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Sample records for alcoholic violent offenders

  1. The Association of Alcohol and Drug Use with Persistence of Violent Offending in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Buckman, Jennifer; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study expanded upon an earlier study, which examined the associations between heavy drinking and persistence of serious violent offending through emerging adulthood (approximate age 25), by examining associations between alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use and disorders and persistence of serious violent offending through young adulthood (approximate age 36). Methods We used official records and self-reported longitudinal data from Black and White men from early adolescence through young adulthood (n = 391). Men were divided into four violence groups: non-violent, desisters, persisters, and very late-onsetters. Multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for race and incarceration were used to compare these groups in terms of substance use in young adulthood and changes in use from emerging to young adulthood. Results Most previous serious violent offenders did not re-offend in young adulthood. Whereas alcohol use did not differ across groups, persisters and desisters, compared to non-violent men, were more likely to use hard drugs, deal drugs, have a lifetime substance use disorder diagnosis and show larger decreases in alcohol and marijuana frequency from emerging to young adulthood. None of these measures differed between persisters and desisters except that persisters reported larger decreases in alcohol and marijuana use frequency. Conclusions The findings demonstrated reductions in serious violent offending during young adulthood and suggested that after adolescence, illicit drug use, compared to alcohol use, may play a more important role in initiation and maintenance of serious violent offending. Future research that examines the interrelations of drug use, drug culture, and violence is warranted. PMID:26557473

  2. Violent and Nonviolent Youth Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Violet; Chu, Chi Meng

    2015-01-01

    Youth violence is a costly social problem. This study compared the risk and needs of nonviolent youth offenders, with those who had committed violent offenses only (violent only) and those who had committed violent and nonviolent offenses (violent plus) to determine whether violent youth were a different “type” from nonviolent youth. The case files of 3,744 youth offenders (3,327 males and 417 females, between 12 and 18 years old) were retrospectively coded, before official recidivism records were obtained. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), χ2, and Cox regressions were conducted. Violent-plus youth were younger; higher in their total risk and all criminogenic needs; more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs; and at higher risk of any reoffending, violent reoffending, and nonviolent reoffending than nonviolent youth. Violent-only youth had the same total risk and risk of general and violent recidivism as nonviolent offenders but presented different criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs and risk of nonviolent recidivism. Compared to violent-only youth, violent-plus youth were younger, had higher total risk and criminogenic needs on five domains, were more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs, and were at higher risk of all types of reoffending (except sexual reoffending), suggesting subtypes of violent youth offenders. The implication is that nonviolent and violent youth offenders require different dosage and types of intervention. PMID:27274714

  3. Empathic competencies in violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Eva-Maria; Pfabigan, Daniela Melitta; Keckeis, Katinka; Wucherer, Anna Maria; Jahn, Thomas; Lamm, Claus; Derntl, Birgit

    2013-12-30

    Violent offending has often been associated with a lack of empathy, but experimental investigations are rare. The present study aimed at clarifying whether violent offenders show a general empathy deficit or specific deficits regarding the separate subcomponents. To this end, we assessed three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking, affective responsiveness) as well as skin conductance response (SCR) in a sample of 30 male violent offenders and 30 healthy male controls. Data analysis revealed reduced accuracy in violent offenders compared to healthy controls only in emotion recognition, and that a high number of violent assaults was associated with decreased accuracy in perspective taking for angry scenes. SCR data showed reduced physiological responses in the offender group specifically for fear and disgust stimuli during emotion recognition and perspective taking. In addition, higher psychopathy scores in the violent offender group were associated with reduced accuracy in affective responsiveness. This is the first study to show that mainly emotion recognition is deficient in violent offenders whereas the other components of empathy are rather unaffected. This divergent impact of violent offending on the subcomponents of empathy suggests that all three empathy components can be targeted by therapeutic interventions separately.

  4. Basal insulin secretion, PCL-R and recidivism among impulsive violent alcoholic offenders.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Kari P T; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Tikkanen, Roope; Virkkunen, Matti

    2015-02-28

    Current risk assessment tools have a moderate predicting value for violence. Their power may be enhanced with certain biological indicators, which may serve as predictors of recidivistic violence itself. The aim of our study was to determine the strength of serum insulin levels to predict violence, and compare these results with those from the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). The study population consisted of 105 Finnish alcoholics who were severely violent offenders, recruited from 1991 to 1998. After exclusion, 75 cases were followed until March 2008, or until a new offense was registered. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of recidivism. The age and weight adjusted effect of insulin to recidivism risk showed a 7.2% increase for each International Unit (IU), or 19% for the mean difference (2.5IU) between recidivists and non-recidivist, which corresponds to a medium effect size (Cohen׳s d=0.46). Adjusting the insulin model with PCL-R factor 1 enhanced the predictive power slightly. Serum fasting insulin level was equivalent to the PCL-R factor 2 score as a predictor, and better than the total PCL-R score. However, the significance of these results was too low for predicting recidivism in the process of judicial decision-making.

  5. Amnesia for violent crime among young offenders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ceri; Mezey, Gillian; Ehlers, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Amnesia for the perpetration of violent offences is an important issue in medico-legal proceedings. Previous studies of amnesia have mainly relied on selected groups of unconvicted offenders, which raises the question of how reliable the findings are. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and phenomenological qualities of amnesia in violent offenders. In semi-structured interviews with 105 young offenders convicted of serious violence, 20 (19%) reported partial amnesia for their offence and only one (1%) reported complete amnesia. Amnesia was associated with high alcohol intake, emotional ties to the victim, and cognitive processing during the assault. Complete amnesia for violent crime appears to be less frequent than suggested by previous reports using unconvicted samples. The findings have implications for the clinical assessment of claimed amnesia for violent crime and are potentially of medico-legal significance. PMID:19668341

  6. Assessing Treatment Readiness in Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Andrew; Howells, Kevin; Casey, Sharon; Ward, Tony; Chambers, Jemma C.; Birgden, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Although violent offenders are widely considered to be difficult to engage in therapeutic change, few methods of assessing treatment readiness currently exist. In this article the validation of a brief self-report measure designed to assess treatment readiness in offenders who have been referred to violent offender treatment programs is described.…

  7. MAOA Alters the Effects of Heavy Drinking and Childhood Physical Abuse on Risk for Severe Impulsive Acts of Violence Among Alcoholic Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Methods Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Conclusion Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA. PMID:20201935

  8. Violent Youth in Boot Camps for Non-Violent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toombs, Nancy J.; Benda, Brent B.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    2000-01-01

    Examines what sociodemographic and criminogenic factors discriminate between inmates in a boot camp for non-violent offenders who commit crimes against persons and other offenders. Stepwise discriminant analysis results are discussed. The intervention implications of the findings are also discussed. (Author/MKA)

  9. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusion of violent offenders. 93.5 Section 93.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROVISIONS IMPLEMENTING THE VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a)...

  10. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion of violent offenders. 93.5 Section 93.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROVISIONS IMPLEMENTING THE VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a)...

  11. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders.

  12. Ethnicity, violent offending, and vulnerability to schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mason, O J; Medford, S; Peters, E R

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has highlighted increased risk for schizophrenia in Afro-Caribbeans as well as over-representation in the prison population. This small-scale study examined the relationship between criminality, ethnicity, and psychosis-proneness in a male prison sample. Twenty British Caucasian and 20 Afro-Caribbean prisoners were divided into equal sub-groups of violent and non-violent offenders. Participants completed measures of schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hostility. Afro-Caribbean offenders scored more highly on negative schizotypy and delusional ideation than their Caucasian counterparts. Violent offenders scored more highly on the positive symptoms of schizotypy than non-violent prisoners. Both ethnicity and violent offending may be relevant factors when considering vulnerability to psychosis in the offending population.

  13. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  14. Can We Distinguish Juvenile Violent Sex Offenders, Violent Non-Sex Offenders, and Versatile Violent Sex Offenders Based on Childhood Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Ward, Ashley K.; Cormier, Nicole S.; Day, David M.; Newman, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature…

  15. Easy access to firearms: juveniles' risks for violent offending and violent victimization.

    PubMed

    Ruback, R Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N; Clark, Valerie A

    2011-07-01

    Keeping firearms at home may increase personal safety but it may also increase the risk of injury. This study uses data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the extent to which adolescents' easy access to firearms at home increases the risk of violent offending and violent victimization. Access to firearms was higher for males, Whites, and adolescents having two parents, especially fathers. Current access to firearms at home significantly increased the odds of both violent offending and violent victimization, even after controlling for prior access, prior offending, and prior victimization. This relationship persisted into early adulthood; access to firearms still significantly increased the odds of violent offending and violent victimization.

  16. Emotional facial recognition in proactive and reactive violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Philipp-Wiegmann, Florence; Rösler, Michael; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Retz, Wolfgang

    2017-03-03

    The purpose of this study is to analyse individual differences in the ability of emotional facial recognition in violent offenders, who were characterised as either reactive or proactive in relation to their offending. In accordance with findings of our previous study, we expected higher impairments in facial recognition in reactive than proactive violent offenders. To assess the ability to recognize facial expressions, the computer-based Facial Emotional Expression Labeling Test (FEEL) was performed. Group allocation of reactive und proactive violent offenders and assessment of psychopathic traits were performed by an independent forensic expert using rating scales (PROREA, PCL-SV). Compared to proactive violent offenders and controls, the performance of emotion recognition in the reactive offender group was significantly lower, both in total and especially in recognition of negative emotions such as anxiety (d = -1.29), sadness (d = -1.54), and disgust (d = -1.11). Furthermore, reactive violent offenders showed a tendency to interpret non-anger emotions as anger. In contrast, proactive violent offenders performed as well as controls. General and specific deficits in reactive violent offenders are in line with the results of our previous study and correspond to predictions of the Integrated Emotion System (IES, 7) and the hostile attribution processes (21). Due to the different error pattern in the FEEL test, the theoretical distinction between proactive and reactive aggression can be supported based on emotion recognition, even though aggression itself is always a heterogeneous act rather than a distinct one-dimensional concept.

  17. Prevention of Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Miller, Laurie S.; Cothern, Lynn

    This bulletin explores the proximal risk factors for juvenile offending, reviews the early developmental precursors to violent offending, and summarizes approaches to prevention. It also discusses components of intervention programs, limitations of single-focus prevention, examples of multi systemic interventions, and limitations of prevention…

  18. Pathways to Early Violent Death: The Voices of Serious Violent Youth Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joseph B.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies have uncovered factors associated with early violent death among youth offenders detained in the juvenile justice system, but little is known about the contextual factors associated with pathways to early violent death among youths detained in adult jails. We interviewed young Black male serious violent youth offenders detained in an adult jail to understand their experience of violence. Their narratives reveal how the code of the street, informal rules that govern interpersonal violence among poor inner-city Black male youths, increases the likelihood of violent victimization. Youth offenders detained in adult jails have the lowest rate of service provision among all jail populations. We have addressed how services for youth offenders can be improved to reduce the pathways to early violent death. PMID:23678923

  19. Can we distinguish juvenile violent sex offenders, violent non-sex offenders, and versatile violent sex offenders based on childhood risk factors?

    PubMed

    Wanklyn, Sonya G; Ward, Ashley K; Cormier, Nicole S; Day, David M; Newman, Jennifer E

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature regarding the generalist and specialist positions of criminal behavior, the aim of the present study was to compare childhood risk factors for three groups of juvenile offenders: (a) pure sex offenders (PSO; n = 28); (b) violent non-sex offenders (VNSO; n = 172); and (c) versatile violent sex offenders (VVSO; n = 24). Nineteen risk factors comprising four life domains (individual, family, peer, and school) were identified from a file review. Three hierarchical logistic regression analyses examined associations between risk factors and offender groups. The results reflected the underlying heterogeneity of the sample, offering support for both the specialist and generalist positions of criminal behavior. PSOs differed from VNSOs on the basis of higher odds for precocious sexual behavior. Second, VVSOs differed from VNSOs on the basis of higher odds for precocious sexual behavior, criminal family members, and an adolescent mother, as well as lower odds for poor school behavior. Third, PSOs were marginally more likely to have engaged in early overt antisocial behavior compared with VVSOs. Fourth, many of the childhood risk factors examined were not associated with any offender group. In conclusion, VVSOs appeared to differ on the greatest number of risk factors from VNSOs, suggesting that VVSOs share a more similar developmental pathway with PSOs. The prevention and future research implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. A dopamine gene (DRD2) distinguishes between offenders who have and have not been violently victimized.

    PubMed

    Vaske, Jamie; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that offenders, on average, are more likely to be violently victimized than nonoffenders. However, a substantial percentage of offenders are not violently victimized. The current study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate whether variants of a polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) distinguish between offenders who are violently victimized and offenders who are not violently victimized. The results show that offenders who are violently victimized are more likely to carry the DRD2 (A1) risk allele than offenders who have not been violently victimized.

  1. Easy Access to Firearms: Juveniles' Risks for Violent Offending and Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruback, R. Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N.; Clark, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Keeping firearms at home may increase personal safety but it may also increase the risk of injury. This study uses data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the extent to which adolescents' easy access to firearms at home increases the risk of violent offending and violent victimization. Access to…

  2. The Factor Structure of the Aggression Questionnaire With Violent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Cathrine; Nunes, Kevin L; Cortoni, Franca

    2017-02-01

    The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) is a self-report measure of aggressiveness commonly employed in nonforensic and forensic settings and is included in violent offender pre- and posttreatment assessment batteries. The aim of the current study was to assess the fit of the four-factor model of the AQ with violent offenders ( N = 271), a population for which the factor structure of the English version of the AQ has not previously been examined. Confirmatory factor analyses did not yield support for the four-factor model of the original 29-item AQ. Acceptable fit was obtained with the 12-item short form, but careful examination of the relationships between the latent factors revealed that the four subscales of the AQ may not represent distinct aspects of aggressiveness. Our findings call into question whether the AQ optimally measures trait aggressiveness among violent offenders.

  3. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction.

    PubMed

    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-02-16

    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control.

  4. Emotional expression recognition and attribution bias among sexual and violent offenders: a signal detection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Research with violent offenders has consistently shown impaired recognition of other’s facial expressions of emotion. However, the extent to which similar problems can be observed among sexual offenders remains unknown. Using a computerized task, we presented sexual and violent offenders, and non-offenders, with male and female expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, morphed with neutral expressions at varying levels of intensity (10, 55, and 90% expressive). Based on signal detection theory, we used hit rates and false alarms to calculate the sensitivity index d-prime (d′) and criterion (c) for each emotional expression. Overall, sexual offenders showed reduced sensitivity to emotional expressions across intensity, sex, and type of expression, compared with non-offenders, while both sexual and violent offenders showed particular reduced sensitivity to fearful expressions. We also observed specific effects for high (90%) intensity female faces, with sexual offenders showing reduced sensitivity to anger compared with non-offenders and violent offenders, and reduced sensitivity to disgust compared with non-offenders. Furthermore, both sexual and violent offenders showed impaired sensitivity to high intensity female fearful expressions compared with non-offenders. Violent offenders also showed a higher criterion for classifying moderate and high intensity male expressions as fearful, indicative of a more conservative response style, compared with angry, happy, or sad. These results suggest that both types of offender show problems in emotion recognition, and may have implications for understanding the inhibition of violent and sexually violent behaviors. PMID:26029137

  5. Linking Violent Thinking: Implicit Theory-Based Research with Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polaschek, Devon L. L.; Calvert, Susan W.; Gannon, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Violent offenders often articulate offense-supportive cognitions during rehabilitation, yet these statements have received little theoretical attention, and intervention approaches have targeted each type of statement individually, as if they were unrelated. An implicit theory approach to cognitions has proved fruitful for research and…

  6. Psychopathic and Non-Psychopathic Alcoholic Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…

  7. Toward a Clinically Meaningful Taxonomy of Violent Offenders: The Role of Anger and Thinking Styles.

    PubMed

    Low, Kyra; Day, Andrew

    2015-05-22

    Violent offender rehabilitation programs aim to reduce the risk of re-offending in known offenders by addressing a range of different treatments needs, often with core intervention targets of improving anger regulation and altering antisocial beliefs and thinking styles. Such programs have proven efficacy in reducing recidivism for some, but not all, violent offenders, and little is known about the effects of these programs on different offender types. This study investigates whether subtypes of violent offenders can be meaningfully identified and considers how this influences short-term treatment outcomes. Cluster analysis identified three distinctive violent offender groups within a sample of 305 male offenders who had been assessed for participation in a violent offender rehabilitation program. An "unregulated" group had high levels of anger experience and expression and low levels of anger control, and held beliefs that were strongly supportive of a criminal lifestyle. A "regulated" group demonstrated levels of anger and beliefs supporting criminal activity that were not in a range that warranted treatment. Finally, an "overregulated" group was assessed as the group at highest risk of violent re-offending and had low levels of anger experience and expression and an absence of beliefs supporting criminal activity. The unregulated group appeared to gain the most benefit from treatment, although it had the highest levels of criminal thinking and problematic anger. These findings nonetheless offer support for the hypothesis that violent offender treatment programs may be optimally effective when targeted at particular types of offenders.

  8. Distinguishing juvenile homicide from violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    DiCataldo, Frank; Everett, Meghan

    2008-04-01

    Juvenile homicide is a social problem that has remained a central focus within juvenile justice research in recent years. The term juvenile murderer describes a legal category, but it is purported to have significant scientific meaning. Research has attempted to conceptualize adolescent murderers as a clinical category that can be reliably distinguished from their nonhomicidal counterparts. This study examined 33 adolescents adjudicated delinquent or awaiting trial for murder and 38 adolescents who committed violent, nonhomicidal offenses to determine whether the two groups differed significantly on family history, early development, delinquency history, mental health, and weapon possession variables. The nonhomicide group proved more problematic on many of these measures. Two key factors did distinguish the homicide group: These adolescents endorsed the greater availability of guns and substance abuse at the time of their commitment offenses. The significance of this finding is discussed, and the implications for risk management and policy are reviewed.

  9. Prefrontal brain asymmetry and aggression in imprisoned violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Keune, Philipp M; van der Heiden, Linda; Várkuti, Bálint; Konicar, Lilian; Veit, Ralf; Birbaumer, Niels

    2012-05-02

    Anterior brain asymmetry, assessed through the alpha and beta band in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) is associated with approach-related behavioral dispositions, particularly with aggression in the general population. To date, the association between frontal asymmetry and aggression has not been examined in highly aggressive groups. We examined the topographic characteristics of alpha and beta activity, the relation of both asymmetry metrics to trait aggression, and whether alpha asymmetry was extreme in anterior regions according to clinical standards in a group of imprisoned violent offenders. As expected, these individuals were characterized by stronger right than left-hemispheric alpha activity, which was putatively extreme in anterior regions in one third of the cases. We also report that in line with observations made in the general population, aggression was associated with stronger right-frontal alpha activity in these violent individuals. This suggests that frontal alpha asymmetry, as a correlate of trait aggression, might be utilizable as an outcome measure in studies which assess the effects of anti-aggressiveness training in violent offenders.

  10. Alcohol, intelligence and violent crime in young males.

    PubMed

    Welte, J W; Wieczorek, W F

    1998-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a relationship between alcohol and violent behavior, but proof of a causal connection remains elusive. A recent review concluded that the key task that remained was to identify sub-groups of the population for which alcohol promotes violence. Because alcohol might induce violence by causing cognitive disruption (e.g., misunderstood communication), less intelligent persons could be vulnerable because they start out closer to the lower limit of comprehension. Our objective is to investigate the effect of lower intelligence on the alcohol/violence relationship. This analysis uses data from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men to investigate this hypothesis. Males, 16 to 19 years of age (N = 596), were selected from Buffalo, NY, by random digit dialing. High-risk males were oversampled. Two interviews were conducted 18 months apart, including drinking, criminal offenses, and psychological traits. Verbal intelligence was measured by the Ammons Quick Test and visual-motor intelligence by the Trail Making Test. An analysis of covariance was conducted with wave 2 average alcohol consumption and both measures of intelligence as independent variables, violent offending as the dependent variable, and race, wave 1 alcohol and wave 1 violence as covariates. Results show a positive main effect of wave 2 alcohol consumption, but also interactions with both verbal and visual-motor intelligence. These interactions indicate that the prevalence of violence increases significantly at low intelligence and high alcohol consumption levels. A parallel analysis with nonviolent offending as the dependent variable failed to find significant interactions. The combination of heavy drinking and lower intelligence is associated with a synergistic surge of violent behavior.

  11. Evaluation of the Multiple Offender Alcoholism Project: Quasiexperimental Evaluation Strategy with a Focus on Individual Change and Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Frank R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Development, implementation, and evaluation of a treatment program for 222 violent criminal offenders with alcohol abuse or alcoholism are described. Evaluation of the program, with quasi-experimental techniques, shows that active program clients engage in fewer violent crimes and show improved life functioning in employment and social adjustment…

  12. School and Community Interventions To Prevent Serious and Violent Offending. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Loeber, Rolf; McKinney, Kay C.

    Recent research indicates that children exposed to certain risk factors in their families, at school, among their peers, and in their communities are at greater risk of becoming serious violent juvenile (SVJ) offenders. The Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, a group of 22 researchers convened by the Office of Juvenile Justice…

  13. Aggression and attitudes to time and risk in weapon-using violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Iain R; Moore, Simon C; Shepherd, Jonathan P

    2010-08-15

    The use of weapons in violence increases both the severity of harm to victims and the severity of legal consequences for offenders, but little is known of the characteristics of violent offenders who choose to use weapons. Levels of anger, attitude to risk, time discounting, and antisocial history among a sample of weapon-using violent offenders (n=15) were compared to violent offenders who had not used a weapon (n=10) and nonviolent offenders (n=15). Results showed that weapon-using violent offenders displayed greater trait aggression and were more risk seeking than other offender types. In addition, weapon-using violent offenders were first convicted at an earlier age and truanted from school more frequently compared to other offender types. The results indicate that weapon users are more aggressive and more risk taking, but no more present focused than other violent and nonviolent offenders. Further research into the cognitive and social factors that influence weapon use is required if this dangerous behavior is to be reduced.

  14. Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most previous studies on mortality in violent offenders or victims are based on prison or hospital samples, while this study analyzed overall and cause specific mortality among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims in a general sample of 48,834 18-20 year-old men conscripted for military service in 1969/70 in Sweden. Methods Each person completed two non-anonymous questionnaires concerning family, psychological, and behavioral factors. The cohort was followed for 35 years through official registers regarding violent offenses, victimization, and mortality. The impact of violence, victimization, early risk factors and hospitalization for psychiatric diagnosis or alcohol and drug misuse during follow up on mortality was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results Repeat violent offenses were associated with an eleven fold higher hazard of dying from a substance-related cause and nearly fourfold higher hazard of dying from suicide. These figures remained significantly elevated also in multivariate analyses, with a 3.03 and 2.39 hazard ratio (HR), respectively. Participants with experience of violence and inpatient care for substance abuse or psychiatric disorder had about a two to threefold higher risk of dying compared to participants with no substance use or psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Violent offending and being victimized are associated with excess mortality and a risk of dying from an alcohol or drug-related cause or suicide. Consequently, prevention of violent behavior might have an effect on overall mortality and suicide rates. Prevention of alcohol and drug use is also warranted. PMID:22251445

  15. Neurodevelopmental disorders in young violent offenders: Overlap and background characteristics.

    PubMed

    Billstedt, Eva; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Wallinius, Märta; Hofvander, Björn

    2017-03-06

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), tic disorder, intellectual disability (ID)), in prison populations have received increased attention but the focus has generally been on one single condition leaving out the global picture. This study assessed the prevalence and overlap of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a consecutive cohort (n=270) of young adult male offenders (age 18-25 years), sentenced for "hands-on" violent offences and serving prison time in Swedish prisons. Seventy-one percent of all who met inclusion criteria participated. Comprehensive clinical assessments were carried out including history of early antisocial behavior and maladjustment, self-report questionnaires and an intelligence test. Sixty-three percent of the study group met DSM-IV criteria for childhood ADHD, 43% for ADHD in adulthood, 10% met criteria for an ASD, 6% for Tourette syndrome, and 1% for ID. Twenty-two percent had borderline intellectual functioning. A substantial rate of overlap between the NDDs was found. The combined NDD group had an earlier onset of antisocial behavior, had more aggressive behavior and lower school achievements than the non-NDD group. The results highlight the need for prison and probation services to be attentive of and screen for neurodevelopmental disorders in young violent offenders.

  16. A Comparison of Pacific, Māori, and European Violent Youth Offenders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ioane, Julia; Lambie, Ian; Percival, Teuila

    2016-05-01

    Pacific Island and Māori youth are disproportionately overrepresented in Aotearoa/New Zealand in violent offending. To date, research has not examined Pacific Island violent youth offenders in comparison with other ethnic populations. This study compared Pacific Island violent youth offenders with Māori and European violent youth offenders to determine whether similarities or differences existed in their offending, social, and demographic characteristics. Findings showed that Pacific Island violent youth offenders, in comparison with Māori and European violent youth offenders, were more likely to have grown up in the lowest socioeconomic deprivation areas in New Zealand, were more likely to be older when they first started offending, and their first offence was more likely to be of a serious, violent nature. Family violence was present among all three ethnic groups highlighting the ongoing importance of intervention in this area. The findings of the current study are likely to have implications for government department policy makers, along with program providers and practitioners. Recommendations are made regarding clinical implications and future research on this population.

  17. Examining the Relationship between Problem History and Violent Offending in High-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Veysey, Bonita M.; Dorangrichia, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners continually attempt to develop and implement strategies that address the onset and continuance of violent behavior in young people. Researchers in multiple disciplines have identified risk factors that predispose young people to later violent offending (e.g., school performance, demographic…

  18. Psychopathy, intelligence, and impulsivity in German violent offenders.

    PubMed

    de Tribolet-Hardy, Fanny; Vohs, Knut; Mokros, Andreas; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported numerous correlations between psychopathy and various personality traits, behavioural tendencies or clinical characteristics. The present study examined in greater depth the relationships between the components of psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and intelligence as well as impulsivity. A total of ninety male violent offenders were recruited from a prison and a forensic-psychiatric hospital in Germany. All of the subjects were assessed using the PCL-R, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and a short version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WIP). As expected, a canonical correlation analysis showed a negative association between spatial intelligence and the Factor 2 subtotal on the PCL-R (reckless lifestyle/antisociality). In addition, our results agreed with the assumption of an association between impulsivity and the subtotal for PCL-R Factor 2. The positive relationship between verbal intelligence and the subtotal for Factor 1 of the PCL-R (insincere, manipulative conduct/affective deficits) vanished after controlling for educational level. The results indicate that there is a relationship between the spatial components of intelligence and the concept of psychopathy as described by Hare. This result supports the spatial impairment aetiological model of antisocial behaviour.

  19. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: A sibling-comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly due to increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Since severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers’ age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born 1958–1979 (n=2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course-persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending. PMID:22781852

  20. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  1. Reduced transfer of affective value to instrumental behavior in violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Ly, Verena; von Borries, Anna Katinka Louise; Brazil, Inti Angelo; Bulten, Behrend Hendrik; Cools, Roshan; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental or goal-directed aggression is a core feature in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. To understand this type of behavior, previous work in the field of aggression has focused on affective processing, with mixed results. We propose that instrumental aggression is best understood in terms of the consequences of affective processing for instrumental behavior rather than affective processing per se. Therefore, we assessed the degree of affective biasing of instrumental action in a group of violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies and healthy controls using a validated affective decision-making task. Participants learned whole body approach-avoidance actions upon instrumental targets based on monetary feedback, while being primed by aversive versus appetitive facial stimuli. Unlike controls, instrumental behavior in violent offenders was not influenced by the affective stimuli. Specifically, violent offenders showed reduced instrumental avoidance in the context of aversive (vs. appetitive) stimuli relative to controls. This finding suggests that reduced affective biasing of instrumental behavior may underlie the behavioral anomalies observed in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. More generally, the finding underscores the relevance of examining the interaction between affect and instrumental behavior for a better understanding of dysfunctional behaviors in psychiatric populations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state"…

  3. Moral reasoning, executive function, and personality in violent and nonviolent adult offenders.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Rebekkah; Valliant, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate moral reasoning and personality, inmates from a maximum security jail were administered the Porteus Maze, the Defining Issues Test, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-168, and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. Scores of 20 violent and 19 nonviolent offenders were compared. The control group consisted of 20 university students who indicated they did not have criminal ords. All were over the age of 18. Analysis showed the violent offenders had mature moral reasoning and were more elevated on the Antiestablishment scale of the Defining Issues Test. Furthermore, inmates displayed significantly elevated scores on depression, Psychopathic Deviance, and Social Introversion relative to the control group.

  4. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim-offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim-offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed.

  5. 28 CFR 91.5 - Violent Offender Incarceration Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., a state, or states organized as multi-state compacts, must meet the requirements of section 91.3(b... 1 violent crimes reported by such state to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 1993 bears to the number of Part 1 violent crimes reported by all states to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for...

  6. 28 CFR 91.5 - Violent Offender Incarceration Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., a state, or states organized as multi-state compacts, must meet the requirements of section 91.3(b... 1 violent crimes reported by such state to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 1993 bears to the number of Part 1 violent crimes reported by all states to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for...

  7. 28 CFR 91.5 - Violent Offender Incarceration Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., a state, or states organized as multi-state compacts, must meet the requirements of section 91.3(b... 1 violent crimes reported by such state to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 1993 bears to the number of Part 1 violent crimes reported by all states to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for...

  8. 28 CFR 91.5 - Violent Offender Incarceration Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., a state, or states organized as multi-state compacts, must meet the requirements of section 91.3(b... 1 violent crimes reported by such state to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 1993 bears to the number of Part 1 violent crimes reported by all states to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for...

  9. 28 CFR 91.5 - Violent Offender Incarceration Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., a state, or states organized as multi-state compacts, must meet the requirements of section 91.3(b... 1 violent crimes reported by such state to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 1993 bears to the number of Part 1 violent crimes reported by all states to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for...

  10. Violent Offending Among Juveniles: A 7-year Longitudinal Study of Recidivism, Desistance, and Associations With Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hein, Sascha; Barbot, Baptiste; Square, Amanda; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine Foley; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-04-06

    Serious and violent offending among juveniles is a consistent concern of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, yet the development of violent offending remains poorly understood because of limited availability of relevant data, small sample sizes, and shortage of longitudinal data sets. This study analyzed developmental patterns of violent offending over 7 years in the complete population of court-referred youth in Connecticut between 2006 and 2012 (N = 58,678; mean age at first offense = 14.7 years). This unique dataset provided several key findings: First, results from a latent class growth analysis showed that violent crimes peaked at age 14-15, with high-rate adolescent offenders (3.7% of the sample) accounting for 31.9% of all violent offenses. Further, 74.2% of this group desisted from violent crimes in adulthood. Higher levels of self-reported anger/irritability slightly increased the odds of violent recidivism (odds ratio, OR = 1.09), where higher levels of depression/anxiety depressed the odds (OR = 0.89). The overrepresentation of males, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic youth among high-rate adolescence offenders were traceable through adolescence but not beyond the age of 18. Together, these finding may help to inform new delinquency interventions that target the needs of this proportionally small group of violent adolescent offenders accounting for a large amount of violent crimes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Violent offenders respond to provocations with high amygdala and striatal reactivity.

    PubMed

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; MacDonald Fisher, Patrick; Vadskjær Hjordt, Liv; Perfalk, Erik; Persson Skibsted, Anine; Bock, Camilla; Ohlhues Baandrup, Anders; Deen Christensen, Marie; Thomsen, Carsten; Sestoft, Dorte; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-03-08

    The ability to successfully suppress impulses and angry affect is fundamental to control aggressive reactions following provocations. The aim of this study was to examine neural responses to provocations and aggression using a laboratory model of reactive aggression. We used a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging point-subtraction aggression paradigm in 44 men, of whom 18 were incarcerated violent offenders and 26 were control non-offenders. We measured brain activation following provocations (monetary subtractions), while the subjects had the possibility to behave aggressively or pursue monetary rewards. The violent offenders behaved more aggressively than controls (aggression frequency 150 vs. 84, p = 0.03) and showed significantly higher brain reactivity to provocations within the amygdala and striatum, as well as reduced amygdala-prefrontal and striato-prefrontal connectivity. Amygdala reactivity to provocations was positively correlated with task-related behavior in the violent offenders. Across groups, striatal and prefrontal reactivity to provocations were positively associated with trait anger and trait aggression. These results suggest that violent individuals display abnormally high neural sensitivity to social provocations, a sensitivity related to aggressive behavior. These findings provide novel insight into the neural pathways that are sensitive to provocations, which is critical to more effectively shape interventions that aim to reduce pathological aggressive behavior.

  12. Reentry Works: The Implementation and Effectiveness of a Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Bergeron, Lindsey E.

    2006-01-01

    Spurred by large increases in prison populations and other recent sentencing and correctional trends, the federal government has supported the development and implementation of Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiatives (SVORI) nationwide. While existing research demonstrates the effectiveness of the separate components of these programs…

  13. Growing Up behind Bars: An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Inmates in a Cottage for Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to direct attention inside the walls of a juvenile correctional facility to closely examine the experiences and daily lives of adolescent inmates. The ethnographic data for this study were collected through participant-observation and extended interactions in a cottage for violent male offenders in one state's…

  14. Institutional Misconduct, Delinquent Background, and Rearrest Frequency among Serious and Violent Delinquent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trulson, Chad R.; DeLisi, Matt; Marquart, James W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of institutional misconduct to postrelease rearrest, controlling for a battery of preincarceration variables typically found to influence recidivism among institutionalized delinquent offenders. Based on data from 1,804 serious and violent male delinquents released from a large southern juvenile correctional…

  15. Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders: Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a comprehensive strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders developed by the United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. It notes that the program described can be implemented at the state, county, or local level. The introduction presents statistics on violent…

  16. Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Schimmenti, Adriano; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between early traumatic experiences of abuse/neglect and criminal behaviour has been widely demonstrated. Less is known, however, about the relationship between these experiences and the development of psychopathic personality. Objective This study investigated childhood relational trauma in a group of violent offenders from Italy. We hypothesised a higher level of early relational trauma associated with higher scores on psychopathy. Method Twenty-two offenders convicted for violent crimes aged 22–60 (M=38, SD=11) participated in this study. Participants were selected by the Italian justice system for an experimental research programme aiming at the evaluation of psychopathic personality traits among violent offenders. Within the group, 14 participants (64%) had committed murder, 4 (18%) had committed rape, and 4 (18%) were convicted child sex offenders. The Traumatic Experience Checklist was used to assess childhood relational trauma; the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R) was used to assess psychopathy. Results There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits. PMID:24371511

  17. Violent Crime in the Lives of Homeless Female Ex-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Salem, Benissa E; Hall, Elizabeth; Oleskowicz, Tanya; Ekstrand, Maria; Yadav, Kartik; Toyama, Joy; Turner, Susan; Faucette, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The cyclical pattern of violence in the lives of homeless female ex-offenders may precipitate ongoing substance use and recidivism; all of which have shown to be mounting public health issues affecting successful reentry. This paper, which analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of 126 female ex-offenders in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, highlighted the factors found to be associated with violent crime among homeless female ex-offenders. A multiple logistic regression model for whether or not the last conviction was for a violent offense indicated that poor housing (p = .011) and self-reported anger or hostility (p < .001) were significant correlates. An ordinal regression model for the number of violent offenses also indicated that affectionate support was associated with committing fewer number of violent crimes (p = .001), while positive social interactions (p = .007), and anger/hostility (p = .015) were associated with greater number of violent crimes. Implications for developing a comprehensive array of strategies that can mitigate the pattern of violence often seen in the lives of homeless female who have recently exited jails and prisons is discussed.

