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Sample records for alcoholic violent offenders

  1. Recidivistic offending and mortality in alcoholic violent offenders: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-06-30

    Predictive data supporting prevention of violent criminality are scarce. We examined risk factors for recidivism and mortality among non-psychotic alcoholic violent offenders, the majority having antisocial or borderline personality disorders, or both, which is a group that commits the majority of violent offences in Finland. Criminal records and mortality data on 242 male alcoholic violent offenders were analysed after a 7- to 15-year follow-up, and compared between themselves and with those of 1210 age-, sex- and municipality-matched controls. Recidivism and mortality rates were high. The risk of recidivistic violence was increased by antisocial or borderline personality disorder, or both, childhood maltreatment, and a combination of these. A combination of borderline personality disorder and childhood maltreatment was particularly noxious, suggesting an additive risk increase for a poor outcome. Accurate diagnosis and careful childhood interview may help to predict recidivism and premature death. PMID:19467714

  2. Alcohol abuse as the strongest risk factor for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kudumija Slijepčević, Marija; Jukić, Vlado; Novalić, Darko; Žarković-Palijan, Tija; Milošević, Milan; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine predictive risk factors for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in Croatia. Method The cross-sectional study including male in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia with (N = 104) and without (N = 102) history of physical violence and violent offending was conducted simultaneously in several hospitals in Croatia during one-year period (2010-2011). Data on their sociodemographic characteristics, duration of untreated illness phase (DUP), alcohol abuse, suicidal behavior, personality features, and insight into illness were collected and compared between the groups. Binary logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of violent offending. Results Predictors of violent offending were older age, DUP before first contact with psychiatric services, and alcohol abuse. Regression model showed that the strongest positive predictive factor was harmful alcohol use, as determined by AUDIT test (odds ratio 37.01; 95% confidence interval 5.20-263.24). Psychopathy, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significant positive predictive factors, while extroversion, pleasantness, and intellect were significant negative predictive factors for violent offending. Conclusion This study found an association between alcohol abuse and the risk for violent offending in paranoid schizophrenia. We hope that this finding will help improve public and mental health prevention strategies in this vulnerable patient group. PMID:24778102

  3. Energy substrate metabolism among habitually violent alcoholic offenders having antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Linnoila, Markku; Tiihonen, Jari

    2007-04-15

    A large proportion of violent offences in Western countries are attributable to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Several studies have shown abnormal lipid, carbohydrate and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite levels in habitually violent alcoholic offenders with APD, but it is not clear how these biochemical abnormalities are related to each other in this disorder. We aimed to study energy substrate metabolism among habitually violent offenders with APD. Insulin sensitivity (euglycemic insulin clamp), basal energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) measurements were performed on 96 habitually violent antisocial male alcoholic offenders and on 40 normal male controls. Habitually violent, incarcerated offenders with APD had significantly lower non-oxidative glucose metabolism, basal glucagon, and free fatty acids when compared with normal controls, but glucose oxidation and CSF 5-HIAA did not differ markedly between these groups. The effect sizes for lower non-oxidative glucose metabolism among incarcerated and non-incarcerated APD subjects were 0.73 and 0.51, respectively, when compared with controls, indicating that this finding was not explained by incarceration. Habitually violent offenders with APD have markedly lower glucagon and non-oxidative glucose metabolism when compared with healthy controls, and these findings were more strongly associated with habitual violent offending than low CSF 5-HIAA levels, a well-established marker for impulsive violent behavior. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm if abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism can be used to predict violent offending over the course of the APD offender's life span. PMID:17316826

  4. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis. PMID:17662159

  5. Treatment of alcoholic violent offenders: ethics and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chick, J

    1998-01-01

    The published literature tends to find that the outcome of mandatory treatment for alcohol dependence is no worse than that for 'voluntary' treatment. Supervised disulfiram has been shown to improve outcome in Court-referred patients. When offenders take treatment offered as part of probation or a deferred sentence, they choose to do so, rather than face a penalty. It is not a 'free' choice in the usual sense, but the outcome can be beneficial to the offender as well as to society and this helps to justify its use. Coping and social skills therapy have value, as probably have antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs in some cases. Supervised disulfiram has a role supported by controlled studies. PMID:9539172

  6. Violent and Nonviolent Youth Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Violet; Chu, Chi Meng

    2015-01-01

    Youth violence is a costly social problem. This study compared the risk and needs of nonviolent youth offenders, with those who had committed violent offenses only (violent only) and those who had committed violent and nonviolent offenses (violent plus) to determine whether violent youth were a different “type” from nonviolent youth. The case files of 3,744 youth offenders (3,327 males and 417 females, between 12 and 18 years old) were retrospectively coded, before official recidivism records were obtained. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), χ2, and Cox regressions were conducted. Violent-plus youth were younger; higher in their total risk and all criminogenic needs; more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs; and at higher risk of any reoffending, violent reoffending, and nonviolent reoffending than nonviolent youth. Violent-only youth had the same total risk and risk of general and violent recidivism as nonviolent offenders but presented different criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs and risk of nonviolent recidivism. Compared to violent-only youth, violent-plus youth were younger, had higher total risk and criminogenic needs on five domains, were more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs, and were at higher risk of all types of reoffending (except sexual reoffending), suggesting subtypes of violent youth offenders. The implication is that nonviolent and violent youth offenders require different dosage and types of intervention. PMID:27274714

  7. Basal insulin secretion, PCL-R and recidivism among impulsive violent alcoholic offenders.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Kari P T; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Tikkanen, Roope; Virkkunen, Matti

    2015-02-28

    Current risk assessment tools have a moderate predicting value for violence. Their power may be enhanced with certain biological indicators, which may serve as predictors of recidivistic violence itself. The aim of our study was to determine the strength of serum insulin levels to predict violence, and compare these results with those from the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). The study population consisted of 105 Finnish alcoholics who were severely violent offenders, recruited from 1991 to 1998. After exclusion, 75 cases were followed until March 2008, or until a new offense was registered. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of recidivism. The age and weight adjusted effect of insulin to recidivism risk showed a 7.2% increase for each International Unit (IU), or 19% for the mean difference (2.5IU) between recidivists and non-recidivist, which corresponds to a medium effect size (Cohen׳s d=0.46). Adjusting the insulin model with PCL-R factor 1 enhanced the predictive power slightly. Serum fasting insulin level was equivalent to the PCL-R factor 2 score as a predictor, and better than the total PCL-R score. However, the significance of these results was too low for predicting recidivism in the process of judicial decision-making. PMID:25537485

  8. MAOA Alters the Effects of Heavy Drinking and Childhood Physical Abuse on Risk for Severe Impulsive Acts of Violence Among Alcoholic Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Methods Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Conclusion Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA. PMID:20201935

  9. Assessing Treatment Readiness in Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Andrew; Howells, Kevin; Casey, Sharon; Ward, Tony; Chambers, Jemma C.; Birgden, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Although violent offenders are widely considered to be difficult to engage in therapeutic change, few methods of assessing treatment readiness currently exist. In this article the validation of a brief self-report measure designed to assess treatment readiness in offenders who have been referred to violent offender treatment programs is described.…

  10. Serious, Violent Young Offenders in South Africa: Are They Life-Course Persistent Offenders?

    PubMed

    Souverein, Fleur A; Ward, Catherine L; Visser, Ingmar; Burton, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group. Offenders aged 12 to 25 years (N = 395) were selected from eight different correctional facilities in four provinces of South Africa. Latent class analysis identified 164 offenders (41.5%) with distinctly earlier starts and more serious offending. These (probably life-course persistent) offenders were distinguished from others by male gender, violence at home, other victimization, familial crime, school performance, violence at school, and alcohol abuse and gang membership. Correctional services should be specifically targeted at this large subgroup of offenders to prevent recidivism. Primary prevention efforts should be targeted at preventing violence at home and school, at promoting school attachment, at substance abuse treatment, and at gang membership. PMID:25711613

  11. Sadism and Violent Reoffending in Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Eher, Reinhard; Schilling, Frank; Hansmann, Brigitte; Pumberger, Tanja; Nitschke, Joachim; Habermeyer, Elmar; Mokros, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    A diagnosis of sadism in sexual offenders is commonly regarded as indicative of high risk for violent reoffending. The purpose of the current two studies was to evaluate whether sadism is indeed associated with higher rates of violent (including sexual) reoffending. In Study 1 (meta-analysis), the rate of violent and sexual recidivism was assessed across seven samples of male sex offenders (total N = 2,169) as a function of diagnoses of sexual sadism. In Study 2 (N = 768) the outcome (violent recidivism yes/no) was regressed on sadism, along with behavioral indicators of sexually sadistic offending, and scores from violence risk assessment instruments. In Study 1 (meta-analysis), the overall risk of sadists compared with nonsadists with respect to violent (including sexual contact) reoffending was slightly elevated (by a factor of 1.18), yet not significantly increased. Similarly, the risk of sexual reoffending among sadists was slightly, but not significantly, higher than among nonsadists (factor 1.38). According to Study 2, only a measure of sadistic behavior, not the clinical diagnosis, was associated with violent reoffending. This association, however, was not present once age and customary risk assessment instruments for violence risk were included in the regression. A clinical diagnosis of sexual sadism and behavioral measures of sadism are related to the risk of violent reoffending in sexual offenders. These associations, however, are weak and do not hold once variables relevant for the prediction of violence are controlled for. At the individual level, the risk for future violence in sadists can therefore be adequately described by customary risk assessment instruments. PMID:25567533

  12. Violent Offenders in a Deaf Prison Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.; Vernon, McCay; Capella, Michele E.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research suggested an unexplained difference in the patterns of offending behaviors among deaf people when compared to hearing people. This study, conducted in Texas, compares the incidence and types of violent offenses of a deaf prison population in comparison to the hearing prison population. Sixty-four percent of deaf prisoners were…

  13. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusion of violent offenders. 93.5 Section 93.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROVISIONS IMPLEMENTING THE VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a)...

  14. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion of violent offenders. 93.5 Section 93.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROVISIONS IMPLEMENTING THE VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a)...

  15. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. PMID:24014192

  16. 28 CFR 91.5 - Violent Offender Incarceration Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Violent Offender Incarceration Grants. 91.5 Section 91.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES General § 91.5 Violent Offender Incarceration Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds appropriated to carry out this subtitle for...

  17. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  18. Can We Distinguish Juvenile Violent Sex Offenders, Violent Non-Sex Offenders, and Versatile Violent Sex Offenders Based on Childhood Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Ward, Ashley K.; Cormier, Nicole S.; Day, David M.; Newman, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature…

  19. Assessing the violent offending and violent victimization overlap among discharged psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Eric; Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Nicole L; Leiber, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Prior studies have documented linkages between mental disorder and both offending and victimization. However, few studies have examined the violent offending-violent victimization overlap among mentally disordered individuals and none have examined the factors that are jointly related to their covariation. Here, we assess this overlap during the first ten weeks following hospital discharge among a large sample of psychiatric patients from three large cities. Findings indicate that: (1) violent offending and violent victimization show substantial covariation; (2) although each of the two outcomes were predicted by a few unique risk factors, several risk factors were similarly predictive of both outcomes; and (3) even after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and social risk factors, the correlation between violent offending and violent victimization remained robust. Implications for theory, research, and policy are highlighted. PMID:20145985

  20. Easy access to firearms: juveniles' risks for violent offending and violent victimization.

    PubMed

    Ruback, R Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N; Clark, Valerie A

    2011-07-01

    Keeping firearms at home may increase personal safety but it may also increase the risk of injury. This study uses data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the extent to which adolescents' easy access to firearms at home increases the risk of violent offending and violent victimization. Access to firearms was higher for males, Whites, and adolescents having two parents, especially fathers. Current access to firearms at home significantly increased the odds of both violent offending and violent victimization, even after controlling for prior access, prior offending, and prior victimization. This relationship persisted into early adulthood; access to firearms still significantly increased the odds of violent offending and violent victimization. PMID:20724298

  1. Pathways to Early Violent Death: The Voices of Serious Violent Youth Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joseph B.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies have uncovered factors associated with early violent death among youth offenders detained in the juvenile justice system, but little is known about the contextual factors associated with pathways to early violent death among youths detained in adult jails. We interviewed young Black male serious violent youth offenders detained in an adult jail to understand their experience of violence. Their narratives reveal how the code of the street, informal rules that govern interpersonal violence among poor inner-city Black male youths, increases the likelihood of violent victimization. Youth offenders detained in adult jails have the lowest rate of service provision among all jail populations. We have addressed how services for youth offenders can be improved to reduce the pathways to early violent death. PMID:23678923

  2. Prevention of Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Miller, Laurie S.; Cothern, Lynn

    This bulletin explores the proximal risk factors for juvenile offending, reviews the early developmental precursors to violent offending, and summarizes approaches to prevention. It also discusses components of intervention programs, limitations of single-focus prevention, examples of multi systemic interventions, and limitations of prevention…

  3. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and violent re-offending in adult offenders in the community

    PubMed Central

    Grann, Martin; Danesh, John; Fazel, Seena

    2008-01-01

    Background High rates of repeat offending are common across nations that are socially and culturally different. Although psychiatric disorders are believed to be risk factors for violent reoffending, the available evidence is sparse and liable to bias. Method We conducted a historical cohort study in Sweden of a selected sample of 4828 offenders given community sentences who were assessed by a psychiatrist during 1988–2001, and followed up for an average of 5 years for first violent offence, death, or emigration, using information from national registers. Hazard ratios for violent offending were calculated by Cox regression models. Results Nearly a third of the sample (n = 1506 or 31.3%) offended violently during follow-up (mean duration: 4.8 years). After adjustment for socio-demographic and criminal history variables, substance use disorders (hazard ratio 1.97, 95% CI, 1.40–2.77) and personality disorders (hazard ratio 1.71, 1.20–2.44) were significantly associated with an increased risk of violent offending. No other diagnoses were related to recidivism risk. Adding information on diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders to data recorded on age, sex, and criminal history improved only minimally the prediction of violent offending. Conclusion Diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders are associated with the risk of subsequent violent offending in community offenders about as strongly as are its better documented demographic and criminal history risk factors. Despite this, assessment of such disorders in addition to demographic and criminal history factors enhances only minimally the prediction of violent offending in the community. PMID:19032787

  4. Easy Access to Firearms: Juveniles' Risks for Violent Offending and Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruback, R. Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N.; Clark, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Keeping firearms at home may increase personal safety but it may also increase the risk of injury. This study uses data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the extent to which adolescents' easy access to firearms at home increases the risk of violent offending and violent victimization. Access to…

  5. Suppression of aggressive rorschach responses among violent offenders and nonoffenders.

    PubMed

    Benjestorf, Sue TaVoularis; Viglione, Donald J; Lamb, Judy D; Giromini, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    This Rorschach study explored the suppression of aggression content when violent offenders and nonoffenders are asked to present themselves as not posing a threat of dangerousness in a court role-playing context. Aggressive content and complexity in this suppressive role-play context was compared to a neutral control condition. A total of 41 participants, approximately half violent offenders and half nonoffenders took the Rorschach under both conditions. Results indicate that both groups suppressed aggression content on the Rorschach without altering response complexity. This large effect size for testing condition may partly explain the inconsistencies across previous studies. It is possible that violent offenders have typically been tested in highly suppressive conditions whereas nonoffender or normative groups may have been tested in relatively low suppression conditions. If so, aggression score differences may be a reflection of the testing condition, not group differences. Both instructional sets produced similar levels of complexity, so that individuals do not simplify responses when they screen out aggressive attributions. Violent offenders did not differ from nonviolent offenders in terms of aggression content, but did produce more simplistic records. In addition, this study also undertook a semantic, textual analysis and found that individuals in the suppressive condition tended to eliminate many response elaborations, particularly those with negative of threatening connotations. PMID:23711990

  6. Sadism and psychopathy in violent and sexually violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Holt, S E; Meloy, J R; Strack, S

    1999-01-01

    A nonrandom sample (N = 41) of inmates from a maximum security prison were classified as either psychopathic or nonpsychopathic (using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)) and violent or sexually violent. Sadism was measured using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) Scale 6B, the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE) items for sadistic personality disorder, and the sexual sadism criteria of DSM-IV. Psychopaths were found to be significantly more sadistic than nonpsychopaths (MCMI-II and PDE). Overall power was relatively high. Sadism did not differentiate the violent and sexually violent groups. A diagnosis of sexual sadism was too infrequent (n = 3) for meaningful statistical analysis. The trait measures of sadism and psychopathy measures (PCL-R, Factor 1 and Factor 2) significantly and positively correlated. Results provide further empirical validity for the theoretically proposed and clinically observed relationship between sadistic traits and psychopathic personality. PMID:10212024

  7. Emotional expression recognition and attribution bias among sexual and violent offenders: a signal detection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Research with violent offenders has consistently shown impaired recognition of other’s facial expressions of emotion. However, the extent to which similar problems can be observed among sexual offenders remains unknown. Using a computerized task, we presented sexual and violent offenders, and non-offenders, with male and female expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, morphed with neutral expressions at varying levels of intensity (10, 55, and 90% expressive). Based on signal detection theory, we used hit rates and false alarms to calculate the sensitivity index d-prime (d′) and criterion (c) for each emotional expression. Overall, sexual offenders showed reduced sensitivity to emotional expressions across intensity, sex, and type of expression, compared with non-offenders, while both sexual and violent offenders showed particular reduced sensitivity to fearful expressions. We also observed specific effects for high (90%) intensity female faces, with sexual offenders showing reduced sensitivity to anger compared with non-offenders and violent offenders, and reduced sensitivity to disgust compared with non-offenders. Furthermore, both sexual and violent offenders showed impaired sensitivity to high intensity female fearful expressions compared with non-offenders. Violent offenders also showed a higher criterion for classifying moderate and high intensity male expressions as fearful, indicative of a more conservative response style, compared with angry, happy, or sad. These results suggest that both types of offender show problems in emotion recognition, and may have implications for understanding the inhibition of violent and sexually violent behaviors. PMID:26029137

  8. Brain anatomy of persistent violent offenders: more rather than less.

    PubMed

    Tiihonen, Jari; Rossi, Roberta; Laakso, Mikko P; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Testa, Cristina; Perez, Jorge; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Soininen, Hilkka; Aronen, Hannu J; Könönen, Mervi; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2008-08-30

    Most violent crimes in Western societies are committed by a small group of men who display antisocial behavior from an early age that remains stable across the life-span. It is not known if these men display abnormal brain structure. We compared regional brain volumes of 26 persistently violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder and substance dependence and 25 healthy men using magnetic resonance imaging volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The violent offenders, as compared with the healthy men, had markedly larger white matter volumes, bilaterally, in the occipital and parietal lobes, and in the left cerebellum, and larger grey matter volume in right cerebellum (effect sizes up to 1.24, P<0.001). Among the offenders, volumes of these areas were not associated with psychopathy scores, substance abuse, psychotropic medication, or global IQ scores. By contrast, VBM analyses of grey matter revealed focal, symmetrical, bilateral areas of atrophy in the postcentral gyri, frontopolar cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex among the offenders as compared with the healthy men (z-scores as high as 5.06). Offenders with psychopathy showed the smallest volumes in these areas. The larger volumes in posterior brain areas may reflect atypical neurodevelopmental processes that underlie early-onset persistent antisocial and aggressive behavior. PMID:18662866

  9. Development and confirmatory factor analysis of the non-violent and violent offending behavior scale (NVOBS).

    PubMed

    Thornton, Abigail J V; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of violent and non-violent offending, suitable for both male and female participants in general (non-forensic) samples. Potential items were selected from existing measures. A sample of 653 British university students completed all items, and their responses were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and validated with confirmatory factor analysis. There were five separate factors (general violence, drug-related offenses, partner violence, theft, and criminal damage), which were confirmed with acceptable fit indices. The five-factor model applied to both males and females. Each subscale demonstrated good internal consistency, with alphas for each factor ranging from moderate to good. This new measure is a potentially valuable research tool for investigating people's involvement in violent and non-violent offending. The importance of examining the psychometric properties of scales, and confirming the category groupings using CFA of the items is outlined. PMID:23468314

  10. Diagnostic patterns among three violent offender types.

    PubMed

    Yarvis, R M

    1995-01-01

    The promulgation of effective prevention and treatment strategies for the complex behavioral acts that constitute rape and homicide awaits the availability of reliable etiological data, including diagnostic data. This article endeavors to enhance that database by providing a comparison of the diagnostic presentations of three offender groups--murderers, rapists, and rapists who murder their victims. PMID:8845531

  11. Psychopathic and Non-Psychopathic Alcoholic Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…

  12. Linking Violent Thinking: Implicit Theory-Based Research with Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polaschek, Devon L. L.; Calvert, Susan W.; Gannon, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Violent offenders often articulate offense-supportive cognitions during rehabilitation, yet these statements have received little theoretical attention, and intervention approaches have targeted each type of statement individually, as if they were unrelated. An implicit theory approach to cognitions has proved fruitful for research and…

  13. Effects of MAOA-Genotype, Alcohol Consumption, and Aging on Violent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. Methods This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. Results The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Conclusions Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype. PMID:19120058

  14. Evaluation of the Multiple Offender Alcoholism Project: Quasiexperimental Evaluation Strategy with a Focus on Individual Change and Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Frank R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Development, implementation, and evaluation of a treatment program for 222 violent criminal offenders with alcohol abuse or alcoholism are described. Evaluation of the program, with quasi-experimental techniques, shows that active program clients engage in fewer violent crimes and show improved life functioning in employment and social adjustment…

  15. School and Community Interventions To Prevent Serious and Violent Offending. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Loeber, Rolf; McKinney, Kay C.

