questionnaire directed at investigating the pattern of alcohol consumption was applied to 124 adult patients with chronic liver disease caused by alcohol during January 1995 to January 1996. The mean age of onset was 27 +/- 3 years in women and 18 +/- 0.5 years in men. The mean alcohol intake per week was 749 +/- 192 g for women and 1113 +/- 151 g for men. On average, patients consumed alcohol for a mean of 24.5 years. The overall patient drinking preference was for tequila followed by 96 degree Gay Lusac (G.L.), alcohol, and beer. In a subset of 70 patients three phases of alcoholism could be identified (prealcoholic, critical, and chronic). Each phase had a mean duration of at least 11 years. Beer was the dominant beverage in the prealcoholic phase while tequila was consumed more often in the other phases. In the critical phase of alcoholism an average of 337 g of alcohol were consumed per week and in the chronic phase 1765 g/week. Tequila was the overall preferred beverage in this group of alcoholics. Other beverages included beer and straight alcohol with a clear trend from less to higher concentration of alcohol throughout the drinking history. Subtle gender differences in the patterns of alcoholism may be suspected. In this group of patients the role of tequila drinking is highlighted. PMID:11325173

  8. The impact of health literacy on rural adults' satisfaction with a multi-component intervention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A N; Porter, K J; Hill, J L; Chen, Y; Estabrooks, P A; Zoellner, J M

    2016-08-01

    SIPsmartER is a 6-month behavioral intervention designed using a health literacy universal precautions approach that has been found effective at reducing sugary beverage intake in rural, low socioeconomic adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to determine if health literacy status influenced participants' satisfaction and perceptions of each intervention component: small group classes, interactive-voice response (IVR) calls, personal action plans and self-monitoring logs. Of the 155 participants enrolled in SIPsmartER, 105 (68%) completed an interview-administered summative evaluation including 68 high and 37 low health literate participants. The quantitative findings show participant satisfaction with each intervention component was high (i.e. classes = 9.6, IVR calls = 8.1, action plans = 8.9-9.1, logs = 8.7 on a 10-point scale) and similar across both health literacy groups. The majority of qualitative responses were positive (81.8%) and code counts were comparable between literacy groups with a few exceptions. As compared with high health literacy respondents, low health literacy respondents more frequently mentioned liking the content and length of IVR calls, liking the motivational aspects of the personal action plans, and identified numeracy issues with the self-monitoring logs. Overall, applying a health literacy universal precautions approach is an effective and acceptable strategy for both high and low health literacy groups. PMID:27173641

  9. Effects of an intervention aimed at reducing the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in primary school children: a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight in children, effective interventions to reduce their consumption are needed. Here we evaluated the effect of a combined school- and community-based intervention aimed at reducing children’s SSB consumption by promoting the intake of water. Favourable intervention effects on children’s SSB consumption were hypothesized. Methods In 2011-2012, a controlled trial was conducted among four primary schools, comprising 1288 children aged 6-12 years who lived in multi-ethnic, socially deprived neighbourhoods in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Intervention schools adopted the ‘water campaign’, an intervention developed using social marketing. Control schools continued with their regular health promotion programme. Primary outcome was children’s SSB consumption, measured using parent and child questionnaires and through observations at school, both at baseline and after one year of intervention. Results Significant positive intervention effects were found for average SSB consumption (B -0.19 litres, 95% CI -0.28;-0.10; parent report), average SSB servings (B -0.54 servings, 95% CI -0.82;-0.26; parent report) and bringing SSB to school (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36;0.72; observation report). Conclusions This study supports the effectiveness of the water campaign intervention in reducing children’s SSB consumption. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: NTR3400 PMID:25060113

  10. Chronic alcohol intake up-regulates hepatic expressions of carotenoid cleavage enzymes and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive and chronic alcohol intake leads to a lower hepatic vitamin A status by interfering with vitamin A metabolism.Dietary provitamin A carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A mainly by carotenoid 15,15’-monooxygenase 1 (CMO1) and, to a lesser degree, carotenoid 9910’-monooxygenase 2 (CMO2)...

  11. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... 97 Vodka (94 proof) 1.5 oz. 116 Whiskey (80 proof) 1.5 oz. 97 Whiskey (94 proof) 1.5 oz. 116 Liqueurs Coffee ... oz. 232 Vodka and tonic 8 oz. 200 Whiskey sour 6 oz. 289 White Russian 8oz. 568 ...

  12. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles' drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified, by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy. PMID:23847535

  13. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life. PMID:19251115

  14. Coffee, tea, and alcohol intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in African American women1234

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Palmer, Julie R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have reported inverse associations of coffee, tea, and alcohol intake with risk of type 2 diabetes, but none has reported results separately among African American women. Objective: We prospectively examined the relation of coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption to diabetes risk in African American women. Design: The study included 46,906 Black Women's Health Study participants aged 30–69 y at baseline in 1995. Dietary intake was assessed in 1995 and 2001 by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. During 12 y of follow-up, there were 3671 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for diabetes risk factors. Results: Multivariable RRs for intakes of 0–1, 1, 2–3, and ≥4 cups of caffeinated coffee/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.04), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.01), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.93), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.01), respectively (P for trend = 0.003). Multivariable RRs for intakes of 1–3, 4–6, 7–13, and ≥14 alcoholic drinks/wk relative to never consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.81), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.96), and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.98), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of decaffeinated coffee and tea were not associated with risk of diabetes. Conclusion: Our results suggest that African American women who drink moderate amounts of caffeinated coffee or alcohol have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20826625