  18. Psychopathy (PCL-R) as a predictor of violent recidivism among criminal offenders with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tengström, A; Grann, M; Långström, N; Kullgren, G

    2000-02-01

    Hare's Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) was used to test the hypothesis that psychopathy predicts violent recidivism in a cohort subjected to forensic psychiatric investigation and consisting of male violent offenders with schizophrenia (N = 202). Psychopathy was assessed with retrospective file-based ratings. Mean follow-up time after detainment was 51 months. Twenty-two percent of the offenders had a PCL-R score > or = 26 (cutoff), and the base rate for violent recidivism (reconvictions) during follow-up was 21%. Survival analysis revealed that psychopathy was strongly associated to violent recidivism (log-rank = 17.71, df = 1, p < 0.0001). The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of PCL-R total score to predict violent recidivism varied between different time frames from .64 to .75. Cox regression analyses revealed that other potential risk factors could not equally well or better explain violent recidivism in the cohort than psychopathy as measured by PCL-R.

  19. Cognitive and Behavioral Preoccupation With Alcohol in Recidivist DUI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A high proportion of individuals convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) are repeat offenders. Efforts have sought to identify specific factors underlying DUI recidivism. Of particular interest is the role that alcohol-related cognitions might play in the development and escalation of alcohol use. The present study investigated the degree to which preoccupation with, and attentional bias to, alcohol are heightened among repeat DUI offenders. Method: Three groups of participants (recidivist DUI offenders, first-time offenders, and controls; n = 20 per group) performed a visual probe task to measure attentional bias and completed questionnaires regarding their cognitive and emotional preoccupation with alcohol and drinking habits. Results: Recidivist offenders displayed a significantly heightened alcohol attentional bias and reported greater preoccupation with alcohol compared with both first-time offenders and controls. By contrast, none of the groups differed with regard to the self-reported quantity and frequency of their consumption. Conclusions: Factors reflecting preoccupation with alcohol have utility for differentiating recidivist offenders from both first-time offenders and nonoffenders. These findings highlight the value of moving beyond self-reported assessments of drinking patterns toward assessing specific cognitive and behavioral characteristics that can improve our understanding, assessment, and treatment of the problem of DUI recidivism. PMID:25343660

  20. Neurophysiological correlates of error monitoring and inhibitory processing in juvenile violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Vilà-Balló, Adrià; Hdez-Lafuente, Prado; Rostan, Carles; Cunillera, Toni; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Performance monitoring is crucial for well-adapted behavior. Offenders typically have a pervasive repetition of harmful-impulsive behaviors, despite an awareness of the negative consequences of their actions. However, the link between performance monitoring and aggressive behavior in juvenile offenders has not been closely investigated. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate performance monitoring in juvenile non-psychopathic violent offenders compared with a well-matched control group. Two ERP components associated with error monitoring, error-related negativity (ERN) and error-positivity (Pe), and two components related to inhibitory processing, the stop-N2 and stop-P3 components, were evaluated using a combined flanker-stop-signal task. The results showed that the amplitudes of the ERN, the stop-N2, the stop-P3, and the standard P3 components were clearly reduced in the offenders group. Remarkably, no differences were observed for the Pe. At the behavioral level, slower stop-signal reaction times were identified for offenders, which indicated diminished inhibitory processing. The present results suggest that the monitoring of one's own behavior is affected in juvenile violent offenders. Specifically, we determined that different aspects of executive function were affected in the studied offenders, including error processing (reduced ERN) and response inhibition (reduced N2 and P3). However, error awareness and compensatory post-error adjustment processes (error correction) were unaffected. The current pattern of results highlights the role of performance monitoring in the acquisition and maintenance of externalizing harmful behavior that is frequently observed in juvenile offenders.

  1. Solo and Multi-Offenders Who Commit Stranger Kidnapping: An Assessment of Factors That Correlate With Violent Events.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Shannon N; Vandiver, Donna M

    2016-03-06

    Research has demonstrated that co-offending dyads and groups often use more violence than individual offenders. Despite the attention given to co-offending by the research community, kidnapping remains understudied. Stranger kidnappings are more likely than non-stranger kidnappings to involve the use of a weapon. Public fear of stranger kidnapping warrants further examination of this specific crime, including differences between those committed by solo and multi-offender groups. The current study uses National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data to assess differences in use of violence among 4,912 stranger kidnappings by solo offenders and multi-offender groups using cross-tabulations, ordinal regression, and logistic regression. The results indicate that violent factors are significantly more common in multi-offender incidents, and that multi-offender groups have fewer arrests than solo offenders. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  3. Suicide Risk among Violent and Sexual Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Roger T.; Shaw, Jenny; Stevens, Hanne; Mortensen, Preben B.; Appleby, Louis; Qin, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Risk of suicide in people who have perpetrated specific forms of violent or sexual criminal offenses has not been quantified accurately or precisely. Also, gender comparisons have not been possible due to sparse data problems in the smaller studies that have been conducted to date. We therefore aimed to estimate these effects in the whole Danish…

  4. Cool and Hot Executive Function Impairments in Violent Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder with and without Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, Stephane A.; Viding, Essi; Kumari, Veena; Blackwood, Nigel; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2013-01-01

    Background Impairments in executive function characterize offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and offenders with psychopathy. However, the extent to which those impairments are associated with ASPD, psychopathy, or both is unknown. Methods The present study examined 17 violent offenders with ASPD and psychopathy (ASPD+P), 28 violent offenders with ASPD without psychopathy (ASPD−P), and 21 healthy non-offenders on tasks assessing cool (verbal working memory and alteration of motor responses to spatial locations) and hot (reversal learning, decision-making under risk, and stimulus-reinforcement-based decision-making) executive function. Results In comparison to healthy non-offenders, violent offenders with ASPD+P and those with ASPD−P showed similar impairments in verbal working memory and adaptive decision-making. They failed to learn from punishment cues, to change their behaviour in the face of changing contingencies, and made poorer quality decisions despite longer periods of deliberation. Intriguingly, the two groups of offenders did not differ significantly from the non-offenders in terms of their alteration of motor responses to spatial locations and their levels of risk-taking, indicated by betting, and impulsivity, measured as delay aversion. The performance of the two groups of offenders on the measures of cool and hot executive function did not differ, indicating shared deficits. Conclusions These documented impairments may help to explain the persistence of antisocial behaviours despite the known risks of the negative consequences of such behaviours. PMID:23840340

  5. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review.

    PubMed

    Ostrowsky, Michael K

    2016-08-31

    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.

  6. Should violent offenders be forced to undergo neurotechnological treatment? A critical discussion of the 'freedom of thought' objection.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk; Kragh, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we examine one reason for rejecting the view that violent offenders should be forced to undergo neurotechnological treatments (NTs) involving such therapies as psychoactive medication to curb violent behaviour. The reason is based on the concern that forced treatment violates the offender's right to freedom of thought. We argue that this objection can be challenged. First, we present some specifications of what a right to freedom of thought might mean. We focus on the recently published views of Jared Craig, and Jan Cristopher Bublitz and Reinhard Merkel. Second, we argue that forcing violent offenders to undergo certain kinds of NTs may not violate the offender's right to freedom of thought as that right is specified by Craig, and Bublitz and Merkel. Third, even if non-consensual NT is used in a way that does violate freedom of thought, such use can be difficult to abandon without inconsistency. For if one is not an abolitionist, and therefore accepts traditional state punishments for violent offenders like imprisonment-which, the evidence shows, often violate the offender's right to freedom of thought-then, it is argued, one will have reason to accept that violent offenders can legitimately be forced to undergo NT even if doing so denies them the right to freedom of thought.

  7. Informed Consent: An Ethical Issue in Conducting Research with Male Partner Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical codes help guide the methods of research that involve samples gathered from “at-risk” populations. The current paper reviews general as well as specific ethical principles related to gathering informed consent from partner violent offenders mandated to outpatient treatment, a group that may be at increased risk of unintentional coercion in behavioral sciences research due to court-mandates that require outpatient treatment without the ethical protections imbued upon prison populations. Recommendations are advanced to improve the process of informed consent within this special population and data supporting the utility of the recommendations in a sample 70 partner violent offenders are provided. Data demonstrate that participants were capable of comprehending all essential elements of consent. PMID:25892900

  8. Lightening Can Strike Twice: The Case for the Management and Control of Violent Offenders against Children in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, John F. T.; Jackson, Paul T.; Kelly, Margaret; Reid, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a case example to illustrate the need for robust arrangements manage violent offenders against children in Northern Ireland. It compares the legislative and policy framework used to deal with such offenders in England and Wales, demonstrating the more limited provisions in Northern Ireland. Within Northern Ireland, differing…

  9. Reasons for Alcohol Use in Maritally Violent Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Ronald W.; And Others

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with aggressive behaviors. This study compared the contexts and reasons for drinking of maritally violent men (N=44) and three maritally nonviolent comparison groups: happily married men (N=54), unhappily married men (N=41), and men who had been convicted of a violent offense, but who did not beat their…

  10. Childhood maltreatment and aggressive behaviour in violent offenders with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Malcolm, Charlotte; Attard, Stephen; Arenovich, Tamara; Blackwood, Nigel; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2013-08-01

    Objectif : Documenter les expériences de maltraitance dans l’enfance chez les délinquants violents souffrant du trouble de la personnalité antisociale (TPA) en distinguant entre ceux avec syndrome de psychopathie et sans (+P et –P), et déterminer si la maltraitance est associée à l’agressivité proactive et réactive. Méthode : L’échantillon comprenait 10 délinquants violents souffrant du TPA+P, 15 délinquants violents souffrant du TPA–P, et 15 non-délinquants. Tous les participants ont été interviewés par le même psychiatre légiste à propos des abus physiques, sexuels, et émotionnels subis avant l’âge de 18 ans, à l’aide de l’inventaire des traumatismes précoces. L’agressivité a été évaluée par le questionnaire de l’agressivité réactive–proactive. Résultats : Les délinquants violents souffrant du TPA+P rapportaient des abus physiques dans l’enfance significativement plus graves, mais pas plus d’abus sexuels ou émotionnels que les délinquants violents souffrant du TPA–P et que les non-délinquants. Les scores à la liste de contrôle révisée de la psychopathie (PCL-R), mais pas l’abus physique dans l’enfance, étaient associés à l’agressivité proactive. L’abus physique dans l’enfance était associé à l’agressivité réactive, comme l’était une interaction qui indiquait que lorsque les scores à la PCL-R et l’abus physique dans l’enfance étaient élevés, l’agressivité réactive l’était aussi. Conclusions : Chez les délinquants violents, les scores à la PCL-R étaient positivement associés à l’agressivité proactive, alors que les expériences de maltraitance dans l’enfance ne l’étaient pas. Ce résultat est en conformité avec les études précédentes d’enfants et d’adultes et suggère que l’agressivité proactive peut être un marqueur comportemental de traits psychopathiques. Par contre, l’abus physique dans l’enfance était associé à l

  11. High-Intensity Rehabilitation for Violent Offenders in New Zealand: Reconviction Outcomes for High- and Medium-Risk Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polaschek, Devon L. L.

    2011-01-01

    As the empirical evidence accumulates, so does confidence that carefully designed and delivered rehabilitation approaches can reduce risk. Yet little is known about how to rehabilitate some specialized groups, such as high-risk violent offenders: career criminals with an extensive history of violent behavior. Since 1998, New Zealand's Rimutaka…

  12. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  13. The relation between abuse and violent delinquency: The conversion of shame to blame in juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remains relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. Methods A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12 to 19 years; M = 15.6; SD = 1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Results Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Conclusions Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. Practice implications For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. PMID:21783253

  14. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Dean A.; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n=49) and non-violent (n=40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P<0.0001) association between low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles and violent crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P<0.01), but reached only a marginal trend (P=0.08) in their African American counterparts. While violent crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P<0.05) increase in BIS-11 total and attentional-impulsiveness scores. In summary, these findings support the role of MAOA gene as a prominent genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. PMID:25082653

  15. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders.

    PubMed

    Stetler, Dean A; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n = 49) and non-violent (n = 40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P < 0.0001) association between low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles and violent crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P < 0.01), but reached only a marginal trend (P = 0.08) in their African American counterparts. While violent crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P < 0.05) increase in BIS-11 total and attentional-impulsiveness scores. In summary, these findings support the role of MAOA gene as a prominent genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors.

  16. Violent crime and alcohol availability: relationships in an urban community.

    PubMed

    Speer, P W; Gorman, D M; Labouvie, E W; Ontkush, M J

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between violent crime, neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics, and alcohol outlet densities in Newark, New Jersey is reported, thus extending previous research of municipalities at more refined levels of analysis. Alcohol outlet densities were significant predictors in regression models, but rates of violent crime were better predicted in larger units (R2 = .673 for the census tract level vs. .543 at the census block group level). Alcohol outlet densities, however, were more predictive of violent crime at smaller units of analysis (change in R2 with the addition of alcohol outlet densities was .194 at the census tract level vs. .278 at the census block group level). Findings suggest that alcohol outlets represent a form of "undesirable land use" in urban neighborhoods that are a manifestation of increasingly concentrated economic disadvantage in the United States.

  17. Trauma changes everything: examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Perez, Nicholas; Cass, Elizabeth; Baglivio, Michael T; Epps, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Among juvenile offenders, those who commit the greatest number and the most violent offenses are referred to as serious, violent, and chronic (SVC) offenders. However, current practices typically identify SVC offenders only after they have committed their prolific and costly offenses. While several studies have examined risk factors of SVCs, no screening tool has been developed to identify children at risk of SVC offending. This study aims to examine how effective the adverse childhood experiences index, a childhood trauma-based screening tool developed in the medical field, is at identifying children at higher risk of SVC offending. Data on the history of childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, criminal behavior, and other criminological risk factors for offending among 22,575 delinquent youth referred to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice are analyzed, with results suggesting that each additional adverse experience a child experiences increases the risk of becoming a serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offender by 35, when controlling for other risk factors for criminal behavior. These findings suggest that the ACE score could be used by practitioners as a first-line screening tool to identify children at risk of SVC offending before significant downstream wreckage occurs.

  18. Risk reduction treatment of high-risk psychopathic offenders: the relationship of psychopathy and treatment change to violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Lewis, Kathy; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-04-01

    The relationships of psychopathy, therapeutic change, and violent recidivism were examined in a sample of 152 high-risk violent offenders treated in a high-intensity violence reduction program at the Regional Psychiatric Centre (RPC) in Saskatoon, SK. The Violence Risk Scale (VRS; Wong & Gordon, 1999-2003) and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) were rated on the sample. As an extension on a prior psychometric study of the VRS (Lewis, Olver, & Wong, 2012), the associations of therapeutic change scores, obtained from pre- and posttreatment ratings of VRS dynamic items, and violent recidivism were examined among high-risk psychopathic offenders (mean PCL-R >25) over approximately 5 years' follow-up. Positive therapeutic change correlated negatively with the PCL-R, particularly Factor 1 and the Affective facet, and was significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism after controlling for psychopathy. The association of change to violent outcome decreased, however, when controlling for the Affective facet. Taken together, the present results suggest that risk-related treatment changes demonstrated by high-risk psychopathic offenders can be predictive of reductions in violent recidivism, and that reliable measurements of therapeutic change may be informative about treatment outcome in a high-risk violent offender group.

  19. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk among Juvenile Drug Court Offenders

    PubMed Central

    TOLOU-SHAMS, MARINA; HOUCK, CHRISTOPHER D.; NUGENT, NICOLE; CONRAD, SELBY M.; REYES, AYANARIS; BROWN, LARRY K.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile drug courts (JDC) largely focus on marijuana and other drug use interventions. Yet, JDC offenders engage in other high-risk behaviors, such as alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, which can compromise their health, safety and drug court success. An examination of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among 52 male substance abusing young offenders found that over 50% were using alcohol, 37% reported current marijuana use and one-third of all sexual intercourse episodes were unprotected. After accounting for recent marijuana use, the odds of a juvenile having vaginal or anal sex was 6 times greater if they had recently used alcohol. Juvenile drug courts may benefit from delivering alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions to fully address the needs of these young offenders. PMID:22997487

  20. Identification of a cys-ser substitution in the 5-HT{sub 2C} (HTR2C) receptor gene and allelic association to violent behavior and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Lappalainen, J.; Ozaki, N.; Goldman, D.

    1994-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain serotonergic functions, including behavioral and neurochemical responses to 5-HT{sub 2C} agonist, are abnormal in some individuals with alcoholism and aggressive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify coding sequence variants in the human 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor gene which may cause abnormal or variant function of this receptor. Using SSCP analysis, a non-conservative cys-ser substitution was found in the 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor (designated 5-HT{sub 2Ccys} and 5-HT{sub 2Cser}). The polymorphism was typed in CEPH families to genetically map the gene. To test for association of the variant to alcoholism, violent behavior and serotonin function, the 5-HT{sub 2C} genotypes of 151 non-related Finnish male alcoholic violent offenders and impulsive fire setters and 127 Finnish psychiatrically interviewed healthy male volunteers were determined. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were available for 74 alcoholic violent offenders and 25 healthy volunteers. Linkage analysis placed the 5-HT{sub 2C} gene on Xq21, a region that has been previously shown to contain genes for several mental retardation syndromes. The 5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} genotype frequencies in alcoholic violent offenders and controls differed significantly (0.90/0.10 and 0.82/0.18, respectively, P=0.048). The association was found to be strongest in the violent offenders who did not fulfill the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} 0.93/0.07, p=0.021). No association was found between CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and 5-HT{sub 2C} genotype. These results implicate a 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor amino acid substitution in predisposition to alcohol abuse and violent behavior in a subgroup of alcoholics.

  1. Psychopathy (PCL-R) predicts violent recidivism among criminal offenders with personality disorders in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Grann, M; Långström, N; Tengström, A; Kullgren, G

    1999-04-01

    Psychopathy as conceptualized with Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised, PCL-R, has attracted much research during the 1990s. In the Scandinavian countries, few studies that empirically support the validity of North American risk assessment techniques in our regional context have been published. The purpose of this paper is to explore the predictive power of the PCL-R in a population of personality-disordered violent offenders subjected to forensic psychiatric evaluation in Sweden. Following release from prison (n = 172), discharge from forensic psychiatric treatment (n = 129), or probation (n = 51), a total of 352 individuals were followed for up to 8 years (mean = 3.7 years) with reconviction for violent crime as endpoint variable (base rate 34%). As the estimate of predictive power, the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic (AUC of ROC) analysis was calculated. For PCL-R scores to predict 2-year violent recidivism, AUC of ROC was .72 (95% CI: .66-.78). In addition, the personality dimension of psychopathy (Factor 1) and the behavioral component (Factor 2) both predicted 2-year recidivism significantly better than random: AUC of ROC .64 (95% CI: .57-.70) and .71 (95% CI: .65-.77), respectively. We conclude that psychopathy is probably as valid a predictor of violent recidivism in Swedish forensic settings as seen in previous North American studies.

  2. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders.

  3. A Gender-Specific Pathway to Serious, Violent, and Chronic Offending?: Exploring Howell's Risk Factors for Serious Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Pernilla; Kempf-Leonard, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In "Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency," Howell proposes a female-specific pathway to serious, violent, and chronic offending. Incorporating ideas from feminist research about risk factors for female delinquency, he proposes five distinct and interrelated risk factors--child abuse victimization, mental health problems, running…

  4. The Will of the People? The Public's Opinion of the Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Soler, Mark

    The Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997 (S-10) contains provisions that would affect youths arrested for criminal offenses and status offenses (acts that are not crimes if committed by adults). A telephone survey was conducted by Opinion Research Corporation to determine public opinions about the provisions of S-10. A national…

  5. Analysis of Selected State Laws Directed at Violent and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. Staff Brief 84-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Don; Haas, Shaun

    This staff brief discusses the juvenile justice system in five states which have enacted specific statutory provisions directed at the violent and chronic juvenile offender. Approaches adopted by California, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, and Washington are described which include: (1) various ways of automatically waiving or transferring youths…

  6. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation.

  7. Capital offenders in Texas prisons: rates, correlates, and an actuarial analysis of violent misconduct.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark Douglas; Sorensen, Jon R

    2007-12-01

    This study analyzed the records of 136 recently incarcerated capital murder offenders in the initial phase (M = 2.37 years, range = 6-40 months) of their life sentences in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Prevalence rates of institutional violence were inversely related to severity: potentially violent misconduct (36.8%), assaultive violations (14%), serious assaults (5.1%), and homicides (0%). Consistent with prior studies, factors correlated with assaultive misconduct included age (inversely), prior prison confinement, and concurrent robbery or burglary in the capital offense. A simplified Burgess scale entitled the Risk Assessment Scale for Prison-Capital (RASP-Cap) was moderately successful in identifying varying levels of improbability of committing violence-related misconduct however defined (AUC = .715-.766).

  8. Intoxication and violent women.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Putkonen, Hanna; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Eronen, Markku

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol and drugs have been linked to severe violent offending among women as well as men. The purpose of this study was to make a contribution to the limited knowledge of characteristics related to the state of intoxication in violent female offenders. The putative differences in the characteristics of female offenders and their violent offenses in relation to the state of intoxication at the time of the violent offending were examined. Of a nation-wide sample of 109 female offenders found guilty of homicide and other violent crimes and incarcerated in 1999-2000 in Finland, 60 offenders participated in the study. Of these offenders 49 (81.7%) had been intoxicated at the time the of index offenses. These were compared with 11 (18.3%) non-intoxicated offenders using a structured interview, the Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The prevalence of substance abuse or dependence (73.3% and 0%), personality disorder (89.6% and 36.4%), particularly antisocial personality disorder (66.7% and 0%), as well as a history of criminality (69.4% and 0%) were significantly higher among the intoxicated women than among the non-intoxicated. The PCL-R scores were also significantly higher among the intoxicated offenders than among non-intoxicated offenders. The victims of the intoxicated women (23.9%) were less often emotionally close to the perpetrator than were the victims of the non-intoxicated women (66.6%). No differences emerged between the groups in experiences of childhood and adulthood abuse or stressful life events prior to the index crime. The findings indicate that intoxicated violent female offenders exhibit more of the characteristics previously found in violent men, than do the non-intoxicated female offenders. Moreover, the non-intoxicated group comprises both psychotic non-responsible and non-psychotic, fairly well-adjusted women, who are educated, working or studying at the time of the offense

  9. Abuse in childhood and psychopathic traits in a sample of violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Schimmenti, Adriano; Di Carlo, Giovanbattista; Passanisi, Alessia; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    A significant body of research underlines the link between the exposure to abuse in childhood and subsequent criminal behaviors. Research on the role played by childhood interpersonal trauma in the development of psychopathy, however, is still scant. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and psychopathic traits in a group of violent offenders from Italy. Seventy-eight inmates who were convicted of violent crimes participated in this study. Participants were administered the Traumatic Experience Checklist to assess childhood experiences of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) to assess psychopathic traits. Almost two thirds of the participants reported either emotional, physical, or sexual abuse in childhood, with 17% having experienced all 3 types of abuse investigated in this study. Emotional abuse resulted in a positive predictor of PCL-R total scores and its Interpersonal-Affective and Lifestyle-Antisocial factors. This suggests that emotional abuse in childhood, in combination with neurobiological and temperamental vulnerabilities, can foster the development of psychopathic traits.

  10. Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits as predictors of violent and nonviolent offending behavior in men and women.

    PubMed

    Varley Thornton, Abigail J; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both violent and nonviolent offending behavior in a single, mixed-sex population. The rationale for this is that the two types of offending are usually researched separately, despite evidence that they overlap. A comprehensive measure of general violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), and nonviolent offending behavior was administered to 116 men and 181 women, together with measures of personality and personality disorder (PD) traits, to investigate whether predictors of violent and nonviolent offending were similar or different for men and women. Men were found to perpetrate higher levels of general violence and nonviolent offenses than women, but women perpetrated significantly more IPV than men. Cluster B PD traits predicted all three offense types for women and also men's general violence and nonviolent offending. Women's general violence and men's non-violence also had one unique risk factor each, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness, respectively. The main difference was for IPV, where men's IPV was predicted by cluster A PD traits, indicating that men's and women's risk factors for IPV may be different, although their risk factors for the other offense types were fairly consistent.

  11. Personality traits and behaviors of alcohol-impaired drivers: a comparison of first and multiple offenders.

    PubMed

    McMillen, D L; Adams, M S; Wells-Parker, E; Pang, M G; Anderson, B J

    1992-01-01

    Using an interview and questionnaire format, 358 driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) first offenders and 141 DUI multiple offenders were compared on measures of personality traits, drinking behavior and problems, and driving behavior and history. In addition, official driving records for the two groups were compared. Results indicated that multiple offenders were significantly higher in hostility, sensation seeking, psychopathic deviance, mania, and depression than first offenders. Multiple offenders were significantly lower in emotional adjustment and assertiveness. Multiple offenders had significantly more nontraffic arrests, accidents, and traffic tickets than first offenders. They also consumed significantly more alcohol, evidenced more alcohol problems, and had higher BACs at the time of arrest than first offenders. Results are discussed in terms of general problem behavior and implications for intervention and treatment.

  12. Violent Offending Promotes Appetitive Aggression Rather than Posttraumatic Stress—A Replication Study with Burundian Ex-Combatants

    PubMed Central

    Köbach, Anke; Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Westner, Britta; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression and not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc.) were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders—namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression—are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace. PMID:26696913

  13. Psychopathy and violence: Does antisocial cognition mediate the relationship between the PCL: YV factor scores and violent offending?

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; DeLisi, Matt

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether proactive and reactive antisocial cognition mediate the effect of Factors 1 (core personality features) and 2 (behavioral deviance) of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) on violent offending. In this study Bandura et al.'s (1996) Moral Disengagement (MD) scale and the Impulse Control (IC) scale of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI; Weinberger & Schwartz, 1990) served as proxies for proactive and reactive antisocial cognition, respectively. It was hypothesized that proactive antisocial cognition (MD) would mediate the Factor 1-violence relationship and that both proactive antisocial cognition and reactive antisocial cognition (IC) would mediate the Factor 2-violence relationship. A 3-wave path analysis of data from 1,354 adjudicated delinquents produced results consistent with the first part of the hypothesis (i.e., proactive antisocial mediation of the Factor 1-violence relationship) but inconsistent with the second part of the hypothesis (i.e., only proactive antisocial cognition mediated the Factor 2-violence relationship). Whereas the direct path from Factor 1 to violent offending was no longer significant when MD and IC were taken into account, the direct path from Factor 2 to violent offender remained significant even after MD and IC were included as mediators. This suggests that whereas proactive antisocial cognition plays a major role in mediating the Factor 1-violence relationship, the Factor 2-violence relationship is mediated by proactive antisocial cognition and variables not included or not adequately covered in the current study.

  14. Impaired social cognition in violent offenders: perceptual deficit or cognitive bias?

    PubMed

    Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Aggressive behavior is assumed to be associated with certain patterns of social information processing. While some theories link aggression to a tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli as hostile (i.e., enhanced sensitivity to anger), others assume an insufficient ability to perceive emotional expressions, particularly fear. Despite compelling evidence to support both theories, no previous study has directly investigated the predictions made by these two accounts in aggressive populations. The aim of the current study was to test processing patterns for angry and fearful facial expressions in violent offenders (VOs) and healthy controls (CTLs) and their association with self-reported aggression and psychopathy scores. In Experiment 1, we assessed perceptual sensitivity to neutral-emotional (angry, fearful, happy) blends in a task which did not require categorization, but an indication whether the stimulus is neutral or emotional. In Experiment 2, we assessed categorization performance for ambiguous fearful-happy and angry-happy blends. No group differences were revealed in Experiment 1, while Experiment 2 indicated a deficit in the categorization of ambiguous fearful blends in the VO group. Importantly, this deficit was associated with both self-reported psychopathy and aggression in the VO, but not the CTL group. The current study provides evidence for a deficient categorization of fearful expressions and its association with self-reported aggression and psychopathy in VOs, but no support for heightened sensitivity to anger. Furthermore, the current findings indicate that the deficit is tied to categorization but not detection stages of social information processing.

  15. Evaluation of a Court-Ordered MADD Presentation for Juvenile Alcohol and Drug Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theriot, Matthew T.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a court-ordered Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) presentation to prevent alcohol or drug-related recidivism among 247 juvenile alcohol and drug offenders. The presentation, which incorporates educational components with a victim awareness program, seeks to increase offenders' empathy and knowledge…

  16. Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) abuse in combination with alcohol causes premeditated, grievous violence in male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, A M; Lidberg, L

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on 19 juvenile offenders who were frequently intoxicated by flunitrazepam (FZ), almost exclusively under the brand name Rohypnol. Street names for Rohypnol tablets are Rophies, Ropies, Roofies, Ropes, Roches, Rochas, Rochas Dos, Rophs, Ropers, Ribs, R-25, Roach-2s, Trip and Fall, Remember All, Mind Erasers, Forget Pills, and the Date Rape Drug. An overdose of FZ gives an increased feeling of power and self-esteem, reduces fear and insecurity, and provides the belief that everything is possible. FZ is also associated with loss of episodic memory and with impulsive violence, particularly when combined with alcohol. The subjects were taken from a subpopulation of 47 male juvenile offenders from Swedish national correctional institutions. Background information for subjects was obtained by in-depth interviewing and personality inventories including the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Karolinska Scales of Personality. Data concerning previous criminal offenses was obtained from the Swedish National Police Board. Almost all of the FZ abusers had been previously sentenced for serious violent offenses. Our data suggest that FZ abused by psychiatrically vulnerable subjects (i.e., with high scores on boredom susceptibility and verbal aggression) poses a serious hazard both to the abusers as well as the community. Our results support the finding that FZ should be classified as a Schedule I drug (i.e., a drug similar to heavy narcotics).

  17. The Relationship between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Delinquent and Violent Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komro, Kelli A.; Williams, Carolyn L.; Forster, Jean L.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Stigler, Melissa H.

    1999-01-01

    Study analyzed the relationship between alcohol use, psychological risk, and delinquent and violent behaviors using self-reported data from eighth and ninth grade students from a small, rural town population. Results suggest that alcohol use is an independent risk factor for delinquent and violent behaviors among young people (Author/JDM)

  18. Victim's Response and Alcohol-Related Factors as Determinants of Women's Responses to Violent Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jeanette; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2004-01-01

    Women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study examined the role of specific situational cues embedded within a violent pornographic story, as well as alcohol consumption and alcohol expectancies, to determine potential mechanisms through which these effects occur. Female social drinkers (N=123),…

  19. Risk of Alcohol-Impaired Driving Recidivism Among First Offenders and Multiple Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Zador, Paul L.; Ahlin, Eileen M.; Howard, Jan M.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Duncan, G. Doug

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the statewide impact of having prior alcohol-impaired driving violations of any type on the rate of first occurrence or recidivism among drivers with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more prior violations in Maryland. Methods. We analyzed more than 100 million driver records from 1973 to 2004 and classified all Maryland drivers into 4 groups: those with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more prior violations. The violation rates for approximately 21 million drivers in these 4 groups were compared for the study period 1999 to 2004. Results. On average, there were 3.4, 24.3, 35.9, and 50.8 violations per 1000 drivers a year among those with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more priors, respectively. The relative risks for men compared with women among these groups of drivers were 3.8, 1.2, 1.0, and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions. The recidivism rate among first offenders more closely resembles that of second offenders than of nonoffenders. Men and women are at equal risk of recidivating once they have had a first violation documented. Any alcohol-impaired driving violation, not just convictions, is a marker for future recidivism. PMID:19846687

  20. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools.

  1. Interventions for alcohol-related offending by women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McMurran, Mary; Riemsma, Rob; Manning, Nathan; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2011-08-01

    Treatment programmes specifically for women offenders are under-developed. A systematic review of studies that could inform interventions for alcohol-related offending by women is reported. Three questions were addressed: 1) What is the most up to date knowledge of 'what works' with females who commit alcohol-related offences? 2) What are the identifiable risk-needs factors for non-alcohol dependent women who commit offences involving alcohol misuse? 3) Are there differences between male and female alcohol-related offending? Four studies addressed the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions; three addressed identifiable risk-needs; and 19 addressed differences between male and female offenders' alcohol-related offending. Heterogeneity of these studies precluded meta-analyses, and so a narrative synthesis method was used. There is insufficient evidence to answer the question of what treatment works with women who commit alcohol-related offences. Drunk-driving is most widely studied, and women offenders appear to have more psychosocial problems than men. Alcohol increases the likelihood of violence for both men and women, and, while the mechanisms whereby alcohol increases the likelihood of violence are likely the same in men and women, the effect may be moderated by gender-associated issues. Again, women offenders appear to have more psychosocial problems than men. Implications for developing interventions are discussed.

  2. The "homogamy" of road rage: understanding the relationship between victimization and offending among aggressive and violent motorists.

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2003-10-01

    The issue of "road rage" has received increasing media and scholarly attention in recent years. Using a representative sample of 2610 adults from Ontario, involvement with road rage was surveyed across demographic subgroups. Incidents of road rage were divided into two categories, verbal-gesturing road rage and physical-threats road rage. Drawing upon violence and criminological literature, experiences of road rage victimization and offending were explored, as well as the extent to which individuals were simultaneously the victims and perpetrators of road rage. Results challenge findings from the violence literature that males and young adults have the greatest propensity for violent victimization. Road rage offending was predominantly a male activity, while there were no gender differences in victimization. Moreover, road rage was not isolated among young adults; rather, road rage was prominent across all ages, with the exception of seniors. Consistent with the existing literature, road rage was higher in urban settings.

  3. Personality Assessment Inventory scores as predictors of misconduct among sex offenders civilly committed as sexually violent predators.

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Marcus T; Rufino, Katrina A; Jackson, Rebecca L; Murrie, Daniel C

    2013-12-01

    We examined the usefulness of scores on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) in predicting treatment program violations among 76 sexual offenders civilly committed as sexually violent predators. Scores on the Borderline Features scale (area under the curve [AUC] = .69, p = .005) and Negative Relationships subscale (BOR-N: AUC = .71, p < .001) were the strongest predictors of misconduct, outperforming scores on scales designed to predict poor treatment amenability and antisocial behavior. Incremental validity analyses indicated that BOR scores made a significant contribution to the prediction of misconduct after controlling for scores on measures of overall self-reported distress (e.g., Mean Clinical Elevation, Negative Impression), which were also predictive of program violations. Overall, our findings point to the potential utility of integrating components of treatment for borderline personality disorder into sex offender treatment.

  4. Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: a comparison between three subgroups.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Asscher, Jessica J

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents with a history of sexual offenses against younger children (CSOs; n = 341), a history of sexual offenses against peers and/or adult victims (PSOs; n = 207), and a history of nonsexual violent offenses (VOs; n = 1,356). We conducted secondary analyses on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and on general recidivism data. ANOVA, correlations, Fisher's z tests, and logistic regression analyses were applied. Results showed that, in VOs, the number of risk factors was greater than the number of protective factors, whereas in PSOs, and especially CSOs, the number of protective factors was greater than the number of risk factors. Protective factors appeared to be especially important for juveniles with a history of sexual offenses for two reasons. First, the impact of most protective factors on recidivism was larger among juveniles with a history of sexual offenses than among those with a history of violent offenses. Second, protective factors added to the predictive accuracy over and above risk factors in juveniles with a history of sexual offenses, but not in those with a history of violent offenses.

  5. Adolescent delinquency and antisocial tendencies as precursors to adult violent offending: a prospective study of a representative sample of swiss men.

    PubMed

    Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not.

  6. Antisocial violent offenders with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder demonstrate akathisia-like hyperactivity in three-channel actometry.