    Recent research indicates that children exposed to certain risk factors in their families, at school, among their peers, and in their communities are at greater risk of becoming serious violent juvenile (SVJ) offenders. The Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, a group of 22 researchers convened by the Office of Juvenile Justice…

  16. Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most previous studies on mortality in violent offenders or victims are based on prison or hospital samples, while this study analyzed overall and cause specific mortality among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims in a general sample of 48,834 18-20 year-old men conscripted for military service in 1969/70 in Sweden. Methods Each person completed two non-anonymous questionnaires concerning family, psychological, and behavioral factors. The cohort was followed for 35 years through official registers regarding violent offenses, victimization, and mortality. The impact of violence, victimization, early risk factors and hospitalization for psychiatric diagnosis or alcohol and drug misuse during follow up on mortality was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results Repeat violent offenses were associated with an eleven fold higher hazard of dying from a substance-related cause and nearly fourfold higher hazard of dying from suicide. These figures remained significantly elevated also in multivariate analyses, with a 3.03 and 2.39 hazard ratio (HR), respectively. Participants with experience of violence and inpatient care for substance abuse or psychiatric disorder had about a two to threefold higher risk of dying compared to participants with no substance use or psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Violent offending and being victimized are associated with excess mortality and a risk of dying from an alcohol or drug-related cause or suicide. Consequently, prevention of violent behavior might have an effect on overall mortality and suicide rates. Prevention of alcohol and drug use is also warranted. PMID:22251445

  17. Offense type and two-point MMPI code profiles: discriminating between violent and nonviolent offenders.

    PubMed

    Fraboni, M; Cooper, D; Reed, T L; Saltstone, R

    1990-11-01

    Offense data and MMPI profiles were examined for 67 men who had been remanded by the courts to a psychiatric hospital forensic unit for pretrial assessment. They were classified as violent or nonviolent offenders based upon the nature of their offenses. Violent offenders were those charged with assault, robbery, sexual assault, and all degrees of homicide. Nonviolent offenders were those charged with break, enter and commit, uttering threats, and fraud. The controversial issue of two-point MMPI code types (4-3, 4-8/8-4) was addressed. Neither of these commonly employed two-point types successfully discriminated between violent and nonviolent offenders. PMID:2286669

  18. A Comparison of Pacific, Māori, and European Violent Youth Offenders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ioane, Julia; Lambie, Ian; Percival, Teuila

    2016-05-01

    Pacific Island and Māori youth are disproportionately overrepresented in Aotearoa/New Zealand in violent offending. To date, research has not examined Pacific Island violent youth offenders in comparison with other ethnic populations. This study compared Pacific Island violent youth offenders with Māori and European violent youth offenders to determine whether similarities or differences existed in their offending, social, and demographic characteristics. Findings showed that Pacific Island violent youth offenders, in comparison with Māori and European violent youth offenders, were more likely to have grown up in the lowest socioeconomic deprivation areas in New Zealand, were more likely to be older when they first started offending, and their first offence was more likely to be of a serious, violent nature. Family violence was present among all three ethnic groups highlighting the ongoing importance of intervention in this area. The findings of the current study are likely to have implications for government department policy makers, along with program providers and practitioners. Recommendations are made regarding clinical implications and future research on this population. PMID:25476711

  19. Examining the Relationship between Problem History and Violent Offending in High-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Veysey, Bonita M.; Dorangrichia, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners continually attempt to develop and implement strategies that address the onset and continuance of violent behavior in young people. Researchers in multiple disciplines have identified risk factors that predispose young people to later violent offending (e.g., school performance, demographic…

  20. Low non-oxidative glucose metabolism and violent offending: an 8-year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-06-30

    Violent offenders have abnormalities in their glucose metabolism as indicated by decreased glucose uptake in their prefrontal cortex and a low blood glucose nadir in the glucose tolerance test. We tested the hypothesis that low non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOG) predicts forthcoming violent offending among antisocial males. Glucose metabolism was measured using the insulin clamp method among 49 impulsive, violent, antisocial offenders during a forensic psychiatric examination. Those offenders who committed at least one new violent crime during the 8-year follow-up had a mean NOG of 1.4 standard deviations lower than non-recidivistic offenders. In logistic regression analysis, NOG alone explained 27% of the variation in the recidivistic offending. Low non-oxidative metabolism may be a crucial component in the pathophysiology of habitually violent behavior among subjects with antisocial personality disorder. This might suggest that substances increasing glycogen formation and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia might be potential treatments for impulsive violent behavior. PMID:19446886

  1. Psychopathy, intelligence, and impulsivity in German violent offenders.

    PubMed

    de Tribolet-Hardy, Fanny; Vohs, Knut; Mokros, Andreas; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported numerous correlations between psychopathy and various personality traits, behavioural tendencies or clinical characteristics. The present study examined in greater depth the relationships between the components of psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and intelligence as well as impulsivity. A total of ninety male violent offenders were recruited from a prison and a forensic-psychiatric hospital in Germany. All of the subjects were assessed using the PCL-R, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and a short version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WIP). As expected, a canonical correlation analysis showed a negative association between spatial intelligence and the Factor 2 subtotal on the PCL-R (reckless lifestyle/antisociality). In addition, our results agreed with the assumption of an association between impulsivity and the subtotal for PCL-R Factor 2. The positive relationship between verbal intelligence and the subtotal for Factor 1 of the PCL-R (insincere, manipulative conduct/affective deficits) vanished after controlling for educational level. The results indicate that there is a relationship between the spatial components of intelligence and the concept of psychopathy as described by Hare. This result supports the spatial impairment aetiological model of antisocial behaviour. PMID:24295537

  2. Cerebral spectroscopic and oxidative stress studies in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously violently offended

    PubMed Central

    Treasaden, Ian H; Puri, Basant K

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to bring together all the results of in vivo studies of ethane excretion and cerebral spectroscopy in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously seriously violently offended in order to determine the extent to which they shed light on the degree to which the membrane phospholipid hypothesis and the actions of free radicals and other reactive species are associated with cerebral pathophysiological mechanisms in this group of patients. Methods The patients investigated were inpatients from a medium secure unit with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia. There was no history of alcohol dependency or any other comorbid psychoactive substance misuse disorder. Expert psychiatric opinion, accepted in court, was that all these patients had violently offended directly as a result of schizophrenia prior to admission. These offences consisted of homicide, attempted murder or wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm. Excreted ethane was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (m/z = 30). 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were obtained at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T using an image-selected in vivo spectroscopy sequence (TR = 10 s; 64 signal averages localized on a 70 × 70 × 70 mm3 voxel). Results Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, in the patient group the mean alveolar ethane level was higher (p < 0.0005), the mean cerebral beta-nucleotide triphosphate was lower (p < 0.04) and the mean gamma-nucleotide triphosphate was higher (p < 0.04). There was no significant difference between the two groups in respect of phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters or broad resonances. Conclusion Our results are not necessarily inconsistent with the membrane phospholipid hypothesis, given that the patients studied suffered predominantly from positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The results suggest that there is increased cerebral mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patients

  3. Psychiatric disorders in property, violent, and versatile offending detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier; Vermeiren, Robert; Schuyten, Gilberte; Broekaert, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the past year prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents and the relation between psychiatric disorders and type of offending. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) was administered in a sample (N = 245) of male detained adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Based on lifetime official criminal history, participants were classified into property, violent, and versatile subgroups. High rates of psychiatric disorders were found in all groups. In addition, property offenders reported significantly higher rates of depression, disruptive behavior disorders, substance use disorders and comorbidity than violent and versatile offenders. Overall, versatile offenders did not differ from violent offenders, with the exception of more marijuana use disorder found in violent offenders. This study once more emphasizes that detained boys have substantial mental health needs, a finding that is generalizable across countries. In addition, the current study suggests that classifying detained juveniles by offense subgroups may carry clinical relevance. The long-term impact of these differences, and the possible effects of intervention, should be subject of further research. PMID:19290723

  4. Reduced transfer of affective value to instrumental behavior in violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Ly, Verena; von Borries, Anna Katinka Louise; Brazil, Inti Angelo; Bulten, Behrend Hendrik; Cools, Roshan; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental or goal-directed aggression is a core feature in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. To understand this type of behavior, previous work in the field of aggression has focused on affective processing, with mixed results. We propose that instrumental aggression is best understood in terms of the consequences of affective processing for instrumental behavior rather than affective processing per se. Therefore, we assessed the degree of affective biasing of instrumental action in a group of violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies and healthy controls using a validated affective decision-making task. Participants learned whole body approach-avoidance actions upon instrumental targets based on monetary feedback, while being primed by aversive versus appetitive facial stimuli. Unlike controls, instrumental behavior in violent offenders was not influenced by the affective stimuli. Specifically, violent offenders showed reduced instrumental avoidance in the context of aversive (vs. appetitive) stimuli relative to controls. This finding suggests that reduced affective biasing of instrumental behavior may underlie the behavioral anomalies observed in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. More generally, the finding underscores the relevance of examining the interaction between affect and instrumental behavior for a better understanding of dysfunctional behaviors in psychiatric populations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214061

  5. Is the Sexual Murderer a Unique Type of Offender? A Typology of Violent Sexual Offenders Using Crime Scene Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Healey, Jay; Beauregard, Eric; Beech, Anthony; Vettor, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    The empirical literature on sexual homicide has posited the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender who is qualitatively different from other types of offenders. However, recent research has suggested that sexual homicide is a dynamic crime and that sexual assaults can escalate to homicide when specific situational factors are present. This study simultaneously explored the utility of the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender hypothesis and sexual homicide as a differential outcome of sexual assaults hypothesis. This study is based on a sample of 342 males who were convicted of committing a violent sexual offense, which resulted in either physical injury or death of the victim. A series of latent class analyses were performed using crime scene indicators in an attempt to identify discrete groups of sexual offenders. In addition, the effects of modus operandi, situational factors, and offender characteristics on each group were investigated. Results suggest that both hypotheses are supported. A group of offenders was identified who almost exclusively killed their victims and demonstrated a lethal intent by the choice of their offending behavior. Moreover, three other groups of sex offenders were identified with a diverse lethality level, suggesting that these cases could end up as homicide when certain situational factors were present. PMID:25179401

  6. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state" responses to arrest and…

  7. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

    2010-01-01

    Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

  8. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  9. Reentry Works: The Implementation and Effectiveness of a Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Bergeron, Lindsey E.

    2006-01-01

    Spurred by large increases in prison populations and other recent sentencing and correctional trends, the federal government has supported the development and implementation of Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiatives (SVORI) nationwide. While existing research demonstrates the effectiveness of the separate components of these programs…

  10. Growing Up behind Bars: An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Inmates in a Cottage for Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to direct attention inside the walls of a juvenile correctional facility to closely examine the experiences and daily lives of adolescent inmates. The ethnographic data for this study were collected through participant-observation and extended interactions in a cottage for violent male offenders in one state's…

  11. Institutional Misconduct, Delinquent Background, and Rearrest Frequency among Serious and Violent Delinquent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trulson, Chad R.; DeLisi, Matt; Marquart, James W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of institutional misconduct to postrelease rearrest, controlling for a battery of preincarceration variables typically found to influence recidivism among institutionalized delinquent offenders. Based on data from 1,804 serious and violent male delinquents released from a large southern juvenile correctional…

  12. Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders: Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a comprehensive strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders developed by the United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. It notes that the program described can be implemented at the state, county, or local level. The introduction presents statistics on violent…

  13. Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Schimmenti, Adriano; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between early traumatic experiences of abuse/neglect and criminal behaviour has been widely demonstrated. Less is known, however, about the relationship between these experiences and the development of psychopathic personality. Objective This study investigated childhood relational trauma in a group of violent offenders from Italy. We hypothesised a higher level of early relational trauma associated with higher scores on psychopathy. Method Twenty-two offenders convicted for violent crimes aged 22–60 (M=38, SD=11) participated in this study. Participants were selected by the Italian justice system for an experimental research programme aiming at the evaluation of psychopathic personality traits among violent offenders. Within the group, 14 participants (64%) had committed murder, 4 (18%) had committed rape, and 4 (18%) were convicted child sex offenders. The Traumatic Experience Checklist was used to assess childhood relational trauma; the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R) was used to assess psychopathy. Results There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits. PMID:24371511

  14. The prevalence of thyroid disorders among sexual and violent offenders and their co-occurrence with psychological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Langevin, Mara; Curnoe, Suzanne; Bain, Jerald

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities among 831 sexual, violent, and non-violent non-sex offenders was found to be greater than found in the general population. Thyroid abnormalities were most common among violent offenders and among sex offenders who victimized children. Thyroid disorders were associated with psychotic diagnoses, delusions, mania, suicidal thoughts, and showed a trend to more suicide attempts. These disorders were undiagnosed in 49.1% of the cases prior to the present clinical assessment. Of these, 59.3% faced their first criminal charges, and the undiagnosed thyroid abnormalities may be important in the offenders' treatment and may be possible legal mitigating factors in some offenses. Results indicate that a routine endocrine evaluation with blood tests would be a valuable addition to the assessment of violent and sexual offenders. PMID:25758927

  15. Altered cerebellar-amygdala connectivity in violent offenders: A resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, Verena; Wabnegger, Albert; Leitner, Mario; Zussner, Thomas; Scharmüller, Wilfried; Klug, Doris; Schienle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    It has repeatedly been reported, that there are differences in grey matter volume (GMV) between violent offenders and non-violent controls. However, it remains unclear, if structural brain abnormalities influence resting-state functional connectivity (RS-fc) between brain regions. Therefore, in the present investigation, 31 male high-risk violent prisoners were compared to 30 non-criminal controls with respect to RS-fc between brain areas. Seed regions for resting-state analysis were selected based on GMV differences between the two groups. Overall, inmates had more GMV in the cerebellum than controls and revealed higher RS-fc between the cerebellum and the amygdala. In contrast, controls relative to prisoners showed higher RS-fc between the cerebellum and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, controls showed more GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Inmates relative to controls had higher RS-fc within the DLPFC. Results are discussed with respect to cerebellar contributions to a brain network underlying moral behavior and violence. Enhanced cerebellar-amygdala connectivity in violent offenders might reflect alterations in the processing of moral emotions. Heightened functional connectivity between cerebellar hemispheres and the OFC in controls could be a correlate of enhanced emotion regulation capacities. Higher functional intra-DLPFC connectivity in violent offenders might represent an effort to regulate emotions. PMID:26523791

  16. Predictions of violent and total infractions among institutionalized male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Hicks, M M; Rogers, R; Cashel, M

    2000-01-01

    Forensic practitioners in settings with institutionalized adolescent offenders are frequently responsible for the accurate classification of problematic and potentially violent youths. Methods of assessment often include traditional tests, such as the MMPI and MMPI-A, and interview-based determinations of psychopathy. In a study of residential male adolescent offenders, the MMPI-A and the Screening Version of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL:SV) were used to predict total, violent, self-injurious, and nonviolent infractions in a treatment-oriented facility for delinquents. In predicting the overall number of infractions, the MMPI-A was superior to the PCL:SV. Psychopaths manifested a significantly higher rate of violent infractions than nonpsychopaths. Finally, ethnic differences raise serious concerns about the generalizability of the PCL:SV; differences were found in the relationship between psychopathy and infractions based on ethnicity. PMID:10888186

  17. Neurophysiological correlates of error monitoring and inhibitory processing in juvenile violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Vilà-Balló, Adrià; Hdez-Lafuente, Prado; Rostan, Carles; Cunillera, Toni; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Performance monitoring is crucial for well-adapted behavior. Offenders typically have a pervasive repetition of harmful-impulsive behaviors, despite an awareness of the negative consequences of their actions. However, the link between performance monitoring and aggressive behavior in juvenile offenders has not been closely investigated. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate performance monitoring in juvenile non-psychopathic violent offenders compared with a well-matched control group. Two ERP components associated with error monitoring, error-related negativity (ERN) and error-positivity (Pe), and two components related to inhibitory processing, the stop-N2 and stop-P3 components, were evaluated using a combined flanker-stop-signal task. The results showed that the amplitudes of the ERN, the stop-N2, the stop-P3, and the standard P3 components were clearly reduced in the offenders group. Remarkably, no differences were observed for the Pe. At the behavioral level, slower stop-signal reaction times were identified for offenders, which indicated diminished inhibitory processing. The present results suggest that the monitoring of one's own behavior is affected in juvenile violent offenders. Specifically, we determined that different aspects of executive function were affected in the studied offenders, including error processing (reduced ERN) and response inhibition (reduced N2 and P3). However, error awareness and compensatory post-error adjustment processes (error correction) were unaffected. The current pattern of results highlights the role of performance monitoring in the acquisition and maintenance of externalizing harmful behavior that is frequently observed in juvenile offenders. PMID:25108171

  18. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  19. Reasons for Alcohol Use in Maritally Violent Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Ronald W.; And Others

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with aggressive behaviors. This study compared the contexts and reasons for drinking of maritally violent men (N=44) and three maritally nonviolent comparison groups: happily married men (N=54), unhappily married men (N=41), and men who had been convicted of a violent offense, but who did not beat their…

  20. Suicide Risk among Violent and Sexual Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Roger T.; Shaw, Jenny; Stevens, Hanne; Mortensen, Preben B.; Appleby, Louis; Qin, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Risk of suicide in people who have perpetrated specific forms of violent or sexual criminal offenses has not been quantified accurately or precisely. Also, gender comparisons have not been possible due to sparse data problems in the smaller studies that have been conducted to date. We therefore aimed to estimate these effects in the whole Danish…

  1. Cool and Hot Executive Function Impairments in Violent Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder with and without Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, Stephane A.; Viding, Essi; Kumari, Veena; Blackwood, Nigel; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2013-01-01

    Background Impairments in executive function characterize offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and offenders with psychopathy. However, the extent to which those impairments are associated with ASPD, psychopathy, or both is unknown. Methods The present study examined 17 violent offenders with ASPD and psychopathy (ASPD+P), 28 violent offenders with ASPD without psychopathy (ASPD−P), and 21 healthy non-offenders on tasks assessing cool (verbal working memory and alteration of motor responses to spatial locations) and hot (reversal learning, decision-making under risk, and stimulus-reinforcement-based decision-making) executive function. Results In comparison to healthy non-offenders, violent offenders with ASPD+P and those with ASPD−P showed similar impairments in verbal working memory and adaptive decision-making. They failed to learn from punishment cues, to change their behaviour in the face of changing contingencies, and made poorer quality decisions despite longer periods of deliberation. Intriguingly, the two groups of offenders did not differ significantly from the non-offenders in terms of their alteration of motor responses to spatial locations and their levels of risk-taking, indicated by betting, and impulsivity, measured as delay aversion. The performance of the two groups of offenders on the measures of cool and hot executive function did not differ, indicating shared deficits. Conclusions These documented impairments may help to explain the persistence of antisocial behaviours despite the known risks of the negative consequences of such behaviours. PMID:23840340

  2. Informed Consent: An Ethical Issue in Conducting Research with Male Partner Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical codes help guide the methods of research that involve samples gathered from “at-risk” populations. The current paper reviews general as well as specific ethical principles related to gathering informed consent from partner violent offenders mandated to outpatient treatment, a group that may be at increased risk of unintentional coercion in behavioral sciences research due to court-mandates that require outpatient treatment without the ethical protections imbued upon prison populations. Recommendations are advanced to improve the process of informed consent within this special population and data supporting the utility of the recommendations in a sample 70 partner violent offenders are provided. Data demonstrate that participants were capable of comprehending all essential elements of consent. PMID:25892900

  3. Alcohol Abuse and the Young Offender: Alcohol Education as an Alternative to Custodial Sentencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Carol; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problem of how to address relationship between alcohol abuse and criminal offending. Suggests that Alcohol Education Courses (AECs) offer workable alternative to custodial sentencing. AECs offer various techniques that target abusive alcohol consumption level of the population, the problem of offending, or both. Asserts that evaluation…

  4. Violent offending and IQ level as predictors of suicide in schizophrenia: national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Webb, Roger T; Långström, Niklas; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2011-08-01

    Currently there is a lack of strong epidemiological evidence for violent offending and intelligence quotient (IQ) level as predictors of suicide risk among people with schizophrenia. We interlinked several Swedish routinely collected national registers, including the Hospital Discharge, Crime, Conscript, Migration and Cause of Death Registers, to identify 13,804 patients admitted at least twice with a schizophrenia diagnosis during 1973-2004. All deaths by specific cause were ascertained and suicides identified, and rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression models with adjustment for age and period effects. There were 871 suicides: 6.3% of the cohort. Almost 80% of these cases were aged 20-39 years, and 80% occurred within 10 years of second discharge, with almost a quarter taking place within a year. The following risk factors were identified: younger age, 15-19 versus 40 years and older (rate ratio 3.18, 95% confidence interval 1.82-5.56), male sex (rate ratio 1.37, 1.18-1.59) and history of violent offending (rate ratio 1.45, 1.21-1.73). Intelligence quotient data were unavailable for women, but in men, lower IQ appeared protective compared to those of average or higher levels of intelligence (rate ratio 0.71, 0.58-0.86). Further stratified analyses to identify effect modification indicated that the elevated risk associated with past violent offending was restricted to males, and specifically to those with a lower IQ. Further research is needed to identify additional risk and protective factors for suicide that may be unique to people diagnosed with schizophrenia, and also other modifiers of the increased risk linked with violent offending. PMID:21605959

  5. Missouri Curriculum Guide for Alcohol-Related Traffic Offenders' Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Don; McClain, Robert

    This document contains the second edition of the Alcohol or Drug Related Traffic Offenders' Program (ARTOP) curriculum guide developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to reduce alcohol-related traffic offenses by presenting factual information about the physical effects of alcohol on the body and on driving skills. The materials…

  6. Brain volumes differ between diagnostic groups of violent criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Katja; Grothe, Michel; Prehn, Kristin; Vohs, Knut; Berger, Christoph; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Keiper, Peter; Domes, Gregor; Teipel, Stefan; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-10-01

    Studies on structural abnormalities in antisocial individuals have reported inconsistent results, possibly due to inhomogeneous samples, calling for an investigation of brain alterations in psychopathologically stratified subgroups. We explored structural differences between antisocial offenders with either borderline personality disorder (ASPD-BPD) or high psychopathic traits (ASPD-PP) and healthy controls (CON) using region-of-interest-based and voxel-based morphometry approaches. Besides common distinct clusters of reduced gray matter volumes within the frontal pole and occipital cortex, there was remarkably little overlap in the regional distribution of brain abnormalities in ASPD-BPD and ASPD-PP, when compared to CON. Specific alterations of ASPD-BPD were detected in orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions subserving emotion regulation and reactive aggression and the temporal pole, which is involved in the interpretation of other peoples' motives. Volumetric reductions in ASPD-PP were most significant in midline cortical areas involved in the processing of self-referential information and self-reflection (i.e., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate/precuneus) and recognizing emotions of others (postcentral gyrus) and could reflect neural correlates of the psychopathic core features of callousness and poor moral judgment. The findings of this first exploratory study therefore may reflect correlates of prominent psychopathological differences between the two criminal offender groups, which have to be replicated in larger samples. PMID:23381548

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Rehabilitation for High-Risk Violent Offenders: An Outcome Evaluation of the Violence Prevention Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polaschek, Devon L. L.; Wilson, Nick J.; Townsend, Marilyn R.; Daly, Lorna R.