  15. Alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A light to moderate consumption of certain types of alcoholic beverages may exert a favorable effect on cardiovascular risk, but no conclusive information is available on the putative relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed an electronic search on Medline and Scopus, using the keywords "venous thromboembolism", "venous thrombosis" and "alcohol", to identify clinical studies linking alcohol intake and VTE risk. The literature search generated 16 studies, 4 of which are case-control, 1 cross-sectional and 11 prospective. Significant reduction of VTE associated with alcohol intake is observed in only 4/16 studies, and in all these the association is only meaningful for a moderate amount of alcohol (i.e., 2-4 glasses). Unlike these trials, two other studies observe that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of VTE, whereas the association is insignificant in the remainder. Binge drinking increases the VTE risk in one study but not in another. The consumption of beer is associated with a decreased VTE risk in one study but not in two others. We hence conclude that the relationship between intake of alcoholic beverages and increased or decreased risk of VTE is largely elusive. PMID:26446524

  16. Brain-Specific Inactivation of the Crhr1 Gene Inhibits Post-Dependent and Stress-Induced Alcohol Intake, but Does Not Affect Relapse-Like Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity might be involved as well. Here we examined the role of CRHR1 in various drinking conditions in relation to HPA and extra-HPA sites, and studied relapse-like drinking behavior in the alcohol deprivation model (ADE). To dissect CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling on a molecular level, a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1NestinCre) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1 antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1NestinCre mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1NestinCre mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress-induced alcohol consumption and a more pronounced escalation of intake in the post-dependent state than their control littermates. Basal intake and deprivation-induced intake were unaltered in both knockout models when compared with their respective controls. In line with these findings, CRHR1 antagonists did not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load. PMID:22113086

  17. Effects of Moderate Alcohol Intake in the Bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Yong Sun; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Dai Jin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is related with a number of cystopathic complications. However, there have been no studies about the influence of alcohol consumption in the bladder of type 2 diabetes. Thus, we investigated the effect of moderate alcohol intake in the bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rat. The non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, n=14) and the OLETF control group (n=14) were fed an isocaloric diet; the LETO (n=14) and the OLETF ethanol group (n=14) were fed 36% ethanol 7 g/kg/day. After ten weeks, muscarinic receptors, RhoGEFs, myogenic change, and the level of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moderate alcohol intake significantly decreased excessive muscarinic receptor and Rho kinase expressions in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. In addition, iNOS and collagen expression were not changed in the OLETF rats in spite of alcohol consumption. Superoxide dismutase levels, which is involved in antioxidant defense, in the LETO rats were significantly decreased after alcohol consumption, however those in the OLETF rats were similar. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the oxidative stress, and may prevent molecular and pathologic changes of the bladder of rats with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26339173

  18. Maternal alcohol intake prior to and during pregnancy and risk of adverse birth outcomes: evidence from a British cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nykjaer, Camilla; Alwan, Nisreen A; Greenwood, Darren C; Simpson, Nigel A B; Hay, Alastair W M; White, Kay L M; Cade, Janet E

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence is conflicting regarding the relationship between low maternal alcohol consumption and birth outcomes. This paper aimed to investigate the association between alcohol intake before and during pregnancy with birth weight and gestational age and to examine the effect of timing of exposure. Methods A prospective cohort in Leeds, UK, of 1303 pregnant women aged 18–45 years. Questionnaires assessed alcohol consumption before pregnancy and for the three trimesters separately. Categories of alcohol consumption were divided into ≤2 units/week and >2 units/week with a non-drinking category as referent. This was related to size at birth and preterm delivery, adjusting for confounders including salivary cotinine as a biomarker of smoking status. Results Nearly two-thirds of women before pregnancy and over half in the first trimester reported alcohol intakes above the Department of Health (UK) guidelines of ≤2 units/week. Associations with birth outcomes were strongest for intakes >2 units/week before pregnancy and in trimesters 1 and 2 compared to non-drinkers. Even women adhering to the guidelines in the first trimester were at significantly higher risk of having babies with lower birth weight, lower birth centile and preterm birth compared to non-drinkers, after adjusting for confounders (p<0.05). Conclusions We found the first trimester to be the period most sensitive to the effect of alcohol on the developing fetus. Women adhering to guidelines in this period were still at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. Our findings suggest that women should be advised to abstain from alcohol when planning to conceive and throughout pregnancy. PMID:24616351

  19. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Design Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising

  20. Liquid chromatography-electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry with the Direct-EI interface in the fast determination of diazepam and flunitrazepam in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Famiglini, Giorgio; Termopoli, Veronica; Palma, Pierangela; Cappiello, Achille

    2016-04-01

    This is the first application based on electron ionization (EI) using a Direct-EI LC interface and MS/MS to detect unequivocally target compounds in a very small real sample. The determination and quantification of benzodiazepines in very small residues of beverages, collected at the scene of drug-facilitated crimes are mandatory in legal procedures. A specific and sensitive analytical instrumentation is needed, involving little or no sample preparation. Here, a direct flow injection analysis of alcoholic beverages spiked with commercially available drugs containing diazepam and flunitrazepam is presented. The method proposed is very fast and requires neither sample preparation nor chromatographic separation. Linearity (R(2) ) was between 0.9977 and 0.9992; LOD and LOQ spanned from 0.01 to 0.02 ng/μL and from 0.1 to 0.5 ng/μL, respectively; intra- and interday repeatabilities were between 1 and 8%. No matrix effects were observed from the comparison of the linear regression curves obtained in real fortified samples and in pure ethanol. Vodka, whisky, and white wine specimens were fortified with commercial drugs, Valium(®) and Rohypnol(®) , at two different concentrations (20 and 50 ng/μL) to simulate the typical amounts found in adulterated real samples and analyzed to demonstrate the method applicability to forensic analyses. PMID:26634646