    PubMed

    Tuisku, Katinka; Virkkunen, Matti; Holi, Matti; Lauerma, Hannu; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Rimon, Ranan; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    Actometry enables quantitative and qualitative analysis of various hyperactivity disorders. Antisocial violent offenders have demonstrated diurnal increases in motor activity that may be related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that often precedes antisocial development. Motor restlessness in ADHD has common features with neuroleptic-induced akathisia. In this study, three-channel actometry was used to compare 15 antisocial violent offenders who had a history of ADHD with 15 healthy control subjects and 10 akathisia patients. The Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) was used for clinical evaluation of akathisia symptoms. Ankle movement indices and the ankle-waist ratio differentiated the antisocial patients from the healthy controls significantly, with no overlap, and the same parameters expectedly differentiated the akathisia patients from the healthy controls. The repetitive, rhythmic pattern of akathisia was found in 13 of the 15 antisocial patients. Nine of the antisocial patients scored 2 or 3 (mild to moderate akathisia) on the BARS. Thus, the motor hyperactivity of antisocial ADHD patients has common features with mild akathisia. This may be due to a common hypodopaminergic etiology of ADHD and akathisia.

  7. School Violent Victimization and Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    School violent victimization is a serious public health problem among youth. The current study investigated the association between youth alcohol use and school violent victimization among middle school and high school students ("N" = 54,361). The PRIDE national survey for Grades 6-12 was administered to youth in their classrooms.…

  8. Methamphetamine Use, Self-Reported Violent Crime, and Recidivism Among Offenders in California Who Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jerome; Farabee, David; Prendergast, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses data from 641 state prison parolees in California to examine the associations between methamphetamine use and three measures of criminal behavior: (a) self-reported violent criminal behavior, (b) return to prison for a violent offense, and (c) return to prison for any reason during the first 12 months of parole. Methamphetamine use…

  9. Assessing the Relationship between Violent and Nonviolent Criminal Activity among Serious Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Haviland, Amelia; Morral, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the progression of violent and nonviolent criminal activity remains a matter of theoretical debate. In the present study, the authors build on criminological theory and assess the extent to which the progression of violent and nonviolent criminal behaviors follows different trajectories. The authors rely on semiparametric mixture…

  10. The Violence Risk Scale: Predictive Validity and Linking Changes in Risk with Violent Recidivism in a Sample of High-Risk Offenders with Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kathy; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Violence Risk Scale (VRS) uses ratings of static and dynamic risk predictors to assess violence risk, identify targets for treatment, and assess changes in risk following treatment. The VRS was rated pre- and posttreatment on a sample of 150 males, mostly high-risk violent offenders many with psychopathic personality traits. These individuals…

  11. The Juvenile Emotion Management Scale (JEMS): An Instrument Designed To Assess Emotion Self-Management Skills in Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLin, Arthur, Jr.

    Individuals differ in the level of skill with which they can identify their feelings and the feelings of others, manage these feelings, and use the information provided by their feelings to motivate adaptive behavior in themselves. Identifying the skill of a serious and violent juvenile offender (SVJ) to manage his emotional state is important for…

  12. School violent victimization and recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among youth.

    PubMed

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2014-06-01

    School violent victimization is a serious public health problem among youth. The current study investigated the association between youth alcohol use and school violent victimization among middle school and high school students (N=54,361). The PRIDE national survey for Grades 6-12 was administered to youth in their classrooms. Results indicated that 38.3% of students were involved in school violent victimization. School violent victimization differed significantly based on sex, race, and grade level. Logistic regression analyses indicated that school violent victimization was directly related to elevated alcohol use in the past 12 months and episodic heavy drinking among youth. Findings from this study may be beneficial to school nurses in creating bullying and substance abuse prevention programs for students. Recommendations for future research are included.

  13. On intelligence and crime: a comparison of incarcerated sex offenders and serious non-sexual violent criminals.

    PubMed

    Guay, Jean-Pierre; Ouimet, Marc; Proulx, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The impact of low IQ on crime has been a focus of debate for several decades now. Although sociologists have virtually removed it from the list of possible factors influencing crime, the impact of IQ on crime continues to generate a significant amount of scientific research and a substantial number of publications. The purpose of this study is to assess intellectual levels and to compare two groups of incarcerated criminals. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA procedures, 261 sex offenders and 150 non-sexual violent criminals were compared on IQ subscales. The results show significant differences on vocabulary, comprehension, arithmetic, mental math computations, object assembly, letter-number sequencing, and perception subscales, as well as on performance IQ and total IQ. The impacts of penal filtering and sample composition are hypothesized to explain differences between the two subgroups. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. Predicting violent infractions in a Swiss state penitentiary: A replication study of the PCL-R in a population of sex and violent offenders

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Vetter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background Research conducted with forensic psychiatric patients found moderate correlations between violence in institutions and psychopathy. It is unclear though, whether the PCL-R is an accurate instrument for predicting aggressive behavior in prisons. Results seem to indicate that the instrument is better suited for predicting verbal rather than physical aggression of prison inmates. Methods PCL-R scores were assessed for a sample of 113 imprisoned sex and violent offenders in Switzerland. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate physical and verbal aggression as a function of the PCL-R sum score. Additionally, stratified analyses were conducted for Factor 1 and 2. Infractions were analyzed as to their motives and consequences. Results The mean score of the PCL-R was 12 points. Neither the relationship between physical aggression and the sum score of the PCL-R, nor the relationship between physical aggression and either of the two factors of the PCL-R were significant. Both the sum score and Factor 1 predicted the occurrence of verbal aggression (AUC = 0.70 and 0.69), while Factor 2 did not. Conclusion Possible explanations are discussed for the weak relationship between PCL-R scores and physically aggressive behavior during imprisonment. Some authors have discussed whether the low base rate of violent infractions can be considered an explanation for the non-significant relation between PCL-R-score and violence. The base rate in this study, however, with 27%, was not low. It is proposed that the distinction between reactive and instrumental motives of institutional violence must be considered when examining the usefulness of the PCL-R in predicting in-prison physical aggressive behavior. PMID:18778472

  15. Facets of psychopathy among mentally disordered offenders: clinical comorbidity patterns and prediction of violent and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Wallinius, Märta; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Stålenheim, Gunilla

    2012-07-30

    The complexity and consequences of psychopathy are still debated, and its relation to other mental disorders, pathological personality traits, and criminality needs to be further investigated by clinical, longitudinal studies using structured diagnostic instruments. The present study used two groups of mentally disordered offenders (N=153) investigated with in-depth clinical assessments and prospective long-term follow-up to identify the convergence between 1) the four facets of psychopathy defined by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial), 2) mental disorders according to SCID I and II interviews, 3) personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and 4) criminal recidivism. The Interpersonal facet differed substantially from the other three facets by not being significantly associated with substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder (the other facets at P≤0.001 level), or personality traits involving impulsive and aggressive antisocial behaviors (the other facets at P<0.01 level). Furthermore, the interpersonal facet could not predict violent recidivism better than random. The Antisocial facet outperformed not only the other facets but also the total PCL-R score in the prediction of violent recidivism, P<0.001.The findings confirm psychopathy as a heterogeneous phenomenon and have clinical implications for assessments of psychopathy and violence risk assessments in clinical and forensic contexts.

  16. Four-facet PCL-R structure and cognitive functioning among high violent criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Weinberger, Linda E; Kirkish, Patricia; Garrick, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    High violent inmates (N = 126) were administered the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, Clark, Grann, & Thornton, 2000; Hare et al., 1990) and neuropsychological measures. No significant correlations were present between the overall PCL-R score and 14 cognitive measures. A violence score, computed as the total number of violent acts across all situations and types, was significantly correlated with the PCL-R total score and Facet 2 but not with the other three facets. Our data suggest that Facet 2 elevations may prove relevant to violence risk assessment; this link, however, needs further exploration with larger samples.

  17. [The predictive quality of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for violent and sex offenders in Switzerland. A validation study].

    PubMed

    Urbaniok, F; Noll, T; Rossegger, A; Endrass, J

    2007-03-01

    In Switzerland, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is administered rather restrictively for risk assessment of recidivism among violent and sexual offenders. The aim of the present study was a first-time evaluation of the predictive validity of the PCL-R for violent and sexual recidivism in Switzerland. The PCL-R scores of 96 violent and sex offenders were evaluated by collecting the data in their psychiatric expert opinions. The scores were then compared to the rates of recidivism as shown in the criminal records. Consistent with previous studies in North America and Europe, the determined predictive accuracy was satisfying. This degree of precision supports the use of the PCL-R for risk assessment of sexual and violent recidivism in Switzerland, as long as the instrument does not constitute the sole criterion to determine future recidivism, but is applied only in combination with a thorough clinical evaluation. The use of precise cut-off scores did not prove to be a valid criterion for the prognosis of recidivism and can therefore not be recommended for Swiss offenders.

  18. The Relation between Abuse and Violent Delinquency: The Conversion of Shame to Blame in Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to…

  19. Risk Factors for Violent Offending in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A National Study of Hospitalized Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstrom, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Sjostedt, Gabrielle; Fazel, Seena

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for violence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study uses data from Swedish longitudinal registers for all 422 individuals hospitalized with autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome during 1988-2000 and compares those committing violent or sexual offenses with those who did not. Thirty-one…

  20. [Social use of alcohol among adolescent offenders: a fundamental approach toward human needs].

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Gustavo; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; da Costa, Moacyr Lobo

    2014-02-01

    This study examined some basic health care approaches toward human needs, with a particular focus on nursing. We aimed to incorporate these approaches into the discussion of the mental health of adolescent offenders who consume alcohol. We discuss specific needs of the delinquent group, critique policies that prioritize coercion of adolescent offenders, and the role that nurses could play in the sphere of juvenile delinquency.

  1. [Structured psychiatric assessment of risk for violent recidivism in juvenile offenders].

    PubMed

    Rieger, M; Stadtland, C; Freisleder, F J; Nedopil, N

    2009-03-01

    The psychiatric assessment of violence in youth represents a critical and essential part of forensic expertise and clinical practice. New methodical approaches are offered by structured risk rating scales and checklists which encompass psychopathy. The recently translated German version of Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), which is based on the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management Scheme (HCR 20), was evaluated in a sample of forensically assessed youth (n=83) regarding the predictive validity for criminal recidivism. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses attested medium (general delinquency), moderate (violent reoffending) and high (serious violent reoffending) effect strength, depending of the type of offence. Survival analyses showed that juveniles rated as high risk for violence were significantly faster and in a higher proportion recidivistic than those with a moderate or low risk. The results indicate the applicability of risk assessment instruments for German juveniles. Approaches for preventive, therapeutic and reintegrating measures are demonstrated, taking relapse patterns and dynamic risk aspects into consideration.

  2. The Efficacy of Coerced Treatment for Offenders: An Evaluation of Two Residential Forensic Drug and Alcohol Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Francis X.; Frankel, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the history of community-based treatment for offenders with drug and alcohol addiction. Describes the treatment regimen in two residential programs for offenders with drug and alcohol problems, including a description of the components of the residential treatment model utilized in these two programs. Findings support the efficacy of…

  3. A gender-specific analysis of adolescent dietary caffeine, alcohol consumption, anger, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.

  4. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  5. From child maltreatment to violent offending: an examination of mixed-gender and gender-specific models.

    PubMed

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2012-08-01

    Research suggests that child maltreatment predicts juvenile violence, but it is uncertain whether the effects of victimization persist into adulthood or differ across gender. Furthermore, we know little about the mechanisms underlying the victim-perpetrator cycle for males and females. Consequently, this study analyzed associations between child maltreatment and a number of adult measures of violent offending within mixed-gender and gender-specific models. Along with main effects, the study directly tested the moderating effects of gender on the maltreatment-violence link and analyzed theory-informed gender-specific mediators. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of 1,539 low-income minority participants born in 1979 or 1980. Child welfare, juvenile court, and criminal court records informed the study's explanatory and outcome measures. Prospectively collected covariate and mediator measures originated with parent, teacher, and self-reports along with several administrative sources. Results indicated that child maltreatment, ages 0 to 11, significantly predicted all study indicators of violence in the full sample and most study outcomes in the male and female subsamples. In no instance did gender moderate the maltreatment-violence association. Late childhood/early adolescence environmental instability, childhood externalizing behaviors, and adolescent peer social skills fully mediated the maltreatment-violence nexus among males. Adolescent externalizing behavior partially mediated the relationship of interest among females. Evidence also indicated that internalizing processes protected females who had been maltreated in childhood against perpetrating violence later in life. Implications of results are discussed.

  6. Acute Effects of Alcohol on Inhibitory Control and Simulated Driving in DUI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic accidents have prompted considerable research aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) in order to improve treatment and prevention strategies. Survey studies consistently show that DUI offenders self-report higher levels of impulsivity compared to their nonoffending counterparts. However, little is known about how individuals with a DUI history respond under alcohol. Inhibitory control is a behavioral component of impulsivity thought to underlie risky drinking and driving behaviors. Method The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display deficits of inhibitory control in response to alcohol and the degree to which alcohol impaired their simulated driving performance. It was hypothesized that DUI offenders would display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Young adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-comparable group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Inhibitory control was measured using a cued go/no-go task. Drivers then completed a driving simulation task that yielded multiple indicators of driving performance, such as within-lane deviation, steering rate, centerline crossings and road edge excursions, and drive speed. Results Results showed that although DUI offenders self-reported greater levels of impulsivity than did controls, no group differences were observed in the degree to which alcohol impaired inhibitory control and driving performance. The findings point to the need to identify other aspects of behavioral dysfunction underlying the self-reported impulsivity among DUI offenders, and to better understand the specific driving situations that might pose greater risk to DUI offenders. PMID:24913486

  7. Trait Anger, Physical Aggression, and Violent Offending in Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Bagby, R Michael; Brijmohan, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are common conditions in forensic settings that present high rates of violence. Personality traits related to the five-factor model personality domains of neuroticism and agreeableness have shown a relationship with physical aggression in nonclinical and general psychiatric samples. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the association of these personality traits with violence and aggression in ASPD and BPD. Results revealed that trait anger/hostility predicted self-reported physical aggression in 47 ASPD and BPD subjects (β = 0.5, p = 0.03) and number of violent convictions in a subsample of the ASPD participants (β = 0.2, p = 0.009). These preliminary results suggest that high anger and hostility are associated with physical aggression in BPD and ASPD. Application of validated, self-report personality measures could provide useful and easily accessible information to supplement clinical risk assessment of violence in these conditions.

  8. Alcohol-Involved Rapes: Are They More Violent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol's psychological, cognitive, and motor effects contribute to rape. Based on theory and past research, we hypothesized that there would be a curvilinear relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed by perpetrators and how aggressively they behaved. Moderate levels of intoxication encourage aggressiveness; however, extreme levels…

  9. Changes in Density of On-Premises Alcohol Outlets and Impact on Violent Crime, Atlanta, Georgia, 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Bonnie; Clarkson, Lydia; Holt, James; Bagchi, Suparna; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Regulating alcohol outlet density is an evidence-based strategy for reducing excessive drinking. However, the effect of this strategy on violent crime has not been well characterized. A reduction in alcohol outlet density in the Buckhead neighborhood of Atlanta from 2003 through 2007 provided an opportunity to evaluate this effect. Methods We conducted a community-based longitudinal study to evaluate the impact of changes in alcohol outlet density on violent crime in Buckhead compared with 2 other cluster areas in Atlanta (Midtown and Downtown) with high densities of alcohol outlets, from 1997 through 2002 (preintervention) to 2003 through 2007 (postintervention). The relationship between exposures to on-premises retail alcohol outlets and violent crime were assessed by using annual spatially defined indices at the census block level. Multilevel regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between changes in exposure to on-premises alcohol outlets and violent crime while controlling for potential census block-level confounders. Results A 3% relative reduction in alcohol outlet density in Buckhead from 1997–2002 to 2003–2007 was associated with a 2-fold greater reduction in exposure to violent crime than occurred in Midtown or Downtown, where exposure to on-premises retail alcohol outlets increased. The magnitude of the association between exposure to alcohol outlets and violent crime was 2 to 5 times greater in Buckhead than in either Midtown or Downtown during the postintervention period. Conclusions A modest reduction in alcohol outlet density can substantially reduce exposure to violent crime in neighborhoods with high density of alcohol outlets. Routine monitoring of community exposure to alcohol outlets could also inform the regulation of alcohol outlet density, consistent with Guide to Community Preventive Services recommendations. PMID:26020548

  10. Neighborhood alcohol outlets and the association with violent crime in one mid-Atlantic City: the implications for zoning policy.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jacky M; Milam, Adam J; Greiner, Amelia; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Curriero, Frank C; Thornton, Rachel J

    2014-02-01

    Violent crime such as homicide causes significant excess morbidity and mortality in US urban areas. A health impact assessment (HIA) identified zoning policy related to alcohol outlets as one way to decrease violent crime. The objectives were to determine the relationship between alcohol outlets including off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime in one urban area to provide local public health evidence to inform a zoning code rewrite. An ecologic analysis of census tracts in Baltimore City was conducted from 2011 to 2012. The data included violent crimes (n = 51,942) from 2006 to 2010, licensed alcohol outlets establishments (n = 1,327) from 2005 to 2006, and data on neighborhood disadvantage, percent minority, percent occupancy, and drug arrests from 2005 to 2009. Negative binomial regression models were used to determine the relationship between the counts of alcohol outlets and violent crimes controlling for other factors. Spatial correlation was assessed and regression inference adjusted accordingly. Each one-unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 2.2 % increase in the count of violent crimes adjusting for neighborhood disadvantage, percent minority, percent occupancy, drug arrests, and spatial dependence (IRR = 1.022, 95 % CI = 1.015, 1.028). Off-premise alcohol outlets were significantly associated with violent crime in the adjusted model (IRR = 1.048, 95 % CI = 1.035, 1.061). Generating Baltimore-specific estimates of the relationship between alcohol outlets and violent crime has been central to supporting the incorporation of alcohol outlet policies in the zoning code rewrite being conducted in Baltimore City.

  11. Recent alcohol use, episodic heavy drinking, and school violent victimization: Sex and grade level differences among Hispanic youth.

    PubMed

    Merianos, Ashley L; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and involvement in school violent victimization are two significant public health problems among Hispanic youth. The present study examined alcohol use by involvement in school violent victimization among seventh through twelfth grade Hispanic students in one metropolitan area. The Pride Student National Survey was administered to students in their school classrooms. Results indicated that Hispanic students who were involved in school violent victimization were at increased risk for recent alcohol use and frequent episodic heavy drinking compared to Hispanic students who were not involved. Logistic regression revealed Hispanic males, junior high school, and high school students were at increased odds for recent alcohol use based on involvement in school violent victimization. Regarding frequent episodic heavy drinking, Hispanic males, females, and high school students were at increased odds. These findings can aid professionals in developing effective prevention programs and efforts for this high-risk population. Recommendations for future studies are included.

  12. Predictors of Sexual Coercion and Alcohol Use among Female Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montanaro, Erika A.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34% of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488

  13. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  14. Violent crime: the role of alcohol and new approaches to the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J

    1994-01-01

    Almost all evidence of a link between alcohol consumption and violence is available only in the form of aggregate data. This is unsatisfactory and case-control investigations and studies which relate injury severity to blood alcohol levels are needed. In the few closely controlled studies which have been performed, increased risk of injury in assault has been linked with binge consumption of more than about 8 units, and above average weekly consumption only in those over 25 years. Raising the minimum purchasing age for alcohol to 21 years, learning to drink responsibly with parents, especially fathers, and the adoption of tempered glassware are all achievable objectives which would reduce alcohol-related injury. The use of sobriety-checkpoints (breath testing though not by the police) and other situational prevention programmes need to be evaluated in relation to reducing injury sustained in violent crime. Proactive, community policing has been shown to reduce levels of alcohol-related violent crime, in contrast to more reactive, defensive and confrontational policing. The concept of 'capable guardianship' to establish and maintain social control of young delinquents needs to be extended, particularly near known foci of violence such as bars and adjacent fast-food outlets and taxi-ranks.

  15. Physical Health Conditions and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Offenders with Alcohol Use Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent among samples with diagnosed alcohol use disorders but few studies have evaluated the factors that account for this increased risk and none have systematically evaluated the risk posed by comorbid physical health conditions. The current study evaluated the likelihood of perpetrating IPV among alcohol diagnosed offenders with medical health problems relative to healthy counterparts. Physical health and partner violence data provided by 655 criminal offenders with alcohol use disorders diagnosed during a court-ordered substance abuse evaluation were examined. One third of participants (35.3%) endorsed a physical health condition and 46.4% reported perpetrating physical IPV. The odds of perpetrating IPV among participants with a physical health condition were 2.29 times larger than among healthy participants. Specific conditions emerged as risk factors for IPV, including brain injury, cardiac issues, chronic pain, liver issues, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatitis, and recent injury. Findings highlight the importance of identifying and managing physical health conditions that may complicate IPV treatment efforts. Integrated behavioral and medical health treatment approaches may increase treatment compliance and reduce the risk of future partner violence among offenders with co-occurring issues, such as mental illness, addiction, and physical health conditions. PMID:26058979

  16. Rape-myth congruent beliefs in women resulting from exposure to violent pornography: effects of alcohol and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-09-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers (N = 134) read an eroticized rape depiction after completing an alcohol administration protocol. As predicted, intoxicated participants were less likely to label the depicted events as rape than their sober counterparts. A path analytic model illustrated that participants' self-reported sexual arousal to the stimulus, as influenced by alcohol consumption and expectancies, resulted in increased rape myth congruent perceptions of the victim and decreased labeling of the incident as rape. Findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication during violent pornography exposure may ultimately result in women developing more calloused attitudes toward rape and rape victims.

  17. Telemedicine-Based Alcohol Services for Rural Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Wahler, Elizabeth; Webster, J. Matthew; Godlaski, Theodore; Freeman, Rebecca; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that alcohol use is a problem in rural communities and access to substance abuse treatment, particularly evidence-based treatment is limited. Because telemedicine has been shown to be effective in delivering services, this article presents a novel and innovative way of using telemedicine technology in the form of videoconferencing to deliver an evidence-based alcohol intervention (motivational enhancement therapy) with at-risk alcohol users in real-world settings (rural probation and parole offices). This article focuses on: (a) creating a profile of an at-risk group of rural alcohol users; (b) describing the evidence-based intervention; and (c) describing the innovative telemedicine-based service delivery approach. PMID:22867122

  18. The predictive validity of the Two-Tiered Violence Risk Estimates Scale (TTV) in a long-term follow-up of violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Churcher, Frances P; Mills, Jeremy F; Forth, Adelle E

    2016-08-01

    Over the past few decades many structured risk appraisal measures have been created to respond to this need. The Two-Tiered Violence Risk Estimates Scale (TTV) is a measure designed to integrate both an actuarial estimate of violence risk with critical risk management indicators. The current study examined interrater reliability and the predictive validity of the TTV in a sample of violent offenders (n = 120) over an average follow-up period of 17.75 years. The TTV was retrospectively scored and compared with the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), the Statistical Information of Recidivism Scale-Revised (SIR-R1), and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Approximately 53% of the sample reoffended violently, with an overall recidivism rate of 74%. Although the VRAG was the strongest predictor of violent recidivism in the sample, the Actuarial Risk Estimates (ARE) scale of the TTV produced a small, significant effect. The Risk Management Indicators (RMI) produced nonsignificant area under the curve (AUC) values for all recidivism outcomes. Comparisons between measures using AUC values and Cox regression showed that there were no statistical differences in predictive validity. The results of this research will be used to inform the validation and reliability literature on the TTV, and will contribute to the overall risk assessment literature. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  20. Evaluating the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S

    2014-02-01

    Individuals with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits thought to interfere with their ability to competently navigate the arrest, interrogation, and trial process. This study examined the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with FASD, including their understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights, and adjudication capacities (factual knowledge of criminal procedure, appreciation of the nature and object of the proceedings, ability to participate in a defense and communicate with counsel). Two groups of young offenders (50 with FASD and 50 without prenatal alcohol exposure) completed Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda rights and the Fitness Interview Test-Revised to assess overall rates of impairment in youth with FASD, as well as differences between the groups. Potentially important predictors of psycholegal abilities were also evaluated. Results indicated the majority of young offenders with FASD (90%) showed impairment in at least one psycholegal ability, and rates of impairment were significantly higher than the comparison group. However, considerable within-group variability was observed. IQ and reading comprehension emerged as robust predictors of participants' psycholegal abilities, while the FASD diagnosis differentiated participants' scores on the FIT-R. These findings underscore the importance of individualized and comprehensive forensic assessments of psycholegal abilities in this population when warranted. Additional system level strains for this population are discussed, including problems in approaching competency remediation, and the potentially growing need for accommodation and forensic assessments in the face of limited financial and professional resources in legal settings.

  1. Unnatural and Violent Death in Cases with High Blood Alcohol Concentration- Autopsy Study.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Danica; Živković, Vladimir; Lukić, Vera; Nikolić, Slobodan

    2017-02-23

    The use of alcohol increases the risk of dying from unnatural or violent causes. The presented study explored the distribution of age, gender, cause, and circumstances of death in persons who died in an unnatural and violent manner, with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) higher than 0.3 g/dL, and where the cause of death was not alcohol intoxication. We defined the control (0 < BAC < 0.3 g/dL) and study (BAC ≥ 0.3 g/dL) groups, as in subjects with these concentrations, there is a significant risk of gross intoxication, stupor, and death. The subjects from the study group were older, with no difference in gender distribution. Traffic accidents were the most common fatal event in both groups, followed by suicides. Other accidents (choking on food and exposure to fire) were more frequent in the study group. Compared to the control group, subjects from the study group were older persons whose deaths were mainly accidental.

  2. Neural correlates of risk taking in violent criminal offenders characterized by emotional hypo- and hyper-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Kristin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Schulze, Lars; Berger, Christoph; Vohs, Knut; Fleischer, Monika; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Keiper, Peter; Domes, Gregor; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-01-01

    Recent approaches suggest that emotional reactivity can be used to differentiate between subgroups of individuals who are at risk for showing elevated levels of aggression and violence. In this study, we examined how emotion governs decision making within two subgroups of antisocial criminal offenders with either emotional hypo- or hyper-reactivity compared with healthy, noncriminal controls. Offenders were recruited from high-security forensic treatment facilities and penal institutions and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a financial decision-making task. In this task, participants were required to choose between low-risk (bonds) and high-risk alternatives (stocks). Bonds were always the safe choice; stocks could win or lose, with a varying degree of uncertainty. We found that emotionally hypo-reactive offenders differed most from healthy controls by showing diminished neural activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in response to uncertainty as well as decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex when trying to regulate their behavior accordingly (i.e., when consistently choosing "safe alternatives"). Hence, the data indicate that emotionally hypo-reactive offenders (with psychopathic traits) constitute a special subgroup within antisocial offenders characterized in particular by a limited capacity to emotionally represent uncertainty and to anticipate punishment.

  3. Alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and self-perceptions of impairment in DUI offenders

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive. PMID:25347077

  4. Alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and self-perceptions of impairment in DUI offenders.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-12-01

    Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance, and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol, DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking, which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive.

  5. The "True" Perpetrators of Violence: The Effects of the Media on Public Perceptions of Youthful Violent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Alfiee M.

    The focus of this paper is to provide insight into the real questions to be asked and answered regarding the "true" perpetrators of school violence. Specifically, it addresses the topic of recent occurrences of school violence perpetrated by youth, along with the effect of stereotypes on perceptions of potential youth offenders. It also addresses…

  6. The Impact of Protective Factors in Desistance from Violent Reoffending: A Study in Three Samples of Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after…

  7. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  8. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  9. Combat high or traumatic stress: violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not with symptoms of traumatic stress

    PubMed Central

    Köbach, Anke; Schaal, Susanne; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Former members of armed groups in eastern DR Congo had typically witnessed, experienced, and perpetrated extreme forms of violence. Enhanced trauma-related symptoms had been shown in prior research. But also lashing out in self-defense is a familiar response to threat defined as reactive aggression. Another potential response is appetitive aggression, in which the perpetration of excessive violence is perceived as pleasurable (combat high). What roles do these forms of aggressive behavior play in modern warfare and how are they related to posttraumatic stress symptoms? To answer the question, we sought to determine predictors for appetitive aggressive and trauma-related mental illness, and investigated the frequency of psychopathological symptoms for high- and low-intensity conflict demobilization settings. To this end, we interviewed 213 former members of (para)military groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in regard to their combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, appetitive aggression, depression, suicidality, and drug dependence. Random forest regression embedded in a conditional inference framework revealed that perpetrated violent acts are not necessarily stressful. In fact, the experience of violent acts that typically implicated salient cues of hunting (e.g., blood, suffering of the victim, etc.) had the strongest association with an appetite for aggression. Furthermore, the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts was the most important predictor of appetitive aggression. However, the number of perpetrated violent acts did not significantly affect the posttraumatic stress. Greater intensity of conflict was associated with more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address appetitive aggression in addition to trauma-related mental illness, including drug dependence, therefore seem indispensible for a successful reintegration of those who fought in the current civil wars. PMID:25709586

  10. The lived experience of paroled offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Tait, Caroline L; Mela, Mansfield; Boothman, Garth; Stoops, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    This case study presents the life history and postincarceration experiences of two forensic psychiatric patients diagnosed with comorbid mental illness and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The men first met in prison and a few years after their release became roommates at the suggestion of their community support worker and parole officer. With shared and coordinated clinical and mentorship supports, the men were able to establish stability in their lives and manage their mental illness. However, changes in support and gaps within the continuum of care contributed to a sudden breakdown in their stability. The life history and experiences of the two men illustrate the importance in establishing and maintaining positive social networks and coordinated supports for the postincarceration success of offenders living with FASD and comorbid mental illness. The findings highlight areas of patient and system vulnerability that should be addressed to reduce recidivism and strengthen the stability in the lives of these individuals.

  11. Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions and Alcohol Use in First Time DWI Offenders: Indirect Effects Through Coping Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data and structural equation modeling, we evaluated whether coping self-efficacy to abstain from drinking in various situations accounted for the relationship between internalizing (depression, anxiety) and externalizing (aggression, low socialization) dimensions with problematic alcohol use in 292 first-time DWI offenders. Results indicated that an internalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in negative situations only, whereas an externalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in positive situations only. These findings support two potential pathways to problematic drinking behavior among DWI offenders and suggest that internalizing and externalizing dimensions may differentially predict high risk drinking situations due to one's inability to abstain in specific situations. PMID:21988478

  12. Internalizing and externalizing dimensions and alcohol use in first time DWI offenders: indirect effects through coping self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schlauch, Robert C; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A

    2012-03-01

    Using cross-sectional data and structural equation modeling, we evaluated whether coping self-efficacy to abstain from drinking in various situations accounted for the relationship between internalizing (depression, anxiety) and externalizing (aggression, low socialization) dimensions with problematic alcohol use in 292 first-time DWI offenders. Results indicated that an internalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in negative situations only, whereas an externalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in positive situations only. These findings support two potential pathways to problematic drinking behavior among DWI offenders and suggest that internalizing and externalizing dimensions may differentially predict high risk drinking situations due to one's inability to abstain in specific situations.

  13. Exploring the overlap in male juvenile sexual offending and general delinquency: trauma, alcohol use, and masculine beliefs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam; Burton, David L

    2010-07-01

    Despite Burton and Meezan's (2004) finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully predict those who are exclusively sexually violent from those who are both nonsexually and sexually violent with each of the following factors: childhood trauma, masculine beliefs, and alcohol use. While alcohol use accounted for the greatest variance between the groups, masculine beliefs offered the greatest basis for the discussion and future projects for the authors of the study. Treatment and research implications are offered.

  14. Alcohol criteria endorsement and psychiatric and drug use disorders among DUI offenders: Greater severity among women and multiple offenders

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Grucza, Richard A.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John R.; Bierut, Laura Jean; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), a high-risk family study of alcohol dependence, were used to examine differences in alcohol diagnostic criteria endorsement and psychiatric and drug use disorders by gender and by number of DUI offenses. Results Individuals with two or more DUIs exhibited greater severity of alcohol dependence than those with none or one DUI. This severity was characterized in three ways: (1) higher endorsement of alcohol diagnostic criterion items, with evidence of greater severity among women, (2) higher prevalence of co-occurring lifetime psychiatric disorders, and (3) higher rates of drug use and of dependence on cocaine, stimulants, and, for women only, marijuana and opiates. Conclusions By examining gradations of disorder within a combination of two high-risk indicators, DUI and family vulnerability, this study provides useful information for clinical research about individuals with chronic and severe alcohol problems. In addition, the observed gender differences in this high-risk sample will contribute to the literature on alcohol dependence among women at the more severe end of the dependence spectrum. PMID:19167170

  15. A Comparison of the Social Context for Alcohol Consumption of College Students and Convicted DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Summons, Terry G.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=272) and convicted DWI offenders (N=261). The results revealed that DWI offenders tend to drink in their own home, alone, and to relieve stress; whereas college students are more likely to drink at a party, for the enjoyment of taste, and to get drunk. (JAC)

  16. Predicting Recidivism with the Personality Assessment Inventory in a Sample of Sex Offenders Screened for Civil Commitment as Sexually Violent Predators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Simpler, Amber; Johnson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of scores from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to predict postrelease (M = 4.90 years follow-up) arrests in a sample of 1,412 sex offenders. We focused on scores from 4 PAI measures conceptually relevant to offending, including the Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Dominance (DOM)…

  17. Do prior histories of violence and mental disorders impact on violent behaviour during encounters with police?

    PubMed

    Kesic, Dragana; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2014-01-01

    Despite sustained large-scale educational campaigns, public attitudes towards mental illness have remained persistently negative. Associated with this, recent research from Victoria, Australia, reported that police commonly associated violent behaviour with mental illness. The present study examined 4267 cases of police use of force and considered what differentiated and characterised violent from non-violent behaviours reported by police in the context of a use of force incident. The specific focus was to examine the effects that historical variables such as age, gender, prior violent offending and having a prior diagnosis of mental disorder, as well as incident specific factors such as exhibiting signs of mental disorder and substance intoxication have on violent behaviour during the use of force incident. The proximal factors of apparent mental disorder and alcohol intoxication were significantly associated with violent behaviour towards police, whilst having a history of prior violence and prior mental disorder diagnoses was not associated with violence. The results challenge traditional stereotyped views about the violence risk posed by people with prior contact with mental health services and those with prior violent offending histories. A service model that allows for psychiatric triage would be able to assist with streamlining police involvement and facilitating timely access to mental health services.

  18. Psychopathy, PCL-R, and MAOA genotype as predictors of violent reconvictions.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Roope; Auvinen-Lintunen, Laura; Ducci, Francesca; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Goldman, David; Tiihonen, Jari; Ojansuu, Ilkka; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-02-28

    The Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) has shown a moderate association with violence. The efficacy of PCL-R in varying monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypes is, however, unexamined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCL-R and psychopathy on the risk for violent reconvictions among 167 MAOA genotyped alcoholic offenders. Violent reconvictions and PCL-R scores among violent offenders were assessed after a 7-year non-incarcerated follow-up. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the alcohol exposure and age-adjusted effect of PCL-R score and psychopathy on the risk for reconvictions among differing MAOA genotypes. Results suggest that the PCL-R total score predicts impulsive reconvictions among high-activity MAOA offenders (6.8% risk increase for every one-point increase in PCL-R total score, P = 0.015), but not among low-activity MAOA offenders, whereas antisocial behavior and attitudes predicted reconvictions in both genotypes (17% risk increase among high-activity MAOA offenders and 12.8% increase among low-activity MAOA offenders for every one-point increase in factor 2 score). Both narcissistic self-image with related interpersonal style (factor 1 score) and psychopathy (PCL-R ≥ 30) failed to predict future violence. Results suggest that the efficacy of PCL-R is altered by MAOA genotype, alcohol exposure, and age, which seems important to note when PCL-R is used for risk assessments that will have legal or costly preventive work consequences.

  19. Amnesia for violent offenses: factors underlying memory loss and recovery.

    PubMed

    Pyszora, Natalie M; Fahy, Tom; Kopelman, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Amnesia for violent offenses is common, but little is known about underlying causes or whether memory can recover. In this study, 50 violent offenders were interviewed with neuropsychological and psychometric measures, to determine the factors that underlie amnesia and the recovery of memory in these cases. The results showed that amnesia for a violent offense was associated with crimes of passion and dissociative symptoms at the time, but not with impaired neuropsychological functioning. Long amnesic gaps were associated with a state of dissociation surrounding the offense and with previous blackouts (whether alcoholic or dissociative). Memory often recovered, either partially or completely, especially where there was a history of blackouts or a lengthy amnesic gap. Brief amnesic gaps were likely to persist, perhaps as a consequence of faulty encoding during a period of extreme emotional arousal (or red-out).