    2005-01-01

    Rehabilitation programs for adult violent offending are still novel, and few published studies examine the recidivism outcomes of those who complete such programs. This study describes a New Zealand prison program for high-risk violent men. The program is intensive and cognitive behavioral. Preliminary outcome data are presented for three indices…

  8. High-Intensity Rehabilitation for Violent Offenders in New Zealand: Reconviction Outcomes for High- and Medium-Risk Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polaschek, Devon L. L.

    2011-01-01

    As the empirical evidence accumulates, so does confidence that carefully designed and delivered rehabilitation approaches can reduce risk. Yet little is known about how to rehabilitate some specialized groups, such as high-risk violent offenders: career criminals with an extensive history of violent behavior. Since 1998, New Zealand's Rimutaka…

  9. Violent Lives: A Lifestyle Model Linking Exposure to Violence to Juvenile Violent Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey; Kurtz, Don

    2005-01-01

    Studies examining the consequences of juvenile exposure to violence focus largely on psychological outcomes and often ignore the ways in which exposure is associated with deviant peers and juvenile offending. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (NSA), a nationally representative sample of juveniles between the ages of 12 and 17, we…

  10. The relation between abuse and violent delinquency: The conversion of shame to blame in juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remains relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. Methods A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12 to 19 years; M = 15.6; SD = 1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Results Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Conclusions Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. Practice implications For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. PMID:21783253

  11. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Dean A.; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n=49) and non-violent (n=40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P<0.0001) association between low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles and violent crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P<0.01), but reached only a marginal trend (P=0.08) in their African American counterparts. While violent crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P<0.05) increase in BIS-11 total and attentional-impulsiveness scores. In summary, these findings support the role of MAOA gene as a prominent genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. PMID:25082653

  12. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders.

    PubMed

    Stetler, Dean A; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n = 49) and non-violent (n = 40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P < 0.0001) association between low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles and violent crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P < 0.01), but reached only a marginal trend (P = 0.08) in their African American counterparts. While violent crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P < 0.05) increase in BIS-11 total and attentional-impulsiveness scores. In summary, these findings support the role of MAOA gene as a prominent genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. PMID:25082653

  13. Identification of a cys-ser substitution in the 5-HT{sub 2C} (HTR2C) receptor gene and allelic association to violent behavior and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Lappalainen, J.; Ozaki, N.; Goldman, D.

    1994-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain serotonergic functions, including behavioral and neurochemical responses to 5-HT{sub 2C} agonist, are abnormal in some individuals with alcoholism and aggressive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify coding sequence variants in the human 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor gene which may cause abnormal or variant function of this receptor. Using SSCP analysis, a non-conservative cys-ser substitution was found in the 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor (designated 5-HT{sub 2Ccys} and 5-HT{sub 2Cser}). The polymorphism was typed in CEPH families to genetically map the gene. To test for association of the variant to alcoholism, violent behavior and serotonin function, the 5-HT{sub 2C} genotypes of 151 non-related Finnish male alcoholic violent offenders and impulsive fire setters and 127 Finnish psychiatrically interviewed healthy male volunteers were determined. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were available for 74 alcoholic violent offenders and 25 healthy volunteers. Linkage analysis placed the 5-HT{sub 2C} gene on Xq21, a region that has been previously shown to contain genes for several mental retardation syndromes. The 5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} genotype frequencies in alcoholic violent offenders and controls differed significantly (0.90/0.10 and 0.82/0.18, respectively, P=0.048). The association was found to be strongest in the violent offenders who did not fulfill the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} 0.93/0.07, p=0.021). No association was found between CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and 5-HT{sub 2C} genotype. These results implicate a 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor amino acid substitution in predisposition to alcohol abuse and violent behavior in a subgroup of alcoholics.

  14. Neurophysiological correlates of cognitive flexibility and feedback processing in violent juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Vilà-Balló, Adrià; Cunillera, Toni; Rostan, Carles; Hdez-Lafuente, Prado; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-06-12

    The persistence of aggressive criminal behavior is recurrently observed in offenders despite being previously advised on the negative consequences of their actions. One possible explanation for the continuation of aggressive behaviors could be that they are the consequence of either possible deficits in cognitive flexibility (set-shifting) or in altered feedback processing. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate both processes in non-psychopathic violent juvenile offenders. A modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was used to disentangle the ERP components associated with cognitive set-switching processes (P3) from feedback processing (Frontal-Related Negativity, FRN; P3). The results showed a reduction in the amplitude of the P3 component for the presentation of switch informative signals, related to set-switching processes, in the offender group. Interestingly, a larger amplitude of the P3 related to feedback processing as well as the FRN was observed in this population, probably indicating increased reliance on external feedback processing. At the behavioral level, the offender group presented a larger amount of issues with failures in implementing the new sorting rule. This behavioral pattern could be related to deficits in the ability to switch to another behavior and an altered pattern in processing the feedback information related to the precision of their performance. These observations highlight the possible role of cognitive set-switching and reward sensibility in the maintenance of harmful behaviors in juvenile offenders. PMID:25839762

  15. Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in violent juvenile offenders: a biomarker of brain immaturity?

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhou, Jiansong; Liu, Chunhong; Witt, Katrina; Zhang, Yingdong; Jing, Bin; Li, Chun; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Lingjiang

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether male violent juvenile offenders demonstrate any differences in local functional connectivity indicative of delayed maturation of the brain that may serve as a biomarker of violence. Twenty-nine violent juvenile offenders and 28 age-matched controls were recruited. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) method was used to analyze resting-state magnetic resonance images. Violent offenders showed significantly lower ReHo values in the right caudate, right medial prefrontal cortex, and left precuneus, and higher values in the right supramarginal gyrus than the controls. These regions had both high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between the two groups suggesting that dysfunction in these regions can be used to correctly classify those individuals who are violent. Dysfunction in the right medial prefrontal-caudate circuit may, therefore, represent an important biomarker of violence juvenile males. PMID:25716485

  16. Trauma changes everything: examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Perez, Nicholas; Cass, Elizabeth; Baglivio, Michael T; Epps, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Among juvenile offenders, those who commit the greatest number and the most violent offenses are referred to as serious, violent, and chronic (SVC) offenders. However, current practices typically identify SVC offenders only after they have committed their prolific and costly offenses. While several studies have examined risk factors of SVCs, no screening tool has been developed to identify children at risk of SVC offending. This study aims to examine how effective the adverse childhood experiences index, a childhood trauma-based screening tool developed in the medical field, is at identifying children at higher risk of SVC offending. Data on the history of childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, criminal behavior, and other criminological risk factors for offending among 22,575 delinquent youth referred to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice are analyzed, with results suggesting that each additional adverse experience a child experiences increases the risk of becoming a serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offender by 35, when controlling for other risk factors for criminal behavior. These findings suggest that the ACE score could be used by practitioners as a first-line screening tool to identify children at risk of SVC offending before significant downstream wreckage occurs. PMID:25703485

  17. The role of violence in street crime: a qualitative study of violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Trevor; Brookman, Fiona

    2009-12-01

    Studies on the motivation for violent street crime, such as robbery and assault, have tended to draw on either the rational choice or the subcultural perspective. This study explores the extent to which violence on the street can be explained by rational factors associated with the successful commission of the offence or social factors related to street culture. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 55 violent street offenders who were serving sentences for street robbery and assault in six prisons in the United Kingdom. The findings, based on accounts of 101 incidents of street violence, identified four main explanations for street violence: (a) successful offence enactment, (b) buzz and excitement, (c) status and honor, and (d) informal justice. The article concludes that there might be benefits in combining the insights of both perspectives by generating an integrated theory that would properly explain both the rational and the seemingly irrational components of street violence. PMID:18725398

  18. The prevalence of diabetes among sexual and violent offenders and its co-occurrence with cognitive impairment, mania, psychotic symptoms and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Langevin, Mara; Curnoe, Suzanne; Bain, Jerald

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes among 915 sexual, violent, and non-violent non-sex offenders was found to be more than twice the prevalence in the general population. Diabetes was most common among violent offenders and among sex offenders who victimized children. The older diabetics presented significantly more often with cognitive impairment and younger diabetics more often with manic and psychotic symptoms. Younger diabetics were significantly more likely to use force and a weapon in their offenses and were most likely to injure their victims when compared to older diabetics and younger and older non-diabetic offenders. In more than one in four cases, the diabetes was undiagnosed at the time of their offenses prior to clinical assessment, suggesting that undiagnosed diabetes may be a possible mitigating factor in some sexual and violent offenses. Results indicate that a routine endocrine evaluation with blood tests would be a valuable addition to the assessment of violent and sexual offenders. PMID:18464062

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders. PMID:24375428

  20. Violent Recidivism: A Long-Time Follow-Up Study of Mentally Disordered Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Thomas; Wallinius, Märta; Gustavson, Christina; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Kerekes, Nóra

    2011-01-01

    Background In this prospective study, mentally disordered perpetrators of severe violent and/or sexual crimes were followed through official registers for 59 (range 8 to 73) months. The relapse rate in criminality was assessed, compared between offenders sentenced to prison versus forensic psychiatric care, and the predictive ability of various risk factors (criminological, clinical, and of structured assessment instruments) was investigated. Method One hundred perpetrators were consecutively assessed between 1998 and 2001 by a clinical battery of established instruments covering DSM-IV diagnoses, psychosocial background factors, and structured assessment instruments (HCR-20, PCL-R, and life-time aggression (LHA)). Follow-up data was collected from official registers for: (i) recidivistic crimes, (ii) crimes during ongoing sanction. Results Twenty subjects relapsed in violent criminality during ongoing sanctions (n = 6) or after discharge/parole (n = 14). Individuals in forensic psychiatric care spent significantly more time at liberty after discharge compared to those in prison, but showed significantly fewer relapses. Criminological (age at first conviction), and clinical (conduct disorder and substance abuse/dependence) risk factors, as well as scores on structured assessment instruments, were moderately associated with violent recidivism. Logistic regression analyses showed that the predictive ability of criminological risk factors versus clinical risk factors combined with scores from assessment instruments was comparable, with each set of variables managing to correctly classify about 80% of all individuals, but the only predictors that remained significant in multiple models were criminological (age at first conviction, and a history of substance abuse among primary relatives). Conclusions Only one in five relapsed into serious criminality, with significantly more relapses among subjects sentenced to prison as compared to forensic psychiatric care

  1. A Gender-Specific Pathway to Serious, Violent, and Chronic Offending?: Exploring Howell's Risk Factors for Serious Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Pernilla; Kempf-Leonard, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In "Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency," Howell proposes a female-specific pathway to serious, violent, and chronic offending. Incorporating ideas from feminist research about risk factors for female delinquency, he proposes five distinct and interrelated risk factors--child abuse victimization, mental health problems, running away, gang…

  2. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation. PMID:25667228

  3. Violent offenders as a target population for Public Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Fassaert, T; Segeren, M; Grimbergen, C; Tuinebreijer, W; de Wit, M

    2016-05-01

    The study sought to specify which part of a population of young adult violent offenders in Amsterdam (mean age 24.9 years, sd = 8.2) were eligible for Public Mental Health Care (PMHC). The results of a semi-structured clinical interview were used (N = 454), which included the Self-Sufficiency Matrix (SSM-D). Using the SSM-D and two distinct definitions of what constitutes a need for PMHC, the size of the PMHC target population was determined twice. Depending on which definition was used, 35.9% (mathematical algorithm which put weights to single SSM-D domains) and 34.8% (problematic levels of self-sufficiency on a selection of domains) appeared to be eligible for entering the PMHC system. The study confirms that a substantial proportion of vulnerable people are among the forensic population. PMID:27038096

  4. Investigation of the hostile attribution bias toward ambiguous facial cues in antisocial violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Schönenberg, Michael; Jusyte, Aiste

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive individuals exhibit a strong tendency to attribute hostile intent to the behavior of others, which may lead to provocation and aggravation of socially inappropriate reactions. Limited research has investigated the hostile attribution bias in the perception of facial affect. This study examined a hostile response bias to emotionally ambiguous faces in a population of 55 incarcerated antisocial violent offenders as compared to matched control subjects. Results suggest that aggression is associated with a strong preference to interpret ambiguous stimuli containing proportions of an angry expression as hostile, while there was no evidence for a generally biased interpretation of distress cues under conditions of uncertainty. Thus, the tendency to misinterpret nonverbal cues in social interactions may at least partly underlie aggressive-impulsive behavior in susceptible individuals. PMID:23990116

  5. The impact of surgical castration on sexual recidivism risk among sexually violent predatory offenders.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Linda E; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; Osran, Hadley

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of surgical castration to sexual recidivism in a sexually violent predator/sexually dangerous person (SVP/SDP) population is reviewed. A review of the literature on castrated sex offenders reveals a very low incidence of sexual recidivism. The low sexual recidivism rates reported are critiqued in light of the methodologic limitations of the studies. Better designed testicular/prostate cancer studies have demonstrated that, while sexual desire is reduced by orchiectomy, the capacity to develop an erection in response to sexually stimulating material is not eliminated. The relevance of this literature to SVP/SDP commitment decisions and ethics is discussed. Two vignettes of castrated, high-risk sex offenders illustrate how to address risk reduction. Two tables are presented: the first outlines individual case data from a difficult-to-obtain report, and the second summarizes the most frequently cited castration studies on sexual recidivism. Orchiectomy may have a role in risk assessments; however, other variables should be considered, particularly as the effects can be reversed by replacement testosterone. PMID:15809235

  6. Alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence by alcoholic men: comparing violent and nonviolent conflicts.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christopher M; Winters, Jamie; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Fals-Stewart, William; Murphy, Marie

    2005-03-01

    Alcoholic men and their relationship partners were interviewed about a conflict in which physical assault occurred and 1 in which psychological aggression occurred without physical assault. The interview assessed the quantity of alcohol consumed prior to each conflict, other drug use, and the topics, location, timing, duration, and speed of escalation for each conflict. The number of standard drinks consumed by the husband in the previous 12 hr was significantly higher prior to violent versus nonviolent conflicts for both self- and collateral reports, as was blood alcohol concentration estimated from self-report. Other drug use was not significantly different. Greater drinking by wives prior to violent conflicts was found in some analyses. These within-subject comparisons help to rule out individual difference explanations for the alcohol-violence association and indicate that alcohol consumption is a proximal risk factor for partner violence in alcoholic men. PMID:15783276

  7. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Jérôme; Urbaniok, Frank; Hammermeister, Lea C; Benz, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. Methods The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. Results 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. Conclusion Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable. PMID:19602221

  8. Violent Offending Promotes Appetitive Aggression Rather than Posttraumatic Stress-A Replication Study with Burundian Ex-Combatants.

    PubMed

    Köbach, Anke; Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Westner, Britta; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression and not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc.) were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders-namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression-are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace. PMID:26696913

  9. Violent Offending Promotes Appetitive Aggression Rather than Posttraumatic Stress—A Replication Study with Burundian Ex-Combatants

    PubMed Central

    Köbach, Anke; Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Westner, Britta; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression and not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc.) were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders—namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression—are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace. PMID:26696913

  10. Prevalence of Women's Violent and Nonviolent Offending Behavior: A Comparison of Self-Reports, Victims' Reports, and Third-Party Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Abigail J. V.; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed women's violent and nonviolent offending, using data from two online student samples (men and women: n = 344), reporting on either being a perpetrator and witness (women) or being a victim and witness (men). A comprehensive measure of general violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), and nonviolent offending was collected.…

  11. Victim's Response and Alcohol-Related Factors as Determinants of Women's Responses to Violent Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jeanette; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2004-01-01

    Women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study examined the role of specific situational cues embedded within a violent pornographic story, as well as alcohol consumption and alcohol expectancies, to determine potential mechanisms through which these effects occur. Female social drinkers (N=123),…

  12. Evaluation of a Court-Ordered MADD Presentation for Juvenile Alcohol and Drug Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theriot, Matthew T.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a court-ordered Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) presentation to prevent alcohol or drug-related recidivism among 247 juvenile alcohol and drug offenders. The presentation, which incorporates educational components with a victim awareness program, seeks to increase offenders' empathy and knowledge…

  13. Risk of Alcohol-Impaired Driving Recidivism Among First Offenders and Multiple Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Zador, Paul L.; Ahlin, Eileen M.; Howard, Jan M.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Duncan, G. Doug

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the statewide impact of having prior alcohol-impaired driving violations of any type on the rate of first occurrence or recidivism among drivers with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more prior violations in Maryland. Methods. We analyzed more than 100 million driver records from 1973 to 2004 and classified all Maryland drivers into 4 groups: those with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more prior violations. The violation rates for approximately 21 million drivers in these 4 groups were compared for the study period 1999 to 2004. Results. On average, there were 3.4, 24.3, 35.9, and 50.8 violations per 1000 drivers a year among those with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more priors, respectively. The relative risks for men compared with women among these groups of drivers were 3.8, 1.2, 1.0, and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions. The recidivism rate among first offenders more closely resembles that of second offenders than of nonoffenders. Men and women are at equal risk of recidivating once they have had a first violation documented. Any alcohol-impaired driving violation, not just convictions, is a marker for future recidivism. PMID:19846687

  14. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  15. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools. PMID:26362887

  16. Sub-Clinical Trauma in the Treatment of Partner Violent Offenders with Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With an established association between PTSD and the perpetration of intimate partner violence, evaluating the effectiveness of emerging integrated treatments for dual substance use and partner violent behavior on individuals with a significant trauma history may serve to improve treatment outcomes for clients with axis I psychopathology. This paper examined the association between sub-clinical trauma, treatment compliance, and recidivism in a sample of male, substance dependent intimate partner violence offenders. Design/methodology/approach The described investigation utilized violence perpetration, substance use, and trauma data collected during a larger, randomized control treatment evaluation study. Data was collected from 56 participants at 4 time points throughout treatment. Findings Participants with a significant trauma history comprised 33.9% of the sample and demonstrated poorer treatment attendance, as well as heightened partner violence recidivism throughout treatment, as compared to participants who denied experiencing a significant trauma. This finding held across participants receiving substance treatment only and combined treatment addressing substance use and violence. Practical Implications IPV perpetrators often have a trauma history themselves. The association between sub-clinical trauma symptomatology and poor treatment outcomes calls for the adaptation of current partner violence intervention models to accommodate the large subset of clients who suffer from either sub-clinical or clinically significant trauma. Originality/value This paper is the first to address the potential influence of sub-clinical trauma on the integrated treatment of substance use and partner violence within a forensic sample. Suggestions are offered to adapt existing treatment models to accommodate dual diagnosed clients. PMID:25893007

  17. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Takala, Pirjo; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding. PMID:15507139

  18. Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: a comparison between three subgroups.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Asscher, Jessica J

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents with a history of sexual offenses against younger children (CSOs; n = 341), a history of sexual offenses against peers and/or adult victims (PSOs; n = 207), and a history of nonsexual violent offenses (VOs; n = 1,356). We conducted secondary analyses on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and on general recidivism data. ANOVA, correlations, Fisher's z tests, and logistic regression analyses were applied. Results showed that, in VOs, the number of risk factors was greater than the number of protective factors, whereas in PSOs, and especially CSOs, the number of protective factors was greater than the number of risk factors. Protective factors appeared to be especially important for juveniles with a history of sexual offenses for two reasons. First, the impact of most protective factors on recidivism was larger among juveniles with a history of sexual offenses than among those with a history of violent offenses. Second, protective factors added to the predictive accuracy over and above risk factors in juveniles with a history of sexual offenses, but not in those with a history of violent offenses. PMID:25186865

  19. School Violent Victimization and Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    School violent victimization is a serious public health problem among youth. The current study investigated the association between youth alcohol use and school violent victimization among middle school and high school students ("N" = 54,361). The PRIDE national survey for Grades 6-12 was administered to youth in their classrooms.…

  20. Incarcerated Violent Offenders' Ability to Avoid Revealing Their Potential for Violence on the Rorschach and the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Fodstad, Lars; Kuisma, Irene; Lunde, Ketil Berge; Hartmann, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Hartmann and Hartmann (2014) found that psychiatric outpatients, both with and without access to Internet-based information about the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Weiner, 2003 ) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989 ), were unable to imitate healthy test performance on these tests. We replicated the study by administering the RIM and the MMPI-2 to 63 incarcerated violent offenders using similar testing conditions. As in the previous study, comparisons were made not only among the 3 subgroups of incarcerated offenders, but also between these offender groups and the group of nonpatients examined in the previous study. On the RIM, Internet-coached and uncoached "faking good" offenders produced records with significantly higher F% and X-% and significantly lower M, m, SumC, X+%, P, AG, and COP than nonoffenders under standard instructions (effect sizes between d = 0.24 and d = 2.39). For AgC, AgPot, AgPast, and TCI% there were no significant differences between the faking offenders and the nonoffenders under standard instructions. On the MMPI-2 clinical scales, there were no significant differences between the faking good groups and the nonoffenders under standard instructions, except on Hs, Pd, and Sc. Both faking groups were identifiable by their high L scale scores. Although both faking groups managed to avoid giving responses with aggressive and generally psychopathological content on the RIM, they were unable to produce test profiles demonstrating healthy test performance on any of the tests; nevertheless, Internet-based test information might weaken test validity. PMID:26820397

  1. Adolescent delinquency and antisocial tendencies as precursors to adult violent offending: a prospective study of a representative sample of swiss men.