  20. Youth Violence: Oversight of Federal Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on S. 1245, a Bill To Amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 To Identify Violent and Hardcore Juvenile Offenders and Treat Them as Adults, and for Other Purposes (May 8, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on a bill to amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to identify violent and hard core juvenile offenders and treat them as adults. Opening statements by four U.S. senators (the Honorable Fred Thompson, Herbert Kohl, Joseph R. Biden, Jr., and Orrin G. Hatch) present various perspectives on the role of…

  1. Alcohol Use and Delinquency among Black, White and Hispanic Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Russell L.; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between drinking and criminal behavior among 342 adolescent offenders. Results showed drinking is strongly associated with minor offenses. Relative to background and behavioral factors, drinking is the strongest single predictor of serious criminal offenses among Blacks, with less importance for whites and little…

  2. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries. PMID:28085105

  3. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-10-28

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  4. Level of Service Inventory-Revised profiles of violent and nonviolent prisoners.

    PubMed

    Hollin, Clive R; Palmer, Emma J

    2003-09-01

    Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) assessments were conducted on 251 male prisoners beginning prison sentences in six English prisons. The prisoners who were classified as violent, on the basis of either current or previous convictions, scored significantly higher than the nonviolent prisoners on the four LSI-R subscales of Criminal History, Companions, Education and Employment, and Alcohol and Drugs. In addition, those prisoners with a record of violent offenses gave higher total LSI-R scores, indicating an overall higher risk of recidivism. Multivariate analysis using the LSI-R subscales to classify the higher risk violent prisoners and minimum-risk nonviolent prisoners basically confirmed the findings of the univariate analysis. The implications of the findings for informing practice with violent offenders are discussed in terms of screening for intensity of service delivery and identification of targets for change. It is suggested that screening for drug and alcohol problems should be a prerequisite to working with violent offenders.

  5. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  6. Processing bias for sexual material: the emotional stroop and sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul; Waterman, Mitch

    2004-04-01

    As part of an ongoing research project we examined information-processing biases in forensic and nonforensic participants (n = 10 sex offenders, n = 10 violent offenders, n = 10 nonviolent offenders, and n = 13 undergraduates). A computerised version of the Stroop task demonstrated that offenders convicted of both sexual and violent offences were significantly slower than undergraduates to color-name words relating to sexual offending (with sex offenders demonstrating the greatest interference bias). Furthermore, processing bias was also evident for aggression words in violent offenders and violent sexual offenders but not in non-violent sexual offenders. Specifically, paedophiles convicted of indecent assault presented different response profiles compared to heterosexual rapists. These findings suggest that tests that assess information processing bias for salient material may also prove useful as an assessment tool within forensic populations.

  7. Are Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence Different From Convicted Violent Offenders? Examination of Psychopathic Traits and Life Success in Males From a Community Survey.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Coid, Jeremy W; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-05-01

    We used data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 to age 48 to investigate intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with psychopathy. We investigated the differences in psychopathy scores between those men who were convicted of violence, those who were involved in both extra- and intra-familial violence, and those who committed IPV only. We also considered whether these generally violent men had poorer life success overall with regard to their drinking and drug taking, depression, and other mental disorders. Our findings suggest that those men who are violent both within and outside the home (the generally violent men) are distinguished from those who commit violent crimes outside the home and those who are involved in IPV within the home only. The differences appear to be more in degree than in kind. These findings are discussed with a focus on whether specific interventions are required for those who commit IPV or whether early intervention should be focused on violent behavior in general.

  8. The Differential Impact of Alcohol and Interpersonal Violence on the Severity of Violent Traumatic Brain Injuries among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kristen F; Perrin, Paul B

    2017-04-03

    Research shows connections between substance use and traumatic brain injury (TBI), high rates of substance use and interpersonal violence (IPV) in American Indians with TBI, and connections between IPV and TBI. This study assessed the effects of substance use at the time of a violent TBI and possible mediators such as American Indian race on injury severity (injury severity score [ISS]). A secondary data analysis of 3,351 individuals who experienced a TBI due to violence was conducted. American Indians with TBI were more likely to experience IPV (χ(2) = 4.19; p = .04) and had significantly higher blood alcohol content level (BAC) scores (t = - 16.78; p = .000) than other racial groups. A regression model explained 27% of the variance in ISS. Significant interaction terms uncovered positive relationships between: (a) American Indian race and ISS when the injury aetiology was not IPV and BAC scores were lower than the legal limit, and (b) IPV and ISS when patients were not American Indian. Alcohol was negatively associated with ISS among American Indians, suggesting that BAC may impact individuals with TBI differentially as a function of race.

  9. Consequences of Violent Victimization for Native American Youth in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Turanovic, Jillian J; Pratt, Travis C

    2016-10-07

    Native American youth are at an elevated risk of violent victimization. And because of their vulnerable position in society, they may also be at risk of experiencing a host of adverse consequences as a result of being victimized. Accordingly, using a subsample of 558 Native American youth and two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (49.8 % female; 12-19 years at Wave I; 19-26 years at Wave III), we examined the effects of violent victimization during adolescence on a range of outcomes in early adulthood (poor health, depressive symptoms, suicidality, financial hardship, violent and property offending, alcohol problems, hard drug use, and marijuana use). We also assessed whether youth's attachments to family and to school moderate the effects of victimization on these outcomes. The results showed that adolescent victimization is linked to a small number of outcomes-poor health, depressive symptoms, and violent offending-and that the protective effects of social attachments are not widespread. Specifically, family attachments moderated the effects of victimization on poor health and depressive symptoms, and school attachments moderated the effects of victimization on property offending. These findings suggest that the consequences of victimization and the protective effects of social attachments may differ for Native American youth, and that further quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to understand these patterns.

  10. Child maltreatment, revictimization, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    Hosser, Daniela; Raddatz, Stefan; Windzio, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the cumulative impact of child maltreatment and victimization in adolescence on violent behavior in young adulthood in a nonclinical high-risk sample. The sample consists of 1,526 incarcerated young men (14 to 24 years) who were interviewed with standardized instruments during their prison term. Violent and nonviolent offenders with and without repeated victimization experiences throughout the life cycle were compared. Results show that child maltreatment doubles the risk for violent victimization in adolescence. Repeated victimization experiences in adolescence heighten the risk for later violent offending. This is the case for officially registered violence and self-reported violent behavior. In addition, child maltreatment increased the probability of self-reported violence as well. However, the interaction effect of victimization in childhood and victimization in early adolescence counteracted the main effects. Being repeatedly victimized throughout the early life cycle slightly reduced the probability of being a frequent offender.

  11. Substance use and violent behavior in women with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Catherine F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance abuse and dependence and violent behavior in a sample of incarcerated women with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male populations, substance dependence is associated with aggression and criminal behavior. Individuals with ASPD have more severe substance dependence, including higher symptom counts, earlier age of onset, and more frequent co-morbidity. Incarcerated women have a high prevalence of ASPD and substance dependence, but there has been little detailed work regarding addiction severity. Similarly, work on association of substance abuse and dependence with specific violent behaviors has been limited. This study examined a group of 41 mid-sentence female felons with a diagnosis of ASPD to determine associations with substance abuse and dependence. Data were gathered through administration of the Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcoholism II (SSAGA II). Substance dependence was highly prevalent (i.e., alcohol dependence, 56.1%; opiate dependence, 48.8%; cocaine dependence, 61.0%). While specific diagnoses were not associated with violent behavior and offending, symptom severity (i.e., age of onset, symptom count, co-morbidity) was associated with violent behavior in women dependent on opiates, alcohol, and cocaine. Arrest for an assault 1 was associated with alcohol dependence and opiate dependence. These data suggest that measurement of symptom severity and co-morbidity is important in assessing violent behavior in incarcerated women with ASPD. These findings are potentially important in examining non-incarcerated, substance-dependent women.

  12. Substance Use, Offending, and Participation in Alcohol and Drug Treatment Programmes: A Comparison of Prisoners with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, Jane A.; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Newton, Danielle C.; Richardson, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many offenders with intellectual disabilities have substance use issues. Offending behaviour may be associated with substance use. Materials and Methods: Prisoners with and without intellectual disabilities were compared in terms of their substance use prior to imprisonment, the influence of substance use on offending, and their…

  13. DUI/DWAI Offenders Compared to Clients Seen in an Outpatient Alcohol-Treatment Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Michele A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined client records to compare 50 subjects admitted to a drinking-driver program and 50 subjects admitted to an outpatient alcohol treatment clinic. Highly significant differences were found between groups on 10 of 12 drinking indices, suggesting that clients referred for alcohol-related traffic offenses represent a population different from…

  14. Genetic background of extreme violent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M-R; Ollila, HM; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Palotie, A; Pietiläinen, O; Kristiansson, K; Joukamaa, M; Lauerma, H; Saarela, J; Tyni, S; Vartiainen, H; Paananen, J; Goldman, D; Paunio, T

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial recidivistic offenders, but no genes have been shown to contribute to recidivistic violent offending or severe violent behavior, such as homicide. Our results, from two independent cohorts of Finnish prisoners, revealed that a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity genotype (contributing to low dopamine turnover rate) as well as the CDH13 gene (coding for neuronal membrane adhesion protein) are associated with extremely violent behavior (at least 10 committed homicides, attempted homicides or batteries). No substantial signal was observed for either MAOA or CDH13 among non-violent offenders, indicating that findings were specific for violent offending, and not largely attributable to substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. These results indicate both low monoamine metabolism and neuronal membrane dysfunction as plausible factors in the etiology of extreme criminal violent behavior, and imply that at least about 5–10% of all severe violent crime in Finland is attributable to the aforementioned MAOA and CDH13 genotypes. PMID:25349169

  15. Genetic background of extreme violent behavior.

    PubMed

    Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M-R; Ollila, H M; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Palotie, A; Pietiläinen, O; Kristiansson, K; Joukamaa, M; Lauerma, H; Saarela, J; Tyni, S; Vartiainen, H; Paananen, J; Goldman, D; Paunio, T

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial recidivistic offenders, but no genes have been shown to contribute to recidivistic violent offending or severe violent behavior, such as homicide. Our results, from two independent cohorts of Finnish prisoners, revealed that a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity genotype (contributing to low dopamine turnover rate) as well as the CDH13 gene (coding for neuronal membrane adhesion protein) are associated with extremely violent behavior (at least 10 committed homicides, attempted homicides or batteries). No substantial signal was observed for either MAOA or CDH13 among non-violent offenders, indicating that findings were specific for violent offending, and not largely attributable to substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. These results indicate both low monoamine metabolism and neuronal membrane dysfunction as plausible factors in the etiology of extreme criminal violent behavior, and imply that at least about 5-10% of all severe violent crime in Finland is attributable to the aforementioned MAOA and CDH13 genotypes.

  16. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  17. Temporal alcohol availability predicts first-time drunk driving, but not repeat offending.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Timothy P; Denson, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol availability has been linked to drunk driving, but research has not examined whether this relationship is the same for first-time and repeat offenses. We examined the relationship between the business hours of alcohol outlets licensed to serve alcohol for on-premises consumption and misdemeanor-level (first offense) and felony-level drunk driving (repeat offense) charges in New York State in 2009. Longer outlet business hours were associated with more misdemeanor drunk driving charges, but were not associated with felony drunk driving charges. The per capita density of on-premises alcohol outlets did not affect misdemeanor or felony drunk driving charges. The results suggest that temporal alcohol availability may be an impelling factor for first-time drunk driving, but other factors likely influence repeat drunk driving behaviors.

  18. Psychological correlates of violent and non-violent Hong Kong juvenile probationers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong

    2012-01-01

    There is little known about Hong Kong juvenile offenders on probation. The purpose of this study was to compare Hong Kong juvenile violent with non-violent probationers on static demographic and psychological variables. The study comprised 109 male juvenile probationers aged 14-20 years (M = 16.97, SD = 1.44) in community transitional housing; 34 were adjudicated for violent offenses, while 75 were non-violent. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Social Bonding Scale-Theft (SBS-T), Social Bonding Scale-Violent Crime (SBS-VC), Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS), Impulsiveness Scale-Short Form (IS-SF) and CRIME-PICS II were administered to measure self-esteem, life satisfaction, social bond, positive and negative affect, impulsivity, pro-offending attitudes, and self-perceived life problems. Data on onset age of delinquent behavior, age of first adjudication, number of prior adjudications, and frequency of self-reported delinquency in the past year were also collected. t-tests were consistent with significant differences for violent offenders including higher self-esteem (p < 0.05). Non-violent offenders self-reported significantly more theft (p < 0.05) with a tendency to deny victim hurt more often (p < 0.01); 76.5% of violent offenders self-reported both violent and non-violent crime, while 58.7% of non-violent offenders reported only non-violent crime. For violent and non-violent offenders, the onset of delinquency was inversely related to the frequency of self-reported delinquency. Using ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression analyses, self-anticipated violent reoffending risk was predicted by age of onset, frequency of self-reported delinquency, social bond (inversely), and impulsivity, while non-violent reoffending risk was predicted by the number of prior convictions and self-reported delinquency. Only two psychological correlates, social bond and impulsivity, were related to violent delinquency; interventions

  19. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  20. Effects of offender motivation, victim gender, and participant gender on perceptions of rape victims and offenders.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D J; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-09-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171 men and women from a small Northeastern college exposed to a stimulus in which a rapist's motivation was varied as either sexual or violent. Participants were more certain that the stimulus described a rape, recommended a longer prison sentence for the offender, and assigned less blame to the victim when exposed to an offender motivated by violence as opposed to an offender motivated by sex. Offender motivation also interacted with participant gender and victim gender on participants' perceptions of victim blame and offender responsibility. The results suggest that an offender's motivation for rape can influence perceptions of the offender's and victim's responsibility for the assault.

  1. Comparison of Measures of Risk for Recidivism in Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…

  2. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Offending: Validation and Prediction to Young Adult Alcohol Use, Drug Use, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Margit; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended previous work of Wiesner and Capaldi (2003) by examining the validity of differing offending pathways and the prediction from the pathways to substance use and depressive symptoms for 204 young men. Findings from this study indicated good external validity of the offending trajectories. Further, substance use and depressive symptoms in young adulthood (i.e., ages 23-24 through 25-26 years) varied depending on different trajectories of offending from early adolescence to young adulthood (i.e., ages 12-13 through 23-24 years), even after controlling for antisocial propensity, parental criminality, demographic factors, and prior levels of each outcome. Specifically, chronic high-level offenders had higher levels of depressive symptoms and engaged more often in drug use compared with very rare, decreasing low-level, and decreasing high-level offenders. Chronic low-level offenders, in contrast, displayed fewer systematic differences compared with the two decreasing offender groups and the chronic high-level offenders. The findings supported the contention that varying courses of offending may have plausible causal effects on young adult outcomes beyond the effects of an underlying propensity for crime. PMID:15971769

  4. Alcoholism, Psychopathology and Sensation-Seeking: Differences Between Male Dui First Offenders and Recidivists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    hopelessness, anger, acting out, anxiety, paranoia, psychopathy , obsessive- compulsiveness, sensation-seeking, and impulsivity. In addition, a number of...resultant condition after use of alcohol for other purposes. Paranoia, psychopathy and obsessive-compulsiveness are personality characteristics that have...drive him or her home after drinking. The person with peculiar, psychopathy like characteristics has an unusual slant on their 31 perception of life in

  5. Trajectories of Violent Behavior Among Females and Males.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Fine, Adam; Thomas, April G; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2017-01-01

    Both the psychological and criminological fields have long hypothesized the mechanisms that influence desistance from violent offending, but few studies have focused on violent females. This study identifies patterns of violent behavior across 7 years among 172 females and 172 matched males ages 15-24, testing if heterogeneity in violent offending is linked to (a) developmental change in impulse control and (b) attainment of adult milestones. Fewer females persist in violence (25%) than males (46%); 19% of males increase in violent behavior. Females who develop impulse control and are employed are more likely to desist from violence. Violent offending is unrelated to other adult milestones. Developmental increases in impulse control may trigger desistance, while employment may maintain desistance from violence.

  6. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide Among U.S. Ethnic/Racial Groups: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Conner, Kenneth; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. Methods Data were derived from the restricted 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the U.S. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ≥ 0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. Results The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide decedents who were legally intoxicated were male, younger than 30 years of age, with a high school education, not married, non-veterans, lived in metropolitan areas, and used a firearm to complete suicide. However, with the exception of Whites, most of these associations became not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Alcohol use and legal intoxication prior to completing suicide are common among U.S. ethnic groups, especially among males and those who are younger than 30 years of age. The AI/AN group had the highest mean BAC, the highest rate of legal intoxication and decedents who were particularly young. Suicide prevention strategies should address alcohol use as a risk factor. Alcohol problems prevention strategies should focus on suicide as a consequence of alcohol use, especially among AI/AN youth and young adults. PMID:23384174

  7. Prediction of violent reoffending on release from prison: derivation and external validation of a scalable tool

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Chang, Zheng; Fanshawe, Thomas; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Mallett, Susan

    2016-01-01

    reoffending of 50% or more, 88% had drug and alcohol use disorders. We used the model to generate a simple, web-based, risk calculator (OxRec) that is free to use. Interpretation We have developed a prediction model in a Swedish prison population that can assist with decision making on release by identifying those who are at low risk of future violent offending, and those at high risk of violent reoffending who might benefit from drug and alcohol treatment. Further assessments in other populations and countries are needed. PMID:27086134

  8. Juvenile Offenders' Alcohol and Marijuana Trajectories: Risk and Protective Factor Effects in the Context of Time in a Supervised Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauricio, Anne M.; Little, Michelle; Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George P.; Piquero, Alex R.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino

    2009-01-01

    The current study modeled trajectories of substance use from ages 15 to 20 among 1,095 male serious juvenile offenders (M age = 16.54; 42% African-American, 34% Latino, 20% European-American, and 4% other ethnic/racial backgrounds) and prospectively predicted trajectories from risk and protective factors before and after controlling for time spent…

  9. Legal Treatment of the Victim-Offender Relationship in Crimes of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Leonore M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates whether the victim-offender relationship plays a role in determining the original charge, crime conviction, and sentence length of inmates in prison for violent crimes. Results indicate the victim-offender relationship is related to the legal processing in paradoxical ways. Thus, although nonstranger offenders are charged with and…

  10. Predicting Presence of Offender's Criminal Record From Antisocial Lifestyle Indicators of Homicide Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santtila, Pekka; Runtti, Markus; Mokros, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of predicting the presence of a criminal record in the background of a homicide offender on the basis of victim characteristics. Eight victim characteristics, as well as the presence or absence of offender criminal record and offender violent criminal record, were coded for 502 Finnish…

  11. A Description of Sexual Offending Committed by Canadian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulden, Heather M.; Firestone, Philip; Kingston, Drew A.; Wexler, Audrey F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim…

  12. Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Miles, Bart W.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the…

  13. Exploring the Overlap in Male Juvenile Sexual Offending and General Delinquency: Trauma, Alcohol Use, and Masculine Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam; Burton, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Burton and Meezan's (2004) finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully…

  14. Child Victimizers: Violent Offenders and Their Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Lawrence A.

    Published jointly by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this document presents information drawn from a nationally representative sample of state prisoners and from existing homicide data assembled by law enforcement agencies. It sheds new light on the most serious types of child abuse and…

  15. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  16. Comparing spatially varying coefficient models: a case study examining violent crime rates and their relationships to alcohol outlets and illegal drug arrests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast a Bayesian spatially varying coefficient process (SVCP) model with a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model for the estimation of the potentially spatially varying regression effects of alcohol outlets and illegal drug activity on violent crime in Houston, Texas. In addition, we focus on the inherent coefficient shrinkage properties of the Bayesian SVCP model as a way to address increased coefficient variance that follows from collinearity in GWR models. We outline the advantages of the Bayesian model in terms of reducing inflated coefficient variance, enhanced model flexibility, and more formal measuring of model uncertainty for prediction. We find spatially varying effects for alcohol outlets and drug violations, but the amount of variation depends on the type of model used. For the Bayesian model, this variation is controllable through the amount of prior influence placed on the variance of the coefficients. For example, the spatial pattern of coefficients is similar for the GWR and Bayesian models when a relatively large prior variance is used in the Bayesian model.

  17. Substance abuse among high-risk sexual offenders: do measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of recidivism over actuarial risk assessment instruments?

    PubMed

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has been found to be related to recidivism among sexual offenders. To investigate whether lifetime history of substance abuse adds to prediction over and above actuarial instruments alone, several measures of substance abuse were administered in conjunction with the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG). The SORAG was found to be the most accurate actuarial instrument for the prediction of serious recidivism (i.e., sexual or violent) among the sample included in the present investigation. Complete information, including follow-up data, were available for 250 offenders who attended the Regional Treatment Centre Sex Offender Treatment Program (RTCSOTP). The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) were used to assess lifetime history of substance abuse. The results of logistic regression procedures indicated that both the SORAG and the MAST independently added to the prediction of serious recidivism. The DAST did not add to prediction over the use of the SORAG alone. Implications for both the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders are discussed.

  18. Understanding the role of alcohol during rape: the perfect storm of attention, emotion, & expectancies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Sex offenders and violent offenders in general that were intoxicated at the time of their offense often claim that they were too intoxicated to know 1) what they were doing at the time of the offense and 2) therefore unable to recall the details of the offense situation the next day. What the literature has to say contradicts the claims of sex offenders or violent offenders who claim they were "out of control" and that they do not recall what they did in the offense situation. Alcohol use (mild to moderate consumption) appears to result in 1) alcohol myopia; 2) increased attentional focus on the more salient emotions (whether negative or positive); 3) improved creative thinking and improved attention to the activity at hand; 4) decreased frontal lobe activity (e.g., lack of concern about consequences or morals); 5) is impacted by alcohol expectancies; and 6) does not prevent an individual from being able to recall activity that occurred while intoxicated when provided cues.

  19. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk.

  20. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings.

  1. PREDICTING RECIDIVISM FOR RELEASED STATE PRISON OFFENDERS

    PubMed Central

    Stahler, Gerald J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Belenko, Steven; Welsh, Wayne N.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Zajac, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics and spatial contagion in predicting reincarceration on a sample of 5,354 released Pennsylvania state prisoners. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, offense type, drug involvement, various neighborhood variables (e.g., concentrated disadvantage, residential mobility), and spatial contagion (i.e., proximity to others who become reincarcerated). Using geographic information systems (GIS) and logistic regression modeling, our results showed that the likelihood of reincarceration was increased with male gender, drug involvement, offense type, and living in areas with high rates of recidivism. Older offenders and those convicted of violent or drug offenses were less likely to be reincarcerated. For violent offenders, drug involvement, age, and spatial contagion were particular risk factors for reincarceration. None of the neighborhood environment variables were associated with increased risk of reincarceration. Reentry programs need to particularly address substance abuse issues of ex-offenders as well as take into consideration their residential locations. PMID:24443612

  2. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging.

  3. Rehabilitation of the Alcoholic. A Training Guide. A Report from the Study Group on Rehabilitation of the Alcoholic and Public Offender. Rehabilitation Services Series Number 69-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The many difficulties involved in diagnosing, classifying and treating alcoholics comprise the bulk of the report's content. The very specific social and medical needs of the alcoholic, coupled with personal, social and treatment agency barriers, are viewed as the major feasibility (for treatment outcome) factors. The report recommends six major…

  4. Differences in interpersonal distance among nonoffenders as a function of perceived violence of offenders.

    PubMed

    Skorjanc, A D

    1991-10-01

    A group of 39 female and 15 male undergraduate students took part in a study of the relationship between perceived violence of criminal offenders and interpersonal distance preferred by nonoffenders. Preferred interpersonal distance, measured for subjects informed that the person with whom they would be sitting in a room was either a violent offender, nonviolent offender, or nonoffender, was the number of seats subjects chose to sit from the person. Analysis of variance shows subjects preferred significantly less mean distance in the nonoffender condition versus either the nonviolent or violent offender conditions.

  5. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.

  6. Psychopathic traits in Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laajasalo, Taina; Salenius, Stephan; Lindberg, Nina; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining psychopathy in comparable samples of violent individuals with and without psychotic illness. The main goal of the study was to assess the prevalence and nature of psychopathic traits as measured by PCL-R among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Further, the impact of co-morbid psychopathy on the homicidal incidents, as well as the associations of psychopathy and offender background factors, among offenders with schizophrenia was investigated. A retrospective study was performed using extensive forensic psychiatric evaluation reports and crime reports as sources of information. The sample consisted of 72 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 72 controls without psychotic illness. Psychopathic features were prevalent among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia, although for the most parts to a lesser extent compared to other homicide offenders. Like non-mentally ill psychopathic offenders, offenders with schizophrenia and many psychopathic traits are likely to present early starting problems in many areas of life and they also commit homicides that resemble other psychopathic offenders' in their choice of victims, intoxication and post-offense behavior. The observed prevalence of psychopathic traits highlights the importance of psychopathy assessment among violence-prone individuals with schizophrenia. In most respects, offenders with schizophrenia and high levels of psychopathic traits seem to be similar to psychopathic offenders without psychotic illness, which has implications for early intervention and management.

  7. Deterrence Theory and the Role of Shame in Projected Offending of College Students against a Ban on Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Fukushima, Miyuki; Spivak, Andrew L.; Payne, David

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we advance previous research in deterrence theory by examining the perceived deterrent effects of a newly instituted dry policy on a college campus. A survey of 500 full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 26 was conducted 3 months following the ban on alcohol. Hypotheses are derived from deterrence theory…

  8. Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual and Violent Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.; Beech, Anthony; Browne, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The predictive accuracy of the newly developed actuarial risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV) were cross validated and compared with two risk assessment measures (SVR-20 and Static-99) in a sample of sexual (n = 85) and nonsex violent (n = 46) offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18%…

  9. Reliability of Risk Assessment Measures Used in Sexually Violent Predator Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cailey S.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Otto, Randy K.; Kline, Suzonne M.; Wasserman, Adam L.

    2012-01-01

    The field interrater reliability of three assessment tools frequently used by mental health professionals when evaluating sex offenders' risk for reoffending--the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) and the Static-99--was examined within the context of sexually violent predator…

  10. Abnormal hippocampal shape in offenders with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Rossi, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Laakso, Mikko P; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Könönen, Mervi; Aronen, Hannu J; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Tiihonen, Jari

    2010-03-01

    Posterior hippocampal volumes correlate negatively with the severity of psychopathy, but local morphological features are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hippocampal morphology in habitually violent offenders having psychopathy. Manual tracings of hippocampi from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 +/- 8.4), with different degrees of psychopathy (12 high, 14 medium psychopathy based on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised), and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 +/- 10.8) were used for statistical modelling of local changes with a surface-based radial distance mapping method. Both offenders and controls had similar hippocampal volume and asymmetry ratios. Local analysis showed that the high psychopathy group had a significant depression along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, on both the dorsal and ventral aspects, when compared with the healthy controls and the medium psychopathy group. The opposite comparison revealed abnormal enlargement of the lateral borders in both the right and left hippocampi of both high and medium psychopathy groups versus controls, throughout CA1, CA2-3 and the subicular regions. These enlargement and reduction effects survived statistical correction for multiple comparisons in the main contrast (26 offenders vs. 25 controls) and in most subgroup comparisons. A statistical check excluded a possible confounding effect from amphetamine and polysubstance abuse. These results indicate that habitually violent offenders exhibit a specific abnormal hippocampal morphology, in the absence of total gray matter volume changes, that may relate to different autonomic modulation and abnormal fear-conditioning.

  11. A multisite comparison of actuarial risk instruments for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E; Quinsey, Vernon L; Lalumière, Martin L; Boer, Douglas; Lang, Carol

    2003-09-01

    Four actuarial instruments for the prediction of violent and sexual reoffending (the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide [VRAG], Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide [SORAG], Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism [RRASOR] and Static-99) were evaluated in 4 samples of sex offenders (N = 396). Although all 4 instruments predicted violent (including sexual) recidivism and recidivism known to be sexually motivated, areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were consistently higher for the VRAG and the SORAG. The instruments performed better when there were fewer missing items and follow-up time was fixed, with an ROC area up to .84 for the VRAG, for example, under such favorable conditions. Predictive accuracy was higher for child molesters than for rapists, especially for the Static-99 and the RRASOR. Consistent with past research, survival analyses revealed that those offenders high in both psychopathy and sexual deviance were an especially high-risk group.

  12. During-Treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified therapeutic community (TC) program ("Clean Lifestyle is Freedom Forever" [CLIFF]-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders…

  13. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  14. Violent Crime in Asperger Syndrome: The Role of Psychiatric Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stewart S.; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested an association between violent crime and Asperger syndrome (AS), few have examined the underlying reasons. The aim of this review is to determine to what extent psychiatric factors contribute to offending behavior in this population. Online databases were used to identify relevant articles which were then…

  15. Intrusive Memories in Perpetrators of Violent Crime: Emotions and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ceri; Ehlers, Anke; Mezey, Gillian; Clark, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated factors that may determine whether perpetrators of violent crime develop intrusive memories of their offense. Of 105 young offenders who were convicted of killing or seriously harming others, 46% reported distressing intrusive memories, and 6% had posttraumatic stress disorder. Intrusions were associated with lower…

  16. Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Terrance J.; Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Freng, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses…

  17. Family experiences of young adult sex offender registration.

    PubMed

    Comartin, Erin B; Kernsmith, Poco D; Miles, Bart W

    2010-03-01

    Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the public via the Internet or a request to a police department. These laws have brought about consequences for both the registrants and for members of their families. A focus group was held with four mothers who have sons listed on the Michigan Sex Offender Registry. Psychological and social consequences of registration were found and policy implications are discussed.

  18. Risk factors for criminal recidivism in older sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms.

  19. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  20. Personality disorders in men with sexual and violent criminal offense histories.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Marc; Iffland, Joel Simeon; Hill, Andreas; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about personality disorders (PDs) in offenders with histories of both sexual and (nonsexual) violent offenses. This study aimed to identify possible differences of PD profiles across three different offender groups with both sexual and violent (S+V), only sexual (S), and only violent (V) offenses. Nonviolent (N) offenders were used as a comparison group. Typing of individuals according to their offensive histories was performed on the basis of 259 psychiatric court reports that included the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID)-II for PD diagnostics. Men from the S+V group committed significantly more acts of rape and sexual coercion than the mere sexual offenders. Furthermore, S+V offenders showed the highest rates of PDs overall (68.3%), with every second offender being diagnosed with an antisocial PD and every third offender with a borderline PD. In summary, the results suggest that S+V offenders form a group of individuals with remarkable differences regarding PD profiles, the relatively highest frequencies of conduct disorders, familial addictive problems, and PDs overall.

  1. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities.

  2. Actuarial assessment of risk among sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E

    2003-06-01

    The appraisal of risk among sex offenders has seen recent advances through the advent of actuarial assessments. Statistics derived from Relative Operating Characteristics (ROCs) permit the comparison of predictive accuracies achieved by different instruments even among samples that exhibit different base rates of recidivism. Such statistics cannot, however, solve problems introduced when items from actuarial tools are omitted, when reliability is low, or when there is high between-subject variability in the duration of the follow-up. We present empirical evidence suggesting that when comprehensive actuarial tools (VRAG and SORAG) are scored with high reliability, without missing items, and when samples of offenders have fixed and equal opportunity for recidivism, predictive accuracies are maximized near ROC areas of 0.90. Although the term "dynamic" has not been consistently defined, such accuracies leave little room for further improvement in long-term prediction by dynamic risk factors. We address the mistaken idea that long-term, static risk levels have little relevance for clinical intervention with sex offenders. We conclude that highly accurate prediction of violent criminal recidivism can be achieved by means of highly reliable and thorough scoring of comprehensive multi-item actuarial tools using historical items (at least until potent therapies are identified). The role of current moods, attitudes, insights, and physiological states in causing contemporaneous behavior notwithstanding, accurate prediction about which sex offenders will commit at least one subsequent violent offense can be accomplished using complete information about past conduct.

  3. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of High-Intensity Inpatient Sex Offender Treatment in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daan J

    2016-08-01

    The current study quasi-experimentally assessed the outcome of high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment in the Netherlands in terms of sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. It was hypothesized that treated sex offenders would show lower recidivism rates than untreated sex offenders of the same risk level. In line with the risk principle of the Risk, Need, Responsivity (RNR) model, we predicted that this would especially hold true for offenders of higher risk levels. The study sample consisted of 25% of all convicted Dutch sex offenders not referred to any form of treatment and discharged from prison between 1996 and 2002, and all convicted Dutch sex offenders referred to inpatient treatment who were discharged between 1996 and 2002. Static-99R risk levels of these 266 offenders were retrospectively assessed and survival curves regarding sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism were compared between treated and untreated offenders, controlling for level of risk. Mean follow-up was 148.0 months (SD = 29.6) and the base rate of sexual recidivism was 15.0% and 38.4% for violent (including sexual) recidivism. Cox regression survival analyses showed marginally significant lower failure rates regarding sexual recidivism for treated high-risk offenders only, and significantly lower failure rates regarding violent (including sexual recidivism) for treated sex offenders of moderate-high and high-risk levels. No treatment effects for low and low-moderate risk offenders were found. Results underscore the risk principle of the RNR model: Treatment is more effective when its dosage is attuned to risk level.

  4. The recidivism rates of female sexual offenders are low: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cortoni, Franca; Hanson, R Karl; Coache, Marie-Ève

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the recidivism rates of female sexual offenders. A meta-analysis of 10 studies (2,490 offenders; average follow-up 6.5 years) showed that female sexual offenders have extremely low rates of sexual recidivism (less than 3%). The recidivism rates for violent (including sexual) offences and for any type of crime were predictably higher than the recidivism rates for sexual offences but still lower than the recidivism rates of male sexual offenders. These findings indicate the need for distinct policies and procedures for assessing and managing the risk of male and female sexual offenders. Risk assessment tools developed specifically for male sexual offenders would be expected to substantially overestimate the recidivism risk of female sexual offenders.

  5. Association between schizophrenia and violence among Chinese female offenders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Chun; Zhu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Si-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Song; Li, Qi-Guang; Wang, Qun; Zhong, Shao-Ling; Ng, Chee H; Ungvari, Gabor S; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2017-04-11

    Little is known about the association between schizophrenia and violence in women in China. This study aimed to examine the association between schizophrenia and violence in Chinese female offenders. Fifty-two schizophrenia patients were identified from the female offenders who received forensic psychiatric assessments in 2011 in Hunan province, China. Using a propensity score matching method, 104 matched controls without psychiatric disorders were selected from female criminals in Hunan province. Violent offences and homicides were verified and recorded. The percentages of violent offences and homicides were significantly higher in female offenders with schizophrenia than in controls (78.8% vs. 30.8%, P < 0.001; 44.2% vs. 18.3%, P = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that diagnosis of schizophrenia, younger age at first offence, living in rural area and a lower education level were independently and positively associated with violent offences, while having a diagnosis of schizophrenia and lower education level were associated with homicides. There appears to be an independent and positive association between schizophrenia and violent offence in Chinese female offenders. Effective preventive approaches on violence in female schizophrenia patients are warranted.

  6. Current Status of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders and Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    An emerging literature on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and offending has highlighted that these disorders are at times associated with criminal behaviour. Ghaziuddin et al. (1991) reviewed the published literature on this topic from 1944 to 1990 and concluded that there was no clear link between Asperger syndrome (AS) and violent crime. They…

  7. Identifying the Psychosocial and Mental Health Needs of Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David M.; Pleydon, Anne

    This study examined the psychosocial, mental health, and intellectual characteristics of young offenders serving a sentence at Syl Apps Youth Centre, a secure custody facility. The sample comprised 50 youths, 37 males and 13 females. The index offenses were varied, but the majority were sentenced for a violent offense. The results showed that…

  8. Kids Who Commit Adult Crimes: Serious Criminality by Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, R. Barri

    The increasingly serious nature of juvenile criminal behavior has led to greater efforts to understand the roots, causes, and correlates of juvenile violence and chronic delinquency, as well as develop more effective means of identifying at-risk youth and treating serious and violent juvenile offenders. This book examines the realities and…

  9. Student Attitudes toward Sex Offender Policies and Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Beth A.; Siedschlaw, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning with the passage of The Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act in 1994 and Megan's Law in 1996, the federal government and states have passed numerous pieces of legislation to control and restrict those convicted of sex offenses. This study surveyed the attitudes of undergraduate students…

  10. Court-ordered emergency visitations for DUI offenders.

    PubMed

    Leary, B F

    1991-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) and morgue visits to view the results of accidents have recently been instituted as an alternative sentence for adolescents convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). Although many DUI offenders are alcoholic, and educational programs intended to reduce recidivism in adults are generally not effective, scant data exist on adolescent offenders. Initial assessment of 59 of our program participants diagnosed 41% as alcoholic. This finding prompted further participant evaluation to define our population. Fifty-four participants evaluated by self-administered diagnostic questionnaire revealed an alcoholism rate of 54%. Additionally, recidivism rates for alcohol-related moving violations for 176 program participants and matched controls were 28% and 23%, respectively. The significance of these findings represents the serious alcohol problems faced by the study population and indicates that visitation programs are not effective for addressing the problems of alcoholic offenders or in reducing recidivism.

  11. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [(11)C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [(11)C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=-0.50 to -0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity.

  12. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [11C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Michael Bagby, R; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [11C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=−0.50 to −0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  13. Like Parent Like Child? The Role of Delayed Childrearing in Breaking the Link Between Parent’s Offending and Their Children’s Antisocial Behavior**

    PubMed Central

    Lizotte, Alan J.; Krohn, Marvin D.; Thornberry, Terence P.; Bushway, Shawn D.; Schmidt, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of parents’ history of violent offending, their age at first birth, and the interaction of the two on their adolescent children’s violent behavior. We employ intergenerational longitudinal data from the Rochester Youth Development Study to estimate parental trajectories of offending from their early adolescence through early adulthood. We show that the particular shape of the parents’ propensity of offending over time can interact with their age at first birth to protect their children from delinquency. We investigate these relationships for children at 6 and 10 years of age. We find that for some groups delaying childrearing can insulate children from their parents’ offending. PMID:26392677

  14. Psychotherapeutic approaches to aggressive and violent patients.

    PubMed

    Alpert, J E; Spillmann, M K

    1997-06-01

    Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral strategies and a broad range of group, family, couples, and milieu treatment approaches have been developed for the psychotherapy of aggressive and violent patients. These methods have been carried out in diverse settings ranging from hospitals and prisons to individual outpatient practices and have been applied across diverse populations including adults with mental retardation, dementia, and brain injury; children with attention deficit and conduct disorders and autism; recurrent violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder; and individuals with chronic psychotic disorders, mood disorders, or medical illnesses such as hypertension. Bridging these different strategies are the underlying principles of psychotherapy with aggressive and violent patients. These include ensuring the safety of clinician, patient, and potential victims as the foremost concern; developing a finely detailed assessment of aggressive and violent acts and of the antecedents, assumptions, and consequences that are attached to them; formulating well-defined goals and striving for clear communication to achieve consistency in the pursuit of these goals between therapist and patient, and among therapist and other clinicians, staff, and relevant family members or agencies; specifying ahead of time well-considered outcome measures to be used to gauge the effectiveness of treatment; and maintaining a healthy vigilance for countertransferential and similar reactions and a willingness to use consultation as an integral part of treatment.

  15. Rehabilitation of the Personality of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitsev, G. K.; Zaitsev, A. G.; Dmitriev, M. G.; Apal'kova, I. Iu.

    2009-01-01

    Russian youth has in recent years been increasingly involved in crime, narcotics addiction, and alcoholism, possibly due to a failure of socialization in childhood. Researchers are seeking the origins of this phenomenon and searching for ways to combat it through rehabilitation of juvenile offenders. The essential nature of social and pedagogical…

  16. Dyadic Violence and Readiness to Change among Male Intimate Partner Violence Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behavior among male offenders (e.g., Eckhardt et al., 2004; Scott & Wolfe, 2003), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behavior are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Archer, 2002; Holtzworth-Monroe & Stuart, 1994). Aims/Hypotheses We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. Method To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behavior (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Results Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Conclusions and Implications for Clinical Practice Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment

  17. Criminal recidivism in offenders with personality disorders and substance use disorders over 8 years of time at risk.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Dittmann, Volker; Graf, Marc

    2011-04-30

    Personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD) lead to high violent criminality. The influence of co-morbidity on recidivism remains unclear. Recidivism of 379 offenders was assessed at 8 years of follow-up. Sixty-nine percent of PD+SUD, 45% of SUD- and 33% of PD- subjects showed any recidivism. However, violent recidivism was highest in the PD- group.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  20. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  1. Legal, individual, and environmental predictors of court disposition in a sample of serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Kimonis, Eva; Steinberg, Laurence; Chassin, Laurie; Fagan, Jeffery

    2007-12-01

    Historically, the juvenile court has been expected to consider each youth's distinct rehabilitative needs in the dispositional decision-making process, rather than focusing on legal factors alone. This study examines the extent to which demographic, psychological, contextual, and legal factors, independently predict dispositional outcomes (i.e., probation vs. confinement) within two juvenile court jurisdictions (Philadelphia, Phoenix). The sample consists of 1,355 14- to 18-year-old male and female juvenile offenders adjudicated of a serious criminal offense. Results suggest that legal factors have the strongest influence on disposition in both jurisdictions. For example, a higher number of prior court referrals is associated with an increased likelihood of secure confinement in both jurisdictions. Juveniles adjudicated of violent offenses are more likely to receive secure confinement in Phoenix, but are more likely to be placed on probation in Philadelphia. Race is unrelated to dispositional outcome, but, males are consistently more likely than females to be placed in secure confinement. Importantly, individual factors (e.g., developmental maturity) generally were not powerful independent predictors of disposition. Finally, an examination of the predictors of juvenile versus adult court transfer in Phoenix indicated that males, older juveniles, and those with a violent adjudicated charge were more likely to be transferred to adult court, while juveniles scoring high on responsibility as well as those juveniles with an alcohol dependence diagnosis were more likely to be retained in juvenile court.

  2. Legal, Individual, and Environmental Predictors of Court Disposition in a Sample of Serious Adolescent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Kimonis, Eva; Steinberg, Laurence; Chassin, Laurie; Fagan, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the juvenile court has been expected to consider each youth's distinct rehabilitative needs in the dispositional decision-making process, rather than focusing on legal factors alone. This study examines the extent to which demographic, psychological, contextual, and legal factors, independently predict dispositional outcomes (i.e., probation vs. confinement) within two juvenile court jurisdictions (Philadelphia, Phoenix). The sample consists of 1,355 14- to 18-year-old male and female juvenile offenders adjudicated of a serious criminal offense. Results suggest that legal factors have the strongest influence on disposition in both jurisdictions. For example, a higher number of prior court referrals is associated with an increased likelihood of secure confinement in both jurisdictions. Juveniles adjudicated of violent offenses are more likely to receive secure confinement in Phoenix, but are more likely to be placed on probation in Philadelphia. Race is unrelated to dispositional outcome, but, males are consistently more likely than females to be placed in secure confinement. Importantly, individual factors (e.g., developmental maturity) generally were not powerful independent predictors of disposition. Finally, an examination of the predictors of juvenile versus adult court transfer in Phoenix indicated that males, older juveniles, and those with a violent adjudicated charge were more likely to be transferred to adult court, while juveniles scoring high on responsibility as well as those juveniles with an alcohol dependence diagnosis were more likely to be retained in juvenile court. PMID:17245634

  3. Predicting Rearrest for Violence among Serious Youthful Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattimore, Pamela K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes youthful parolees' risk of arrest for a violent crime. Results suggest that prior criminal history and socioeconomic variables are powerful predictors of both the timing and the charge of first arrest following parole. Prior gang involvement and heavy use of alcohol or drugs did not predict violent recidivism. (RJM)

  4. Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas

    2004-04-01

    Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers.

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  6. Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder Display More Impairments in Mentalizing.

    PubMed

    Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.

  7. Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri

    2012-08-01

    The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  9. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  10. Mental disorder, predisposition, prediction, and ability to control: evaluating sex offenders for civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Richard W

    2009-12-01

    Nearly 20 years after the first sexually violent person (SVP) statutes were introduced in the United States, the civil commitment of sex offenders remains controversial. SVP laws require that a sex offender has a mental condition that predisposes them to commit sex offenses and poses a high risk to reoffend because of serious difficulty controlling behavior. The controversy over the commitment of sex offenders is fueled by different interpretations of those key constructs. This article reviews those constructs; evaluates them from clinical, epidemiologic, and legal perspectives; and proposes interpretations that address both the major criticisms of civil commitment and the challenges in SVP assessment.

  11. "Police Wouldn't Give You No Help": Female Offenders on Reporting Sexual Assault to Police.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Slocum, Lee Ann; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2016-03-01

    Sexual assault remains one of the most underreported violent crimes. When victims report, they often are dissatisfied with the police response. The factors influencing one's decision to invoke the law have been widely examined. However, less research examines (a) how the victim's criminality affects this decision and (b) women offenders' characterization of their reporting decisions. We use mixed methods to explore the factors related to an offender's decision to report sexual victimization to police and consider their descriptions of police response when they do report the crime. Our findings provide insight into the gendered relations between offenders and police.

  12. Adolescent sexual offenders: the relationship between typology and recidivism.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2010-06-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M(follow-up) = 56.99 months, SD(follow-up) = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M (follow-up) = 67.83 months, SD(follow-up) = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders.

  13. Reexamining the Correlates of Adolescent Violent Victimization: The Importance of Exposure, Guardianship, and Target Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Miller, Holly Ventura; Pangrac, Rebekah

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relative contributions of various theoretical constructs to violent victimization by operationalizing multiple measures of exposure to motivated offenders, guardianship, and target characteristics. Using a nationally representative sample of American adolescents, we conducted principal components factor analysis and…

  14. The biasing effect of the "sexually violent predator" label on legal decisions.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; Gongola, Jennifer; Krauss, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Public fear has driven legislation designed to identify and exclude sexual offenders from society, culminating in sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes, in which a sex offender who has served his prison sentence is hospitalized indefinitely if a jury determines that he is likely to reoffend as a result of a mental disorder. Jurors rarely vote not to commit a previously-convicted sex offender as an SVP. This study tests whether the mere label of "sexually violent predator" affects these legal decisions. Venire jurors (n=161) were asked to decide whether an individual who had been incarcerated for 16years should be released on parole. The individual was either labeled as a.) a sexually violent predator or b.) a convicted felon, and all other information was identical between the conditions. Jurors were over twice as likely to deny parole to the SVP compared to the felon, even though they did not consider him any more dangerous or any more likely to reoffend. Demographic variables did not moderate this finding. However, jurors' desire to 'get revenge' and to 'make the offender pay', as measured by Gerber and Jackson's (2013) Just Deserts Scale, did significantly relate to decisions to deny parole. These findings suggest that jurors' decisions in SVP hearings are driven by legally impermissible considerations, and that the mere label of "sexually violent predator" induces bias into the decision making process.

  15. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  16. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  17. Examining cortical thickness in male and female DWI offenders.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Jens; Tremblay, Jacques; Nadeau, Louise; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Lepage, Martin; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-04-21

    Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI offenders show cortical thickness anomalies that differ from those in female DWI offenders, when compared to their respective controls. Moderating role of sex and alcohol use on DWI status was also investigated. Sixty-one DWI offenders (29 male; 32 female) and 58 controls (29 male; 29 female) completed an anatomical brain scan and assessments on other relevant characteristics. Only male DWI offenders had reduced cortical thickness in the right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region involved in cognitive control. Lower cortical thickness was associated with increased odds of DWI status only among males who have not engaged in very hazardous pattern of alcohol misuse in the previous 12 months. Thus, for these male DWI drivers, interventions that could impact PCC could be most advantageous. Continued multidimensional sex analysis of the neural characteristics of male and female DWI offenders is warranted.

  18. Juvenile Sexual Homicide Offenders: Thirty-Year Follow-Up Investigation.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Sexual homicide by a juvenile offender occurs approximately 9 times per year in the United States. Little is known about the post-incarceration adjustment of these offenders. The current study was designed to follow up 30 years later on a sample of eight adolescent sexual homicide offenders who were convicted of murder and sentenced to adult prison. The results indicated that six out of eight offenders were released from prison, and their mean sentence length was 12 years and 2 months. Four offenders out of the six released were rearrested, but none of the arrests were for homicide, sexual or otherwise. The post-incarceration arrests were for violent, drug-related, and property crimes, as well as possession of a firearm. Three out of the four recidivists have been recommitted to prison. Implications concerning the comparability of results to past research, time served in prison, and types of post-release offenses are discussed.

  19. Posthospitalization Outcomes for Psychiatric Sex Offenders: Comparing Two Treatment Protocols.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jill D; McVay, Lee Ann; Becker, Judith V

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of safe offender strategies (SOS) in comparison with relapse prevention (RP) in a sample of 91 inpatient males in a secure psychiatric setting. All men evidenced a history of violent sexual offending and were diagnosed with serious psychiatric disorders and/or intellectual disabilities. Participants who received SOS (n= 58) and RP (n= 33) were followed from 6 to 36 months post release. SOS clients were significantly less likely to be arrested (0%) or rehospitalized (5.2%) than RP clients (9% arrested; 54.5% rehospitalized). In addition, SOS clients were more likely to transition continuously to less restrictive alternatives, with no returns to high security, in comparison with RP clients. The authors discuss implications for use of SOS, a treatment that facilitates skills development and affects global self-regulatory functioning, particularly in sex offenders with serious mental illness or intellectual impairment, in promoting community reintegration and limiting returns to psychiatric settings.

  20. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  1. The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice conferences: focusing on juvenile offenders' perceptions in Australian reintegrative shaming experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Joo; Gerber, Jurg

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences through the eyes of juvenile offenders. In Australia, Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) are based on Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming. Previous studies, although showing that RISE reported high levels of victim satisfaction and positive changes in the attitudes of offenders, also demonstrated that it has different outcomes for juvenile offenders depending on the type of offense with which they were charged. However, the effectiveness of RISE in terms of the offenders' perceptions has not been addressed, and the impact of the offenders' perceptions about RISE still remains under investigation. Using Australian data from RISE between 1995 and 1999, this article examines juvenile offenders' perceptions on preventing reoffending, repaying the victim and society, and the degree of repentance. The data were taken from interviews with juvenile offenders to measure their perceptions after the court or RISE processing. A comparison of standard court processing effects and RISE on juvenile offending, including property crime, shoplifting, and violent offenses, was undertaken. The results from this study were somewhat inconsistent with previous research. In this study, there was no significant relationship between RJ conference and the offenders' own perceptions on the prevention of future offending. However, it was found that there were treatment effects on repaying the victim, repaying society, and the degree of feeling repentance, and that younger offenders wanted to repay the victim/society and feel repentance.

  2. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort.

  3. Impulsive versus premeditated aggression in the prediction of violent criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; Walsh, Zach; Christie, Michael; Priddy, Brittany M; Conner, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    Past aggression is a potent predictor of future aggression and informs the prediction of violent criminal recidivism. However, aggression is a heterogeneous construct and different types of aggression may confer different levels of risk for future violence. In this prospective study of 91 adults in a pretrial diversion program, we examined (a) premeditated versus impulsive aggression in the prediction of violent recidivism during a one-year follow-up period, and (b) whether either type of aggression would have incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism after taking into account frequency of past general aggression. Findings indicate that premeditated, but not impulsive, aggression predicts violent recidivism. Moreover, premeditated aggression remained a predictor of recidivism even with general aggression frequency in the model. Results provide preliminary evidence that the assessment of premeditated aggression provides relevant information for the management of violent offenders.

  4. Impulsive versus Premeditated Aggression in the Prediction of Violent Criminal Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Christie, Michael; Priddy, Brittany M.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Past aggression is a potent predictor of future aggression and informs the prediction of violent criminal recidivism. However, aggression is a heterogeneous construct and different types of aggression may confer different levels of risk for future violence. In this prospective study of 91 adults in a pretrial diversion program, we examined a) premeditated versus impulsive aggression in the prediction of violent recidivism during a one-year follow-up period, and b) whether either type of aggression would have incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism after taking into account frequency of past general aggression. Findings indicate that premeditated, but not impulsive, aggression predicts violent recidivism. Moreover, premeditated aggression remained a predictor of recidivism even with general aggression frequency in the model. Results provide preliminary evidence that the assessment of premeditated aggression provides relevant information for the management of violent offenders. PMID:25043811

  5. When love hurts: assessing the intersectionality of ethnicity, socio-economic status, parental connectedness, child abuse, and gender attitudes in juvenile violent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Lahlah, Esmah; Lens, Kim M E; Bogaerts, Stefan; van der Knaap, Leontien M

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have not yet reached agreement about the validity of several competing explanations that seek to explain ethnic differences in juvenile violent offending. Ethnicity cannot solely explain why boys with an ethnic minority background commit more (violent) crimes. By assessing the intersectionality of structural, cultural and individual considerations, both the independent effects as well as the interplay between different factors can be examined. This study shows that aforementioned factors cumulatively play a role in severe violent offending, with parental connectedness and child abuse having the strongest associations. However, since most variables interact and ethnicity is associated with those specific factors, a conclusion to be drawn is that ethnicity may be relevant as an additional variable predicting severe violent offending although indirectly.

  6. Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard B.

    The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…

  7. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Fimińska, Zuzanna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Method We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder) on outcomes. Results Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949) after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%), and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613) with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied—substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:27196309

  8. Nepotistic Patterns of Violent Psychopathy: Evidence for Adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, Daniel Brian; Sewall, Lindsay A.; Lalumière, Martin L.; Sheriff, Craig; Harris, Grant T.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individual’s inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to protect relatives. Thus, mental disorder and adaptation accounts of psychopathy generate opposing hypotheses: psychopathy should be associated with an increase in the victimization of kin in the former account but not in the latter. Contrary to the mental disorder hypothesis, we show here in a sample of 289 violent offenders that variation in psychopathy predicts a decrease in the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders; that is, psychopathy predicts an increased likelihood of harming non-relatives. Because nepotistic inhibition in violence may be caused by dispersal or kin discrimination, we examined the effects of psychopathy on (1) the dispersal of offenders and their kin and (2) sexual assault frequency (as a window on kin discrimination). Although psychopathy was negatively associated with coresidence with kin and positively associated with the commission of sexual assault, it remained negatively associated with the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders after removing cases of offenders who had coresided with kin and cases of sexual assault from the analyses. These results stand in contrast to models positing psychopathy as a pathology, and provide support for the hypothesis that psychopathy reflects an evolutionary strategy largely favoring the exploitation of non-relatives. PMID:22973244

  9. Diagnosing and litigating hebephilia in sexually violent predator civil commitment proceedings.

    PubMed

    Fabian, John Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, state and federal legislative initiatives have heavily emphasized punitive laws to combat sexual crime. These statutes include indefinite civil commitment, which is the ultimate infringement on sexual offenders' civil liberties. Many of these committed offenders have repeatedly offended against prepubescent children (pedophiles), and many have committed nonconsensual sexual offenses against adults (rapists). A substantial number of sex offenders have offended against postpubescent adolescents and teenagers outside the age range of pedophilia (commonly referred to by some clinicians and researchers as hebephilia). The use of the term hebephilia has recently received heightened scrutiny in sexually violent predator civil commitment proceedings. Specifically, experts debate whether hebephilia is recognized within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and whether it is a generally accepted diagnosis within the field of sexual offender assessment. Scholars and practitioners question how hebephilia pertains to sexual deviance and one's risk of reoffending and whether it ultimately meets the legal mental abnormality threshold of civil commitment through DSM diagnostic criteria. This article addresses these questions and provides recent federal case law that attends to hebephilia in sexually violent predator proceedings.

  10. A cluster analytic examination and external validation of psychopathic offender subtypes in a multisite sample of Canadian federal offenders.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Sewall, Lindsay A; Sarty, Gordon E; Lewis, Kathy; Wong, Stephen C P

    2015-05-01

    The present study is a cluster analytic examination and validation of psychopathic offender subtypes from 4 combined samples of Canadian federally incarcerated offenders, most of whom were serving sentences for violent offenses. The men were rated on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) on the basis of comprehensive file information and 314 cases were extracted using a PCL-R total cut score of 25. Cluster analysis of the 4 PCL-R facets converged at a 2-cluster solution: a primary subtype characterized by prominent interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and a secondary subtype characterized by comparatively few interpersonal features and high scores on the remaining facets. Validation analyses found that the vast majority of primary psychopathic offenders (74.1%) were White or of non-Aboriginal descent in contrast to the secondary subtype (47.6%). Secondary psychopathic offenders tended to be actuarially higher risk, have greater criminogenic needs, and to make greater amounts of treatment change on criminogenic targets; however, contrary to expectations, within-treatment changes from a violence reduction program were significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism for primary, but not secondary, variants. There were few differences in rates of recidivism between the groups overall; secondary variants had higher rates of sexual violence which was largely accounted for by individual differences in baseline static risk. Implications for risk assessment, treatment planning, and the classification and etiology of primary and secondary psychopathy are discussed.

  11. Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2012-04-01

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical

  12. Self-reported traumatic brain injury in male young offenders: a risk factor for re-offending, poor mental health and violence?

    PubMed

    Williams, W Huw; Cordan, Giray; Mewse, Avril J; Tonks, James; Burgess, Crispin N W

    2010-12-01

    Adolescence is a risk period for offending and for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and TBI is a risk factor for poor mental health and for offending. TBI has been largely neglected from guidance on managing the mental health needs of young offenders. We sought to determine the rate of self-reported TBI, of various severities, in a male, adolescent youth offending population. We also aimed to explore whether TBI was associated with number of convictions, violent offending, mental health problems and drug misuse. Young male offenders aged 11 to 19 years were recruited from a Young Offender Institute, a Youth Offending Team and a special needs school. A total of 197 participants were approached and 186 (94.4%) completed the study. They completed self-reports on TBI, crime history, mental health and drug use. TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) was reported by 46% of the sample. LOC consistent with mild TBI was reported by 29.6%, and 16.6% reported LOC consistent with moderate to severe TBI. Possible TBI was reported by a further 19.1%. Repeat injury was common - with 32% reporting more than one LOC. Frequency of self-reported TBI was associated with more convictions. Three or more self-reported TBIs were associated with greater violence in offences. Those with self-reported TBI were also at risk of greater mental health problems and of misuse of cannabis. TBI may be associated with offending behaviour and worse mental health outcomes. Addressing TBI within adolescent offenders with neurorehabilitative input may be important for improving well-being and reducing re-offending.

  13. Treating Traumatized Offenders and Veterans by Means of Narrative Exposure Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Violent offenders and soldiers are at high risk of developing appetitive aggression and trauma-related disorders, which reduce successful integration into societies. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) for forensic offender rehabilitation (FORNET) aims at reducing symptoms of traumatic stress (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder) and controlling readiness for aggressive behavior. It follows the logic of the evidence-based trauma-focused NET with special emphasis on violent acts in past and future behavior. In NET, the therapist guides the client by means of exposure through his traumatic experiences in chronological order linking the negative emotions, such as fear, shame, and disgust, to the past context and integrating the traumatic experiences into the autobiographical memory. During FORNET, we also encourage verbalization of any positive emotions and experiences linked to past violent and aggressive behaviors. This recall of positive emotions (linked to the there and then) is contrasted with feelings that emerge during the narration process (here and now). In this way, the therapist helps the client to anchor the whole range of sensory and bodily experiences, cognitions, and emotions to the contextual cues. Over the process of the therapy, we support the client to begin the role change from a violent offender to a citizen, who is capable of living a non-violent and socially adjusted life. Finally, the client develops visions and wishes for the future to support a successful integration into society. Several studies with veterans and violent youths have proven the feasibility of FORNET, found evidence of a positive outcome (recovered mental health, fewer offenses committed, less drug intake, and improved integration into civil society), and highlighted the importance of addressing the whole range of experiences while treating violent offenders or veterans.

  14. Treating Traumatized Offenders and Veterans by Means of Narrative Exposure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Violent offenders and soldiers are at high risk of developing appetitive aggression and trauma-related disorders, which reduce successful integration into societies. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) for forensic offender rehabilitation (FORNET) aims at reducing symptoms of traumatic stress (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder) and controlling readiness for aggressive behavior. It follows the logic of the evidence-based trauma-focused NET with special emphasis on violent acts in past and future behavior. In NET, the therapist guides the client by means of exposure through his traumatic experiences in chronological order linking the negative emotions, such as fear, shame, and disgust, to the past context and integrating the traumatic experiences into the autobiographical memory. During FORNET, we also encourage verbalization of any positive emotions and experiences linked to past violent and aggressive behaviors. This recall of positive emotions (linked to the there and then) is contrasted with feelings that emerge during the narration process (here and now). In this way, the therapist helps the client to anchor the whole range of sensory and bodily experiences, cognitions, and emotions to the contextual cues. Over the process of the therapy, we support the client to begin the role change from a violent offender to a citizen, who is capable of living a non-violent and socially adjusted life. Finally, the client develops visions and wishes for the future to support a successful integration into society. Several studies with veterans and violent youths have proven the feasibility of FORNET, found evidence of a positive outcome (recovered mental health, fewer offenses committed, less drug intake, and improved integration into civil society), and highlighted the importance of addressing the whole range of experiences while treating violent offenders or veterans. PMID:26157395

  15. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    PubMed

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse.

  16. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  17. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  18. Measurement of direct ethanol metabolites in a case of a former driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol offender, now claiming abstinence.

    PubMed

    Wurst, Friedrich M; Yegles, Michel; Alling, Christer; Aradottir, Steina; Dierkes, Jutta; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Halter, Claudia C; Pragst, Fritz; Auwaerter, Volker

    2008-05-01

    A 37-year-old female subject had been convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol, and 19 months later, claimed abstinence after supervised disulfiram treatment. Our aim was to elucidate the value of direct ethanol metabolites as measures of abstinence. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair, phosphatidylethanol in whole blood and EtG and ethyl sulphate in urine were measured. The results were compared with self-report of alcohol consumption and traditional blood biomarkers for chronically elevated alcohol consumption as carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, mean corpuscular erythrocyte volume, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. EtG was found in distal parts of hair only, whereas the proximal parts were negative. Furthermore, FAEE concentrations were found in the typical distribution over the hair length and showed values typical for either moderate social drinking or abstinence. CDT was above cut-off in 9 out of 16 analyses with a decreasing tendency and the lowest values in the last 2 months before the end of sampling. The data suggest that in addition to traditional markers, a combination of direct ethanol metabolites can be useful in the expert assessment of judging driving ability. A careful individual interpretation of the results for the different markers, however, is an absolute necessity.

  19. The dilemma of re-licensing DWI offenders: The offenders' point of view.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Louise; Vanlaar, Ward; Jarvis, Juliette; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    In many jurisdictions, drivers convicted for the first-time of driving while impaired by alcohol undertake a risk assessment that will determine the severity of sanctions and the remedial measures they must follow as requisites for re-licensing. There is uncertainty inherent in the assessment of risk for recidivism, however, many offenders feel unfairly assessed and discommoded by the decision-making process and its consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into the perspectives of offenders regarding re-licensing decision making and sanctioning. Specifically, in focus groups first-time offenders and recidivists were probed as to whether they favoured erring on the side of road safety in decision making, with its consequent greater risk of false positive assessments, or erring on the side of maintaining driving privileges, with its consequent greater risk of false negative assessments. In general, participants preferred a higher probability of false negative vs. false positive assessments. Most cited the consequences of sanctions and remedial measures as too severe to impose them on potentially low-risk drivers, as the assessment and monitoring protocols' limitations could lead to non-equitable treatment. At the same time, recidivists evoked a greater preference for a higher probability of false positive assessments compared to first-time offenders, as they believed that recidivism was more likely to follow a first conviction than did first-time offenders. This information can be useful for a more comprehensive and societally coherent exercise of DWI prevention policies.

  20. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research.

  1. [The extremely violent child].

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Bonneville, E

    2009-02-01

    More and more children have extremely violent behaviour which appears about the age of 15-16 months, when walking makes their hands free. This violence is individual, can appear suddenly at anytime, and is not accompanied by guilt. It is caused by early psychological and repeated traumas, whose importance is usually underestimated: unpredictable, violent parents, exposure to the spectacle of conjugal violence, distortion of the signals emitted by the toddler. These traumas bring about specific psychological structure. The prevention of these troubles exists but is impossible to realise in France.

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  3. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  4. The Utility of the YLS/CMI-SV for Assessing Youth Offenders in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; Lee, Yirong; Zeng, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory–Screening Version (YLS/CMI-SV) is designed to provide a preliminary estimate of the level of risk for antisocial behaviors as well as an indication of areas for intervention in youth offenders. This study examined the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI-SV for violent, nonviolent, and general recidivism in a sample of 3,264 youth offenders within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,764.5 days; SDfollow-up = 521.5). Cox regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed that the YLS/CMI-SV is significantly predictive of general, violent, and nonviolent recidivism for the male youth offenders, but there were mixed results for the female youth offenders. Overall, these results indicated that the YLS/CMI-SV is a useful measure for assessing the levels of risk for male youth offenders, and more investigation is needed to determine the suitability of the YLS/CMI-SV for the female youth offenders. Its implications for clinical practice and policy are discussed. PMID:25983353

  5. Psychopathy in adolescence and criminal recidivism in young adulthood: longitudinal results from a multiethnic sample of youthful offenders.

    PubMed

    Edens, John F; Cahill, Melissa A

    2007-03-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16 years of age. Neither total scores nor factor scores of the PCL: YV predicted general or violent reconvictions throughout this time frame. These modest effects underscore recent concerns raised about the utility of psychopathy as a risk factor for future criminality, particularly among multiethnic offender samples.

  6. Violent crime and victim compensation: implications for social justice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hayden P

    2006-06-01

    Restorative justice offers several innovative methods designed to heal the injury that the offender may have caused to the victim. One of these innovative methods is victim compensation, a form of income redistribution designed to redistribute wealth from offenders to victims of crime. Restitution, particularly through the Victim of Crime Act (VOCA), is a needs-based form of justice designed to assist the most needy victims of violent crime. Recent studies suggest that while state-level compensation programs may target poor, young, African American men, compensation at the national level tends to be received more by older, White women who experienced domestic violence. The author suggests that this disparity between state and local resource distribution in the allocation of victim compensation is a reflection of the ideological differences between the established theoretical frameworks of liberalism and radical feminism.

  7. Use of the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version and the Stable 2007 to assess dynamic sexual violence risk in a sample of treated sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Sowden, Justina N; Olver, Mark E

    2017-03-01

    The present study provides an examination of dynamic sexual violence risk featuring the Stable-2007 (Hanson, Harris, Scott, & Helmus, 2007) and the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003) in a Canadian sample of 180 federally incarcerated sexual offenders who attended a high-intensity sexual offender treatment program. Archival pretreatment and posttreatment ratings were completed on the VRS-SO and Stable-2007, and recidivism data were obtained from official criminal records, with the sample being followed up approximately 10 years postrelease. VRS-SO pre- and posttreatment dynamic scores demonstrated significant predictive accuracy for sexual, nonsexual violent, any violent (including sexual), and general recidivism, while Stable-2007 pre- and posttreatment scores were significantly associated with the latter 3 outcomes; these associations were maintained after controlling for the Static-99R (Helmus, Thornton, Hanson, & Babchishin, 2012). Finally, significant pre-post differences, amounting to approximately three quarters of a standard deviation, were found on Stable-2007 and VRS-SO scores. VRS-SO change scores were significantly associated with reductions in nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism (but not sexual recidivism) after controlling for baseline risk or pretreatment score, while Stable-2007 change scores did not significantly predict reductions in any recidivism outcomes. Applications of these tools within the context of dynamic sexual violence risk assessment incorporating the use of change information are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. Factors Associated with Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos; Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Cabral de Oliveira, Antônio César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify prevalence and factors associated with violent behavior among adolescents in Aracaju and Metropolitan region. The study included 2207 adolescents (16.03 ± 1.08 years old) enrolled in high schools of the State Public Network. Violent behavior was identified from question 14 of the YRBS-2007 questionnaire with responses categorized as “never” and “one or more times.” Higher prevalence in males in relation to risk factors for adoption of violent behavior was found: cigarette consumption (7.3%), alcohol consumption (39.1%), and marijuana use (3.4%). Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression with hierarchical model at two levels: (a) sociodemographic variables and (b) behavioral variables. For both sexes, association between violent behavior and cigarette smoking (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 2.06–6.92 and OR = 1.99, CI 95% = 1.04 to 3.81, male and female, resp.) and alcohol consumption (OR = 3.38, CI 95% = 2.22 to 5.16 and OR = 1.83, CI 95% = 1.28 to 2.63, male and female, resp.) was verified. It was concluded that violent behavior is associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes among adolescents. PMID:25548796

  10. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  11. Domestic violence exposure in Colombian adolescents: pathways to violent and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Roberto; Kliewer, Wendy; Williams, Larry

    2006-04-01

    Associations between domestic violence exposure and violent and prosocial behavior were tested in a sample of Colombian adolescents, with attention to impulsivity and substance use problems as mediators of these associations. A representative sample of 1,152 school youths and a convenience group of 148 juvenile offenders aged 11-19 years participated. Results using structural equation modeling showed indirect effects of impulsivity and substance use problems between family violence (i.e., exposure to interparental violence) and violent behavior. Maltreatment (i.e., harsh parenting) was directly associated with violent behavior, though impulsivity and substance use problems also mediated this relation. Maltreatment directly and inversely contributed to prosocial behavior but there was no evidence of mediation. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive and behavioral factors that explain violent and prosocial behavior among Colombian youths. Limitations and implications for prevention are described.

  12. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  13. Protective strengths, risk, and recidivism in a sample of known sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Holly A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between protective strengths and risk, as assessed by the Inventory of Offender Risk, Needs, and Strengths, was examined with respect to the recidivism rate and type of reoffense in a sample of 110 adult males incarcerated for sexual offenses. The sample included offenders who were completing a prison-based sexual offense treatment program during the last 18 months of their incarceration. Approximately 40% of the sample recidivated in some way, including 6% sexually, within the 6-year follow-up time. Self-perceived protective strengths were significantly valid predictors for sexual, violent, and general recidivism. In regression analyses, protective strengths accounted for a unique portion of the variance in sexual recidivism while controlling for overall risk. Consistent with research on the importance of protective strengths with other offender types, the continued study and inclusion of protective strengths in the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders is warranted.

  14. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  15. Male soldier family violence offenders: spouse and child offenders compared to child offenders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Sullivan, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Army data from 2000 to 2004 were used to compare two groups of married, male, Army soldier, first-time family violence offenders: 760 dual offenders (whose initial incident included both child maltreatment and spouse abuse) and 2,209 single offenders (whose initial incident included only child maltreatment). The majority (81%) of dual offenders perpetrated physical spouse abuse; however, dual offenders were less likely than single offenders to perpetrate physical child abuse (16% vs. 42%) or sexual child abuse (1% vs. 11%), but they were more likely to perpetrate emotional child abuse (45% vs. 12%). These findings may be, at least in part, explained in light of the Army Family Advocacy Program policy, which considers spouse offenders as also being emotional child abuse offenders since children may be traumatized by exposure to spouse abuse.