    PubMed

    Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not. PMID:23486754

  2. High-intensity rehabilitation for violent offenders in New Zealand: reconviction outcomes for high- and medium-risk prisoners.

    PubMed

    Polaschek, Devon L L

    2011-03-01

    As the empirical evidence accumulates, so does confidence that carefully designed and delivered rehabilitation approaches can reduce risk. Yet little is known about how to rehabilitate some specialized groups, such as high-risk violent offenders: career criminals with an extensive history of violent behavior. Since 1998, New Zealand's Rimutaka Violence Prevention Unit (RPVU) has provided intensive cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation to violent men. In this evaluation, 112 medium- and high-risk prisoners who entered the program after 1998 are case matched to 112 untreated men. Reconviction outcome data over an average of 3.5 years postrelease show that 10% to 12% fewer program completers were reconvicted for violence compared to their untreated controls. High-risk completers also are less likely to be reconvicted for any offense. Those men who opted out of the study are a slightly higher-risk group than those who completed it, but noncompletion does not further increase their risk. Given the lack of program theory, and formidable practical challenges involved in working with such a high-risk group, these results are very promising. PMID:20522892

  3. Assessing the Relationship between Violent and Nonviolent Criminal Activity among Serious Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Haviland, Amelia; Morral, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the progression of violent and nonviolent criminal activity remains a matter of theoretical debate. In the present study, the authors build on criminological theory and assess the extent to which the progression of violent and nonviolent criminal behaviors follows different trajectories. The authors rely on semiparametric mixture…

  4. Methamphetamine Use, Self-Reported Violent Crime, and Recidivism Among Offenders in California Who Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jerome; Farabee, David; Prendergast, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses data from 641 state prison parolees in California to examine the associations between methamphetamine use and three measures of criminal behavior: (a) self-reported violent criminal behavior, (b) return to prison for a violent offense, and (c) return to prison for any reason during the first 12 months of parole. Methamphetamine use…

  5. The Juvenile Emotion Management Scale (JEMS): An Instrument Designed To Assess Emotion Self-Management Skills in Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLin, Arthur, Jr.

    Individuals differ in the level of skill with which they can identify their feelings and the feelings of others, manage these feelings, and use the information provided by their feelings to motivate adaptive behavior in themselves. Identifying the skill of a serious and violent juvenile offender (SVJ) to manage his emotional state is important for…

  6. The Violence Risk Scale: Predictive Validity and Linking Changes in Risk with Violent Recidivism in a Sample of High-Risk Offenders with Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kathy; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Violence Risk Scale (VRS) uses ratings of static and dynamic risk predictors to assess violence risk, identify targets for treatment, and assess changes in risk following treatment. The VRS was rated pre- and posttreatment on a sample of 150 males, mostly high-risk violent offenders many with psychopathic personality traits. These individuals…

  7. Predicting violent infractions in a Swiss state penitentiary: A replication study of the PCL-R in a population of sex and violent offenders

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Vetter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background Research conducted with forensic psychiatric patients found moderate correlations between violence in institutions and psychopathy. It is unclear though, whether the PCL-R is an accurate instrument for predicting aggressive behavior in prisons. Results seem to indicate that the instrument is better suited for predicting verbal rather than physical aggression of prison inmates. Methods PCL-R scores were assessed for a sample of 113 imprisoned sex and violent offenders in Switzerland. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate physical and verbal aggression as a function of the PCL-R sum score. Additionally, stratified analyses were conducted for Factor 1 and 2. Infractions were analyzed as to their motives and consequences. Results The mean score of the PCL-R was 12 points. Neither the relationship between physical aggression and the sum score of the PCL-R, nor the relationship between physical aggression and either of the two factors of the PCL-R were significant. Both the sum score and Factor 1 predicted the occurrence of verbal aggression (AUC = 0.70 and 0.69), while Factor 2 did not. Conclusion Possible explanations are discussed for the weak relationship between PCL-R scores and physically aggressive behavior during imprisonment. Some authors have discussed whether the low base rate of violent infractions can be considered an explanation for the non-significant relation between PCL-R-score and violence. The base rate in this study, however, with 27%, was not low. It is proposed that the distinction between reactive and instrumental motives of institutional violence must be considered when examining the usefulness of the PCL-R in predicting in-prison physical aggressive behavior. PMID:18778472

  8. [The predictive quality of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for violent and sex offenders in Switzerland. A validation study].

    PubMed

    Urbaniok, F; Noll, T; Rossegger, A; Endrass, J

    2007-03-01

    In Switzerland, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is administered rather restrictively for risk assessment of recidivism among violent and sexual offenders. The aim of the present study was a first-time evaluation of the predictive validity of the PCL-R for violent and sexual recidivism in Switzerland. The PCL-R scores of 96 violent and sex offenders were evaluated by collecting the data in their psychiatric expert opinions. The scores were then compared to the rates of recidivism as shown in the criminal records. Consistent with previous studies in North America and Europe, the determined predictive accuracy was satisfying. This degree of precision supports the use of the PCL-R for risk assessment of sexual and violent recidivism in Switzerland, as long as the instrument does not constitute the sole criterion to determine future recidivism, but is applied only in combination with a thorough clinical evaluation. The use of precise cut-off scores did not prove to be a valid criterion for the prognosis of recidivism and can therefore not be recommended for Swiss offenders. PMID:17031774

  9. Impaired Sensory-Emotional Integration in a Violent Adolescent Sex Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlberg, Lawrence; Kennedy, Joycee; Simpson, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Social risk factors, executive neuropsychological functioning, and emotional numbing were examined as potential risk factors for violent sexual assaults by an adolescent male. The subject had been exposed to at least four previously identified social risk factors, including neglect, early separation from both parents, sexual abuse, and low…

  10. Risk Factors for Violent Offending in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A National Study of Hospitalized Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstrom, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Sjostedt, Gabrielle; Fazel, Seena

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for violence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study uses data from Swedish longitudinal registers for all 422 individuals hospitalized with autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome during 1988-2000 and compares those committing violent or sexual offenses with those who did not. Thirty-one…

  11. The Relation between Abuse and Violent Delinquency: The Conversion of Shame to Blame in Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to…

  12. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  13. The Efficacy of Coerced Treatment for Offenders: An Evaluation of Two Residential Forensic Drug and Alcohol Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Francis X.; Frankel, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the history of community-based treatment for offenders with drug and alcohol addiction. Describes the treatment regimen in two residential programs for offenders with drug and alcohol problems, including a description of the components of the residential treatment model utilized in these two programs. Findings support the efficacy of…

  14. Effcacy of Williams LifeSkills Training in improving psychological health of Chinese male juvenile violent offenders: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Simei; Wang, Hong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST) as a means of improving the psychological health of Chinese male juvenile violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were assigned randomly to receive the usual intervention plus 8 weeks of WLST (study group, n = 33) or only the usual intervention (control group, n = 33). We found that the study group exhibited significantly decreased State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X-1, X-2) STAX2 scores and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) negative scores, and increased Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) tangible scores from baseline to 9 weeks later (P <0.01). In addition, a between-group difference in changes of TCSQ negative score was observed at the end of week 9 (P <0.05). These fndings suggest that WLST can improve trait anxiety, coping style, and interpersonal support in male Chinese juvenile violent offenders. PMID:25564194

  15. Tracking the violent criminal offender through DNA typing profiles--a national database system concept.

    PubMed

    Baechtel, F S; Monson, K L; Forsen, G E; Budowle, B; Kearney, J J

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of standard methods for the conduct of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis into the protocols of United States crime laboratories offers an unprecedented opportunity for the establishment of a national computer database system to enable interchange of DNA typing information. The FBI Laboratory, in concert with crime laboratory representatives, has taken the initiative in planning and implementing such a database system. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) will be composed of three sub-indices: a statistical database, which will contain frequencies of DNA fragment alleles in various population groups; an investigative database which will enable linkage of violent crimes through a common subject; and a convicted felon database that will serve to maintain DNA typing profiles for comparison to profiles developed from violent crimes where the suspect may be unknown. PMID:1678357

  16. Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997. Report of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Together with Additional, Minority and Supplemental Views To Accompany S. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    Finding that violent crimes perpetrated by juvenile offenders has increased dramatically in this century, the Committee on the Judiciary recommended and forwarded this bill for enaction by the Senate. The bill revises federal court procedures, addresses the problem of violent crime and controlled substance offenses by youth gangs, and encourages…

  17. Acute Effects of Alcohol on Inhibitory Control and Simulated Driving in DUI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic accidents have prompted considerable research aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) in order to improve treatment and prevention strategies. Survey studies consistently show that DUI offenders self-report higher levels of impulsivity compared to their nonoffending counterparts. However, little is known about how individuals with a DUI history respond under alcohol. Inhibitory control is a behavioral component of impulsivity thought to underlie risky drinking and driving behaviors. Method The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display deficits of inhibitory control in response to alcohol and the degree to which alcohol impaired their simulated driving performance. It was hypothesized that DUI offenders would display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Young adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-comparable group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Inhibitory control was measured using a cued go/no-go task. Drivers then completed a driving simulation task that yielded multiple indicators of driving performance, such as within-lane deviation, steering rate, centerline crossings and road edge excursions, and drive speed. Results Results showed that although DUI offenders self-reported greater levels of impulsivity than did controls, no group differences were observed in the degree to which alcohol impaired inhibitory control and driving performance. The findings point to the need to identify other aspects of behavioral dysfunction underlying the self-reported impulsivity among DUI offenders, and to better understand the specific driving situations that might pose greater risk to DUI offenders. PMID:24913486

  18. A pilot study of an alcohol education course for young women offenders: what's good for the goose?

    PubMed

    MacMillan, J; Baldwin, S

    1993-07-01

    Although the provision of Alcohol Education Courses (AECs) for male offenders has increased steadily in the last 10 years, treatment interventions for women have continued to be neglected and under-researched. An Alcohol Education Course designed for women offenders was piloted in a prison. This report outlines the content of the course and the rationale for its development. Facilitatory and oppositional factors experienced in conducting work in this setting are discussed. Application of this work is limited to female offenders aged 17-24 with drink-related offending. This pilot study awaits replication in non-institutional settings. PMID:8397532

  19. The Violence Risk Scale: predictive validity and linking changes in risk with violent recidivism in a sample of high-risk offenders with psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kathy; Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-04-01

    The Violence Risk Scale (VRS) uses ratings of static and dynamic risk predictors to assess violence risk, identify targets for treatment, and assess changes in risk following treatment. The VRS was rated pre- and posttreatment on a sample of 150 males, mostly high-risk violent offenders many with psychopathic personality traits. These individuals attended a high-intensity institution-based cognitive-behavioral-oriented violence reduction treatment program in Canada and were then followed up for approximately 5 years postrelease to determine court adjudicated community violent recidivism. VRS scores significantly predicted violent recidivism. Measurements of risk reduction using dynamic VRS predictors were significantly correlated with reduction of violent recidivism after controlling for various potential confounds. The results suggest that, in a high-risk group of offenders with significant psychopathic traits, the VRS demonstrated predictive validity and the dynamic predictors can be used to assess treatment progress, which is linked to a specific criterion variable, thus, fulfilling the criteria for causal dynamic predictors set forth by Kraemer et al. PMID:22556356

  20. From Child Maltreatment to Violent Offending: An Examination of Mixed-Gender and Gender-Specific Models

    PubMed Central

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that child maltreatment predicts later violence, but it is uncertain whether the effects of victimization persist into adulthood or differ across gender. Further, mechanisms underlying the victim-perpetrator cycle for males and females are in question. Consequently, this study analyzed relations between child maltreatment and adult/lifetime violent offending within mixed-gender and gender-specific models. Along with main effect models, the study directly tested the moderating effects of gender on the maltreatment-violence link and explored theory-informed gender-specific mediators. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of 1,539 low-income minority participants born in 1979 or 1980. Child welfare, juvenile court, and criminal court records informed the study’s explanatory and outcome measures. Covariate and mediator measures originated from prospectively collected parent-, teacher-, and self-reports along with several administrative sources. Results indicated that child maltreatment, ages 0–11, significantly predicted all indicators of violence in the full sample, and most study outcomes in the male and female subsamples. In no instance did gender moderate the maltreatment-violence association. Childhood environmental instability, child externalizing behaviors, and peer social skills fully mediated the maltreatment-violence nexus among males. Adolescent externalizing behavior partially mediated the relation of interest among females; evidence also indicated that internalizing processes protected females who had been maltreated in childhood against later perpetration of violence. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:22279130

  1. An Evaluation of First Offender Driver Alcohol Education Models: 40 Hours versus 15 Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Kim; And Others

    An evaluation assessed the impact of the 40- and 15-hour driver alcohol education (DAE) program models on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of driving while intoxicated (DWI) first offenders in Massachusetts. The 40-hour program evaluation studied 306 clients from 31 DAE programs; the 15-hour study group consisted of 207 clients in 23 DAE…

  2. Changes in Density of On-Premises Alcohol Outlets and Impact on Violent Crime, Atlanta, Georgia, 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Bonnie; Clarkson, Lydia; Holt, James; Bagchi, Suparna; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Regulating alcohol outlet density is an evidence-based strategy for reducing excessive drinking. However, the effect of this strategy on violent crime has not been well characterized. A reduction in alcohol outlet density in the Buckhead neighborhood of Atlanta from 2003 through 2007 provided an opportunity to evaluate this effect. Methods We conducted a community-based longitudinal study to evaluate the impact of changes in alcohol outlet density on violent crime in Buckhead compared with 2 other cluster areas in Atlanta (Midtown and Downtown) with high densities of alcohol outlets, from 1997 through 2002 (preintervention) to 2003 through 2007 (postintervention). The relationship between exposures to on-premises retail alcohol outlets and violent crime were assessed by using annual spatially defined indices at the census block level. Multilevel regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between changes in exposure to on-premises alcohol outlets and violent crime while controlling for potential census block-level confounders. Results A 3% relative reduction in alcohol outlet density in Buckhead from 1997–2002 to 2003–2007 was associated with a 2-fold greater reduction in exposure to violent crime than occurred in Midtown or Downtown, where exposure to on-premises retail alcohol outlets increased. The magnitude of the association between exposure to alcohol outlets and violent crime was 2 to 5 times greater in Buckhead than in either Midtown or Downtown during the postintervention period. Conclusions A modest reduction in alcohol outlet density can substantially reduce exposure to violent crime in neighborhoods with high density of alcohol outlets. Routine monitoring of community exposure to alcohol outlets could also inform the regulation of alcohol outlet density, consistent with Guide to Community Preventive Services recommendations. PMID:26020548

  3. Neighborhood alcohol outlets and the association with violent crime in one mid-Atlantic City: the implications for zoning policy.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jacky M; Milam, Adam J; Greiner, Amelia; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Curriero, Frank C; Thornton, Rachel J

    2014-02-01

    Violent crime such as homicide causes significant excess morbidity and mortality in US urban areas. A health impact assessment (HIA) identified zoning policy related to alcohol outlets as one way to decrease violent crime. The objectives were to determine the relationship between alcohol outlets including off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime in one urban area to provide local public health evidence to inform a zoning code rewrite. An ecologic analysis of census tracts in Baltimore City was conducted from 2011 to 2012. The data included violent crimes (n = 51,942) from 2006 to 2010, licensed alcohol outlets establishments (n = 1,327) from 2005 to 2006, and data on neighborhood disadvantage, percent minority, percent occupancy, and drug arrests from 2005 to 2009. Negative binomial regression models were used to determine the relationship between the counts of alcohol outlets and violent crimes controlling for other factors. Spatial correlation was assessed and regression inference adjusted accordingly. Each one-unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 2.2 % increase in the count of violent crimes adjusting for neighborhood disadvantage, percent minority, percent occupancy, drug arrests, and spatial dependence (IRR = 1.022, 95 % CI = 1.015, 1.028). Off-premise alcohol outlets were significantly associated with violent crime in the adjusted model (IRR = 1.048, 95 % CI = 1.035, 1.061). Generating Baltimore-specific estimates of the relationship between alcohol outlets and violent crime has been central to supporting the incorporation of alcohol outlet policies in the zoning code rewrite being conducted in Baltimore City. PMID:24002723

  4. Alcohol, Substance Abuse, and Violence among North Carolina Prison Admissions, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ronald D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined claimed substance intoxication at time of crime commission with violent crimes for 1988 admissions to North Carolina Department of Correction. Most frequently abused drug was alcohol. Intoxicated criminals committed no more violent offenses than did sober offenders. Inmates inebriated with illegal drugs committed fewer violent crimes than…

  5. Predictors of sexual coercion and alcohol use among female juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Montanaro, Erika A; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34 % of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488

  6. Predictors of Sexual Coercion and Alcohol Use among Female Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montanaro, Erika A.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34% of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488

  7. Rape-myth congruent beliefs in women resulting from exposure to violent pornography: effects of alcohol and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-09-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers (N = 134) read an eroticized rape depiction after completing an alcohol administration protocol. As predicted, intoxicated participants were less likely to label the depicted events as rape than their sober counterparts. A path analytic model illustrated that participants' self-reported sexual arousal to the stimulus, as influenced by alcohol consumption and expectancies, resulted in increased rape myth congruent perceptions of the victim and decreased labeling of the incident as rape. Findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication during violent pornography exposure may ultimately result in women developing more calloused attitudes toward rape and rape victims. PMID:16893966

  8. Telemedicine-Based Alcohol Services for Rural Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Wahler, Elizabeth; Webster, J. Matthew; Godlaski, Theodore; Freeman, Rebecca; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that alcohol use is a problem in rural communities and access to substance abuse treatment, particularly evidence-based treatment is limited. Because telemedicine has been shown to be effective in delivering services, this article presents a novel and innovative way of using telemedicine technology in the form of videoconferencing to deliver an evidence-based alcohol intervention (motivational enhancement therapy) with at-risk alcohol users in real-world settings (rural probation and parole offices). This article focuses on: (a) creating a profile of an at-risk group of rural alcohol users; (b) describing the evidence-based intervention; and (c) describing the innovative telemedicine-based service delivery approach. PMID:22867122

  9. Legal Factors Associated with Change in Alcohol Use and Partner Violence among Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores L.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive social concern that may be exacerbated by high rates of alcohol dependence among perpetrators. Society has attempted to combat IPV through various legal interventions but the effects of specific legal factors on behavioral change and treatment compliance remain largely unexamined. The primary focus of the current study was to comprehensively evaluate the impact of various legal factors (i.e., judicial mandate, judicial monitoring, stage of change, and stake in conformity) on mandatory treatment compliance and behavioral change over a 12 week post-adjudication period among a high-risk sample of alcohol dependent IPV offenders (N = 60). Growth curve analyses revealed effects of judicial monitoring and stage of change such that participants reporting low perceived judicial monitoring and early stages of change reported higher initial levels and a more rapid reduction in IPV than those reporting high perceived judicial monitoring and late stages of change, who reported consistently low IPV. Although we found that legal factors were poor predictors of treatment compliance and alcohol use during treatment, the association between alcohol and IPV was moderated by the legal factors. Stake in conformity was negatively associated with IPV among low alcohol users and positively associated among high alcohol users whereas stage of change was negatively associated with IPV among high alcohol users. The current results suggest that pretreatment legal factors may represent an important consideration in reducing IPV among alcohol dependent offenders. Further research is required to determine the efficacy of legal factors in isolation of treatment as well as methods of manipulating these factors to optimally compliment a prescribed course of treatment. PMID:24856623

  10. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  11. Covert Sensitization Treatment in the Elimination of Alcohol-Related Crime in Incarcerated Young Offenders: A Study of Two Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Chris; Dodd, Cherry

    1990-01-01

    Used covert sensitization and alcohol education/counseling to eliminate drinking behavior in two motivated offenders in their early twenties who had previously been classified as "alcoholic." In over 24 months for 1 subject, and 9 months for the other, only 1 conviction for 1 of the subjects occurred, which turned out to be minor and nonalcohol…

  12. Violent Behavior and DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pulay, Attila J.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Goldstein, Rise B.; June Ruan, Ms. W.; Pickering, Roger P.; Huang, Boji; Chou, S. Patricia; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present nationally representative data on the lifetime prevalence and population estimates of violent behavior among individuals with DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. Method The data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Prevalences, population estimates, and associations of violent behavior occurring among individuals with pure, comorbid and specific DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were examined. Results Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and other comorbidity, the odds of violent behavior were significantly increased (p < 0.05) among individuals with substance use disorders, pathological gambling, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, panic disorder with agoraphobia, specific phobia, and paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Percentages of violent behavior among individuals with each comorbid disorders was significantly greater (p < 0.05 – p < 0.0001) than the corresponding percentages among those presenting with the pure form of each disorder. Alcohol and drug use disorders were the most significant contributors to the public health burden of violent behavior. Conclusion The majority of individuals with psychiatric disorders do not engage in violent behavior, and public perception associated with stereotypic violence among individuals with psychiatric disorders appears unwarranted. Elevated risks and burden of violent behavior were not equally shared across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders, with particular disorders, especially substance use disorders, contributing disproportionately to the burden. Future research should examine the circumstances under which violence among individuals with psychiatric disorders occurs with a view towards improving clinical prediction and developing more effective prevention strategies. PMID:18312033

  13. The predictive validity of the Two-Tiered Violence Risk Estimates Scale (TTV) in a long-term follow-up of violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Churcher, Frances P; Mills, Jeremy F; Forth, Adelle E

    2016-08-01

    Over the past few decades many structured risk appraisal measures have been created to respond to this need. The Two-Tiered Violence Risk Estimates Scale (TTV) is a measure designed to integrate both an actuarial estimate of violence risk with critical risk management indicators. The current study examined interrater reliability and the predictive validity of the TTV in a sample of violent offenders (n = 120) over an average follow-up period of 17.75 years. The TTV was retrospectively scored and compared with the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), the Statistical Information of Recidivism Scale-Revised (SIR-R1), and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Approximately 53% of the sample reoffended violently, with an overall recidivism rate of 74%. Although the VRAG was the strongest predictor of violent recidivism in the sample, the Actuarial Risk Estimates (ARE) scale of the TTV produced a small, significant effect. The Risk Management Indicators (RMI) produced nonsignificant area under the curve (AUC) values for all recidivism outcomes. Comparisons between measures using AUC values and Cox regression showed that there were no statistical differences in predictive validity. The results of this research will be used to inform the validation and reliability literature on the TTV, and will contribute to the overall risk assessment literature. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504643

  14. Alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and self-perceptions of impairment in DUI offenders

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive. PMID:25347077

  15. [The influence of alcohol use and violent behaviour on the beliefs related to alcohol use and aggression].