  16. Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Cale, Jesse; Smallbone, Stephen; Rayment-McHugh, Sue; Dowling, Chris

    2016-12-01

    The current study examines offending trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders (ASOs). Until recently, classification frameworks have not been designed to account for the heterogeneity of offending patterns in adolescence, how these are associated with the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity, and whether and to what extent they are related to the characteristics of sex offenses in adolescence. The current study takes a longitudinal view of offending in adolescence by examining retrospective longitudinal data of 217 ASOs referred for treatment to a clinical service between 2001 and 2009 in Australia. General offending trajectories in adolescence were examined using semi-parametric group-based modeling, and compared according to non-violent non-sexual, violent-non-sexual, and sex offending criminal activity parameters (e.g., participation, onset, frequency, specialization/versatility) and the characteristics of the referral sexual offense. The results show distinct differences in the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity along different offending trajectories of ASOs, and further, that these trajectories were differentially associated with the characteristics of the sexual offenses they committed.

  17. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  18. Self-harm in young offenders.

    PubMed

    Borschmann, Rohan; Coffey, Carolyn; Moran, Paul; Hearps, Stephen; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kinner, Stuart A; Patton, George

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicidal behavior in 515 young offenders (mean age 17.3 years, SD = 1.7) serving community-based orders (CBOs; n = 242) or custodial sentences (n = 273) in Victoria, Australia, are described. Results from structured interviews showed that 83 (16.1%) participants reported self-harming in the previous 6 months, and this was more common among those serving custodial sentences than those serving CBOs (19.4% vs. 12.4%; OR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.74-5.55). Multiple incidents were more common in females and 24% (95% CI: 19-39) of participants who had self-harmed reported having done so with suicidal intent. Self-harm was associated with recent bullying victimization, expulsion from school, past year violent victimization, cannabis dependence, and risk-taking behavior in the preceding year. The epidemiological profile of self-harm in this population appears to be distinct from that seen in the general population. Young offenders who self-harm are a vulnerable group with high rates of psychiatric morbidity, substance misuse problems, and social risk factors. They may benefit from targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, delivered both within-and during the transition from-the youth justice system.

  19. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent.

  20. Offenders with antisocial personality disorder show attentional bias for violence-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Domes, Gregor; Mense, Julia; Vohs, Knut; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2013-08-30

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be characterized by a lack in emotional functioning that manifests in irritability and a lack of remorse. The proposed link between ASPD and negative emotionality led to the question of emotional processing anomalies in ASPD. Furthermore, the effect of childhood maltreatment/abuse on emotional processing was tested in the present study. Violent and sexual offenders with ASPD (n=35), without ASPD (n=34), and healthy non-criminal controls (n=24) were compared in an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) using neutral, negative, and violence-related words. Secondary analyses focused on the effect of psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatment. Offenders with ASPD showed a stronger attentional bias to violence-related and negative words as compared to controls. Comparable results were obtained when grouping offenders to high, medium, and low psychopathic subgroups. Offenders with childhood maltreatment specifically showed stronger violence-related attentional bias than non-maltreated offenders. The data suggest that enhanced attention to violence-related stimuli in adult criminal offenders is associated with adverse developmental experiences and delinquency but to a lesser extent with antisocial or psychopathic traits.

  1. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  2. Protective factors and recidivism in accused juveniles who sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Klein, Verena; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Köhler, Nora; Briken, Peer

    2015-02-01

    To date, research on juvenile sexual offender recidivism has tended to focus on risk factors rather than protective factors. Therefore, very little is known about protective factors in the population of juveniles who sexually offended. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of protective factors on non-recidivism in a sample of accused juveniles who sexually offended (N = 71) in a mean follow-up period of 47.84 months. Protective factors were measured with the Protective Factor Scale of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), and the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF). Criminal charges served as recidivism data. The internal scale of the SAPROF, in particular, yielded moderate predictive accuracy for the absence of violent and general recidivism, though not for the absence of sexual recidivism. No protective factor of the SAVRY did reveal predictive accuracy regarding various types of the absence of recidivism. Furthermore, protective factors failed to achieve any significant incremental predictive accuracy beyond that captured by the SAVRY risk factors alone. The potential therapeutic benefit of protective factors in juvenile sexual offender treatment is discussed.

  3. Reliability of risk assessment measures used in sexually violent predator proceedings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cailey S; Kimonis, Eva R; Otto, Randy K; Kline, Suzonne M; Wasserman, Adam L

    2012-12-01

    The field interrater reliability of three assessment tools frequently used by mental health professionals when evaluating sex offenders' risk for reoffending--the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) and the Static-99-was examined within the context of sexually violent predator program proceedings. Rater agreement was highest for the Static--99 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC₁] = .78) and lowest for the PCL-R (ICC₁ = .60; MnSOST-R ICC₁ = .74), although all instruments demonstrated lower field reliability than that reported in their test manuals. Findings raise concerns about the reliability of risk assessment tools that are used to inform judgments of risk in high-stake sexually violent predator proceedings. Implications for future research and suggestions for improving evaluator training to increase accuracy when informing legal decision making are discussed.

  4. Identification With a Violent and Sadistic Aggressor: A Rorschach Study of Criminal Debt Collectors.

    PubMed

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Grønnerød, Cato; Hartmann, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined personality functioning in a group of 27 incarcerated criminal debt collectors as assessed by the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ). To explore whether these individuals represent a distinct subgroup within the violent offender population, we compared them to a group of incarcerated homicide offenders (n = 23) without a previous history of significant violence and a group who had committed less serious violent crimes (n = 21). Results revealed significantly more Rorschach indicators of past trauma (Trauma Content Index), aggressive urges (Aggressive Potential) and identification (Aggressive Content) among the debt collectors than the 2 other groups. In addition, debt collectors displayed significantly more interpersonal interest (Sum Human content), and significantly higher scores on the PCL-R. Our findings suggest that the debt collector might be viewed as a hostile variant of psychopathy.

  5. Predicting Future Reconviction in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: The Predictive Efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV, and the HCR-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Nicola S.; Fitzgerald, Suzanne; Taylor, John; MacCulloch, Malcolm J.; Snowden, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate predictions of future reconviction, including those for violent crimes, have been shown to be greatly aided by the use of formal risk assessment instruments. However, it is unclear as to whether these instruments would also be predictive in a sample of offenders with intellectual disabilities. In this study, the authors have shown that…

  6. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  7. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  8. Personality Assessment Inventory Scores as Predictors of Evaluation Referrals, Evaluator Opinions, and Commitment Decisions in Sexually Violent Predator Cases.

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Marcus T; Harris, Paige B; Schrantz, Kathryn; Varela, Jorge G

    2017-02-01

    We used data from more than 1,500 offenders to examine the association between Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991 ) scores and progress through the sexually violent predator (SVP) screening, evaluation, and commitment process. There was no clear association between PAI scores and referrals for full evaluations, but PAI scores were small to moderate predictors of evaluator opinions and diagnoses among offenders who underwent full evaluations. Higher Antisocial Features (ANT) scores were associated with diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder, but this association was moderated by offender response style. ANT scores were more strongly associated with antisocial personality disorder diagnoses among those responding defensively (d = .71) than among those responding openly (d = .48). The mean ANT score among defensive responders diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder was about 55T, suggesting that even moderate ANT scale elevations could indicate a clinically significant level of antisocial traits among some offenders.

  9. Attempted suicide and violent criminality among Danish second generation immigrants according to parental place of origin

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Roger T; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mok, Pearl LH; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Agerbo, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigrant populations in Western European countries have grown in their size and diversity, but little is known about risks of self-directed and externalised violence among second generation immigrants. Aims To compare risks for attempted suicides and violent offending among second generation immigrants to Denmark according to parental region of origin versus the native Danish population. Methods Data from interlinked national Danish registers were used (N=1,973,614). Parental origin outside Denmark was categorised thus: Asia, Africa, Middle East, Greenland, other Scandinavian countries, elsewhere in Europe, and all other regions. We estimated gender-specific cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) versus native Danes. Results In virtually all subgroups of second generation immigrants, risk was elevated for the two adverse outcomes in both genders. Females generally had greater elevations in attempted suicide risk, and males had greater elevations in violent offending risk. For attempted suicide, especially large IRRs were observed for males and females whose parents emigrated from Greenland; for violent offending, risks were particularly raised for males and females of Middle Eastern, Greenlandic and African origin. Adjustment for socioeconomic status partially explained these associations. Conclusions Western European nations should develop preventive programmes tailored toward specific second generation immigrant populations, with integrated approaches jointly tackling suicidality and violence. PMID:26613752

  10. Violent Men: Ordinary and Deviant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edin, Kerstin E.; Lalos, Ann; Hogberg, Ulf; Dahlgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with discourses of intimate partner violence and is based on interviews with professionals who meet violent men. The professionals emphasized the importance of men taking unreserved responsibility for their violent behavior. Intimate partner violence was viewed not only as "power and control" but as the result of…

  11. Short-term predictive validity of the static-99 and static-99-R for indigenous and nonindigenous Australian sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Smallbone, Stephen; Rallings, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Actuarial risk assessment (Static-99 and Static-99-R) scores were obtained for 399 Australian adult sexual offenders who were subsequently released from prison and followed up with searches of police arrest records (mean follow-up period = 29 months; range = 15-53 months). Indigenous offenders (n = 67; 16.8%) scored significantly higher on both the Static-99 (M = 4.04 vs. 2.89, p < .001) and Static-99-R (M = 3.72 vs. 2.22, p < .001), were more than twice as likely to be arrested for sexual offenses (9.0% vs. 4.1%, ns), and were significantly more likely to be arrested for nonsexual violent (28.4% vs. 1.9%, p < .001), any violent (including sexual; 37% vs. 5.9%, p < .001), and any offenses (58.2% vs. 21.6%, p < .001). For the combined groups, predictive accuracy of both instruments was comparable to results reported elsewhere. Predictive accuracy of the Static-99 was similar for indigenous and nonindigenous offenders. The Static-99-R was only marginally predictive of any violent recidivism (AUC = .65, 95% CI = [.52, .79]), and did not predict sexual (AUC = .61, 95% CI = [.45, .77]) or nonsexual violent recidivism (AUC = .65, 95% CI = [.48, .78]), for indigenous offenders. Higher risk scores, indigenous race, and unsupervised release all contributed unique variance to any violent recidivism. Results suggest that the Static-99 may be appropriate for assessing Australian indigenous sexual offenders, but more research is needed to test the validity of the Static-99-R for this population. We conclude that practitioners should consider the potential effects of racial differences and postrelease factors, as well as static risk factors, in their assessments.

  12. Interactive Journaling as a Brief Intervention for Level-II DUI and DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheck, Amy Mary; Hoffmann, Norman G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Couillou,Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief alcohol intervention in increasing basic alcohol-related knowledge, and the intention to change high-risk drinking behaviors, among a sample of DUI and DWI offenders. Pre- and post-test data, in addition to program evaluation data, from 872 Level-II DUI and DWI offenders…

  13. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2016-07-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed.

  14. Psychopathic Traits and Their Relationship with the Cognitive Costs and Compulsive Nature of Lying in Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Bruno; in ´t Hout, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We explored the costs of instructed lying versus truth telling through RTs and error rates in 52 violent male offenders, who were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). Our deception paradigm also included trials with the free choice to lie or tell the truth. By coupling monetary loss to slow and erroneous responding, we hypothesized that the frequency of lying despite likely negative consequences, would provide an index of compulsive lying. Offenders were slower and erred more often when lying than when telling the truth, and there was no robust association between psychopathy and the cognitive cost of lying. From an applied perspective, this suggests that psychopathy may not threaten the validity of computerized cognition-based lie detection. In the face of probable negative consequences, high grandiose-manipulative offenders chose to lie three times as often as low grandiose-manipulative offenders. Our new lying frequency index is a first attempt to create a much needed tool to empirically examine compulsive lying, and provides preliminary support for the compulsive nature of lying in grandiose-manipulative offenders. Alternative interpretation of the findings are discussed. PMID:27391854

  15. Sexual Offending Theories and Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been limited theoretical developments with respect to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities [Lindsay (2005) Mental Retardation, Vol. 43, pp. 428-441], especially when compared with the development of theories for mainstream sexual offenders. This paper aims at examining a range of theories in their…

  16. Emotions and Young Offenders' Suitability for Victim-Offender Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Tracey A.

    Although evidence indicates that Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) provides an effective alternative to traditional sanctioning for young offenders, research investigating suitable candidates for VOM is lacking. Reintegrative shaming is theorized to be the mechanism underlying successful mediation; however, it is difficult to determine whether shame…

  17. Violent behaviour among people with schizophrenia: a framework for investigations of causes, and effective treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2008-08-12

    Robust evidence has accumulated showing that individuals who develop schizophrenia are at elevated risk when compared to the general population to engage in violence towards others. This violence impacts negatively on victims as well as perpetrators and poses a significant financial burden to society. It is posited that among violent offenders with schizophrenia there are three distinct types defined by the age of onset of antisocial and violent behaviour. The early starters display a pattern of antisocial behaviour that emerges in childhood or early adolescence, well before illness onset, and that remains stable across the lifespan. The largest group of violent offenders with schizophrenia show no antisocial behaviour prior to the onset of the illness and then repeatedly engage in aggressive behaviour towards others. A small group of individuals who display a chronic course of schizophrenia show no aggressive behaviour for one or two decades after illness onset and then engage in serious violence, often killing, those who care for them. We hypothesize that both the developmental processes and the proximal factors, such as symptoms of psychosis and drug misuse, associated with violent behaviour differ for the three types of offenders with schizophrenia, as do their needs for treatment.

  18. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners.

  19. Profile and programming needs of federal offenders with histories of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lynn A; Power, Jenelle

    2014-10-01

    This study presents data on male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV) in the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) using two samples: (a) a snapshot of all male offenders in CSC who had been assessed for DV (n = 15,166) and (b) a cumulative sample of male offenders in CSC from 2002-2010 who had been assessed as moderate or high risk for further DV (n = 4,261) DV offenders were compared to a cohort sample of non-DV offenders (n = 4,261). Analyses were disaggregated for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. Results indicated that 40% of the federal male population had a suspected history of DV and were therefore screened in for in-depth DV risk assessment. Of these, 45% were assessed as moderate or high risk for future DV. DV offenders had higher risk and criminogenic need ratings, more learning disabilities, more mental health problems, and more extensive criminal histories than those without DV histories. Aboriginal DV offenders had high levels of alcohol dependence, suggesting a need for substance abuse treatment as part of DV programming. Most federal offenders with DV histories would be described as belonging to the Antisocial/Generalized Aggressive typology and, therefore, adhering to the Risk-Need-Responsivity principles of the effective correctional literature, cognitive-behavioral treatment that focuses on teaching skills of self-management, and changing attitudes supporting relationship violence would be recommended.

  20. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  1. Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galski, Thomas; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)

  2. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  3. Children as Sex Offenders, Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deranek, Traci; Gilman, David A.

    This study investigates juvenile sex offenders and the predetermining factors that are present in their lives, prior to their first offenses. This study will give an overview of theories, children's sexual behaviors ranging from normal to disturbed, and family dynamics of juvenile offenders. The treatment files of boys and young men, currently in…

  4. Homicide, psychopathy, and aging--a nationwide register-based case-comparison study of homicide offenders aged 60 years or older.

    PubMed

    Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Lindberg, Nina; Saarela, Tuula; Eronen, Markku; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2010-11-01

    With populations aging there have been some concerns on elderly offending. We compared elderly homicide offenders with a younger comparison group with special emphasis on psychopathy. We analyzed nationwide register-based material on all homicide offenders aged 60 or older who were in a forensic psychiatric examination in Finland 1995-2004 and their gender-matched comparison group of younger homicide offenders. The offenders 60 years or older were diagnosed less often than the younger ones with drug dependence and personality disorders and more often with dementia and physical illnesses. The mean Psychopathy Checklist--Revised total scores as well as factor and facet scores were lower in the 60 or older age group. The group 60 years or older had significantly lower scores on eight individual items of social deviance. The interpersonal/affective factor 1 scores did not differ. Understanding the possible underlying phenomena of violent behavior may provide help for developing services for the elderly.

  5. Prospective actuarial risk assessment: a comparison of five risk assessment instruments in different sexual offender subtypes.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Matthes, Anna; Boer, Douglas P; Eher, Reinhard

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the predictive validity of the most commonly used risk assessment instruments for sexual offenders: Static-99, Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism, Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, Sexual Violence Risk-20, and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in a prospective research design. Although risk assessment is part of a regime leading to various efforts to reduce risk by treatment and aftercare, all instruments show good predictive validity. However, depending on the instrument, recidivism category, and subgroup, the predictive accuracy varies markedly. Furthermore, the authors fail to demonstrate predictive validity for sexual violent reoffences-for the whole sample and for all subgroups. The results, nevertheless, support the utility and predictive validity of actuarial risk assessment complementary to treatment efforts to reduce risk. On the other hand, forensic practitioners have to be aware of the limitations of actuarial risk assessment methods, in particular as regards to variable predictive accuracy for different sexual offender subgroups and reoffence categories.

  6. Sex offender risk assessment: A reexamination of the coffee can study.

    PubMed

    Buttars, Alan; Huss, Matthew T; Brack, Carl

    2015-01-01

    There exists a valid concern among forensic psychology scholars that measures intended for sexual offenders have plateaued in their predictive accuracy. The current study examined this concern using the "coffee can" methodology of Kroner, Mills, and Reddon (2005). The Iowa Sex Offender Risk Assessment (ISORA8), Level of Service Inventory - Revised (LSI-R), and Static-99R were used to predict various methods of detected recidivism (general, sexual, and violent recidivism) as compared to three randomly generated measures and a weighted generated measure. Independent correlation and receiver operating characteristic comparisons found that in almost all cases, generated measures outperformed established measures. Analyses indicated that the current conceptualization of risk for sexual offenders has not been thoroughly integrated into established measures. Current measures appear incomplete, but have a clear and empirically-noted ability to improve.

  7. The relationship of problem gambling to criminal behavior in a sample of Canadian male federal offenders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E; Preston, Denise L; Saunders, Crystal; McAvoy, Steven; Jain, Umesh

    2009-06-01

    This article examines the prevalence of moderate and severe problem gambling in a sample of 254 incarcerated Canadian male federal offenders (completion rate of 39.0%). The prevalence of disordered gambling was measured using the PGSI, DSM-IV-TR, and SOGS that yielded estimates of 9.4%, 6.3%, and 13.0%, respectively. Severe problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have committed income producing offences, but were neither more nor less likely than other offenders to have committed violent offences. The majority of severe problem gamblers (65.2%) and a fifth of the moderate problem gamblers (20.0%) reported that their criminal activity was a result of their gambling (e.g., to pay off debts). Based on these findings there appears to be a need to offer problem gambling treatment services to offenders in order to help them break the cycle of gambling, debt and crime.

  8. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  9. Field validity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in sex offender risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Caperton, Jennifer; Rufino, Katrina

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have concluded that scores from Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) predict reoffense among sexual offenders, but most of those studies examined the predictive validity of scores from trained research staff, not clinicians in the field scoring the measure as part of actual forensic assessments. Therefore, we examined the field validity of PCL-R scores that forensic evaluators assigned to 333 male sexual offenders who underwent evaluations during a civil commitment selection process. Overall, no PCL-R score was a significant predictor of sexually violent recidivism. Facet 4 was the only PCL-R score with an area under the curve (AUC) greater than .50 (AUC = .53, p = .85) and the only PCL-R score that approached statistical significance for predicting the combined category of violent or sexually violent offending (AUC = .63, p = .08). However, scores from a subset of evaluators revealed stronger predictive effects, indicating that predictive validity was higher for scores from some evaluators than others. Overall, these results suggest that the stronger predictive validity values in controlled research studies may not apply to all evaluators when the PCL-R is administered in the field.

  10. [Drug abuse in adolescent offenders: analysis of the psychosocial variables involved].

    PubMed

    Contreras Martínez, Lourdes; Molina Banqueri, Virginia; Cano Lozano, Ma Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that drugs and delinquency are frequently linked, the abuse of various types of substance being a widespread practice among young offenders. At the same time, some psychosocial characteristics are associated with both drug abuse and criminal/antisocial behavior. To help us explore the relationship between young offenders' drug abuse and certain psychosocial variables, we examined closed judicial files on young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service in Jaen (Spain) corresponding to the period 2001 to 2010. From the contents of these judicial files we analyzed demographic variables such as gender and age, as well as psychosocial variables such as drug abuse, peer group, violent behavior, self-control, tolerance to frustration and attributional style. The results show that most of the young offenders use some type of drug, as well as revealing differential patterns of use according to gender. Also observed is a link between drug abuse and deviant peer group, violent behavior and the above-mentioned psychological variables. Finally, we found some differences in these psychological variables depending on the type of drug used.

  11. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  12. Deaf Sex Offenders in a Prison Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay

    2003-01-01

    A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  13. Community Maintenance Programs for Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Carollyne

    2013-01-01

    While optimism regarding the treatment of sexual offenders has increased over the past couple of decades, research into the factors that assist offenders in maintaining therapeutic changes remains in the dark. Maintenance programs for offenders, while theoretically appearing to have a solid place in offender rehabilitation, surprisingly have not…

  14. Youth Offender Demonstration Project Technical Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, Lois

    The Youth Offender Demonstration Project (YODP) combined oversight of youth offenders with services to support youth offenders' passage into the word of work by providing recommended social development strategies for youth offenders. YODP demonstration projects were funded in the following categories: (1) model community projects; (2) education…

  15. Spirituality and desistance from substance use among reentering offenders.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Nicholas W; DeCamp, Whitney; Visher, Christy A

    2014-11-01

    Prior research has indicated an inverse relationship between religion and criminal behavior; however, few studies have specifically examined the effect of spirituality on the desistance process among a contemporary and diverse sample of reentering drug-involved offenders. A comprehensive understanding of how spirituality is related to desistance from substance use can lead to more effective and evidence-based preventive and rehabilitative interventions. Using data from a longitudinal study of 920 diverse offenders returning to the community after a period of incarceration, the current study examines three distinct forms of substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) to gauge the effect that spirituality plays in the desistance process. The findings suggest a relatively high importance of spirituality in terms of preventing substance use during reentry, particularly concerning the use of both alcohol and cocaine.

  16. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.

  17. Predicting Reoffending Using the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY): A 5-Year Follow-Up Study of Male Juvenile Offenders in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Cao, Xia; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Background Juvenile violent offending is a serious worldwide public health issue. Objective The study examined whether the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) can be used to predict violent reoffending in Chinese male juvenile offenders, and to determine which risk/protective domains (items) are associated with violent recidivism. Methods A total of 246 male juvenile offenders were recruited. SAVRY domains were scored by trained raters based on file review and interviews with participants and their legal guardians. Information on further arrests, charges, or convictions for violent offences were collected from police records over a five year follow-up. Results Over the course of the five year follow-up periods, 63 (25.6%) juvenile offenders were re-arrested for a further violent reoffence. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses showed Areas Under the Curve (AUCs) ranging from 0.60 to 0.68 for the SAVRY total, risk and protective score domains. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that 7 of the 30 SAVRY items were significantly associated with reoffending; explaining 36.2% of the variance. Backward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed the independently predictive items were items 2 (‘history of non-violent offending’), 17 (‘negative attitudes’), 18 (‘risk-taking/impulsivity’), and 20 (‘anger management problems’). Together these four items explained 25.0% of the variance in reoffending. Conclusions The results suggested that the SAVRY can be meaningfully used to inform the development and evaluation of effective violence risk assessment and management approaches for male juvenile offenders detained in a Youth Detention Center in Hunan province, China. PMID:28076443

  18. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-03-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict.

  19. The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders accepting a treatment-sentencing option.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Howard J; Nelson, Sarah E; LaPlante, Debi A; LaBrie, Richard A; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-10-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week inpatient treatment facility for court-sentenced repeat DUI offenders (i.e., offenders electing treatment in place of prison time) from April 17, 2005, to April 23, 2006. Participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which assessed the following disorders using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): alcohol use and drug use, bipolar, generalized anxiety, posttraumatic stress, intermittent explosive, conduct, attention deficit, nicotine dependence, pathological gambling, and major depressive. Repeat DUI offenders evidenced higher lifetime and 12-month prevalence of alcohol use and drug use disorders, conduct disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder compared with the general population. Almost half qualified for lifetime diagnoses of both addiction (i.e., alcohol, drug, nicotine, and/or gambling) and a psychiatric disorder. Lifetime and past-year comorbidity rates were higher among participants than in the general population. These results suggest that clinicians should consider multimorbidity within DUI treatment protocols.

  20. The Predictive Validity of Savry Ratings for Assessing Youth Offenders in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Goh, Mui Leng; Chong, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Empirical support for the usage of the SAVRY has been reported in studies conducted in many Western contexts, but not in a Singaporean context. This study compared the predictive validity of the SAVRY ratings for violent and general recidivism against the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) ratings within the Singaporean context. Using a sample of 165 male young offenders (Mfollow-up = 4.54 years), results showed that the SAVRY Total Score and Summary Risk Rating, as well as YLS/CMI Total Score and Overall Risk Rating, predicted violent and general recidivism. SAVRY Protective Total Score was only significantly predictive of desistance from general recidivism, and did not show incremental predictive validity for violent and general recidivism over the SAVRY Total Score. Overall, the results suggest that the SAVRY is suited (to varying degrees) for assessing the risk of violent and general recidivism in young offenders within the Singaporean context, but might not be better than the YLS/CMI. PMID:27231403

  1. Invalidity of "Disconfirmation of the Predictive Validity of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire in a Sample of High-Risk Drug Offenders" (2006): A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaliwal, Gurmeet K.; Loza, Wagdy; Reddon, John R.

    2007-01-01

    In their article, "Disconfirmation of the Predictive Validity of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire in a Sample of High-Risk Drug Offenders," criminologists Mitchell and MacKenzie (2006) purported to evaluate psychometric properties of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), the first self-report risk/need measure estimating violent and nonviolent…

  2. Female sexual homicide offenders: an analysis of the offender racial profiles in offending process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-12-10

    Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered.

  3. Informal Education with Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David

    1994-01-01

    The example of an environmental conservation program for young offenders demonstrates the efficacy of group activities in enhancing self-esteem and coping skills and in enabling transition out of the custodial environment. (SK)

  4. Characteristics of DUI offenders convicted in wet, dry, and moist counties.

    PubMed

    Webster, J Matthew; Pimentel, Jody H; Clark, David B

    2008-05-01

    Although several studies have examined the effectiveness of local alcohol sales policies on reducing the incidence of driving under the influence (DUI), less is known about whether characteristics of DUI offenders convicted in alcohol-restricted areas differ from those convicted in areas where alcohol is more readily available. A total of 21,647 DUI assessment records were divided into four groups based on the alcohol sales policy of the county of conviction and were compared. DUI offenders convicted in counties that limit or ban the sale of alcohol were more likely to be male, have more drug problems, meet DSM-IV-TR substance abuse or dependence criteria, and have multiple DUI convictions. Implications for practitioners and policy makers are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of a program to motivate impaired driving offenders to install ignition interlocks.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Blackman, K O; Tippetts, A S; Marques, P R

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 30,000 alcohol ignition interlocks, which prevent a drinking driver from operating a vehicle, are in use in the United States and Canada. Currently available studies indicate that interlocks reduce impaired driving recidivism while on the vehicle. However, in the United States, the practical effectiveness of these devices is limited because few offenders are willing to install them in order to drive legally. This paper reports on a study of a court policy that created a strong incentive for impaired driving offenders to install interlocks by making penalties (e.g., jail or electronically monitored house arrest) the alternative to the interlock. Comparison of the recidivism rates of offenders subject to this policy with offenders in similar, nearby courts not using interlocks indicated that the policy was producing substantial reductions in DUI recidivism.

  6. Violent psychiatric patients: a study.

    PubMed

    Kermani, E J

    1981-04-01

    In a study of fifty-three violent psychiatric patients in a psychiatric hospital setting, it was found that there are two distinct major groups of violent patients--one of patients with a long history of antisocial behavior who are often chronically homicidal and suicidal, and another of patients who neither have a history of destructive behavior nor exhibit homicidal or suicidal tendencies. The latter become acutely assaultive only during the course of psychiatric illness. The personality traits and background associated with these two groups offer additional contrasts. Each group presents different problems and, of major importance to the psychiatric practioner, each group requires different management.

  7. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Margari, Lucia; Matera, Emilia; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed. Methods The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes). Results Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01) and conduct problems (P=0.034). Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18%) and conduct problems (20%) than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement. Conclusion These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. PMID:25709458

  8. Alcohol and Sexual Aggression in a National Sample of College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Karabatsos, George; Koss, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed alcohol's role in sexual assaults by male college students. Interactions of alcohol use with assault variables did not suggest any role of alcohol use in predicting sexual aggression severity. Offender propensity to abuse alcohol and victim preassault alcohol use directly and indirectly related to sexual aggression severity. Offender…

  9. Violent Society, Violent Schools: It's a Question of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Robert E.

    A contemporary theory of behavior is that faulty patterns of thinking divide the criminal from the noncriminal. The causation of school violence is children choosing to be violent; and the problem of school violence is acceptance of their choice. Short-term control measures are adherence to systematic school rules, use of technology, security…

  10. The Effects of Alcohol on Marital Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieze, Irene Hanson; Knoble, Jaime

    Although alcohol is frequently cited by battered wives and the general public as a cause of marital violence, few researchers actually propose a direct causal relationship between alcohol and marital violence. Interviews were conducted to investigate the role of alcohol in the violent marriages of 185 women and the nonviolent marriages of 89…

  11. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December ... is a great concern about the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and ...

  12. Sex offender registration and recidivism risk in juvenile sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F; Dickinson, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders are increasingly included in sex offender registration laws, based, in part, on the assumption that they pose a distinctively high risk for future sexual violence and registration may help to mitigate this risk. To test this assumption, the current study compares risk scores on the static scales of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II; Prentky & Righthand, 2003) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI; Hoge, Andrews, & Leschied, 2002), between samples of 106 registered and 66 unregistered juvenile sex offenders. New criminal charges, including sexually based crimes, were examined over a mean follow-up of 49.2 months (SD = 29.6 months). Results indicated that registered youth had lower risk scores on scales that most accurately predicted recidivism and registered youth were charged with new crimes at rates similar to those of unregistered youth. Reoffense risk, as measured by the risk scales, was not moderated by registration. The findings did not support the assumption that registration can effectively lower the risk for reoffense in juvenile offenders.

  13. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  14. Predictive accuracy of dynamic risk factors for aboriginal and non-aboriginal sex offenders: an exploratory comparison using STABLE-2007.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Leslie; Babchishin, Kelly M; Blais, Julie

    2012-09-01

    Although Aboriginal offenders are overrepresented in Canadian prisons, there is limited research examining the extent to which commonly used risk factors and risk scales are applicable to Aboriginals. Aboriginal (n = 88) and non-Aboriginal (n = 509) sex offenders on community supervision were compared on the dynamic risk factors of STABLE-2007. Data on sexual, violent, any crime, and any recidivism (including breaches) were collected with an average follow-up of 3.4 years. Aboriginal offenders scored significantly higher than non-Aboriginal offenders on STABLE-2007 total scores and on several items measuring general criminality. STABLE-2007 did not significantly predict recidivism with Aboriginal offenders (although it did for non-Aboriginals). The general antisociality items were generally significantly less predictive for Aboriginals than non-Aboriginals, whereas items assessing sexual self-regulation and relationship stability predicted similarly for both groups. These exploratory results suggest that Aboriginal sex offenders are a higher-needs group but that some STABLE-2007 items are not predictive with this population.

  15. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  16. Adolescents from Maritally Violent Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maura; Lebovics, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that between 3.3 million and 10 million children in the U.S. witness physical violence between their parents each year. This type of violence ranges from overhearing some form of violent behavior from their bedrooms, to seeing severe acts of violence such as beatings or assaults with guns and knives. In many cases, these youth…

  17. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  18. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  19. Sex, Power, and the Violent School Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Sibylle

    This book examines the worlds and practices of school girls who participate in violent activities, but who are not involved with the juvenile justice system, members of gangs, or a visible minority group. It provides an understanding of where the violent school girl stands in relation to her nonviolent female peers, and her violent and nonviolent…

  20. He sends rain upon the wicked: a panel study of the influence of religiosity on violent victimization.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Christopher J; Burek, Melissa W; Clark-Miller, Jason

    2007-07-01

    This research investigates low religiosity as a predictor of violent victimization. The theoretical framework the authors present here posits that religiosity should help structure daily activities in such a way as to (a) limit exposure to offenders by encouraging contact with peers who are less deviant, (b) lessen one's target suitability by inhibiting grievance-causing delinquent activity, and (c) enhance guardianship by fostering stronger bonds with parents and school. Thus, although researchers expect religion to be a bivariate predictor of violent victimization, its influence should be indirect. The authors investigate these claims using two waves from the public-use version of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The results indicate that religiosity is a correlate of violent victimization. Consistent with these theoretical claims, the effect of religiosity is not direct, but instead occurs indirectly primarily through its influence on self-reported delinquency and peer deviance.

  1. Review of risk assessment instruments for juvenile sex offenders: what is next?

    PubMed

    Hempel, Inge; Buck, Nicole; Cima, Maaike; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2013-02-01

    Risk assessment is considered to be a key element in the prevention of recidivism among juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), often by imposing long-term consequences based on that assessment. The authors reviewed the literature on the predictive accuracy of six well-known risk assessment instruments used to appraise risk among JSOs: the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (J-SOAP-II), Juvenile Sexual Offence Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (J-SORRAT-II), Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offence Recidivism (ERASOR), Juvenile Risk Assessment Scale (JRAS), Structured Assessment of Violent Risk in Youth (SAVRY), and Hare Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV). Through a systematic search, 19 studies were reviewed. Studies showed differences in the predictive accuracies for general, violent, and sexual recidivism, and none of the instruments showed unequivocal positive results in predicting future offending. Not unexpectedly, the accuracy of the SAVRY and PCL:YV appeared to be weaker for sexual recidivism compared with specialized tools such as the J-SOAP-II or the ERASOR. Because of the rapid development of juveniles, it is questionable to impose long-term restrictions based on a risk assessment only. New challenges in improving risk assessment are discussed.

  2. Federal Offenders Rehabilitation Collaboration Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    This paper gives the specifics of a federal offenders rehabilitation program implementation and evaluation which will test and demonstrate the effects of providing intensive vocational rehabilitation services to federal offenders. The authors note that criminal offenders have difficulty in vocational adjustment, and this is exacerbated by their…

  3. Youth Transitions: From Offending to Desistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Monica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines youth transitions and youth offending in tandem. It argues that the transition to adulthood is heavily implicated in the fact that most offending occurs in the youth phase. Drawing on a study of 20 male and 20 female persistent young offenders in Scotland, it explores young people's desire for integration with others in the…

  4. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration Amendments AGENCY: Court Services and... verification of registration information for sex offenders. The proposed rule, if finalized, would permit CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits on its own accord and with its...

  5. 78 FR 23835 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... verification of registration information for sex offenders. Furthermore, the rule permits CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits on its own accord and with its law enforcement...

  6. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  7. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  8. Offender Perceptions on the Value of Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terri-Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Given the histories of employment instability of the offenders entering correctional systems, enhancing an offender's vocational skills is an important need to address prior to their reintegration into the community. The purpose of the current research was to examine offender perceptions of the value of employment and crime, obtained as part of a…

  9. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…

  10. Marital Violence in the Year before and after Spouse-Involved Alcoholism Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Choquette, Keith A.

    The Conflict Tactics Scale questionnaire on marital violence was administered to 29 alcoholics and their wives at entry to, and 1 year after, completing a behavioral marital therapy (BMT) treatment program. In the year prior to BMT, prevalence rates of any violent act, of minor to moderate violent acts, and of severe violent acts were five to six…

  11. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Violent Crime: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Zetterqvist, Johan; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Background Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed, associations with violence are uncertain. Methods and Findings From Swedish national registers we extracted information on 856,493 individuals who were prescribed SSRIs, and subsequent violent crimes during 2006 through 2009. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed these medications with the rate in the same individuals while not receiving medication. Adjustments were made for other psychotropic medications. Information on all medications was extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, with complete national data on all dispensed medications. Information on violent crime convictions was extracted from the Swedish national crime register. Using within-individual models, there was an overall association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08–1.32, p < 0.001, absolute risk = 1.0%). With age stratification, there was a significant association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions for individuals aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.19–1.73, p < 0.001, absolute risk = 3.0%). However, there were no significant associations in those aged 25–34 y (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.95–1.52, p = 0.125, absolute risk = 1.6%), in those aged 35–44 y (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.83–1.35, p = 0.666, absolute risk = 1.2%), or in those aged 45 y or older (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.84–1.35, p = 0.594, absolute risk = 0.3%). Associations in those aged 15 to 24 y were also found for violent crime arrests with preliminary investigations (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.16–1.41, p < 0.001), non-violent crime convictions (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, p < 0.001), non-violent crime arrests (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07–1.20, p < 0.001), non-fatal injuries from accidents (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.22–1.36, p < 0.001), and emergency inpatient or outpatient treatment for alcohol intoxication or misuse

  12. Influences of neighborhood context, individual history and parenting behavior on recidivism among juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Heidi E; Lockwood, Brian; Harris, Philip W; Mennis, Jeremy

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the effects of neighborhood context on juvenile recidivism to determine if neighborhoods influence the likelihood of reoffending. Although a large body of literature exists regarding the impact of environmental factors on delinquency, very little is known about the effects of these factors on juvenile recidivism. The sample analyzed includes 7,061 delinquent male juveniles committed to community-based programs in Philadelphia, of which 74% are Black, 13% Hispanic, and 11% White. Since sample youths were nested in neighborhoods, a hierarchical generalized linear model was employed to predict recidivism across three general categories of recidivism offenses: drug, violent, and property. Results indicate that predictors vary across the types of offenses and that drug offending differs from property and violent offending. Neighborhood-level factors were found to influence drug offense recidivism, but were not significant predictors of violent offenses, property offenses, or an aggregated recidivism measure, despite contrary expectations. Implications stemming from the finding that neighborhood context influences only juvenile drug recidivism are discussed.

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  14. Alcohol availability and youth homicide in the 91 largest US cities, 1984-2006.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert N; Williams, Kirk R; McCaffree, Kevin J; Acensio, Emily K; Browne, Angela; Strom, Kevin J; Barrick, Kelle

    2011-09-01

    The aggregate relationship between homicide and alcohol availability is well established across a number of national and sub-national settings in North America, Europe and some parts of Asia. However, results linking youth homicide and alcohol availability at the retail level are largely absent from the literature, especially at the city level and across longer time periods. In a multivariate, pooled time series and cross-section study, youth homicide offending rates for two age groups, 13-17 and 18-24, were analysed for the 91 largest cities in the USA between 1984 and 2006. Data for social and economic characteristics, drug use, street gang activity and gun availability were also used as time series measures. Data on the availability of alcohol for each city were gathered from the US Census of Economic Activity, which is conducted every 5 years. These data were used to construct an annual time series for the density of retail alcohol outlets in each city. Results indicated that net of other variables, several of which had significant impacts on youth homicide, the density of alcohol outlets had a significant positive effect on youth homicide for those aged 13-17 and 18-24. Such positive effects have been found for adults in national and neighbourhood level studies, but this is the first study to report such evidence for teenagers and young adults. An important policy implication of these findings is that the reduction of the density of retail alcohol outlets in a city may be an effective tool for violent crime reduction among such youth.

  15. Jurors report that risk measure scores matter in sexually violent predator trials, but that other factors matter more.

    PubMed

    Turner, Darrel B; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Murrie, Daniel C; Harris, Paige B

    2015-02-01

    After deliberating to a verdict, jurors (N = 462) from 40 sexually violent predator (SVP) trials completed a questionnaire asking them to rate the extent to which risk measure scores, diagnoses, expert witness testimony, and offender characteristics described during the trials influenced their commitment decisions. Jurors reported that offenders' sexual offending history, failure to change, and lack of remorse had the strongest influence on their commitment decisions. They reported that testimony about risk instrument scores (e.g., Static-99) and psychopathy had less influence on their decisions, but those who did report being influenced by instrument results were especially likely to view the offender as being at a high risk for reoffending. Overall, findings suggest that SVP jurors view risk measure results as important, but not as important as other offender, offense, and testimony characteristics, including some that have limited relevance to recidivism risk. Thus, findings also suggest that experts may need to better educate jurors regarding factors that do and do not relate to recidivism risk.

  16. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  17. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  18. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  19. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  20. Violent deaths of media workers associated with conflict in Iraq, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Lucie; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. The violent deaths of media workers is a critical issue worldwide, especially in areas of political and social instability. Such deaths can be a particular concern as they may undermine the development and functioning of an open and democratic society. Method. Data on the violent deaths of media workers in Iraq for ten years (2003-2012) were systematically collated from five international databases. Analyses included time trends, weapons involved, nationality of the deceased, outcome for perpetrators and location of death. Results. During this ten-year period, there were 199 violent deaths of media workers in Iraq. The annual number increased substantially after the invasion in 2003 (peaking at n = 47 in 2007) and then declined (n = 5 in 2012). The peak years (2006-2007) for these deaths matched the peak years for estimated violent deaths among civilians. Most of the media worker deaths (85%) were Iraqi nationals. Some were killed whilst on assignment in the field (39%) and 28% involved a preceding threat. Common perpetrators of the violence were: political groups (45%), and coalition forces (9%), but the source of the violence was often unknown (29%). None of the perpetrators have subsequently been prosecuted (as of April 2014). For each violent death of a media worker, an average of 3.1 other people were also killed in the same attack (range 0-100 other deaths). Discussion. This analysis highlights the high number of homicides of media workers in Iraq in this conflict period, in addition to the apparently total level of impunity. One of the potential solutions may be establishing a functioning legal system that apprehends offenders and puts them on trial. The relatively high quality of data on violent deaths in this occupational group, suggests that it could act as one sentinel population within a broader surveillance system of societal violence in conflict zones.

  1. Violent deaths of media workers associated with conflict in Iraq, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. The violent deaths of media workers is a critical issue worldwide, especially in areas of political and social instability. Such deaths can be a particular concern as they may undermine the development and functioning of an open and democratic society. Method. Data on the violent deaths of media workers in Iraq for ten years (2003–2012) were systematically collated from five international databases. Analyses included time trends, weapons involved, nationality of the deceased, outcome for perpetrators and location of death. Results. During this ten-year period, there were 199 violent deaths of media workers in Iraq. The annual number increased substantially after the invasion in 2003 (peaking at n = 47 in 2007) and then declined (n = 5 in 2012). The peak years (2006–2007) for these deaths matched the peak years for estimated violent deaths among civilians. Most of the media worker deaths (85%) were Iraqi nationals. Some were killed whilst on assignment in the field (39%) and 28% involved a preceding threat. Common perpetrators of the violence were: political groups (45%), and coalition forces (9%), but the source of the violence was often unknown (29%). None of the perpetrators have subsequently been prosecuted (as of April 2014). For each violent death of a media worker, an average of 3.1 other people were also killed in the same attack (range 0–100 other deaths). Discussion. This analysis highlights the high number of homicides of media workers in Iraq in this conflict period, in addition to the apparently total level of impunity. One of the potential solutions may be establishing a functioning legal system that apprehends offenders and puts them on trial. The relatively high quality of data on violent deaths in this occupational group, suggests that it could act as one sentinel population within a broader surveillance system of societal violence in conflict zones. PMID:24883251

  2. Models of violently relaxed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Tremaine, Scott; Johnstone, Doug

    1989-02-01

    The properties of spherical self-gravitating models derived from two distribution functions that incorporate, in a crude way, the physics of violent relaxation are investigated. The first distribution function is identical to the one discussed by Stiavelli and Bertin (1985) except for a change in the sign of the 'temperature', i.e., e exp(-aE) to e exp(+aE). It is shown that these 'negative temperature' models provide a much better description of the end-state of violent relaxation than 'positive temperature' models. The second distribution function is similar to the first except for a different dependence on angular momentum. Both distribution functions yield single-parameter families of models with surface density profiles very similar to the R exp 1/4 law. Furthermore, the central concentration of models in both families increases monotonically with the velocity anisotropy, as expected in systems that formed through cold collapse.

  3. [Genes for extreme violent behaviour?].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new genetic study focussing on the degree of violence in criminals and using both candidate gene and GWAS approaches finds statistically significant associations of extreme violent behaviour with low activity alleles of monoamine oxydase A (MAOA) and with the CD13 gene. However, the alleles implicated are common in the general population, thus they cannot be causal, and only represent potential indicators of increased risk.

  4. Women don't do such things! Characteristics of female sex offenders and offender types.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment.

  5. Wide-area continuous offender monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.

    1997-02-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  6. Relations of Distinct Psychopathic Personality Traits with Anxiety and Fear: Findings from Offenders and Non-Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Mitchell, Ian J.; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R.; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1) and violent offenders (Study 2). In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs. PMID:26569411

  7. A forensic-psychiatric study of sexual offenders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Freire, Rafael; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-04-01

    Sexual violence is defined as any sexual act forced upon a person who did not give his or her consent. Our objective is to investigate the socio-demographic features, clinical correlates, criminal behaviour characteristics, and the level of penal responsibility of sexual offenders who were referred to forensic psychiatric assessment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. All written reports made in the year of 2008 by court-appointed psychiatric experts on individuals charged with having committed sexual crimes and referred to the main forensic hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for assessment were reviewed. Forty-four expert reports were identified. All alleged offenders were male. Nineteen (43.2%) offenders did not receive any psychiatric diagnostic. Nine offenders (20.4%) were diagnosed with mental retardation. In 16 cases (36.4%), some form of mental or neurological disorder was diagnosed. Thirty-one (70.4%) offenders were considered fully responsible, eight (18.2%) partially responsible, and five (11.4%) not responsible by reason of insanity. The sexual crimes allegedly perpetrated by the offenders were rape (n=14, 32%), attempted rape (n=4, 9%), indecent assault (n=26, 59%), and indecent exposure (n=5, 11.4%). In 10 cases (22.7%), the offender was under alcohol influence at the moment of the crime. The profile of Brazilian sex offenders subject to forensic psychiatric assessment were male, caucasian, single, working part time, with no mental disorder, who perpetrated indecent assault.

  8. Criminal homicide in northern Sweden 1970-1981: alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, P

    1986-01-01

    All cases of criminal homicide in northern Sweden between 1970-81 were studied, 71 cases altogether (64 offenders). Homicide was a rare event and more infrequent compared with Sweden as a whole. The offenders were predominantly males, ages 20 to 40. Half of the victims were females. Mutual intoxication was a feature in 44% of the cases and in 34% both participants were sober. The majority of the victims were related by blood or marriage to the offender. Sharp instruments, blunt instruments and use of firearms were, in this order, the most common methods of killing. Almost one-third of the offenders had no former conviction, minor trespasses excluded. Sixty-three percent of the offenders had previously been subjected to psychiatric care, 31% were considered mentally diseased at the trial and another 22% had also a coexisting abuse or personality disorder. Three-quarters of the offenders were transferred to closed psychiatric care. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism were prevalent among 30% of the offenders and another 27% were also mentally diseased or had a personality disorder. The shares of mentally diseased and abusers/alcoholics outnumbered the prevalence of these conditions in the general population as well as in many international studies. Ten subjects committed suicide before trial; these persons were relatively more often sober at the act and fewer were alcoholics. Eight had previously received psychiatric treatment. They were more prone to kill a member of their nuclear family. Only two subjects had a previous criminal record; both concerned convictions of manslaughter. Nineteen offenders were sober at the act; 15 of these were mentally diseased. The sober offenders hardly ever attacked a person outside their family. Their motives were frequently premeditated. The killings were usually by quick, certain methods, such as firearms. No sober offender attacked an intoxicated person. The sober offenders usually had no criminal records and the homicides were often

  9. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking.

  10. Predictive validity of adult risk assessment tools with juveniles who offended sexually.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Christopher A; Epperson, Douglas L

    2013-09-01

    An often-held assumption in the area of sexual recidivism risk assessment is that different tools should be used for adults and juveniles. This assumption is driven either by the observation that adolescents tend to be in a constant state of flux in the areas of development, education, and social structure or by the fact that the judicial system recognizes that juveniles and adults are different. Though the assumption is plausible, it is largely untested. The present study addressed this issue by scoring 2 adult sexual offender risk assessment tools, the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised and the Static-99, on an exhaustive sample (N = 636) of juveniles who had sexually offended (JSOs) in Utah. For comparison, 2 tools designed for JSOs were also scored: the Juvenile-Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II and the Juvenile Risk Assessment Scale. Recidivism data were collected for 2 time periods: before age 18 (sexual, violent, any recidivism) and from age 18 to the year 2004 (sexual). The adult actuarial risk assessment tools predicted all types of juvenile recidivism significantly and at approximately the same level of accuracy as juvenile-specific tools. However, the accuracy of longer term predictions of adult sexual recidivism across all 4 tools was substantially lower than the accuracy achieved in predicting juvenile sexual recidivism, with 2 of the tools producing nonsignificant results, documenting the greater difficulty in making longer term predictions on the basis of adolescent behavior.

  11. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and comorbidities in female adolescent offenders: findings and implications from recent studies

    PubMed Central

    Foy, David W.; Ritchie, Iya K.; Conway, Alison H.

    2012-01-01

    Background While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences. PMID:22893830

  12. Clozapine's Effect on Recidivism Among Offenders with Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Depiang, Gu

    2016-03-01

    Mental disorder is associated with criminal reoffending, especially violent acts of offending. Features of mental disorder, psychosocial stresses, substance use disorder, and personality disorder combine to increase the risk of criminal recidivism. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is indicated in the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. This article is the report of a community follow-up study of a matched control of those treated with clozapine (n = 41) and those treated with other antipsychotics (n = 21). Rates of reoffending behavior in the general, nonviolent, violent, and sexual categories were calculated after two years of follow-up. Although not statistically significant, the two-year criminal conviction rates of those treated with other antipsychotics in all offense categories except sexual reoffending were two-fold higher than in those treated with clozapine. The time from release to the first offense and crime-free time in the community were significantly longer in the clozapine group. By prolonging the time it takes from release to first offense, clozapine confers additional crime-reduction advantages.

  13. The Predictive Validity of Savry Ratings for Assessing Youth Offenders in Singapore: A Comparison With YLS/CMI Ratings.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Goh, Mui Leng; Chong, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    Empirical support for the usage of the SAVRY has been reported in studies conducted in many Western contexts, but not in a Singaporean context. This study compared the predictive validity of the SAVRY ratings for violent and general recidivism against the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) ratings within the Singaporean context. Using a sample of 165 male young offenders (Mfollow-up = 4.54 years), results showed that the SAVRY Total Score and Summary Risk Rating, as well as YLS/CMI Total Score and Overall Risk Rating, predicted violent and general recidivism. SAVRY Protective Total Score was only significantly predictive of desistance from general recidivism, and did not show incremental predictive validity for violent and general recidivism over the SAVRY Total Score. Overall, the results suggest that the SAVRY is suited (to varying degrees) for assessing the risk of violent and general recidivism in young offenders within the Singaporean context, but might not be better than the YLS/CMI.

  14. Sex offender registration and community notification challenges: the Supreme Court continues its trend.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Gerbasi, Joan B

    2003-01-01

    All states and the District of Columbia have passed sex offender registration and community notification laws. While the specific provisions of these statutes vary, all have public safety as a primary goal. The authors discuss two recent cases heard by the United States Supreme Court that challenged the constitutionality of Alaska's and Connecticut's statutes. The laws were challenged as violations of the United States Constitution's prohibition on ex post facto laws and its Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of procedural due process. In both cases, the statutes were upheld. As it has found in challenges to sexually violent predator statutes, the Court emphasized that the registration and community notification schemes are civil and not criminal in nature. The article concludes with a discussion of possible implications for clinicians involved in evaluating or treating sex offenders.

  15. Effects of sex offender registration policies on juvenile justice decision making.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sinha, Debajyoti; Armstrong, Kevin

    2009-06-01

    This study examines effects of sex offender registration policies on juvenile judicial decision making. Prosecutor decisions and disposition outcomes are examined across a 15-year period. Results indicate that prosecutors are significantly less likely to move forward on both serious sexual and assault offense charges after registration implementation, with the estimated effect nearly twice as large for sexual offenses. There also is increased likelihood of guilty findings for sexual and assault offenses over time. As new policies legislate harsher consequences for juvenile offenses, prosecutors become less likely to move forward on sexual and assault charges. This effect is especially strong for juvenile sexual offenders, who face reforms targeting both violent and sexual crimes. Results suggest that state and national policies requiring long-term public registration of juveniles might unintentionally decrease the likelihood of prosecution. If replicated, the results indicate a need to reform registration policies as applied to juveniles.

  16. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  17. Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its…

  18. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  19. Neurodynamics of relapse prevention: a neuronutrient approach to outpatient DUI offenders.

    PubMed

    Brown, R J; Blum, K; Trachtenberg, M C

    1990-01-01

    The central nervous system rewarding properties of ethanol, cocaine, and heroin may activate a common catecholaminergic reward system in the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain. Driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders with either alcohol- or cocaine-related problems were studied. The neuronutrients SAAVE and Tropamine significantly reduced relapse rates and enhanced recovery in these DUI outpatient offenders over a 10-week period. Follow-up on both the SAAVE and Tropamine groups after 10 months revealed a 73% and a 53% overall recovery rate, respectively. These clinical results favor the use of these neuronutrients as adjuncts to psychological therapeutic modalities.

  20. Does Screening Classification Predict Long-Term Outcomes of DWI Offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We interviewed 583 driving while intoxicated (DWI) first offenders with substance use disorders (SUDs) to determine the usefulness of a screening classification system in predicting treatment utilization, current SUD, and driving over the alcohol limit (DOL) at 15-year follow-ups. Methods Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to determine predictors of long-term outcomes. Results Screening classification defined groups with different treatment histories and 15-year outcomes. Current SUDs were reported by 21%, and DOL by 10%, of subjects. Conclusions Group differences suggest that screening data could be used more effectively to triage and treat DWI offenders. PMID:20604698

  1. Reporting Crimes to the Police Depends on Relationship Networks: Effects of Ties Among Victims, Advisors, and Offenders.

    PubMed

    Knoth, Lauren K; Ruback, R Barry

    2016-08-17

    A victim's decision to report a crime to the police is typically made after talking with someone else, usually a friend or relative, but sometimes a stranger. The advice this person gives depends primarily on the seriousness of the crime, and to some extent on the gender and age of the victim. The present research, which used experimental vignettes, examined the role of social networks in reporting: How do the relationships among a victim, the advisor, and the offender affect the advice to report or not to report a violent or nonviolent crime? Results from Study 1 indicated that relationships matter: Crimes are least likely to be reported if the offender is part of the same triad as the victim and the advisor, and crimes are most likely to be reported if the victim, the advisor, and the offender are all strangers. Study 1 also found that males are more likely to protect friends who are offenders (by advising against reporting), while females are more likely to protect friends who are victims (by advising them to report). Study 2 found that the effect of these relationships on reporting is conditioned by the nature of the organization to which the offender belongs, such that males are particularly likely to protect their friends in athletic organizations and fraternities when accused of minor property crimes. Both studies found that gender differences in the advice to report are moderated by characteristics of the crime and triad structure.

  2. Factors Associated With Exposure to Violent or Degrading Pornography Among High School Students.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Beltramini, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pornography exposure in a sample of 702 Italian adolescents (46% males; mean age = 18.2, SD = 0.8). Among male students, 11% were not exposed, 44.5% were exposed to nonviolent material, and 44.5% were exposed to violent/degrading material. Among female students, 60.8% were not exposed, 20.4% were exposed to nonviolent material, and 18.8% were exposed to violent/degrading material. Among males, adjusted odds ratio (AdjOR) of exposure to violent/degrading pornography were higher if using alcohol, having friends who sell/buy sex, and taking sexual pictures. Females who were victims of family violence, attending technical/vocational schools, and taking sexual pictures had higher AdjOR of watching violent pornography; smoking and having friends who sell/buy sex were associated with both nonviolent and violent/degrading exposure. Exposure to violent/degrading pornography is common among adolescents, associated with at-risk behaviors, and, for females, it correlates with a history of victimization. School nurses have a pivotal role in including discussions about pornography in interventions about relationships, sexuality, or violence.

  3. The influence of religiosity on violent behavior of adolescents: a comparison of Christian and Muslim religiosity.

    PubMed

    Baier, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Different criminological theories assume that religiosity protects against violent behavior. Up to now, this assumption is tested empirically almost exclusively for the Christian religiosity. The study presented here questions whether such a relationship between religiosity and violent behavior could be found for Muslims, likewise. Using a German-wide representative school survey of 16,545 male students in the ninth grade, who belong either to a Christian or an Islamic denomination, it can be revealed that only for Christians a higher religiosity correlates with a lower rate of violent behavior. This influence of Christian religiosity can be explained by mainly control theory variables. For Muslims, there is no significant correlation between religiosity and violent behavior in a bivariate analysis. A multivariate analysis, however, reveals a suppression effect: Controlling for alcohol consumption, Muslim religiosity increases violent behavior. In addition, high religious Muslims agree more often to norms of masculinity and consume more often media violence, which are risk factors of violent behavior. Accordingly, it can be concluded that religiosity is not a violence-protecting factor in general; instead, a more differentiated view for separate religious groups is necessary.

  4. The characteristics of online sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Hermann, Chantal A

    2011-03-01

    There is much debate as to whether online offenders are a distinct group of sex offenders or if they are simply typical sex offenders using a new technology. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which online and offline offenders differ on demographic and psychological variables. Online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian and were slightly younger than offline offenders. In terms of psychological variables, online offenders had greater victim empathy, greater sexual deviancy, and lower impression management than offline offenders. Both online and offline offenders reported greater rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse than the general population. Additionally, online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian, younger, single, and unemployed compared with the general population. Many of the observed differences can be explained by assuming that online offenders, compared with offline offenders, have greater self-control and more psychological barriers to acting on their deviant interests.

  5. 77 FR 33489 - Draft Offender Tracking System Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... of Justice Programs Draft Offender Tracking System Standard AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Draft Offender Tracking System Standard, Selection and Application Guide, and... general public three draft documents: (1) A draft standard entitled, ``Offender Tracking System...

  6. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed.

  7. Identifying change in the likelihood of violent recidivism: causal dynamic risk factors in the OASys violence predictor.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip D; Dixon, Louise

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies of multiwave risk assessment have investigated the association between changes in risk factors and violent recidivism. This study analyzed a large multiwave data set of English and Welsh offenders (N = 196,493), assessed in realistic correctional conditions using the static/dynamic Offender Assessment System (OASys). It aimed to compare the predictive validity of the OASys Violence Predictor (OVP) under mandated repeated assessment and one-time initial assessment conditions. Scores on 5 of OVP's 7 purportedly dynamic risk factors changed in 6 to 15% of pairs of successive assessments, whereas the other 2 seldom changed. Violent reoffenders had higher initial total and dynamic OVP scores than nonreoffenders, yet nonreoffenders' dynamic scores fell by significantly more between initial and final assessment. OVP scores from the current assessment achieved greater predictive validity than those from the initial assessment. Cox regression models showed that, for total OVP scores and most risk factors, both the initial score and the change in score from initial to current assessment significantly predicted reoffending. These results consistently showed that OVP includes several causal dynamic risk factors for violent recidivism, which can be measured reliably in operational settings. This adds to the evidence base that links changes in risk factors to changes in future reoffending risk and links the use of repeated assessments to incremental improvements in predictive validity. Further research could quantify the costs and benefits of reassessment in correctional practice, study associations between treatment and dynamic risk factors, and separate the effects of improvements and deteriorations in dynamic risk.

  8. Interactions among DUI offender characteristics and traditional intervention modalities: a long-term recidivism follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wells-Parker, E; Anderson, B J; McMillen, D L; Landrum, J W

    1989-04-01

    Using long-term DUI (Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol) arrest recidivism data from a controlled study of DUI intervention effectiveness, interactions among DUI interventions, age, race, education, and alcohol severity were estimated using logit analysis. Data were collected in a 9-year follow-up study of the Mississippi DUI Probation Project. The effects of short-term interventions (alcohol education schools for low alcohol severity offenders and structured group interventions for high alcohol severity offenders) were specified by educational level. Short-term rehabilitation was modestly effective for those with less than 12 years of education, but less effective or detrimental for the more highly educated. The effects of probation were specified by age and education, being more effective for those under 30 years and 55 years or older than for the middle age group. Probation was most effective for well-educated older (55+) offenders. An analysis of the under 30 years group also suggested that probation was especially effective for young well-educated Minority offenders.

  9. Do Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities Benefit from Sex Offender Treatment Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the clinical and practical issues in relation to sex offender treatment in prisons and compares, through the experience of one offender who has been called Sam, how the experiences may differ between offenders with and without learning disabilities. It gives a brief overview of how programmes have developed in…

  10. A Comparison of Anger in Offenders and Non-Offenders Who Have Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Matthew; Beail, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy to treat anger in offenders with intellectual disabilities. The aim is to lower anger levels; the rationale is that this will reduce recidivism. However, the hypothesis that anger levels amongst offenders are higher than non-offenders has not been tested.…

  11. Model Underpinning Treatment for Sex Offenders with Mild Intellectual Disability: Current Theories of Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending,…

  12. Frequency and Seriousness of Parental Offending and Their Impact on Juvenile Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent the frequency and seriousness of parental offending were related to their offspring offending. Police officers in one Dutch province completed a form to register risk factors and the actions undertaken when they came into contact with offenders aged 8-14 years. These juveniles were followed for 18…

  13. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  14. Unguided clinical and actuarial assessment of re-offending risk: a direct comparison with sex offenders in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Susanne; Långström, Niklas

    2007-06-01

    Meta-analyses suggest that actuarial risk assessments outperform unguided clinical judgment for prediction of recidivism in criminal offenders. However, there is a lack of direct comparisons of the predictive accuracy of clinical judgment and actuarial risk scales for sexual offenders. We followed up 121 male sex offenders (> or =18 years) subjected to pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessment in Denmark in 1978-1992 (mean post-detainment time = 16.4 years) to compare the predictive validity of unstructured clinical judgment of recidivism risk with that of the well-established Static-99 (Hanson and Thornton, Law and Human Behavior 24:119-136, 2000) and an extension of the Static-99, the Static-2002 (Hanson and Thornton, Notes on the development of Static-2002 (Rep. No. 2003-01), Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 2003). The predictive accuracy of unguided judgment did not exceed chance for any sexual, severe sexual or any violent (sexual or non-sexual) reconviction (AUCs of the ROC curve = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.41-0.63; 0.50, 95%CI = 0.34-0.67; and 0.57, 95%CI = 0.40-0.73, respectively). In contrast, all three outcomes were predicted significantly better than chance by the Static-99 (AUC = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.52-0.72; 0.72, 95%CI = 0.59-0.84; and 0.71, 95%CI = 0.56-0.86) and the Static-2002 (AUC = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.57-0.77; 0.69, 95%CI = 0.56-0.83; and 0.70, 95%CI = 0.55-0.86). Static-99 outperformed clinical judgment for sexual recidivision (chi(2) = 5.11, df = 1, p < .05). The Static-2002 was significantly more accurate for the prediction of any sexual recidivism as compared to unguided clinical judgment but its advantage fell just short of statistical significance for severe sexual recidivism (chi(2) = 3.56, df = 1, p = 0.06). When tested for recidivism within 2 years, none of the three prediction methods yielded results significantly better than chance for any outcome. This direct trial of the unguided clinical method argues against its

  15. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  16. Comparing the validity of the RM2000 scales and OGRS3 for predicting recidivism by Internet sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Helen Catherine; Howard, Philip; Barnett, Georgia

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of four actuarial risk assessment tools with sexual offenders convicted of Internet offenses in England and Wales. Risk Matrix 2000 scales (RM2000/s, RM2000/v, and RM2000/c) and Offender Group Reconviction Scale 3 were examined to establish their accuracy in predicting sexual, violent, sexual and violent, and general reoffending in a sample of 1,344 Internet offenders who had either started a community sentence or been released from prison into the community by March 2007. A modified version of RM2000/s was used. Rates of proven reoffending were examined at 1 year for the majority of the sample (n = 1,326), and 2 years (n = 994) for those for whom these data were available. Proven reoffending was defined as any caution or conviction for a new offense. Reoffending rates were very low among this sample, and three quarters of the sexual reoffending was Internet related. The results indicate that all four tools had moderate to very good predictive accuracy as measured using receiver operating characteristics statistics when used to predict the outcome they were designed to (areas under the curve between .67 and .87). The results were also examined for generalist sexual offenders (those who had both Internet-related and other sexual offenses in their offense history) and Internet specialists (those whose sexual offenses were only Internet related) separately. The very low reoffending rate of the Internet specialists made these comparisons difficult. Further research is required with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods before firm conclusions can be made regarding the accuracy of these tools with Internet offenders.

  17. Is basic personality related to violent and non-violent video game play and preferences?

    PubMed

    Chory, Rebecca M; Goodboy, Alan K

    2011-04-01

    Based on the uses and gratifications perspective, personality was expected to relate to violent video game play frequency and game preferences. Participants completed measures of personality and frequency of violent video game play, and identified their most frequently played video games. Results indicate that individuals higher in openness but lower in agreeableness played violent video games more frequently. In addition, more open and extroverted but less agreeable and neurotic individuals generally preferred to play video games that are more violent. Results suggest personality may be more predictive of violent video game use than traditional media use, though the predictive personality dimensions may be consistent across media types.

  18. Psychopathy (PCL-R) in a forensic psychiatric sample of homicide offenders: some reliability issues.

    PubMed

    Laurell, Jenny; Dåderman, Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have shown that psychopathy is overrepresented among homicide offenders. There is a consensus that Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised PCL-R is currently the most valid and useful tool for rating psychopathy (e.g., [Fulero, S. M. (1995). Review of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. In J. C. Conoley & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Twelfth Mental Measurements Yearbook (pp. 453-454). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute]). Usually, when making a rating of psychopathy, both an interview and an examination of the subject's files are used. However, it has been discussed what is really required to be able to rate psychopathy in a reliable manner. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively rate the degree of psychopathy in 35 homicide offenders being subjected to forensic psychiatric assessment. These ratings of psychopathy were carried out using forensic psychiatric files and courts'; verdicts only. Another aim was to examine the reliability of PCL-R in this specific Swedish sample of homicide offenders. There was a good agreement between the two raters with respect to the categorical diagnosis of psychopathy (Cohen's kappa=.81, p<.001), which indicates that retrospective ratings of psychopathy are well suited for research purposes. The prevalence of psychopathy among the homicide offenders was 31.4% (using a cut-off score of 30), which means that the construct of psychopathy may contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of homicide. In the planning of treatment for homicide offenders, a consideration of possible psychopathy is necessary. As criminal psychopaths are known to relapse into violent criminality, it is very important that they are given efficient treatment, placement and management.

  19. Violent Behavior in Female Inmates: Possible Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia M.; Davis, Joanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Research findings have been equivocal regarding the relationship between experiencing trauma and exhibiting violent behavior in women. This study seeks to determine predictors of violent behavior in female inmates utilizing various conceptualizations of traumatic experiences. Results indicate a significant univariate relationship between…

  20. Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimer, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of national longitudinal survey data on 918 adolescent males and their parents shows that violent delinquency is a product of learning definitions favorable to violence; such learning is determined by association with aggressive peers, socioeconomic status, parenting practices, and prior violent delinquency. Emphasizes joint contributions…

  1. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  2. Neuropsychological Differences Between Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellacy, Frank

    1977-01-01

    To the extent that brain dysfunction is present in violence-prone groups, one may expect that assessment of simple perceptual and cognitive abilities may facilitate significantly the detection of subjects prone to violent behavior. This research examines the ability of neuropsychological tests to discriminate between violent and nonviolent…

  3. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Sexual Offending in Adolescence: A Comparison of Sibling Offenders and Nonsibling Offenders across Domains of Risk and Treatment Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Natasha E.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Scalora, Mario J.; Ullman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sibling sexual offending has received limited empirical attention, despite estimates that approximately half of all adolescent-perpetrated sexual offenses involve a sibling victim. The present study addresses this gap by examining male adolescent sibling (n = 100) and nonsibling offenders (n = 66) with regard to maltreatment histories and scores…

  5. Using Latent Variable- and Person-Centered Approaches to Examine the Role of Psychopathic Traits in Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Krstic, Sonja; Neumann, Craig S; Roy, Sandeep; Robertson, Carrie A; Knight, Raymond A; Hare, Robert D

    2017-04-13

    The current study employed both latent variable- and person-centered approaches to examine psychopathic traits in a large sample of sex offenders (N = 958). The offenders, who had committed a range of sexual crimes, had been assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). Structural equation modeling results indicated that the four-factor model of psychopathy (Hare, 2003; Neumann, Hare, & Newman, 2007) provided good representation of the dimensional nature of psychopathic traits across the sample of offenders, and that the PCL-R factors significantly predicted sexual crimes. In particular, the Affective and Antisocial psychopathy factors each predicted sexually violent crimes. Latent profile analysis results revealed evidence for a 4-class solution, with the subtypes showing distinct PCL-R facet profiles, consistent with previous research. The four subtypes were validated using sexual crime profiles. The prototypic psychopathy subtype (high on all 4 PCL-R facets) evidenced more violent sexual offenses than did the other subtypes. Taken together, the results demonstrate how variable- and person-centered approaches in combination can add to our understanding of the psychopathy construct and its correlates. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. A Longitudinal Outcome Evaluation of a Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Grady, Melissa D; Edwards, Daniel; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2017-04-01

    Sex offender outcome studies continue to produce mixed results. A common critique of these studies is their lack of methodological rigor. This study attempts to address this critique by adhering to the standards established by the Collaborative Outcome Data Committee (CODC) aimed at increasing the quality and confidence in outcome studies. We examined recidivism outcomes for a sample of formerly incarcerated sex offenders who participated in a state prison-based cognitive-behavioral-skills-based treatment program. We used propensity score analysis to compare treatment participants with a matched sample of non-participants. The final sample post-matching ( n = 512) was observed for a minimum of 4 years and a maximum of 14 years. Using survival analysis, findings indicate that there were no differences in recidivism rates between treatment participants and non-participants in sexual or violent crimes. However, participants demonstrated significantly lower rates of recidivism for non-violent crimes. We discuss strengths, limitations of the study, and implications of these findings.

  7. The use of a screening device to assess psychopathy in young offenders.

    PubMed

    Silva, Teresa; Garrido, Genovés Vicente; López Latorre, M José

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research was to determine to what extent a psychopath screening device (the APSD) is useful in forensic assessments to predict general and violent offending. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was done and 238 young people serving a sentence were assessed. The gold standard instrument used to measure psychopathy was the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, Kosson & Hare, 2003). The results indicate that the association found between the screening device scores and several indicators of risk is low if compared with those obtained with the PCL:YV, suggesting that it is less useful as a tool in order to predict offending or violent offences. However, an Area Under the Curve of .784 and a validity index of 62.5 support its use as a screening device or as a preliminary approach to assess psychopathy in this population. The usefulness of this instrument to make assessments with young people in the forensic setting is discussed.