    PubMed

    Bácskai, Erika; Pintye, István; Gerevich, József

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of personal involvement (drinking, violent behaviour) on beliefs concerning the causal connections between drinking alcohol and aggressive behavior. The sample of the study comprised 1200 persons representative of the population over 18 years of age and was selected by a two-step, group stratified sampling method. The measuring instruments used for the study were the questionnaire on alcohol-aggression beliefs applied by Paglia and Room, the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and the sociodemographic characteristics of gender, age and education. Analyses using multivariate regression models showed that aggressive behaviour, particularly verbal and physical aggression, and heavy drinking significantly influence the belief of a causal connection between alcohol and aggression. The more a person drinks and the more aggressive he becomes, the more likely he is not to believe the opinion that drinking leads to aggression. Women and older people have a stronger belief in the causal role played by alcohol in aggressive behaviour. These results draw attention to the importance of the cognitive effect of personal involvement. Heavy drinking and aggressivity can prevent a person from recognizing the danger that drinking can have aggressive, criminal consequences. This relationship can be used well in clinical and criminological practice of crime prevention strategy for patients treated with drinking problems and facing proceedings or condemned for criminal actions. The findings of the study also raise a theoretical consideration that the theory of social learning is not a sufficient explanatory model for the connections between drinking and aggression. PMID:16783033

  16. Varying Impacts of Alcohol Outlet Densities on Violent Assaults: Explaining Differences Across Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.; Remer, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Groups of potentially violent drinkers may frequent areas of communities with large numbers of alcohol outlets, especially bars, leading to greater rates of alcohol-related assaults. This study assessed direct and moderating effects of bar densities on assaults across neighborhoods. Method: We analyzed longitudinal population data relating alcohol outlet densities (total outlet density, proportion bars/pubs, proportion off-premise outlets) to hospitalizations for assault injuries in California across residential ZIP code areas from 1995 through 2008 (23,213 space-time units). Because few ZIP codes were consistently defined over 14 years and these units are not independent, corrections for unit misalignment and spatial autocorrelation were implemented using Bayesian space-time conditional autoregressive models. Results: Assaults were related to outlet densities in local and surrounding areas, the mix of outlet types, and neighborhood characteristics. The addition of one outlet per square mile was related to a small 0.23% increase in assaults. A 10% greater proportion of bars in a ZIP code was related to 7.5% greater assaults, whereas a 10% greater proportion of bars in surrounding areas was related to 6.2% greater assaults. The impacts of bars were much greater in areas with low incomes and dense populations. Conclusions: The effect of bar density on assault injuries was well supported and positive, and the magnitude of the effect varied by neighborhood characteristics. Posterior distributions from these models enabled the identification of locations most vulnerable to problems related to alcohol outlets. PMID:23200150

  17. Economic Contraction, Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide: Analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, M.S.; Huguet, N.; Caetano, R.; Giesbrecht, N.; Kerr, W.C.; McFarland, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although there is a large and growing body of evidence concerning the impact of contracting economies on suicide mortality risk, far less is known about the role alcohol consumption plays in the complex relationship between economic conditions and suicide. The aims were to compare the postmortem alcohol intoxication rates among male and female suicide decedents before (2005–07), during (2008–09), and after (2010–11) the economic contraction in the United States. Methods Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System 2005–11 for male and female suicide decedents aged 20 years and older were analyzed by Poisson regression analysis to test whether there was significant change in the fractions of suicide decedents who were acutely intoxicated at the time of death (defined as blood alcohol concentration ≥ 0.08 g/dl) prior, during, and after the downturn. Results The fraction of all suicide decedents with alcohol intoxication increased by 7% after the onset of the recession from 22.2% in 2005–07 to 23.9% in 2008–11. Compared to the years prior to the recession, male suicide decedents showed a 1.09-fold increased risk of alcohol intoxication within the first two years of the recession. Surprisingly, there was evidence of a lag effect among female suicide decedents, who had a 1.14-fold (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27) increased risk of intoxication in 2010–11 compared to 2005–07. Conclusions These findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication in suicide interacts with economic conditions, becoming more prevalent during contractions. PMID:25024394

  18. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  19. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity six months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  20. Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide: a gender-stratified analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H; Huguet, Nathalie; Conner, Kenneth; Caetano, Raul; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well known that people with alcohol dependence are at a markedly elevated risk for suicide, much less is known about the role of acute alcohol use in suicidal behaviours. The primary aims of this epidemiological study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute alcohol intoxication among 57 813 suicide decedents in 16 states. Methods Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System 2003–2009 for male and female suicide decedents aged 18 years and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to compare decedents with and without acute alcohol intoxication (defined as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 g/dl). Results Among men, those who were younger, American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, veterans, of lower educational attainment, deceased from a self-inflicted firearm injury or hanging/suffocation and residing in rural areas were more likely to have been intoxicated at the time of death. Among women, the factors associated with a BAC ≥0.08 g/dl were younger age, being American Indian/Alaska Native, and using a firearm, hanging/suffocation or falling as method of death. Conclusions In both men and women, alcohol intoxication was associated with violent methods of suicide and declined markedly with age, suggesting that addressing risks associated with acute alcohol use may be of the greatest aid in the prevention of violent suicides among young and middle age adults. PMID:22627777

  1. Empathic competencies in violent offenders☆

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Eva-Maria; Pfabigan, Daniela Melitta; Keckeis, Katinka; Wucherer, Anna Maria; Jahn, Thomas; Lamm, Claus; Derntl, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Violent offending has often been associated with a lack of empathy, but experimental investigations are rare. The present study aimed at clarifying whether violent offenders show a general empathy deficit or specific deficits regarding the separate subcomponents. To this end, we assessed three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking, affective responsiveness) as well as skin conductance response (SCR) in a sample of 30 male violent offenders and 30 healthy male controls. Data analysis revealed reduced accuracy in violent offenders compared to healthy controls only in emotion recognition, and that a high number of violent assaults was associated with decreased accuracy in perspective taking for angry scenes. SCR data showed reduced physiological responses in the offender group specifically for fear and disgust stimuli during emotion recognition and perspective taking. In addition, higher psychopathy scores in the violent offender group were associated with reduced accuracy in affective responsiveness. This is the first study to show that mainly emotion recognition is deficient in violent offenders whereas the other components of empathy are rather unaffected. This divergent impact of violent offending on the subcomponents of empathy suggests that all three empathy components can be targeted by therapeutic interventions separately. PMID:24035702

  2. The "True" Perpetrators of Violence: The Effects of the Media on Public Perceptions of Youthful Violent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Alfiee M.

    The focus of this paper is to provide insight into the real questions to be asked and answered regarding the "true" perpetrators of school violence. Specifically, it addresses the topic of recent occurrences of school violence perpetrated by youth, along with the effect of stereotypes on perceptions of potential youth offenders. It also addresses…

  3. Evaluating the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S

    2014-02-01

    Individuals with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits thought to interfere with their ability to competently navigate the arrest, interrogation, and trial process. This study examined the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with FASD, including their understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights, and adjudication capacities (factual knowledge of criminal procedure, appreciation of the nature and object of the proceedings, ability to participate in a defense and communicate with counsel). Two groups of young offenders (50 with FASD and 50 without prenatal alcohol exposure) completed Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda rights and the Fitness Interview Test-Revised to assess overall rates of impairment in youth with FASD, as well as differences between the groups. Potentially important predictors of psycholegal abilities were also evaluated. Results indicated the majority of young offenders with FASD (90%) showed impairment in at least one psycholegal ability, and rates of impairment were significantly higher than the comparison group. However, considerable within-group variability was observed. IQ and reading comprehension emerged as robust predictors of participants' psycholegal abilities, while the FASD diagnosis differentiated participants' scores on the FIT-R. These findings underscore the importance of individualized and comprehensive forensic assessments of psycholegal abilities in this population when warranted. Additional system level strains for this population are discussed, including problems in approaching competency remediation, and the potentially growing need for accommodation and forensic assessments in the face of limited financial and professional resources in legal settings. PMID:23834387

  4. The violent female perpetrator and her victim.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Viemerö, Vappu; Eronen, Markku

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between violent female offenders and their victims as well as the putative differences in the motives and specific psychological factors among three groups of female offenders: women who have victimised someone closely related to them, those who have victimised an acquaintance and lastly women who have victimised a stranger. More than half (N=61) of all violent female offenders hospitalised or incarcerated in Finland during the year of study were interviewed and assessed by Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). In 34% of the cases the victims were persons close to the offender, in 41% the victims were acquaintances and in 25% strangers. The victims in homicide offences were more often both male and closer to the perpetrator than in assault offences. Although motives were related to interpersonal problems, self-defence and long-term physical or psychological abuse were reported by only a few women, even for the small proportion of women whose victims were intimate partners. The most frequent reason for offences stemmed from confrontational situations in connection with alcohol use. Women who victimised acquaintances and strangers were also more likely to have a history of criminality and substance abuse than women who victimised those in close personal relationships. The latter were also more likely to have an antisocial personality disorder (PD) and psychopathic characteristics. There were, however, no significant differences found between those who had experienced physical or psychological abuse in childhood or adulthood and those who had no adverse experiences. These findings suggest that the violent behaviour by females leads more often to the death of the victim, when the victim is closely related to the perpetrator. The commonly-held view that violent female offending occurs primarily as a consequence of precipitation by the victim was

  5. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  6. Assessing the Impact of Drug Use and Drug Selling on Violent Offending in a Panel of Delinquent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a vast number of empirical studies arguing for or against a causal relationship between illegal drug use and selling and violent behavior, the debate continues. In part this is due to methodological weaknesses of previous research. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, the current study seeks to improve on prior research designs to allow for a more precise examination of the mechanisms that lead from an individual’s drug use (chiefly, marijuana use in the current sample) and drug selling to violent action. Results will allow for greater confidence in making causal inference regarding a long-standing concern in the discipline. PMID:26889079

  7. The Impact of Protective Factors in Desistance from Violent Reoffending: A Study in Three Samples of Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after…

  8. Juvenile sex offender re-arrest rates for sexual, violent nonsexual and property crimes: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Waite, Dennis; Keller, Adrienne; McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Wieckowski, Edward; Pinkerton, Relana; Brown, Gerald L

    2005-07-01

    We report the results of a 10-year follow-up recidivism study of two sex offender treatment programs for incarcerated juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) in Virginia. The programs vary in environment and intensity. The more intense JSO program ("self-contained") operates in specialized living units that are separate from those of the general juvenile incarcerated population. In the less intense program ("prescriptive"), JSOs remain housed with the general population of juvenile offenders. Arrest and incarceration data through January 2003 were obtained for 261 male JSOs released between 1992 and 2001. The inclusion of adult incarceration data allowed for a more accurate assessment of the actual time at risk for sexual re-offending. Outcomes are re-arrest rates, length of time to re-arrest and type of offense (property, nonsexual assault, sexual) on re-arrest, with analyses using survival curve functions. For both groups, actual re-arrest is most likely to be for a nonsexual person offense (31 and 47%, respectively) and least likely to be for a sexual offense (<5% for both groups). Comparing the nonequivalent groups, the self-contained treatment group has a lower predicted re-arrest rate and a longer mean time to re-arrest, for all types of offenses, than the prescriptive treatment group. In addition, juveniles who indicate high levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors are significantly more likely to recidivate compared to juveniles with low-levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors, regardless of treatment type. This is the first 10-year follow-up study of treatment outcomes for a relatively large sample of males who were incarcerated for sexual offenses as juveniles. PMID:16121841

  9. Combat high or traumatic stress: violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not with symptoms of traumatic stress

    PubMed Central

    Köbach, Anke; Schaal, Susanne; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Former members of armed groups in eastern DR Congo had typically witnessed, experienced, and perpetrated extreme forms of violence. Enhanced trauma-related symptoms had been shown in prior research. But also lashing out in self-defense is a familiar response to threat defined as reactive aggression. Another potential response is appetitive aggression, in which the perpetration of excessive violence is perceived as pleasurable (combat high). What roles do these forms of aggressive behavior play in modern warfare and how are they related to posttraumatic stress symptoms? To answer the question, we sought to determine predictors for appetitive aggressive and trauma-related mental illness, and investigated the frequency of psychopathological symptoms for high- and low-intensity conflict demobilization settings. To this end, we interviewed 213 former members of (para)military groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in regard to their combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, appetitive aggression, depression, suicidality, and drug dependence. Random forest regression embedded in a conditional inference framework revealed that perpetrated violent acts are not necessarily stressful. In fact, the experience of violent acts that typically implicated salient cues of hunting (e.g., blood, suffering of the victim, etc.) had the strongest association with an appetite for aggression. Furthermore, the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts was the most important predictor of appetitive aggression. However, the number of perpetrated violent acts did not significantly affect the posttraumatic stress. Greater intensity of conflict was associated with more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address appetitive aggression in addition to trauma-related mental illness, including drug dependence, therefore seem indispensible for a successful reintegration of those who fought in the current civil wars. PMID:25709586

  10. The Relationships of Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, and Other Illegal Drug Use to Delinquency among Mexican-American, Black, and White Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Wright, Loyd S.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship between drug use and delinquent behavior among 348 high school males and 89 adjudicated delinquent males in maximum-security facility for violent and repeat offenders. Self-reported alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other illegal drug use were all significantly related to minor and violent delinquency for all 3 racial groups…

  11. Predicting Recidivism with the Personality Assessment Inventory in a Sample of Sex Offenders Screened for Civil Commitment as Sexually Violent Predators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Simpler, Amber; Johnson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of scores from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to predict postrelease (M = 4.90 years follow-up) arrests in a sample of 1,412 sex offenders. We focused on scores from 4 PAI measures conceptually relevant to offending, including the Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Dominance (DOM)…

  12. The Violent Adolescent Male: Specialist or Generalist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Patterson, Gerald R.

    There is a growing body of evidence that specialization in violent crimes is rare and that it is hard to identify distinguishing characteristics of violent offenders. The purpose of this study, conducted in a Pacific Northwest city, was to determine whether violent behavior is, in fact, a manifestation of high rates of antisocial behavior in…

  13. Psychopathy, PCL-R, and MAOA genotype as predictors of violent reconvictions

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Auvinen-Lintunen, Laura; Ducci, Francesca; Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Goldman, David; Tiihonen, Jari; Ojansuu, Ilkka; Virkkunen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    The Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) has shown a moderate association with violence. The efficacy of PCL-R in varying monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypes is, however, unexamined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCL-R and psychopathy on the risk for violent reconvictions among 167 MAOA genotyped alcoholic offenders. Violent reconvictions and PCL-R scores among violent offenders were assessed after a 7-year non-incarcerated follow-up. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the alcohol exposure and age-adjusted effect of PCL-R score and psychopathy on the risk for reconvictions among differing MAOA genotypes. Results suggest that the PCL-R total score predicts impulsive reconvictions among high-activity MAOA offenders (6.8% risk increase for every one-point increase in PCL-R total score, P=0.015), but not among low-activity MAOA offenders, whereas antisocial behavior and attitudes predicted reconvictions in both genotypes (17% risk increase among high-activity MAOA offenders and 12.8% increase among low-activity MAOA offenders for every one-point increase in factor 2 score). Both narcissistic self-image with related interpersonal style (factor 1 score) and psychopathy (PCL-R≥30) failed to predict future violence. Results suggest that the efficacy of PCL-R is altered by MAOA genotype, alcohol exposure, and age, which seems important to note when PCL-R is used for risk assessments that will have legal or costly preventive work consequences. PMID:20850185

  14. Psychopathy, PCL-R, and MAOA genotype as predictors of violent reconvictions.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Roope; Auvinen-Lintunen, Laura; Ducci, Francesca; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Goldman, David; Tiihonen, Jari; Ojansuu, Ilkka; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-02-28

    The Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) has shown a moderate association with violence. The efficacy of PCL-R in varying monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypes is, however, unexamined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCL-R and psychopathy on the risk for violent reconvictions among 167 MAOA genotyped alcoholic offenders. Violent reconvictions and PCL-R scores among violent offenders were assessed after a 7-year non-incarcerated follow-up. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the alcohol exposure and age-adjusted effect of PCL-R score and psychopathy on the risk for reconvictions among differing MAOA genotypes. Results suggest that the PCL-R total score predicts impulsive reconvictions among high-activity MAOA offenders (6.8% risk increase for every one-point increase in PCL-R total score, P = 0.015), but not among low-activity MAOA offenders, whereas antisocial behavior and attitudes predicted reconvictions in both genotypes (17% risk increase among high-activity MAOA offenders and 12.8% increase among low-activity MAOA offenders for every one-point increase in factor 2 score). Both narcissistic self-image with related interpersonal style (factor 1 score) and psychopathy (PCL-R ≥ 30) failed to predict future violence. Results suggest that the efficacy of PCL-R is altered by MAOA genotype, alcohol exposure, and age, which seems important to note when PCL-R is used for risk assessments that will have legal or costly preventive work consequences. PMID:20850185

  15. Youth Violence: Oversight of Federal Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on S. 1245, a Bill To Amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 To Identify Violent and Hardcore Juvenile Offenders and Treat Them as Adults, and for Other Purposes (May 8, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on a bill to amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to identify violent and hard core juvenile offenders and treat them as adults. Opening statements by four U.S. senators (the Honorable Fred Thompson, Herbert Kohl, Joseph R. Biden, Jr., and Orrin G. Hatch) present various perspectives on the role of…

  16. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-11-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  17. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  18. Alcohol Use and Delinquency among Black, White and Hispanic Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Russell L.; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between drinking and criminal behavior among 342 adolescent offenders. Results showed drinking is strongly associated with minor offenses. Relative to background and behavioral factors, drinking is the strongest single predictor of serious criminal offenses among Blacks, with less importance for whites and little…

  19. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  20. Violent Women: Findings from the Texas Women Inmates Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Joycelyn M.; Mullings, Janet L.; Crouch, Ben M.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on violent crime by female offenders is reviewed. A Texas female prisoner sample is used to explore specific questions raised by the literature review. Violent and nonviolent offenders were compared, looking specifically at race, socioeconomic status, having been raised in single-parent homes, criminal history, gang membership,…

  1. Are Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence Different From Convicted Violent Offenders? Examination of Psychopathic Traits and Life Success in Males From a Community Survey.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Coid, Jeremy W; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-05-01

    We used data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 to age 48 to investigate intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with psychopathy. We investigated the differences in psychopathy scores between those men who were convicted of violence, those who were involved in both extra- and intra-familial violence, and those who committed IPV only. We also considered whether these generally violent men had poorer life success overall with regard to their drinking and drug taking, depression, and other mental disorders. Our findings suggest that those men who are violent both within and outside the home (the generally violent men) are distinguished from those who commit violent crimes outside the home and those who are involved in IPV within the home only. The differences appear to be more in degree than in kind. These findings are discussed with a focus on whether specific interventions are required for those who commit IPV or whether early intervention should be focused on violent behavior in general. PMID:25681163

  2. [Violent behavior during sleep].