  8. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  9. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  10. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  11. Psychosocial and Sociodemographic Characteristics of DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veneziano, Carol; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined demographic characteristics, arrest and treatment data, symptoms of problem drinking, drug use, stressful life events, and depressive symptomatology among 498 driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders. DWI offenders were likely to have experienced financial problems, new job, job loss or unemployment, conflict at home, illness or death of…

  12. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  13. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    PubMed

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-09-16

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  14. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  15. A Preliminary Typology of Young Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstrom, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Lindblad, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Uses data concerning all young sex offenders (N=56) to construct and validate an introductory young sex offender typology based solely on offense characteristics. A 5-cluster solution received optimal support from cluster analysis of 15 offense-related variables. Survival analysis revealed that the clusters differed with respect to sexual but not…

  16. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  17. Assessing Reoffense Risk with Juvenile Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Timothy J.; Chambers, Heather J.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes a two-year study of juvenile sexual offenders in Washington. Evaluates both community- and institution-based treatment programs. Offers a demographic profile of the typical juvenile sexual offender and the recidivism data from a mean 20-month follow-up period. Surprisingly few variables were found to have a significant relationship to…

  18. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  19. Danger and the Decision to Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2005-01-01

    Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…

  20. The Colorado Sex Offender Risk Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kim; Retzlaff, Paul; Kleinsasser, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Documents the development of an adult sex offender risk assessment tool. A risk scale was developed based upon criminal and therapeutic outcomes of 494 sex offenders. The final risk scale included prior juvenile felony convictions, prior adult felony convictions, victim being intoxicated, denial in therapy, sexual deviance in therapy, and…

  1. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  2. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale…

  3. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  4. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  5. Validating the Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charmeka

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor…

  6. Treating the Adolescent Victim-Turned-Offender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muster, Nori J.

    1992-01-01

    Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…

  7. The Handicapped Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, W. Donald; Kravitz, Marjorie

    The bibliography on handicapped adult offenders covers all aspects of the criminal justice process--arrest, pretrial evaluation, determination of competency to stand trial, civil vs. criminal proceedings, and community and institutional treatment. An introduction discusses the number of offenders who are mentally retarded or physically…

  8. The Use of Prison Confinement for the Treatment of Multiple Drunken Driver Offenders: An Evaluation of the Longwood Treatment Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClair, Daniel P.; And Others

    In March of 1985, the Massachusetts Department of Correction opened Longwood Treatment Center, the state's first minimum security prison designed exclusively to detain and provide alcoholism education and treatment to multiple drunken driving offenders. A process evaluation of the program revealed that the program was implemented as planned and…

  9. Modelling and evaluating against the violent insider

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, D.S.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Saleh, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    The violent insider threat poses a special challenge to facilities protecting special nuclear material from theft or diversion. These insiders could potentially behave as nonviolent insiders to deceitfully defeat certain safeguards elements and use violence to forcefully defeat hardware or personnel. While several vulnerability assessment tools are available to deal with the nonviolent insider, very limited effort has been directed to developing analysis tools for the violent threat. In this paper, we present an approach using the results of a vulnerability assessment for nonviolent insiders to evaluate certain violent insider scenarios. Since existing tools do not explicitly consider violent insiders, the approach is intended for experienced safeguards analysts and relies on the analyst to brainstorm possible violent actions, to assign detection probabilities, and to ensure consistency. We then discuss our efforts in developing an automated tool for assessing the vulnerability against those violent insiders who are willing to use force against barriers, but who are unwilling to kill or be killed. Specifically, we discuss our efforts in developing databases for violent insiders penetrating barriers, algorithms for considering the entry of contraband, and modelling issues in considering the use of violence.

  10. Shame and guilt in child sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Proeve, Michael; Howells, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    In this article, the authors build on previous discussions of the possible role of shame and guilt in sexual offending. They review the general psychological literature on shame and guilt and conclude that the distinction between internal and external shame is an important one in considering sexual offenders. The effects of shame and guilt on victim empathy and relapse are discussed, and it is proposed that the phenomena of shame and guilt have implications for treatment beyond those identified in previous studies. Shame is a salient feature in the initial presentation of many sexual offenders against children. Furthermore, aspects of the treatment of sexual offenders can be characterized as a shift from shame toward guilt. Implications of shame and guilt for treatment of sexual offenders are described.

  11. Violent Girls or Relabeled Status Offenders?: An Alternative Interpretation of the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Barry C.

    2009-01-01

    Policy makers and juvenile justice officials express alarm over the rise in arrests of girls for simple and aggravated assault. Others see this perceived increase as an artifact of decreased public tolerance for violence, changes in parental attitudes or law enforcement policies, or heightened surveillance of domestic violence, which…

  12. Prefrontal Structural and Functional Brain Imaging findings in Antisocial, Violent, and Psychopathic Individuals: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Brain imaging studies suggest that antisocial and violent behavior is associated with structural and functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex, but there is heterogeneity in findings and it is unclear whether findings apply to psychopaths, non-violent offenders, community-based samples, and studies employing psychiatric controls. A meta-analysis was conducted on 43 structural and functional imaging studies and results show significantly reduced prefrontal structure and function in antisocial individuals. Effect sizes were significant for both structural and functional studies. With minor exceptions, no statistically significant moderating effects of sample characteristics and methodological variables were observed. Findings were localized to the right orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior cingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Findings confirm the replicability of prefrontal structural and functional impairments in antisocial populations and highlight the involvement of orbitofrontal, dorsolateral frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex in antisocial behavior. PMID:19833485

  13. Recidivism of juvenile homicide offenders.

    PubMed

    Vries, Anne M; Liem, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    Serious offenses against persons perpetrated by juveniles raise fundamental questions about the background, causes, and prevention of future crime. The current study addresses the potential of future crime of all juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) in the Netherlands in the period 1992-2007. In contrast to former research on recidivism of JHOs, which has been merely descriptive, the present study integrates theoretical perspectives as to why some of these juveniles turn back to crime, while others do not. To this end, relationships are investigated between recidivism behavior and risk factors. Results indicate that male JHOs, and JHOs who maintain relationships with delinquents, run a greater risk of reoffending.

  14. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  15. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  16. A Naturalistic Alcohol Availability Experiment: Effects on Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Previous investigators have looked at many types of criminal offenses in order to determine alcohol involvement in crime. This longitudinal (4-year) naturalistic experimental and control designed study examined the effects of change in alcohol availability on rates of offending in a small provincial region of New Zealand following the closure of…

  17. Does the Convergent Validity of the PAI Antisocial Features Scale Depend on Offender Response Style?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Brett O; Boccaccini, Marcus T

    2017-04-04

    Researchers have recently questioned the utility of the response style indicators included on many self-report measures of personality and psychopathology. We examined whether the size of convergent validity coefficients for Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Antisocial Features (ANT) scores depends on PAI validity scale scores. Using PAI and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores from 477 offenders evaluated for civil commitment as sexually violent predators, we found that PAI Positive Impression (PIM), Negative Impression (NIM), Malingering Index (MAL), Defensiveness Index (DEF), and Infrequency (INF) scores moderated the association between ANT and PCL-R scores. The association between ANT and PCL-R scores decreased as offenders overstated psychopathology (i.e., higher NIM or MAL scores) or exhibited increasing disengagement (i.e., higher INF scores). However, the association between ANT and PCL-R scores increased as offenders engaged in defensive reporting (i.e., higher PIM or DEF scores). The interaction effects were most common for ANT-E (Egocentricity), and to a lesser extent ANT-A (Antisocial Behaviors). PAI discriminant function validity indexes did not exhibit moderating effects on ANT and PCL-R scores. There was no evidence of validity scale suppression effects. These findings provide support for the potential role of some PAI response style measures for ANT scale interpretation in forensic settings.

  18. A community service for high-risk mentally disordered sex offenders: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Craissati, Jackie; Blundell, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    There is sparse literature on mentally disordered sex offenders, and little is published on treatment participation and outcomes for this group. This article aims to describe the characteristics of a cohort of high-risk mentally disordered-largely personality disordered-sex offenders at risk in the community in southeast London. Drawing on various measures of personality dysfunction-including key developmental variables, a self-report personality disorder questionnaire Millon Clinical Multi-axial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV)-the researchers describe the characteristics of a cohort of mentally disordered sex offenders referred to the Challenge project. Follow-up data for those placed in treatment are reported and include consideration of treatment completion and reconviction: the relationship between personality dysfunction and a dynamic measure of risk are also explored. Of the 137 participants, 53% were placed in the community treatment project. Seventy five percent completed treatment, and were followed up for an average of 40 months. Eleven percent were sexually reconvicted, 3% violently reconvicted. Community failure was best predicted by a combination of static risk and personality-related variables.

  19. Risk factors for overall recidivism and severity of recidivism in serious juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2011-02-01

    This study was aimed at finding risk factors that predict both overall recidivism and severity of recidivism in serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors associated with family characteristics, peers, psychopathology, substance abuse, psychological factors, and behavior during treatment were assessed with the Juvenile Forensic Profile in a sample of 728 juvenile offenders. Official reconviction data were used to register recidivism with a minimum time at risk of 2 years. Severity of offending was categorized according to the maximum sentence for the offense committed combined with expert opinion. Several risk factors for recidivism were found: past criminal behavior (number of past offenses, young age at first offense, unknown victim of past offenses), conduct disorder, family risk factors (poor parenting skills, criminal behavior in the family, a history of physical and emotional abuse), involvement with criminal peers, and lack of treatment adherence (aggression during treatment, lack of coping strategies). Having an unknown victim in past offenses, criminal behavior in the family, lack of treatment adherence, and lack of positive coping strategies were predictive of serious (violent) recidivism. The results are discussed in terms of their use for risk assessment and in improving treatment effect. Targeting poor parenting skills, involvement in criminal environment, lack of treatment adherence, and problematic coping strategies should reduce the severity of recidivism.

  20. A comparison of the predictive properties of nine sex offender risk assessment instruments.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daniël J

    2014-09-01

    Sex offender treatment is most effective when tailored to risk-need-responsivity principles, which dictate that treatment levels should match risk levels as assessed by structured risk assessment instruments. The predictive properties, missing values, and interrater agreement of the scores of 9 structured risk assessment instruments were compared in a national sample of 397 Dutch convicted sex offenders. The instruments included the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism, Static-99, Static-99R, a slightly modified version of Static-2002 and Static-2002R, Structured Anchored Clinical Judgments Minimum, Risk Matrix 2000, Sexual Violence Risk 20, and a modified version of the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide; sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism was assessed over 5- and 10-year fixed and variable follow-up periods. In general, the instrument scores showed moderate to large predictive accuracy for the occurrence of reoffending and the number of reoffenses in this sample. Predictive accuracy regarding latency showed more variability across instrument scores. Static-2002R and Static-99R scores showed a slight but consistent advantage in predictive properties over the other instrument scores across outcome measures and follow-up periods in this sample. The results of Sexual Violence Risk 20 and Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism scores were the least positive. A positive association between predictive accuracy and interrater agreement at the item level was found for both sexual recidivism (r = .28, p = .01) and violent (including sexual) recidivism (r = .45, p < .001); no significant association was found between predictive accuracy and missing values at the item level. Results underscore the feasibility and utility of these instruments for informing treatment selection according to the risk-need-responsivity principles.

  1. Examining Specialization Among Sex Offenders Released From Prison.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeffrey; Simon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    A prevailing cultural stereotype about sex offenders is that they tend to specialize in sexual offending. Many recent policy developments-mainly aimed to restrict the liberties of sex offenders-are rooted in this idea. We examined the correctional and arrest records of a sample of 312 sex offenders released on parole in Colorado to determine the prevalence of sexual specialization among these offenders, and to compare the legal and social characteristics of specialists and versatile sex offenders. Overall we found that very few participants officially classified as sex offenders fit the specialist stereotype. Study participants generally displayed versatile histories of criminal offending. We also found that specialists were distinguishable from versatile offenders on certain indices of social integration and mental health, and they were more likely to have had a history of offending against children.

  2. Self reported rates of criminal offending and victimization in young people at-risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, R; Harrigan, S; Glozier, N; Amminger, G P; Yung, A R

    2015-08-01

    A significant relationship exists between experiencing psychosis and both engaging in criminal offending and being a victim of crime. A substantial proportion of violence and offending occurs during the first episode of psychosis, but it is unclear whether such behaviour is also evident in the earlier pre-psychotic stage of illness. As part of a prospective study of young people who were seeking help for mental health problems, we enquired about participants' experiences of being charged and/or convicted of a criminal offence and being a victim of crime. This paper uses cross-sectional baseline data to compare the rates of these forensic outcomes in participants at-risk of psychosis (n=271) with those not at-risk (n=440). Univariate logistic regression showed that the at-risk for psychosis group was significantly more likely than the not at-risk participants to report having been charged by police (11.1% vs 5.9%; p=.015) and convicted by the courts (4.4% vs. 1.6%; p=0.028) with a non-violent offence, as well as to have been convicted of any criminal offence (6.3% vs. 3.0%; p=0.037). The at-risk were also more likely to report having been a victim of crime (23.7% vs 14.0%; p=.002), particularly violent victimization (16.5% vs 8.2%; p=.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, being at-risk for psychosis remained a significant predictor of three of the four outcome measures after controlling for other known covariates such as gender, age, substance misuse and unemployment. This is the first study to demonstrate that, relative to their non-psychotic help-seeking counterparts, young people at-risk for psychosis are at higher risk of forensic outcomes, particularly violent crime victimization.

  3. Universal bursty behaviour in human violent conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoli, S.; Castillo-Mussot, M. Del; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and processes underlying the dynamics of collective violence is of considerable current interest. Recent studies indicated the presence of robust patterns characterizing the size and timing of violent events in human conflicts. Since the size and timing of violent events arises as the result of a dynamical process, we explore the possibility of unifying these observations. By analyzing available catalogs on violent events in Iraq (2003-2005), Afghanistan (2008-2010) and Northern Ireland (1969-2001), we show that the inter-event time distributions (calculated for a range of minimum sizes) obeys approximately a simple scaling law which holds for more than three orders of magnitude. This robust pattern suggests a hierarchical organization in size and time providing a unified picture of the dynamics of violent conflicts.

  4. Actuarial assessment of sex offender recidivism risk: a cross-validation of the RRASOR and the Static-99 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, G; Långström, N

    2001-12-01

    We cross-validated two actuarial risk assessment tools, the RRASOR (R. K. Hanson, 1997) and the Static-99 (R. K. Hanson & D. Thornton, 1999), in a retrospective follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3.69 years) of all sex offenders released from Swedish prisons during 1993-1997 (N = 1,400, all men, age > or =18 years). File-based data were collected by a researcher blind to the outcome (registered criminal recidivism), and individual risk factors as well as complete instrument characteristics were explored. Both the RRASOR and the Static-99 showed similar and moderate predictive accuracy for sexual reconvictions whereas the Static-99 exhibited a significantly higher accuracy for the prediction of any violent recidivism as compared to the RRASOR. Although particularly the Static-99 proved moderately robust as an actuarial measure of recidivism risk among sexual offenders in Sweden, both procedures may need further evaluation, for example, with sex offender subpopulations differing ethnically or with respect to offense characteristics. The usefulness of actuarial methods for the assessment of sex offender recidivism risk is discussed in the context of current practice.

  5. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Lanctôt, Nadine; de Ruiter, Corine; van Vugt, Eveline

    2015-08-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n=231), physically abused (n=1,568), neglected (n=1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n=1,767), and non-victims (n=8,492). In addition, the moderating effect of gender in the association between type of maltreatment and offending behavior/psychosocial problems was examined. Results showed that violent offenses were more common in victims of physical abuse and victims of multiple forms of abuse than in non-victims, both in boys and girls. In boys, sexual offenses were far more common in victims of sexual abuse than in victims of other or multiple forms of maltreatment or in non-victims. In girls, no group differences were found in sexual offending behavior. For both boys and girls, externalizing problems were relatively common in victims of physical abuse and neglect whereas internalizing problems were relatively common in victims of sexual abuse. In victims of multiple forms of maltreatment, both internalizing and externalizing problems were relatively common. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  6. Treatment referral for sex offenders based on clinical judgment versus actuarial risk assessment: match and analysis of mismatch.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daan

    2013-07-01

    The Risk Need Responsivity (RNR) principles (Andrews & Bonta, 2010) dictate that higher risk sex offenders should receive more intensive treatment. The present study investigates how clinically based treatment assignment relates to risk level in a sex offender sample from The Netherlands. Correlational analyses served to identify sources of mismatches: that is, variables differing significantly in their relation between treatment selection and risk level. Our study sample consisted of 194 convicted rapists and 214 convicted child molesters. All participants' criminal files were retrospectively coded in terms of the items of the STATIC-99R, PCL: SV, and SVR-20. A low to moderate correlation was observed between clinical treatment selection and actuarial risk levels. A substantial part of the sex offenders, especially child molesters, received overly intensive treatment and another substantial part, especially rapists, received treatment of lesser intensity than indicated by their risk levels. General violent and antisocial risk factors seemed to be underemphasized in the clinical evaluation of sex offenders, especially rapists. A negative attitude toward intervention was negatively associated with clinical treatment selection. It is concluded that clinical treatment selection leads to an insufficient match between risk level and treatment level and systematic use of validated structured risk assessment instruments is necessary to ensure optimal adherence to the risk principle.

  7. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    PubMed Central

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  8. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    PubMed

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  9. Violent Victimization, Aggression, and Parent-Adolescent Relations: Quality Parenting as a Buffer for Violently Victimized Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceves, Mario J.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Prospective associations between violent victimization, the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, and the subsequent onset of violent aggression were examined. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), participants were divided into violent and non-violent cohorts based on whether they had committed an act…

  10. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  11. Mental health assessment of rape offenders.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-07-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper.

  12. Recidivism in female offenders: PCL-R lifestyle factor and VRAG show predictive validity in a German sample.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Osterheider, Michael; Nedopil, Norbert; Stadtland, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    A clear and structured approach to evidence-based and gender-specific risk assessment of violence in female offenders is high on political and mental health agendas. However, most data on the factors involved in risk-assessment instruments are based on data of male offenders. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), the HCR-20 and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) for the prediction of recidivism in German female offenders. This study is part of the Munich Prognosis Project (MPP). It focuses on a subsample of female delinquents (n = 80) who had been referred for forensic-psychiatric evaluation prior to sentencing. The mean time at risk was 8 years (SD = 5 years; range: 1-18 years). During this time, 31% (n = 25) of the female offenders were reconvicted, 5% (n = 4) for violent and 26% (n = 21) for non-violent re-offenses. The predictive validity of the PCL-R for general recidivism was calculated. Analysis with receiver-operating characteristics revealed that the PCL-R total score, the PCL-R antisocial lifestyle factor, the PCL-R lifestyle factor and the PCL-R impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style factor had a moderate predictive validity for general recidivism (area under the curve, AUC = 0.66, p = 0.02). The VRAG has also demonstrated predictive validity (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.02), whereas the HCR-20 showed no predictive validity. These results appear to provide the first evidence that the PCL-R total score and the antisocial lifestyle factor are predictive for general female recidivism, as has been shown consistently for male recidivists. The implications of these findings for crime prevention, prognosis in women, and future research are discussed.

  13. Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors.

  14. Effects of Violent and Non-Violent Computer Game Content on Memory Performance in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maass, Asja; Kollhorster, Kirsten; Riediger, Annemarie; MacDonald, Vanessa; Lohaus, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on the short-term effects of electronic entertainment media on memory and learning processes. It compares the effects of violent versus non-violent computer game content in a condition of playing and in another condition of watching the same game. The participants consisted of 83 female and 94 male adolescents with a mean…

  15. Violent Women: Are They Catching Up To Violent Men or Have They Surpassed Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, R. Barri

    Current statistics on arrests, convictions, and prison inmates and recent studies on violence by women indicate that the number of women who commit violent crimes is rising. Violent crimes include murder, rape, terrorism, gang participation, domestic violence, and prostitution. The first section, "Women Who Kill," discusses women who…

  16. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  17. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-18

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.

  18. Socialization Processes and Clergy Offenders.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.

  19. [The Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)].

    PubMed

    Rossegger, A; Gerth, J; Urbaniok, F; Laubacher, A; Endrass, J

    2010-11-01

    In North America, the use of actuarial instruments is considered to be state of the art in the assessment of offender recidivism risk. One of these instruments is the "Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide" (SORAG), which was developed specifically for the use in sex offender risk assessment. The present review investigates the current state of knowledge regarding the instrument's validity specifically for its use in German-speaking countries. Overall the results speak for the instrument's good discriminatory power. However, this is not true to the same degree for all types of sex offender populations. The discriminatory power is especially good in the subpopulation of child molesters. Part of the present review is a German translation of the instrument authorised by the developers of the SORAG.

  20. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  1. Soldier, civilian, criminal: identifying pathways to offending of ex-armed forces personnel in prison

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Verity; McDonnell, Sharon; Lennox, Charlotte; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about why some ex-armed forces personnel become involved in the criminal justice system, however, they represent the largest known occupational group in prison. In-depth interviews were employed to explore possible pathways to offending. Twenty ex-armed forces personnel in prison were recruited from five prisons in England. Data were analysed using a combination of thematic analysis and constant comparison methods rooted in grounded theory. Four predominant themes were identified: experiences of trauma and adversity; belonging; impulsivity and creating a soldier. Participants had experienced a number of traumatic incidents and adversity in their lives, encompassing pre, during and post-service but felt a sense of belonging in the armed forces. Participants demonstrated impulsivity in a number of areas with links to both their service in the armed forces and offending behaviour. The creation of the identity of ‘soldier’ was perceived to impact participants’ lives in a number of ways, including their offending, alcohol use and coping with trauma. The interplay of these themes and their potential impact on participants’ pathways to offending are discussed. PMID:27570440

  2. Evaluation of a program to motivate impaired driving offenders to install ignition interlocks.

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Blackman, Kenneth O; Tippetts, A Scott; Marques, Paul R

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 30,000 alcohol ignition interlocks, which are designed to prevent the operation of a vehicle if the driver has been drinking, are in use in the US and Canada. Ignition interlock programs are also being initiated in Sweden and Australia. The best-controlled studies that are currently available suggest that ignition interlocks are effective in reducing impaired driving recidivism while on the vehicle. However, in the US, the practical effectiveness of these devices is limited because only a small number of offenders are willing to install them in order to drive legally. This paper reports on a study of a court policy that created a strong incentive for impaired driving offenders to install interlocks by making traditional penalties, such as jail or electronically monitored house arrest, the alternative to participation in an interlock program. Comparison of the recidivism rates of offenders subject to this policy with offenders in similar, nearby courts, not using interlocks, indicated that the policy was producing substantial reductions in DUI recidivism.

  3. Soldier, civilian, criminal: identifying pathways to offending of ex-armed forces personnel in prison.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Verity; McDonnell, Sharon; Lennox, Charlotte; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2016-09-13

    Little is known about why some ex-armed forces personnel become involved in the criminal justice system, however, they represent the largest known occupational group in prison. In-depth interviews were employed to explore possible pathways to offending. Twenty ex-armed forces personnel in prison were recruited from five prisons in England. Data were analysed using a combination of thematic analysis and constant comparison methods rooted in grounded theory. Four predominant themes were identified: experiences of trauma and adversity; belonging; impulsivity and creating a soldier. Participants had experienced a number of traumatic incidents and adversity in their lives, encompassing pre, during and post-service but felt a sense of belonging in the armed forces. Participants demonstrated impulsivity in a number of areas with links to both their service in the armed forces and offending behaviour. The creation of the identity of 'soldier' was perceived to impact participants' lives in a number of ways, including their offending, alcohol use and coping with trauma. The interplay of these themes and their potential impact on participants' pathways to offending are discussed.

  4. Predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Bryan, Angela D

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed a series of questionnaires that assessed putative risk factors for sexual aggression. They then completed a measure of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up period. Correlational analyses revealed that participants who reported hard drug use, more frequent alcohol and marijuana use, and less severe offenses reported engaging in more severe sexual aggression. In addition, participants who reported higher impulsivity, sensation seeking, and externalizing behaviors also reported participating in more severe sexual aggression. When these variables were included in a regression analysis, only externalizing behaviors and severity of offense uniquely predicted severity of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up.

  5. Quantifying crime associated with drug use among a large cohort of sanctioned offenders in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Matthias; Hayhurst, Karen; Bird, Sheila M.; Hickman, Matthew; Seddon, Toby; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the relationship between testing positive for opiates and/or cocaine and prior offending. Methods 139,925 persons (107,573 men) identified from a saliva test for opiate and cocaine metabolites following arrest in England and Wales, 1 April 2005–31 March 2009, were case-linked with 2-year recorded offending history. The prior offending rate, accounting for estimated incarceration periods, was calculated by: drug-test outcome; gender; four main crime categories (acquisitive, non-acquisitive, serious acquisitive, and non-serious acquisitive) and 16 sub-categories. Rate ratio (RR) compared opiate and/or cocaine positive to dual-negative testers. Adjusted rate ratio (aRR) controlled for age at drug test. Results The relationship between testing positive for opiates and cocaine and prior 2-year offending was greater for women than men (aRR men 1.77; 95% CI: 1.75–1.79: women 3.51; 3.45–3.58). The association was weaker for those testing positive for opiates only (aRR: men: 1.66, 1.64–1.68; women 2.73, 2.66–2.80). Men testing positive for cocaine only had a lower rate of prior offending (aRR: 0.93, 0.92–0.94), women had a higher rate (aRR: 1.69, 1.64–1.74). The strongest associations were for non-serious acquisitive crimes (e.g. dually-positive: prostitution (women-only): aRR 24.9, 20.9–29.7; shoplifting: aRR men 4.05, 3.95–4.16; women 6.16, 5.92–6.41). Testing positive for opiates and cocaine was associated with violent offences among women (aRR: 1.54, 1.40–1.69) but not men (aRR: 0.98, 0.93–1.02). Conclusions Among drug-tested offenders, opiate use is associated with elevated prior offending and the association is stronger for women than men. Cocaine use is associated with prior offending only among women. PMID:26361712

  6. Sex Offenders in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric J; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renee L

    2016-09-01

    With most youths now using the Internet and social networking sites (SNSs), the public has become increasingly concerned about risks posed by online predators. In response, lawmakers have begun to pass laws that ban or limit sex offenders' use of the Internet and SNSs. At the time of this article, 12 states and the federal government have passed legislation attempting to restrict or ban the use of SNSs by registered sex offenders. These laws have been successfully challenged in 4 states. In this article, we discuss examples of case law that illustrate evolving trends regarding Internet and social networking site restrictions on sex offenders on supervised release, as well as those who have already completed their sentences. We also review constitutional questions and empirical evidence concerning Internet and social networking use by sex offenders. To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the psychiatric literature that addresses the evolving legal landscape in reference to sex offenders and their use of the Internet and SNSs. This article is intended to help inform forensic mental health professionals who work with sex offenders on current concerns in this rapidly evolving legal landscape.

  7. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders.

  8. Association of ADHD with reactive and proactive violent behavior in a forensic population.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael

    2010-12-01

    ADHD is associated with social problems and aggressive behavior. As hyperactive-impulsive traits are core symptoms of ADHD, it has been hypothesized that reactive-impulsive violence is more likely related to ADHD psychopathology than proactive-instrumental violence. One hundred and twenty-seven adult violent offenders participated in the study. Diagnosis of ADHD and ratings of reactive and proactive features of the committed crimes were performed using standardized instruments. According to DSM-IV, 16.5% subjects fulfilled diagnostic criteria for ADHD, 23.6% were diagnosed as ADHD in partial remission, and 59.8% had no ADHD. Univariate analyses revealed higher reactive violence ratings in both ADHD groups when compared to subjects without ADHD, whereas the opposite was found regarding proactive violence ratings. Using multivariate analyses of variance controlled for age, gender and comorbid substance use disorders, childhood ADHD psychopathology and current ADHD significantly increased the risk of reactive violence and decreased the risk of proactive violence. Significant impact of male gender on proactive violence was found. The findings suggest that ADHD is associated with reactive but not proactive violence in aggressive offenders.

  9. Effects of Offender Motivation, Victim Gender, and Participant Gender on Perceptions of Rape Victims and Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…

  10. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  11. The Experiences of Registered Sex Offenders with Internet Offender Registries in Three States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alissa R.; Sacks, Meghan; Osier, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    For over two decades, U.S. state and federal governments have enacted broad legislation in an effort to keep communities aware about and safe from sex offenders living nearby. The current study qualitatively analyzes unsolicited responses from sex offenders regarding their feelings, attitudes, and experiences living under the auspices of such…

  12. Intervening to prevent repeat offending among moderate- to high-risk domestic violence offenders: a second-responder program for men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katreena; Heslop, Lisa; Kelly, Tim; Wiggins, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Clear directions about best strategies to reduce recidivism among domestic violence offenders have remained elusive. The current study offers an initial evaluation of an RNR (Risk, Needs, and Responsivity)-focused second-responder program for men accused of assaulting their intimate partners and who were judged as being at moderate to high risk for re-offending. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare police outcomes for 40 men attending a second-responder intervention program to 40 men with equivalent levels of risk for re-offense who did not attend intervention (comparison group). Results showed that there were significant, substantial, and lasting differences across groups in all outcome domains. In terms of recidivism, rates of subsequent domestic-violence-related changes were more than double for men in the comparison group as compared with the intervention group in both 1-year (65.9% vs. 29.3%) and 2-year (41.5% vs. 12.2%) follow-up. Changes in the rates of arrest were consistent with reductions in men's general involvement with police, with men in the intervention group receiving fewer charges for violent offenses, administrative offenses, and property offenses over the 2 years following intervention than men in the comparison group. Not surprisingly, these differences result in a much lower estimated amount of police time with intervention men than for comparison men. Results are discussed with reference to the possible impact of sharing information with men about their assessed risk for re-offending within a therapeutic justice context.

  13. Heritability, assortative mating and gender differences in violent crime: results from a total population sample using twin, adoption, and sibling models.

    PubMed

    Frisell, Thomas; Pawitan, Yudi; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Research addressing genetic and environmental determinants to antisocial behaviour suggests substantial variability across studies. Likewise, evidence for etiologic gender differences is mixed, and estimates might be biased due to assortative mating. We used longitudinal Swedish total population registers to estimate the heritability of objectively measured violent offending (convictions) in classic twin (N = 36,877 pairs), adoptee-parent (N = 5,068 pairs), adoptee-sibling (N = 10,610 pairs), and sibling designs (N = 1,521,066 pairs). Type and degree of assortative mating were calculated from comparisons between spouses of siblings and half-siblings, and across consecutive spouses. Heritability estimates for the liability of violent offending agreed with previously reported heritability for self-reported antisocial behaviour. While the sibling model yielded estimates similar to the twin model (A ≈ 55%, C ≈ 13%), adoptee-models appeared to underestimate familial effects (A ≈ 20-30%, C ≈ 0%). Assortative mating was moderate to strong (r (spouse) = 0.4), appeared to result from both phenotypic assortment and social homogamy, but had only minor effect on variance components. Finally, we found significant gender differences in the etiology of violent crime.

  14. Violent tornado climatography, 1880-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Grazulis, T.P.

    1984-05-01

    All known information sources, ranging from newspaper reports to the University of Chicago (DAPPL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NSSFC) data lists, were utilized to produce a self-consistent compilation and description of violent tornado occurrences in the contiguous United States for the years 1880 through 1982. The 969 F-scale 4 and 5 tornadoes comprise the most complete and rational data base available for studies elated to violent tornado risk assessment; the data provide improved bases for licensing decisions and development of standards in safety at nuclear facility sites. Reconciliation of the DAPPL and NSSFC data lists for violent tornadoes has been achieved. Analysis of the data shows geographical and temporal variability of tornado occurrences; suggestions are given to help account for nonuniform distributions, and other suggestions are made for needed future research. 32 references, 14 figures, 8 tables.

  15. Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Reoffending and presence of psychiatric disorders are common in prisoners worldwide. However, whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for reoffending is still unknown. We aimed to examine the association between psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, and violent reoffending. Methods We did a longitudinal cohort study of 47 326 prisoners who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden. We obtained data for diagnosed psychiatric disorders from both inpatient and outpatient registers, and sociodemographic and criminological factors from other population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for violent reoffending with Cox regression. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared sibling prisoners with and without psychiatric disorders. We calculated population attributable fraction to assess the population effect. Findings Diagnosed psychiatric disorders were associated with an increased hazard of violent reoffending in male (adjusted HR 1·63 [95% CI 1·57–1·70]) and female (2·02 [1·54–2·63]) prisoners, and these associations were independent of measured sociodemographic and criminological factors, and, in men, remained substantial after adjustment for unmeasured familial factors (2·01 [1·66–2·43]). However, findings differed between individual diagnoses and sex. We found some evidence of stronger effects on violent reoffending of alcohol and drug use disorders and bipolar disorder than of other psychiatric disorders. Alcohol use disorder seemed to have a greater effect in women than in men (women 2·08 [1·66–2·60]; men 1·63 [1·56–1·71]). The overall effects of psychiatric disorders did not differ with severity of crime. The hazard of violent reoffending increased in a stepwise way with the number of diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Assuming causality, up to 20% (95% CI 19–22) of violent reoffending in men and 40% (27–52) in women was

  16. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  17. Under-diagnosis of comorbid mental illness in repeated DUI offenders mandated to treatment

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Garnett P.; Timken, David S.; Lapidus, Jodi; C'de Baca, Janet; Lapham, Sandra C.; McNeal, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Repeated offenders for driving under the influence (DUI) offenders are routinely mandated to alcohol treatment. These individuals have been shown to have high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, which can be important for the conduct and outcomes of alcohol treatment. The extent to which treatment providers are aware of these disorders and modify treatment accordingly is unknown. As part of a larger study to investigate the impact of sanction conditions on probation outcomes, we screened 233 subjects for psychiatric conditions and compared those findings to the psychiatric conditions identified during mandatory treatment by independent treatment providers. Adjusted rates of under-diagnosis were commonly high: 97.2% of bipolar, 67.5% of major depression, 100% of obsessive-compulsive, and 37.3% of drug use disorders remained undiagnosed during treatment. Rates of over-diagnosis were low for all disorders, with the exception of drug use disorders. These rates of under-diagnosis represent missed opportunities to improve treatment outcomes among repeat DUI offenders. PMID:17614243

  18. Deviant lifestyles and violent victimization at school.

    PubMed

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-09-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and structural characteristics predict the risk of becoming a victim at school, the most consistent predictor of violent victimization is the juvenile's own deviant lifestyle. Those who participate in a deviant lifestyle substantially increase their odds of all three forms of victimization. Therefore, even within the relatively controlled setting of schools, juveniles who participate in deviant lifestyles are at a high risk for victimization.

  19. VIM: A Platform for Violent Intent Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Schryver, Jack C.; Whitney, Paul D.; Augustenborg, Elsa C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-03-31

    Radical and contentious political/religious activism may or may not evolve into violent behavior depending on contextual factors related to social, political, cultural and infrastructural conditions. Significant theoretical advances have been made in understanding these contextual factors and the import of their interrelations. However, there has been relative little progress in the development of processes and capabilities which leverage such theoretical advances to automate the anticipatory analysis of violent intent. In this paper, we describe a framework which implements such processes and capabilities, and discuss the implications of using the resulting system to assess the emergence of radicalization leading to violence.

  20. Size Matters: Are Physically Large People More Likely to be Violent?

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies suggest that physical size is associated with violent behavior. However, few, if any, studies have examined this relationship using population-based samples. Moreover, limited evidence exists on the relationship between physical size and violence with respect to gender, race/ethnicity, and exposure to childhood maltreatment. The present study, using data from Waves I and II (N = 34,653) of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), aims to address these gaps by comparing the prevalence of violent behavior among individuals in the top quintiles in height and weight with that of the general population. Significant associations were identified for both males and females between physical size and bullying/intimidation, intentional injury of other persons, and hitting someone so hard that they required medical attention. Stratified analyses revealed that the magnitude of the relationship between physical size and violence is greater among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. Childhood abuse and neglect significantly moderated the relationship between physical size and violent behavior. While an important degree of variability can be observed with respect to gender, race/ethnicity, and exposure to child maltreatment, results indicate that, in general, physically larger individuals are more likely than their relatively smaller counterparts to be violent.