    PubMed

    Poyares, Dalva; Almeida, Carlos Maurício Oliveira de; Silva, Rogerio Santos da; Rosa, Agostinho; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias). The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever. PMID:16082451

  3. Memory and Violent Crime among Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, June M.

    1982-01-01

    Studied whether good memory, attributed to the psychopathic personality, also appears in juvenile offenders and whether such memory was long- or short-term. Compared Digit Span scores against Verbal IQ scores. Found Digit Span scores surpassed Verbal IQ scores. Effect was nonsignificantly more pronounced among more violent offenders. (JAC)

  4. Substance Use, Offending, and Participation in Alcohol and Drug Treatment Programmes: A Comparison of Prisoners with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, Jane A.; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Newton, Danielle C.; Richardson, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many offenders with intellectual disabilities have substance use issues. Offending behaviour may be associated with substance use. Materials and Methods: Prisoners with and without intellectual disabilities were compared in terms of their substance use prior to imprisonment, the influence of substance use on offending, and their…

  5. The help-seeking strategies of female violent-crime victims: the direct and conditional effects of race and the victim-offender relationship.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2004-09-01

    The author used national data to examine the help-seeking strategies of female crime victims. The research has two objectives. First, to determine whether help seeking exists as isolated choices or whether there is a discernable set of help-seeking strategies used by victims. Second, the author examined the effects of race and the victim-offender relationship on these help-seeking decisions. Findings identify three help-seeking strategies: (a) minimal or no help seeking, (b) family and friend help seeking, and (c) substantial help seeking (includes help from family, friends, psychiatrists, social service providers, and police). The author found that White women and victims of intimate partner violence are more likely to engage in increasing levels of help seeking. She also found that White women victimized by an intimate partner or other known offender are more likely (as compared to other victims) to seek increasing levels of help and social support. PMID:15296612

  6. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  7. Genetic background of extreme violent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M-R; Ollila, HM; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Palotie, A; Pietiläinen, O; Kristiansson, K; Joukamaa, M; Lauerma, H; Saarela, J; Tyni, S; Vartiainen, H; Paananen, J; Goldman, D; Paunio, T

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial recidivistic offenders, but no genes have been shown to contribute to recidivistic violent offending or severe violent behavior, such as homicide. Our results, from two independent cohorts of Finnish prisoners, revealed that a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity genotype (contributing to low dopamine turnover rate) as well as the CDH13 gene (coding for neuronal membrane adhesion protein) are associated with extremely violent behavior (at least 10 committed homicides, attempted homicides or batteries). No substantial signal was observed for either MAOA or CDH13 among non-violent offenders, indicating that findings were specific for violent offending, and not largely attributable to substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. These results indicate both low monoamine metabolism and neuronal membrane dysfunction as plausible factors in the etiology of extreme criminal violent behavior, and imply that at least about 5–10% of all severe violent crime in Finland is attributable to the aforementioned MAOA and CDH13 genotypes. PMID:25349169

  8. Genetic background of extreme violent behavior.

    PubMed

    Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M-R; Ollila, H M; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Palotie, A; Pietiläinen, O; Kristiansson, K; Joukamaa, M; Lauerma, H; Saarela, J; Tyni, S; Vartiainen, H; Paananen, J; Goldman, D; Paunio, T

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial recidivistic offenders, but no genes have been shown to contribute to recidivistic violent offending or severe violent behavior, such as homicide. Our results, from two independent cohorts of Finnish prisoners, revealed that a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity genotype (contributing to low dopamine turnover rate) as well as the CDH13 gene (coding for neuronal membrane adhesion protein) are associated with extremely violent behavior (at least 10 committed homicides, attempted homicides or batteries). No substantial signal was observed for either MAOA or CDH13 among non-violent offenders, indicating that findings were specific for violent offending, and not largely attributable to substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. These results indicate both low monoamine metabolism and neuronal membrane dysfunction as plausible factors in the etiology of extreme criminal violent behavior, and imply that at least about 5-10% of all severe violent crime in Finland is attributable to the aforementioned MAOA and CDH13 genotypes. PMID:25349169

  9. DUI/DWAI Offenders Compared to Clients Seen in an Outpatient Alcohol-Treatment Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Michele A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined client records to compare 50 subjects admitted to a drinking-driver program and 50 subjects admitted to an outpatient alcohol treatment clinic. Highly significant differences were found between groups on 10 of 12 drinking indices, suggesting that clients referred for alcohol-related traffic offenses represent a population different from…

  10. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. PMID:23525177

  11. Alcohol use and delinquency among black, white and hispanic adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, R L; Dawkins, M P

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between drinking and criminal behavior among adolescent offenders. Data were collected by means of questionnaires administered to 342 residents of a public juvenile facility in the summer of 1979. Analyses were performed separately for each racial subgroup including blacks, whites and hispanics. Based on simple correlation, the results show that among each subgroup, drinking is strongly associated with minor juvenile offenses. However, the correlation between drinking and serious offenses is strong only for blacks and whites. Multiple regression further reveals that relative to other background and behavioral factors, drinking is the strongest single predictor of criminal offenses among blacks, with less importance for whites and little importance for hispanics. Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:6666705

  12. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning. PMID:21550331

  13. Imprisoned drug offenders in Taiwan: a gender-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Furjen; Vaughn, Michael S; Lee, Lou-Jou

    2003-06-01

    Using data collected from a 1999 nationwide survey of 700 incarcerated drug users in Taiwan, this article compares gender differences with respect to childhood experiences, family characteristics, drug use patterns, and criminal histories. The results from both bivariate and logistic regression analyses document some gender differences and offer tentative support for feminist views. Overall, female drug offenders in Taiwan were more likely to have spouses with alcohol or drug use-associated problems, experience physical or sexual abuse, grow up in non-two-parent households, and hold temporary and stereotypical female jobs, including prostitution. Compared to men, although female drug offenders reported earlier involvement in criminal activities, they were less violent and had fewer prior arrests. As for sources, women relied on friends or acquaintances to procure their drugs. No gender differences were identified with respect to illicit drug type or duration and frequency of use. PMID:12801150

  14. Predictors of Sexual Offence Recidivism in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Elliot, Susanne F.; Astell, Arlene

    2004-01-01

    Background: The extensive research on prediction of risk in offenders has developed a number of reliable static risk predictors. There is also a developing body of work on proximal, dynamic risk factors and their importance in predicting violent and sexual offending. Although this work has not been done specifically on offenders with intellectual…

  15. Comparison of Measures of Risk for Recidivism in Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…

  16. Developmental trajectories of offending: validation and prediction to young adult alcohol use, drug use, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Kim, Hyoun K; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended previous work of Wiesner and Capaldi by examining the validity of differing offending pathways and the prediction from the pathways to substance use and depressive symptoms for 204 young men. Findings from this study indicated good external validity of the offending trajectories. Further, substance use and depressive symptoms in young adulthood (i.e., ages 23-24 through 25-26 years) varied depending on different trajectories of offending from early adolescence to young adulthood (i.e., ages 12-13 through 23-24 years), even after controlling for antisocial propensity, parental criminality, demographic factors, and prior levels of each outcome. Specifically, chronic high-level offenders had higher levels of depressive symptoms and engaged more often in drug use compared with very rare, decreasing low-level, and decreasing high-level offenders. Chronic low-level offenders, in contrast, displayed fewer systematic differences compared with the two decreasing offender groups and the chronic high-level offenders. The findings supported the contention that varying courses of offending may have plausible causal effects on young adult outcomes beyond the effects of an underlying propensity for crime. PMID:15971769

  17. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  18. An Alcohol Education and Traffic Safety Program for Institutionalized Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Glenn E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a preventive, educational program on alcohol and traffic safety conducted with institutionalized delinquents (N=66) identified as a high risk group for drinking and driving. Results supported the success of the program and confirmed that institutionalized delinquents were in fact an extremely high risk group. (LLL)

  19. Motivating Learning Disabled Offenders with Alcohol-Related Problems: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Elizabeth; Hipkins, Jane

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed to apply motivational interviewing techniques in assisting seven individuals with mental retardation and alcohol-related problems through the stages of change. The group met for one hour over three sessions and staff training was provided. Results demonstrated increases in motivation, self-efficacy, and determination to change their…

  20. Individual, Family, Peer, and Academic Characteristics of Male Juvenile Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronis, Scott T.; Borduin, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the individual functioning, interpersonal relations, and academic performance of 115 male juveniles who were divided into 5 demographically matched groups (sexual offenders with peer/adult victims, sexual offenders with child victims, violent nonsexual offenders, nonviolent nonsexual offenders, and nondelinquent youths).…

  1. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test with college first-offenders.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, T; Sherrer, M V

    1999-01-01

    Although the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been shown to have good validity and reliability with clinical samples, little data has been examined with respect to youthful problem drinkers, particularly college students. Data collected with 312 students cited their first time for breaking university drinking rules was examined to evaluate the factorial validity and internal consistency of the 10-item scale, and also to test the validity of the AUDIT against two scales designed with a previous cohort specifically to measure hazardous (The Drinking Context Scale) and harmful drinking (the College Alcohol Problem Scale) in college students. Overall, results suggest that the AUDIT is a valid and reliable screening device for college students, and could play an important role in assessing youthful problem drinkers for early intervention programming. PMID:10435259

  2. The Moderation of Blood Alcohol Levels on Higher Odds of Survival among American Indians with Violent, Blunt-Force Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kristen F; Kim, Bum Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the moderation of blood alcohol level (BAL) and American Indian race on survival of patients with violent traumatic brain injury (TBI). An initial logistic regression model indicated that those who were American Indian and insured had higher odds of survival and those with higher injury severity scores and low-medium BAL were less likely to survive. A second logistic regression model including a relationship between American Indians and BAL found that American Indians had a higher odds of survival which tripled when they have no BAL. Low-medium and high BAL were associated with less likelihood of survival among White patients. PMID:26963822

  3. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide Among U.S. Ethnic/Racial Groups: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Conner, Kenneth; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. Methods Data were derived from the restricted 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the U.S. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ≥ 0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. Results The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide decedents who were legally intoxicated were male, younger than 30 years of age, with a high school education, not married, non-veterans, lived in metropolitan areas, and used a firearm to complete suicide. However, with the exception of Whites, most of these associations became not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Alcohol use and legal intoxication prior to completing suicide are common among U.S. ethnic groups, especially among males and those who are younger than 30 years of age. The AI/AN group had the highest mean BAC, the highest rate of legal intoxication and decedents who were particularly young. Suicide prevention strategies should address alcohol use as a risk factor. Alcohol problems prevention strategies should focus on suicide as a consequence of alcohol use, especially among AI/AN youth and young adults. PMID:23384174

  4. Prediction of violent reoffending on release from prison: derivation and external validation of a scalable tool

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Chang, Zheng; Fanshawe, Thomas; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Mallett, Susan

    2016-01-01

    reoffending of 50% or more, 88% had drug and alcohol use disorders. We used the model to generate a simple, web-based, risk calculator (OxRec) that is free to use. Interpretation We have developed a prediction model in a Swedish prison population that can assist with decision making on release by identifying those who are at low risk of future violent offending, and those at high risk of violent reoffending who might benefit from drug and alcohol treatment. Further assessments in other populations and countries are needed. PMID:27086134

  5. Violent Offenses Associated with Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: Evidence from CJDATS†

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Stanley; Cleland, Charles M.; Melnick, Gerald; Flynn, Patrick M.; Knight, Kevin; Friedmann, Peter D.; Prendergast, Michael L.; Coen, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and violence in a sample of offenders released from prison and referred to substance abuse treatment programs. Data from 34 sites (n = 1,349) in a federally funded cooperative, the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS), were analyzed. Among parolees referred to substance abuse treatment, self-reports for the six-month period before the arrest resulting in their incarceration revealed frequent problems with both substance use and mental health. For most offenders with substance use problems, the quantity of alcohol consumed and the frequency of drug use were associated with a greater probability of self-reported violence. Mental health problems were not indicative of increases in violent behavior, with the exception of antisocial personality problems, which were associated with violence. The paper emphasizes the importance of providing substance abuse treatment in relation to violent behavior among offenders with mental health problems being discharged to the community. PMID:19156677

  6. Juvenile offenders' alcohol and marijuana trajectories: risk and protective factor effects in the context of time in a supervised facility.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Anne M; Little, Michelle; Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George P; Piquero, Alex R; Losoya, Sandra H; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino

    2009-03-01

    The current study modeled trajectories of substance use from ages 15 to 20 among 1,095 male serious juvenile offenders (M age = 16.54; 42% African-American, 34% Latino, 20% European-American, and 4% other ethnic/racial backgrounds) and prospectively predicted trajectories from risk and protective factors before and after controlling for time spent in a supervised setting. Results indicated that supervised time suppressed age-related growth in substance use. Trajectories of offenders with no supervised time and low levels of supervised time increased in substance use across age, whereas offenders with high levels of supervised time showed no growth. Almost all risk and protective factors had effects on initial substance use but only adolescent history of substance use, impulse control, and psychosocial maturity had an effect on change in substance use over time. Findings highlight the importance of formal sanctions and interventions superimposed on normal developmental processes in understanding trajectories of substance use among serious juvenile offenders. PMID:19636756

  7. Juvenile Offenders' Alcohol and Marijuana Trajectories: Risk and Protective Factor Effects in the Context of Time in a Supervised Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauricio, Anne M.; Little, Michelle; Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George P.; Piquero, Alex R.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino

    2009-01-01

    The current study modeled trajectories of substance use from ages 15 to 20 among 1,095 male serious juvenile offenders (M age = 16.54; 42% African-American, 34% Latino, 20% European-American, and 4% other ethnic/racial backgrounds) and prospectively predicted trajectories from risk and protective factors before and after controlling for time spent…

  8. Women convicted for violent offenses: Adverse childhood experiences, low level of education and poor mental health

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In past years, the female offender population has grown, leading to an increased interest in the characteristics of female offenders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of female violent offending in a Swiss offender population and to compare possible socio-demographic and offense-related gender differences. Methods Descriptive and bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for a representative sample of N = 203 violent offenders convicted in Zurich, Switzerland. Results 7.9% (N = 16) of the sample were female. Significant gender differences were found: Female offenders were more likely to be married, less educated, to have suffered from adverse childhood experiences and to be in poor mental health. Female violent offending was less heterogeneous than male violent offending, in fact there were only three types of violent offenses females were convicted for in our sample: One third were convicted of murder, one third for arson and only one woman was convicted of a sex offense. Conclusions The results of our study point toward a gender-specific theory of female offending, as well as toward the importance of developing models for explaining female criminal behavior, which need to be implemented in treatment plans and intervention strategies regarding female offenders. PMID:20028499

  9. Criminal Recidivism Among Homicide Offenders.

    PubMed

    Liem, Marieke; Zahn, Margaret A; Tichavsky, Lisa

    2014-01-16

    Homicide offenders are released to communities in large numbers. Little is known, however, about how these offenders fare after release. The aim of this study is threefold: to examine recidivism patterns among released homicide offenders, to assess to what extent predictors for recidivism are similar to those for other violent offenders, and to study whether the degree of recidivism differs by type of homicide. Using data from the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, we extracted all individuals who committed a homicide in Philadelphia between 1977 and 1983 and who were paroled. Data were supplemented with court documents, police department data, and newspaper articles. We examined frequency and severity of recidivism, and used logistic regression analyses and survival analyses to examine the likelihood and time to recidivism. Of the 92 paroled homicide offenders, 54% recidivated; 15% recidivated with a violent offense. Race and original conviction for a financially motivated homicide were significant predictors of recidivism. While socio-demographic predictors of recidivism have theoretical and practical significance, focusing on factors associated with the motive of the original homicide may prove highly beneficial for intervention strategies and post-release planning. PMID:24442911

  10. Sexually violent predators: toward reasonable estimates of recidivism base rates.

    PubMed

    Neller, Daniel J; Petris, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The sexual recidivism rate of sex offenders is a controversial issue. Perhaps as controversial is the sexual recidivism rate of the select group of sex offenders who are examined pursuant to sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes. At present, reliable estimates of SVP recidivism are unavailable. We propose that reasonable estimates of SVP recidivism can be reached by considering three available pieces of data: (i) a likely recidivism rate of the general population of sex offenders; (ii) procedures typically followed by jurisdictions that civilly commit sex offenders; and (iii) classification accuracy of procedures. Although sexual recidivism rates vary across jurisdictions, the results of our analyses suggest sex offenders referred for examination pursuant to SVP statutes recidivate at substantially higher rates than typical sex offenders. Our results further suggest that sex offenders recommended for commitment as SVPs recidivate at even greater rates than SVP respondents who are not recommended for commitment. We discuss practice and policy implications of these findings. PMID:23620130

  11. Comparing spatially varying coefficient models: a case study examining violent crime rates and their relationships to alcohol outlets and illegal drug arrests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast a Bayesian spatially varying coefficient process (SVCP) model with a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model for the estimation of the potentially spatially varying regression effects of alcohol outlets and illegal drug activity on violent crime in Houston, Texas. In addition, we focus on the inherent coefficient shrinkage properties of the Bayesian SVCP model as a way to address increased coefficient variance that follows from collinearity in GWR models. We outline the advantages of the Bayesian model in terms of reducing inflated coefficient variance, enhanced model flexibility, and more formal measuring of model uncertainty for prediction. We find spatially varying effects for alcohol outlets and drug violations, but the amount of variation depends on the type of model used. For the Bayesian model, this variation is controllable through the amount of prior influence placed on the variance of the coefficients. For example, the spatial pattern of coefficients is similar for the GWR and Bayesian models when a relatively large prior variance is used in the Bayesian model.

  12. Female sex offender recidivism: a large-scale empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2009-12-01

    Using a sample of 1,466 females convicted of a sexual offense in New York State, the current study explored the following: (a) offending prior to the commission of the offenders' first sexual offense, (b) rates of recidivism following their first sexual offense conviction, and (c) factors associated with the likelihood of sexual recidivism. Results showed the recidivism rates of female sex offenders to be lower than those of male sex offenders for all types of recidivism studied (any rearrest, felony rearrest, violent [including violent sexual] felony rearrest, and sexual rearrest). Several significant differences were found between the group of female sex offenders who sexually recidivated and the group who did not, including crime of first sexual conviction and measures of prior offending. PMID:19901239

  13. Exploring the Overlap in Male Juvenile Sexual Offending and General Delinquency: Trauma, Alcohol Use, and Masculine Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam; Burton, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Burton and Meezan's (2004) finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully…

  14. Birth order in sex-offending and aggressive-offending men.

    PubMed

    MacCulloch, Sophie I; Gray, Nicola S; Phillips, Helen K; Taylor, John; MacCulloch, Malcolm J

    2004-10-01

    The relation between birth order and number of sexual and violent convictions was investigated retrospectively in a sample of 113 men, to determine whether the established fraternal birth order effect in male homosexual preference and deviant sexual preference (e.g., for rape and pedophilia) may be extended to sexual behavior. Participants were mentally disordered offenders detained in a medium secure psychiatric unit in the United Kingdom and comprised 64 men with sexual convictions and 49 men with nonsexual violent convictions. Sibling data from psychiatric notes were used to calculate Berglin's birth order index for each participant and conviction data were obtained from the Home Office Offenders' Index. Fraternal birth order was significantly correlated with number of sexual convictions (p < or = .05). No association was found between fraternal or sororal birth order and violent convictions in either the sex offender or violent offender group. Results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect previously found for deviant sexual preference in sex offenders (K. Côté, C. M. Earls, & M. L. Lalumière, 2002; M. L. Lalumière, G. T. Harris, V. L. Quinsey, & M. E. Rice, 1998) also applies to sexually deviant behavior and is specific to sexual rather than general offending. Results are discussed in terms of the maternal immunosensitization hypothesis. PMID:15305117

  15. Comorbid substance use diagnoses and partner violence among offenders receiving pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Schlauch, Robert C; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J

    2016-01-01

    While previous studies find mixed evidence of an association between opioid use and intimate partner violence perpetration among community samples, initial evidence has detected increased rates of partner violence among individuals receiving pharmacological intervention for opioid dependence. The current study evaluated the role of current comorbid substance use diagnoses, a robust risk factor for violent behavior, on the likelihood of perpetrating partner violence among a high risk sample of offenders receiving pharmacological intervention for opioid dependence. The authors analyzed self-report data provided by 81 (55 male) opioid dependent offenders during a court-ordered substance use interview. Approximately one-third of the sample evidenced the recent use of intimate partner violence. Findings indicated that cocaine and benzodiazepine use were independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting physical partner violence. Alcohol and cannabis use were not associated with partner violence. The current results offer further support for the ongoing need to conduct routine partner violence screenings among substance involved offenders and highlight the importance of developing individualized treatment plans that address comorbid substance use and partner-violent behaviors among individuals in treatment for opioid dependence. PMID:26901289

  16. Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Miles, Bart W.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the…

  17. Child Victimizers: Violent Offenders and Their Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Lawrence A.

    Published jointly by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this document presents information drawn from a nationally representative sample of state prisoners and from existing homicide data assembled by law enforcement agencies. It sheds new light on the most serious types of child abuse and…

  18. Understanding the role of alcohol during rape: the perfect storm of attention, emotion, & expectancies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Sex offenders and violent offenders in general that were intoxicated at the time of their offense often claim that they were too intoxicated to know 1) what they were doing at the time of the offense and 2) therefore unable to recall the details of the offense situation the next day. What the literature has to say contradicts the claims of sex offenders or violent offenders who claim they were "out of control" and that they do not recall what they did in the offense situation. Alcohol use (mild to moderate consumption) appears to result in 1) alcohol myopia; 2) increased attentional focus on the more salient emotions (whether negative or positive); 3) improved creative thinking and improved attention to the activity at hand; 4) decreased frontal lobe activity (e.g., lack of concern about consequences or morals); 5) is impacted by alcohol expectancies; and 6) does not prevent an individual from being able to recall activity that occurred while intoxicated when provided cues. PMID:25345240

  19. Comparison of patients who were violent, victimized and violent-victimized during the first year after discharge from emergency psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Roaldset, John Olav; Bjørkly, Stål

    2015-12-30

    This prospective observational study included 345 (70%) of 489 patients discharged from an emergency psychiatric hospital during one year. Episodes of offending and victimization were recorded during first year after discharge. Forty-eight persons (14%) committed violent offenses only, 27 persons (8%) were violence victims only, and 42 persons (12%) were both offenders and victims. Significant differences in demographic and clinical variables were found between the three groups. The results pointed to two distinct groups of victims: one group with a robust offender-victim overlap and another group without offender-victim overlap. The latter group was difficult to distinguish from other discharged patients. PMID:26616305

  20. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  1. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk. PMID:23136142

  2. Rehabilitation of the Alcoholic. A Training Guide. A Report from the Study Group on Rehabilitation of the Alcoholic and Public Offender. Rehabilitation Services Series Number 69-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The many difficulties involved in diagnosing, classifying and treating alcoholics comprise the bulk of the report's content. The very specific social and medical needs of the alcoholic, coupled with personal, social and treatment agency barriers, are viewed as the major feasibility (for treatment outcome) factors. The report recommends six major…

  3. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging. PMID:23568089

  4. Drug consumption among sexual offenders against females.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2008-02-01

    This article aims to evaluate the role of drug consumption among sexual offenders against females. Three groups of participants (N = 133) comprising sexual offenders against girls, pubertal females, and women were examined with reference to history of drug and/or alcohol use, impulsivity level, sexual addiction, and recidivism risk. Sexual offenders against women were found to have significantly more difficulties with drug use, higher impulsivity level, and to be younger than the sexual offenders against girls and pubertal females. The combination of drug consumption and higher level of impulsivity may contribute to sexual aggression against adult females. PMID:17615431

  5. PREDICTING RECIDIVISM FOR RELEASED STATE PRISON OFFENDERS

    PubMed Central

    Stahler, Gerald J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Belenko, Steven; Welsh, Wayne N.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Zajac, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics and spatial contagion in predicting reincarceration on a sample of 5,354 released Pennsylvania state prisoners. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, offense type, drug involvement, various neighborhood variables (e.g., concentrated disadvantage, residential mobility), and spatial contagion (i.e., proximity to others who become reincarcerated). Using geographic information systems (GIS) and logistic regression modeling, our results showed that the likelihood of reincarceration was increased with male gender, drug involvement, offense type, and living in areas with high rates of recidivism. Older offenders and those convicted of violent or drug offenses were less likely to be reincarcerated. For violent offenders, drug involvement, age, and spatial contagion were particular risk factors for reincarceration. None of the neighborhood environment variables were associated with increased risk of reincarceration. Reentry programs need to particularly address substance abuse issues of ex-offenders as well as take into consideration their residential locations. PMID:24443612

  6. Does Alcohol or Delinquency Help Adolescents Feel Better Over Time? A Study on the Influence of Heavy Drinking and Violent/Property Offending on Negative Emotions.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Joon; Ferguson, Todd W; Rhodes, Jeremy R

    2016-05-01

    Conceptualizing adolescent drinking and delinquency as adaptations to strain, we explore whether they (a) decrease or increase the probability of feeling depression and anxiety later and (b) ameliorate or aggravate the effect of strain on the negative emotions over time. These relationships are also examined for gender differences by analyzing data separately for males and females as well as both combined. We conducted ordinary least squares regression analysis of panel data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Heavy drinking and serious delinquency were found to increase the probability of feeling depression and anxiety later, whereas they tend to ameliorate the emotionally deleterious effect of strain for males and, to a lesser extent, females. PMID:25519851

  7. Effects of alcohol on the offender's sanity-Issues of criminal law and psychiatry in light of findings of research.

    PubMed

    Golonka, Anna Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The present report is the result of research on the causes of insanity or issuing opinions about the causes of insanity or diminished sanity perpetrators in criminal proceedings conducted in Poland (CEE). Research has shown the impact that has, in fact, use or abuse of alcohol and other alcoholic diseases on the status of the accused in criminal proceedings. This publication presents not only the results but also the basic regulations - valid in Poland and in other European countries - with respect to the responsibility of the perpetrators insane, with diminished sanity and being in a state of inebriation at the time of committing a criminal act. PMID:27086845

  8. Homicidal sex offenders: psychological, phallometric, and diagnostic features.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Larose, M R

    1998-01-01

    Homicidal sex offenders represent an understudied population in the forensic literature. Forty-eight homicidal sex offenders assessed between 1982 and 1992 were studied in relation to a comparison group of incest offenders. Historical features, commonly used psychological inventories, criminal histories, phallometric assessments, and DSM diagnoses were collected on each group. The homicidal sex offenders, compared with the incest offenders, self-reported that they had more frequently been removed from their homes during childhood and had more violence and forensic psychiatric contact in their histories. On the self-report psychological inventories, the homicidal sex offenders portrayed themselves as functioning significantly better in the areas of sexuality (Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory) and aggression/hostility (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory). However, on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), researchers rated the homiciders significantly more psychopathic than the incest offenders on Factor 1 (personality traits) and Factor 2 (antisocial history). Police records revealed the homicidal subjects also had been charged or convicted of more violent and nonviolent nonsexual offenses. The phallometric assessments indicated that the homicidal sex offenders demonstrated higher levels of response to pedophilic stimuli and were significantly more aroused to stimuli depicting assaultive acts to children, relative to the incest offenders. Despite the homiciders' self-reports of fairly good psychological functioning, DSM-III diagnoses reliably discriminated between the groups. A large number of homicidal sex offenders were diagnosed as suffering from psychosis, antisocial personality disorder, paraphilias, sexual sadism, sexual sadism with pedophilia, and substance abuse. Seventy-five percent of the homicidal sex offenders had three or more diagnoses compared with six percent of the incest offenders. The article addresses the role of "hard" versus "soft

  9. Deterrence Theory and the Role of Shame in Projected Offending of College Students against a Ban on Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Fukushima, Miyuki; Spivak, Andrew L.; Payne, David

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we advance previous research in deterrence theory by examining the perceived deterrent effects of a newly instituted dry policy on a college campus. A survey of 500 full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 26 was conducted 3 months following the ban on alcohol. Hypotheses are derived from deterrence theory…

  10. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again. PMID:21088873

  11. Reliability of Risk Assessment Measures Used in Sexually Violent Predator Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cailey S.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Otto, Randy K.; Kline, Suzonne M.; Wasserman, Adam L.

    2012-01-01

    The field interrater reliability of three assessment tools frequently used by mental health professionals when evaluating sex offenders' risk for reoffending--the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) and the Static-99--was examined within the context of sexually violent predator…

  12. Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual and Violent Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.; Beech, Anthony; Browne, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The predictive accuracy of the newly developed actuarial risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV) were cross validated and compared with two risk assessment measures (SVR-20 and Static-99) in a sample of sexual (n = 85) and nonsex violent (n = 46) offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18%…

  13. The habitual female offender inside: How psychopathic traits predict chronic prison violence.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nicholas D; Towl, Graham J; Centifanti, Luna C M

    2016-06-01

    Psychopathy is considered one of the best predictors of violence and prison misconducts and is arguably an important clinical construct in the correctional setting. However, we tested whether psychopathy can be used to predict misconducts in prison environments for women as has been done for men. To date, few studies exist that examine and validate this association in female offender samples. The present study included 182 ethnically diverse female offenders. The aim was to prospectively predict violent and nonviolent misconducts over a 9-month period using official records of prior violent criminal history (e.g., homicide, manslaughter, assault), and self-report measures of psychopathy, impulsivity, and empathy. Using negative binomial regression, we found that past violent criminal history, and callous and antisocial psychopathic traits were predictors of violent misconducts, whereas antisocial psychopathic traits and impulsivity best predicted nonviolent misconducts. Although empathy was negatively associated with psychopathy it was not a significant predictor of violent or nonviolent misconducts. Statistical models, which included impulsivity, were considered the most parsimonious at predicting misconducts. Our findings demonstrate how risk-factors found to be reliable in male offender samples, such as psychopathic traits, impulsivity, and past violent criminal history, generalize to female offenders for predicting nonviolent and violent misconducts. One notable difference is the importance of callous psychopathic traits when predicting chronic violent misconducts by female offenders. In sum, there are more similarities in psychopathy and impulsivity than differences in the prediction of misconducts among men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844910

  14. Links between Pubertal Timing and Neighborhood Contexts: Implications for Girls' Violent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeidallah, Dawn; Brennan, Robert T.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Earls, Felton

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between girls' violent behavior, pubertal timing, and neighborhood characteristics. Method: A total of 501 Hispanic, black, and white adolescent girls and their parents were interviewed twice over a 3-year period (1995-1998). Violent behavior was assessed using the Self-Report of Offending Scale and pubertal timing…

  15. 10-y Risks of Death and Emergency Re-admission in Adolescents Hospitalised with Violent, Drug- or Alcohol-Related, or Self-Inflicted Injury: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Annie; Gilbert, Ruth; González-Izquierdo, Arturo; Pitman, Alexandra; Li, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospitalisation for adversity-related injury (violent, drug/alcohol-related, or self-inflicted injury) has been described as a “teachable moment”, when intervention may reduce risks of further harm. Which adolescents are likely to benefit most from intervention strongly depends on their long-term risks of harm. We compared 10-y risks of mortality and re-admission after adversity-related injury with risks after accident-related injury. Methods and Findings We analysed National Health Service admissions data for England (1 April 1997–31 March 2012) for 10–19 y olds with emergency admissions for adversity-related injury (violent, drug/alcohol-related, or self-inflicted injury; n = 333,009) or for accident-related injury (n = 649,818). We used Kaplan–Meier estimates and Cox regression to estimate and compare 10-y post-discharge risks of death and emergency re-admission. Among adolescents discharged after adversity-related injury, one in 137 girls and one in 64 boys died within 10 y, and 54.2% of girls and 40.5% of boys had an emergency re-admission, with rates being highest for 18–19 y olds. Risks of death were higher than in adolescents discharged after accident-related injury (girls: age-adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.43–1.82; boys: 2.13, 95% CI 1.98–2.29), as were risks of re-admission (girls: 1.76, 95% CI 1.74–1.79; boys: 1.41, 95% CI 1.39–1.43). Risks of death and re-admission were increased after all combinations of violent, drug/alcohol-related, and self-inflicted injury, but particularly after any drug/alcohol-related or self-inflicted injury (i.e., with/without violent injury), for which age-adjusted hazard ratios for death in boys ranged from 1.67 to 5.35, compared with 1.25 following violent injury alone (girls: 1.09 to 3.25, compared with 1.27). The main limitation of the study was under-recording of adversity-related injuries and misclassification of these cases as accident-related injuries. This misclassification would

  16. Predictors of suicide attempts after violent offences in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gazdag, Gábor; Belán, Emese; Szabó, Ferenc A; Ungvari, Gabor S; Czobor, Pál; Baran, Brigitta

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this survey was to identify predictors of suicide attempts that immediately followed a violent crime in patients with schizophrenia. Documentations of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and released in a 10 years period from the National Institute of Forensic Psychiatry were reviewed. Twenty-six out of 223 patients attempted suicide after the violent crime. The young age of the victim, and living in partnership were those factors differentiating suicidal violent offenders from their non-suicidal counterparts. PMID:26522825

  17. Violent Crime in Asperger Syndrome: The Role of Psychiatric Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stewart S.; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested an association between violent crime and Asperger syndrome (AS), few have examined the underlying reasons. The aim of this review is to determine to what extent psychiatric factors contribute to offending behavior in this population. Online databases were used to identify relevant articles which were then…

  18. Intrusive Memories in Perpetrators of Violent Crime: Emotions and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ceri; Ehlers, Anke; Mezey, Gillian; Clark, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated factors that may determine whether perpetrators of violent crime develop intrusive memories of their offense. Of 105 young offenders who were convicted of killing or seriously harming others, 46% reported distressing intrusive memories, and 6% had posttraumatic stress disorder. Intrusions were associated with lower…

  19. During-Treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified therapeutic community (TC) program ("Clean Lifestyle is Freedom Forever" [CLIFF]-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders…

  20. Risk Assessment: Actuarial Prediction and Clinical Judgement of Offending Incidents and Behaviour for Intellectual Disability Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Beail, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research on prediction of violent and sexual offending behaviour has developed considerably in the mainstream criminological literature. Apart from one publication [Quinsey (2004) "Offenders with Developmental Disabilities," pp. 131-142] this has not been extended to the field of intellectual disabilities. Methods: Work on actuarial…

  1. The Characteristics of Persistent Sexual Offenders: A Meta-Analysis of Recidivism Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, R. Karl; Morton-Bourgon, Kelly E.

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 82 recidivism studies (1,620 findings from 29,450 sexual offenders) identified deviant sexual preferences and antisocial orientation as the major predictors of sexual recidivism for both adult and adolescent sexual offenders. Antisocial orientation was the major predictor of violent recidivism and general (any) recidivism. The…

  2. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  3. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  4. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2010-12-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  6. Risk factors for criminal recidivism in older sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms. PMID:16633906

  7. Psychiatric diagnosis and differential risks of offending following discharge.

    PubMed

    Coid, Jeremy W; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Hickey, Nicole; Kahtan, Nadji; Freestone, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis is not considered a risk factor for offending following discharge. However, treatment interventions and aftercare are strongly influenced by clinical primary diagnosis. We compared differential risks of reoffending of patients falling into six primary diagnostic categories following discharge from Medium Secure Units in the UK: schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder; delusional disorder; mania/hypomania; depressive disorder; organic brain syndrome; personality disorder. We followed up 1344 patients, on average 6.2 years (SD=2.1) at risk, discharged from 7 of 14 Regional Medium Secure services in England and Wales. Outcomes were period prevalence, incidence, and cumulative probability of criminal conviction. Established demographic and criminal history predictors of reoffending were observed across different diagnostic categories. Risks of all offending were increased for personality disorder, violence/acquisitive offending for delusional disorder, sexual offending for mania/hypomania and violence/acquisitive offending for organic brain syndrome. Patterns of risk over time differed markedly between categories of mental disorder. Most patients with personality disorder who offended violently did so within 4 years of discharge. A subgroup with delusional disorder demonstrated increased risk of violent offending 5 years after discharge. Differential risks of reoffending are observed between different diagnostic groups. Clinical diagnosis should be included together with established risk measures in risk management following discharge. Close supervision of patients with personality disorder should begin immediately after discharge when risks of reoffending are greatest. For delusional disorder further investigation is needed into the marked increase in risk of violence after 5 years. PMID:25660350

  8. The effect of age on sexual and violent reconviction.

    PubMed

    Craig, Leam A

    2011-02-01

    Although a number of research studies indicate an inverse relationship between age and sexual offence recidivism, the effect of age on sexual and violent reconviction remains unclear, with some studies producing contradictory results. In the present study, reconviction data were obtained for 131 offenders (85 sex offenders and 46 violent offenders) followed up over a 2- and 5-year period. The sample was grouped into four age bands (i.e., ≤24, 25-34, 35-44, and ≥45 years) and rates of sexual, violent, sexual and violent (combined), and any offence reconviction were compared. There was an almost linear relationship between age and rate of reconviction, with the youngest age band (≤24 years) presenting the greatest risk of reconviction and the older age bands (≥45 years) presenting the lowest reconviction rate. At the 5-year follow-up, the youngest age band was significantly more likely to be reconvicted of sexual and violent offences (combined) than any other age band. This age band was significantly more likely to be actuarially assessed (i.e., Static-99) as high risk (controlling for age) and was more likely to target strangers, be single, and display non-sexual violence during the index offence. In relation to sexual reconviction, there was a plateau effect in the middle-age band, with the oldest age band (≥45 years) obtaining the highest sexual reconviction rate compared with all other age bands at the 5-year follow-up. Although these findings support the view that lower-aged sexual and violent offenders pose greater risk than their older-aged counterparts, this was not true for sexual reconviction at the 5-year follow-up. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19923381

  9. Sexual preferences and recidivism of sex offenders with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marnie E; Harris, Grant T; Lang, Carol; Chaplin, Terry C

    2008-12-01

    By some accounts, sex offenders with mental retardation commit sex offenses against children because the offenders lack sexual knowledge or are socially and intellectually immature rather than because of sexually deviant interests. By other accounts, these offenders exhibit pedophilic sexual interests. In this study, phallometrically determined sexual interests, recidivism, and choices of victims of 69 sex offenders with mental retardation are examined and compared with those of 69 sex offenders of average or higher IQ. Consistent with hypotheses, sex offenders with mental retardation exhibit more deviant preferences for prepubertal children, male children, and young children than do the comparison offenders. They are also more likely to have had a prepubertal victim, a prepubertal male victim, and a very young victim. They are no more likely than the comparison offenders to exhibit preferences for extremely coercive sex with children or to exhibit deviant adult activity preferences, nor are they more likely to recidivate violently. Results support the idea that pedophilia is a disorder of neurodevelopment and point to the importance of risk assessments that include assessing sexual preferences among sex offenders with mental retardation. PMID:19020337

  10. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. PMID:24913245

  11. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    PubMed

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency. PMID:26769575

  12. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of High-Intensity Inpatient Sex Offender Treatment in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daan J

    2016-08-01

    The current study quasi-experimentally assessed the outcome of high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment in the Netherlands in terms of sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. It was hypothesized that treated sex offenders would show lower recidivism rates than untreated sex offenders of the same risk level. In line with the risk principle of the Risk, Need, Responsivity (RNR) model, we predicted that this would especially hold true for offenders of higher risk levels. The study sample consisted of 25% of all convicted Dutch sex offenders not referred to any form of treatment and discharged from prison between 1996 and 2002, and all convicted Dutch sex offenders referred to inpatient treatment who were discharged between 1996 and 2002. Static-99R risk levels of these 266 offenders were retrospectively assessed and survival curves regarding sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism were compared between treated and untreated offenders, controlling for level of risk. Mean follow-up was 148.0 months (SD = 29.6) and the base rate of sexual recidivism was 15.0% and 38.4% for violent (including sexual) recidivism. Cox regression survival analyses showed marginally significant lower failure rates regarding sexual recidivism for treated high-risk offenders only, and significantly lower failure rates regarding violent (including sexual recidivism) for treated sex offenders of moderate-high and high-risk levels. No treatment effects for low and low-moderate risk offenders were found. Results underscore the risk principle of the RNR model: Treatment is more effective when its dosage is attuned to risk level. PMID:24867416

  13. The Differential Treatment Model: Empirical Evidence from a Personality Typology of Adult Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Helen M.; Chan, David

    1983-01-01

    Interaction of offender type by treatment program was examined for 100 adult offenders with alcohol and drug problems assigned to a group therapy program and 50 to routine care. Offenders who were classified high in self-image showed greater improvement in the group therapy program. (Author/HLM)

  14. The recidivism rates of female sexual offenders are low: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cortoni, Franca; Hanson, R Karl; Coache, Marie-Ève

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the recidivism rates of female sexual offenders. A meta-analysis of 10 studies (2,490 offenders; average follow-up 6.5 years) showed that female sexual offenders have extremely low rates of sexual recidivism (less than 3%). The recidivism rates for violent (including sexual) offences and for any type of crime were predictably higher than the recidivism rates for sexual offences but still lower than the recidivism rates of male sexual offenders. These findings indicate the need for distinct policies and procedures for assessing and managing the risk of male and female sexual offenders. Risk assessment tools developed specifically for male sexual offenders would be expected to substantially overestimate the recidivism risk of female sexual offenders. PMID:21098822

  15. Identifying the Psychosocial and Mental Health Needs of Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David M.; Pleydon, Anne

    This study examined the psychosocial, mental health, and intellectual characteristics of young offenders serving a sentence at Syl Apps Youth Centre, a secure custody facility. The sample comprised 50 youths, 37 males and 13 females. The index offenses were varied, but the majority were sentenced for a violent offense. The results showed that…

  16. Current Status of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders and Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    An emerging literature on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and offending has highlighted that these disorders are at times associated with criminal behaviour. Ghaziuddin et al. (1991) reviewed the published literature on this topic from 1944 to 1990 and concluded that there was no clear link between Asperger syndrome (AS) and violent crime. They…

  17. Kids Who Commit Adult Crimes: Serious Criminality by Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, R. Barri

    The increasingly serious nature of juvenile criminal behavior has led to greater efforts to understand the roots, causes, and correlates of juvenile violence and chronic delinquency, as well as develop more effective means of identifying at-risk youth and treating serious and violent juvenile offenders. This book examines the realities and…

  18. A comparison of modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M; Greenberg, David M; Broom, Ian

    2002-07-01

    The predictive validity of 2 risk assessment instruments for sex offenders, modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, was examined and compared in a sample of 258 adult male sex offenders. In addition, the independent contributions to the prediction of recidivism made by each instrument and by various phallometric indices were explored. Both instruments demonstrated moderate levels of predictive accuracy for sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. They were not significantly different in terms of their predictive accuracy for sexual or violent recidivism, nor did they contribute independently to the prediction of sexual or violent recidivism. Of the phallometric indices examined, only the pedophile index added significantly to the prediction of sexual recidivism, but not violent recidivism, above the Static-99 alone. PMID:12087686

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  1. Predicting relapse: a meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R K; Bussière, M T

    1998-04-01

    Evidence from 61 follow-up studies was examined to identify the factors most strongly related to recidivism among sexual offenders. On average, the sexual offense recidivism rate was low (13.4%; n = 23,393). There were, however, subgroups of offenders who recidivated at high rates. Sexual offense recidivism was best predicted by measures of sexual deviancy (e.g., deviant sexual preferences, prior sexual offenses) and, to a lesser extent, by general criminological factors (e.g., age, total prior offenses). Those offenders who failed to complete treatment were at higher risk for reoffending than those who completed treatment. The predictors of nonsexual violent recidivism and general (any) recidivism were similar to those predictors found among nonsexual criminals (e.g., prior violent offenses, age, juvenile deliquency). Our results suggest that applied risk assessments of sexual offenders should consider separately the offender's risk for sexual and nonsexual recidivism. PMID:9583338

  2. Risk communication in sexually violent predator hearings.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah; Gilcrist, Brett; Thurston, Nicole; Huss, Matthew T

    2010-01-01

    Sexually violent predator (SVP) laws use the civil commitment process to confine mentally disordered and dangerous offenders who are at high risk to reoffend. Few studies have examined how jurors decide SVP cases. As a result, a pilot study and three experimental studies were conducted, in which victim type, risk communication, and juror education were manipulated to assess juror response. Results continually illustrated that victim type was the most salient manipulation across studies and that the manner of risk communication and juror education had little impact on jurors. PMID:19908210

  3. Violent Victimization in the Prison Context: An Examination of the Gendered Contexts of Prison.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Brent; Daigle, Leah E; Hawk, Shila R; Daquin, Jane C

    2016-07-01

    Currently there are few published, multilevel studies of physical assault victimization of prisoners. This study builds on the extant research by utilizing a nationally representative sample of correctional facilities (n = 326) and inmates (n = 17,640) to examine the impacts of a large set of theoretically and empirically derived individual- and contextual-level variables on prison victimization, including how the gendered context of prison impacts victimization. Results support the lifestyles/routine activities approach. Inmates who were charged with a violent offense, were previously victimized, were smaller in size, were not married, were without a work assignment, misbehaved, did not participate in programs, used alcohol or drugs, and those who had a depression or personality disorder were more likely to be victimized. In addition, the data suggest that 8% of the variance in victimization is due to the prison context. Prisons with high proportions of violent offenders, males, inmates from multiracial backgrounds, and inmates with major infractions had increased odds of victimization. Moreover, the sex-composition of the prison has significant main and interactive effects predicting victimization. Specifically, we find that the effects of being convicted of a drug crime, drug use, military service, major infractions, and diagnosed personality disorders are all gendered in their impacts on victimization. PMID:25715341

  4. Substance Use Disorders and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Male and Female Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current investigation sought to examine the direct associations and interactions among individual and concurrent alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and opioid use diagnoses with the perpetration of intimate partner violence as well as to assess gender differences across these associations within a large forensic sample of male and female offenders. Method Participants (1,290 male and 294 female) completed a court-mandated substance abuse evaluation during which they completed a clinical interview, either endorsing or denying recent physical partner violence perpetration. Specific substance use disorders were diagnosed based primarily upon responses to the clinical interview and were used to predict partner violence perpetration using logistic regression. Results Alcohol and cocaine use disorders were significantly associated with IPV perpetration over the past year. Cannabis and opioid use disorders were not directly associated with IPV. A comorbid alcohol use diagnosis increased the likelihood of IPV perpetration among participants with either a cannabis or a cocaine use disorder while participants with an alcohol use disorder were less likely to be violent if they had also met criteria for a cannabis use disorder. These relationships held across males and females. Conclusions The current findings emphasize the importance of assessing associations between specific substances of abuse in researching and predicting partner violence and suggest that future efforts focus on the development of integrated treatments for co-occurring partner violence and substance use disorders. PMID:27011885

  5. Refusers, dropouts, and completers: measuring sex offender treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Seager, James A; Jellicoe, Debra; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet K

    2004-10-01

    A sex offender program delivered in a medium-security prison followed 109 treatment completers and 37 noncompleters for 2 years after release. Noncompleters, those who refused treatment or dropped out, had 6 times the rate of sexual and violent reoffending relative to completers. Among those who completed the program, however, positive evaluations of treatment change, such as quality of disclosure and enhanced victim empathy, found in posttreatment assessments did not correlate with recidivism. Furthermore, completers did not differ in their rates of recidivism from pretreatment rates predicted by the Static 99, an actuarial measure of anticipated sexual and violent recidivism. We conclude that the program did not influence propensities for sexual and violent recidivism but rather served as a prolonged screening instrument for sex offenders whose failure to comply with treatment attendance predicted higher rates of recidivism. PMID:15358934

  6. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [(11)C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [(11)C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=-0.50 to -0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  7. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [11C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [11C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33 = 6.8, P = 0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28 = 2.7, P = 0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r = −0.50 to −0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  9. Incorporating change information into sexual offender risk assessments using the violence risk scale-sexual offender version.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Christofferson, Sarah M Beggs; Grace, Randolph C; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    We examined the use of risk-change information in sexual offender risk assessments featuring the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO), a sex offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The study featured a combined international sample of 539 sex offenders followed up an average of 15.5 years post-release. Pre- and posttreatment VRS-SO ratings were amalgamated from two treated samples of sex offenders from Canada and New Zealand. Analyses focused on examinations and applications of change data and its relationship to sexual and violent recidivism. VRS-SO change scores were significantly associated with decreases in these outcome criteria with, and without, controlling for indicators of pretreatment risk (e.g., Static-99R score) and individual differences in follow-up time. Applications of logistic regression using fixed 5-year follow-ups generated estimated rates of sexual and violent recidivism at different VRS-SO score thresholds. The use of logistic regression demonstrated a clinically useful and systematic means of combining risk and change information into posttreatment risk appraisals. Implications for the use of change information in the assessment and management of sexual offender risk are discussed. PMID:24088814

  10. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. PMID:26593121

  11. Like Parent Like Child? The Role of Delayed Childrearing in Breaking the Link Between Parent’s Offending and Their Children’s Antisocial Behavior**

    PubMed Central

    Lizotte, Alan J.; Krohn, Marvin D.; Thornberry, Terence P.; Bushway, Shawn D.; Schmidt, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of parents’ history of violent offending, their age at first birth, and the interaction of the two on their adolescent children’s violent behavior. We employ intergenerational longitudinal data from the Rochester Youth Development Study to estimate parental trajectories of offending from their early adolescence through early adulthood. We show that the particular shape of the parents’ propensity of offending over time can interact with their age at first birth to protect their children from delinquency. We investigate these relationships for children at 6 and 10 years of age. We find that for some groups delaying childrearing can insulate children from their parents’ offending. PMID:26392677

  12. Rehabilitation of the Personality of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitsev, G. K.; Zaitsev, A. G.; Dmitriev, M. G.; Apal'kova, I. Iu.

    2009-01-01

    Russian youth has in recent years been increasingly involved in crime, narcotics addiction, and alcoholism, possibly due to a failure of socialization in childhood. Researchers are seeking the origins of this phenomenon and searching for ways to combat it through rehabilitation of juvenile offenders. The essential nature of social and pedagogical…

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  14. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  15. Factors associated with parenting among incarcerated juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C R; Reiner, S M; Reams, P N; Joost, T F

    1999-01-01

    In regard to the injured offender, research indicates that violent victimization represents only one facet of a constellation of associated risks and consequences, including promiscuity and adolescent parenthood. A relationship between firearm injuries and self-reported promiscuity among incarcerated juvenile offenders has previously been noted. The present study was an attempt to gain additional insight into the larger consequences of violent injuries. Information pertaining to the fathering of children was collected from 258 incarcerated male adolescents from the Richmond, Virginia, metropolitan area during a two-year period. It was hypothesized that adolescent parenting would be associated with firearm injuries. The results indicated that 20% of the juvenile offenders fathered at least one child. Analyses revealed a significant relationship between firearm injuries and increased prevalence of adolescent parenting. Continued involvement in illegal activities, as indicated by a second commitment to a juvenile correctional center, also was associated with increased prevalence of adolescent parenting, while race and involvement in drug selling or violent offending were not. The social and economic implications of these findings, particularly in terms of the health care and social service delivery systems, are discussed. PMID:10730691

  16. Legal, individual, and environmental predictors of court disposition in a sample of serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Kimonis, Eva; Steinberg, Laurence; Chassin, Laurie; Fagan, Jeffery

    2007-12-01

    Historically, the juvenile court has been expected to consider each youth's distinct rehabilitative needs in the dispositional decision-making process, rather than focusing on legal factors alone. This study examines the extent to which demographic, psychological, contextual, and legal factors, independently predict dispositional outcomes (i.e., probation vs. confinement) within two juvenile court jurisdictions (Philadelphia, Phoenix). The sample consists of 1,355 14- to 18-year-old male and female juvenile offenders adjudicated of a serious criminal offense. Results suggest that legal factors have the strongest influence on disposition in both jurisdictions. For example, a higher number of prior court referrals is associated with an increased likelihood of secure confinement in both jurisdictions. Juveniles adjudicated of violent offenses are more likely to receive secure confinement in Phoenix, but are more likely to be placed on probation in Philadelphia. Race is unrelated to dispositional outcome, but, males are consistently more likely than females to be placed in secure confinement. Importantly, individual factors (e.g., developmental maturity) generally were not powerful independent predictors of disposition. Finally, an examination of the predictors of juvenile versus adult court transfer in Phoenix indicated that males, older juveniles, and those with a violent adjudicated charge were more likely to be transferred to adult court, while juveniles scoring high on responsibility as well as those juveniles with an alcohol dependence diagnosis were more likely to be retained in juvenile court. PMID:17245634

  17. Legal, Individual, and Environmental Predictors of Court Disposition in a Sample of Serious Adolescent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Kimonis, Eva; Steinberg, Laurence; Chassin, Laurie; Fagan, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the juvenile court has been expected to consider each youth's distinct rehabilitative needs in the dispositional decision-making process, rather than focusing on legal factors alone. This study examines the extent to which demographic, psychological, contextual, and legal factors, independently predict dispositional outcomes (i.e., probation vs. confinement) within two juvenile court jurisdictions (Philadelphia, Phoenix). The sample consists of 1,355 14- to 18-year-old male and female juvenile offenders adjudicated of a serious criminal offense. Results suggest that legal factors have the strongest influence on disposition in both jurisdictions. For example, a higher number of prior court referrals is associated with an increased likelihood of secure confinement in both jurisdictions. Juveniles adjudicated of violent offenses are more likely to receive secure confinement in Phoenix, but are more likely to be placed on probation in Philadelphia. Race is unrelated to dispositional outcome, but, males are consistently more likely than females to be placed in secure confinement. Importantly, individual factors (e.g., developmental maturity) generally were not powerful independent predictors of disposition. Finally, an examination of the predictors of juvenile versus adult court transfer in Phoenix indicated that males, older juveniles, and those with a violent adjudicated charge were more likely to be transferred to adult court, while juveniles scoring high on responsibility as well as those juveniles with an alcohol dependence diagnosis were more likely to be retained in juvenile court. PMID:17245634

  18. Correlates of recidivism among adolescents who have sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Julie; Proulx, Jean

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official criminality sources in Canada. Over an 8-year follow-up period, 45% (n=158) of the participants were charged with a new criminal offense, 30% (n=104) were charged with a violent offense, and 10% (n=36) were charged with a sexual offense. Cox regression results suggest that overall, violent, and sexual recidivism can be predicted by a variety of developmental, social, and criminological factors. Paternal abandonment, childhood sexual victimization, association with significantly younger children, and having victimized a stranger were associated with a higher risk of sexual recidivism. Previous delinquency, attention deficit disorder, and childhood sexual victimization were found to increase the risk for both violent and overall recidivism. Also, the use of violence during a sex crime and victimizing a stranger were associated with violent recidivism, and school delay and association with delinquent peers were predictive of overall recidivism. The results confirm that a significant proportion of adolescents who have sexually offended pursue a criminal activity beyond adolescence, although few specialize in sexual offending. PMID:21960517

  19. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  20. Measuring victim empathy among mentally disordered offenders: validating VERA-2.

    PubMed

    Young, S; Sedgwick, O; Perkins, D; Lister, H; Southgate, K; Das, M; Kumari, V; Bishopp, D; Gudjonsson, G H

    2015-01-01

    There are very few, if any, valid and victim-specific situation empathy measures available at present for use with mentally disordered offenders. The aim of this study was to validate a modified version (VERA-2) of the Victim Empathy Response Assessment (VERA) tool which was developed earlier (Young et al., 2008) to enable victim-specific situation empathy measurement in offenders. A total of 55 mentally disordered in-patients residing in a maximum security hospital were assessed on VERA-2 as well as on measures of antisocial personality traits, global affective empathy, violent cognitions, and reported remorse for the index offence. The VERA-2 cognitive and affective empathy scales were negatively correlated with antisocial personality traits and violent cognitions, and positively related to remorse for the index offence. Global affective empathy was positively related to VERA-2 affective empathy. Participants with a history of sexual offending had significantly higher cognitive empathy than other offenders. Acceptance of violence and remorse for the index offence were the best predictors of both cognitive and affective empathy. The findings suggest that the VERA-2 is a valid instrument for measuring victim empathy among mentally disordered offenders, and may prove useful in the context of future risk assessment and outcomes in this population. PMID:25466221

  1. Effectiveness of a sex offender treatment programme: a risk band analysis.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Anna C; Bright, David A

    2011-02-01

    This article reports an evaluation of a New South Wales Department of Corrective Services custody-based treatment programme for adult male sexual offenders. A risk band analysis was used to compare observed and predicted sexual and violent recidivism rates in a sample of 117 treated and released offenders. Risk bands and predicted recidivism were determined using the Static-99 risk assessment measure. Results demonstrated that during an average follow-up period of 3.75 years, observed sexual recidivism rates were lower than Static-99 predictions for the overall sample (8.5% vs. 26%). The same pattern was observed for violent recidivism (12.8% vs. 36%). At each Static-99 level of risk (low, low-moderate, moderate-high, and high), observed sexual and violent recidivism rates were lower than predicted rates. These findings were consistent with the general consensus that well-implemented cognitive-behavioural treatment can have a positive effect on offending behaviour. PMID:20081095

  2. Anxiety, depression, impulsivity and substance misuse in violent and non-violent adolescent boys in detention in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Zhang, Yingdong; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Changjian; Cao, Liping; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-05-30

    The present investigation aims to identify the factors which differentiate violent from non-violent juvenile offenders, with a particular emphasis on the association between internalizing psychiatric morbidity (i.e. anxiety and depression), impulsivity, substance misuse, and violence. A total of 323 incarcerated male juvenile offenders from one of three Youth Detention Centers (YDCs) in China were recruited between August 2007 and November 2008. Interviews were conducted by trained psychiatrists using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), and the Birleson Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) to assess impulsivity, anxiety and depression, respectively. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was also used to assess psychiatric diagnoses. Violent offenders had significantly higher BIS-11 total scores, and attention and nonplanning subscale scores (p<0.05). In the multiple logistic regression model, substance use disorders (SUD) and BIS-11 total scores independently predicted violence. Prison-based treatment services designed to reduce impulsivity and substance misuse in juvenile detention facilities should be prioritized. PMID:24612970

  3. Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas

    2004-04-01

    Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers. PMID:15208896

  4. Violent Neighborhoods, Violent Kids. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiken, Marcia R.

    This document reports on findings that describe the characteristics of delinquent males and the resources available to them for social skills building in the Washington, D.C. area. The study looked at the types of delinquent behavior found among boys living in the three most violent neighborhoods in Washington, and the role played by families,…

  5. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  6. The Efficacy of the Use of Coercion in Getting DWI Offenders into Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) offenders (N=151) identified as alcoholics were coerced to seek treatment for their alcoholism. A follow-up study six months later revealed that these coerced alcoholics did no better or no worse than other alcoholics entering treatment without coercion. (Author/RC)

  7. The biasing effect of the "sexually violent predator" label on legal decisions.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; Gongola, Jennifer; Krauss, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Public fear has driven legislation designed to identify and exclude sexual offenders from society, culminating in sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes, in which a sex offender who has served his prison sentence is hospitalized indefinitely if a jury determines that he is likely to reoffend as a result of a mental disorder. Jurors rarely vote not to commit a previously-convicted sex offender as an SVP. This study tests whether the mere label of "sexually violent predator" affects these legal decisions. Venire jurors (n=161) were asked to decide whether an individual who had been incarcerated for 16years should be released on parole. The individual was either labeled as a.) a sexually violent predator or b.) a convicted felon, and all other information was identical between the conditions. Jurors were over twice as likely to deny parole to the SVP compared to the felon, even though they did not consider him any more dangerous or any more likely to reoffend. Demographic variables did not moderate this finding. However, jurors' desire to 'get revenge' and to 'make the offender pay', as measured by Gerber and Jackson's (2013) Just Deserts Scale, did significantly relate to decisions to deny parole. These findings suggest that jurors' decisions in SVP hearings are driven by legally impermissible considerations, and that the mere label of "sexually violent predator" induces bias into the decision making process. PMID:27206709

  8. Reexamining the Correlates of Adolescent Violent Victimization: The Importance of Exposure, Guardianship, and Target Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Miller, Holly Ventura; Pangrac, Rebekah

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relative contributions of various theoretical constructs to violent victimization by operationalizing multiple measures of exposure to motivated offenders, guardianship, and target characteristics. Using a nationally representative sample of American adolescents, we conducted principal components factor analysis and…

  9. Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri

    2012-08-01

    The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs. PMID:22849417

  10. Comparison of two risk assessment instruments for sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Looman, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The current research examines the predictive validity of the Static-99 and the SORAG in predicting sexual and violent recidivism among a sample of 258 treated high-risk sexual offenders. While the SORAG was found to have moderate predictive accuracy for both sexual and violent recidivism over a 5-year follow-up period, the Static-99 was found to only predict sexual recidivism. As well, the actual recidivism rates in the current sample were compared to the published risk percentages for each of the instruments. For both the Static-99 and the SORAG the current sample re-offended at a lower rate than expected. Possible explanations for this finding are discussed. PMID:16598660

  11. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending. PMID:14695017

  12. The Effects of Childhood Maltreatment on Violent Injuries and Premature Death During Young Adulthood Among Urban High-Risk Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chioun; White, Helene R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for violent injuries and premature death in young adulthood and whether these associations are mediated by adolescent heavy drinking, hard drug use, hard drug selling, and violent offending. Design A prospective longitudinal study of boys followed from childhood into young adulthood. Setting Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Participants A total 1,009 men of the Pittsburgh Youth Study Main Outcome Measures Premature deaths between ages 18 and 38 from the Social Security Death Index and self-reports of violent injuries inflicted by gunshot or knife between ages 18 and 28. Results Young men who experienced childhood maltreatment, compared to their counterparts who did not experience it, had a greater risk of violent injuries (relative risk [RR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–2.35) and death (hazard ratio, [HR], 2.85; 95% CI, 1.37–5.93) during young adulthood. Adolescent violent offending and hard drug selling explained the association between childhood maltreatment and violent injuries, and violent offending partially accounted for the association between childhood maltreatment and premature death. Although adolescent violent offending predicted both outcomes, maltreated boys still had an increased risk of premature death (HR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.21–5.34) after accounting for their adolescent violence. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment significantly predicts premature death and violent injuries during young adulthood. These associations are partially explained by adolescent involvement in violence and drug dealing. Targeted interventions for maltreated boys to reduce their involvement in adolescent deviant behaviors may help decrease their risks for later serious injuries and premature death. PMID:22566518

  13. "Police Wouldn't Give You No Help": Female Offenders on Reporting Sexual Assault to Police.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Slocum, Lee Ann; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2016-03-01

    Sexual assault remains one of the most underreported violent crimes. When victims report, they often are dissatisfied with the police response. The factors influencing one's decision to invoke the law have been widely examined. However, less research examines (a) how the victim's criminality affects this decision and (b) women offenders' characterization of their reporting decisions. We use mixed methods to explore the factors related to an offender's decision to report sexual victimization to police and consider their descriptions of police response when they do report the crime. Our findings provide insight into the gendered relations between offenders and police. PMID:26354039

  14. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  15. When love hurts: assessing the intersectionality of ethnicity, socio-economic status, parental connectedness, child abuse, and gender attitudes in juvenile violent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Lahlah, Esmah; Lens, Kim M E; Bogaerts, Stefan; van der Knaap, Leontien M

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have not yet reached agreement about the validity of several competing explanations that seek to explain ethnic differences in juvenile violent offending. Ethnicity cannot solely explain why boys with an ethnic minority background commit more (violent) crimes. By assessing the intersectionality of structural, cultural and individual considerations, both the independent effects as well as the interplay between different factors can be examined. This study shows that aforementioned factors cumulatively play a role in severe violent offending, with parental connectedness and child abuse having the strongest associations. However, since most variables interact and ethnicity is associated with those specific factors, a conclusion to be drawn is that ethnicity may be relevant as an additional variable predicting severe violent offending although indirectly. PMID:23932431

  16. Examining cortical thickness in male and female DWI offenders.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Jens; Tremblay, Jacques; Nadeau, Louise; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Lepage, Martin; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-04-21

    Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI offenders show cortical thickness anomalies that differ from those in female DWI offenders, when compared to their respective controls. Moderating role of sex and alcohol use on DWI status was also investigated. Sixty-one DWI offenders (29 male; 32 female) and 58 controls (29 male; 29 female) completed an anatomical brain scan and assessments on other relevant characteristics. Only male DWI offenders had reduced cortical thickness in the right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region involved in cognitive control. Lower cortical thickness was associated with increased odds of DWI status only among males who have not engaged in very hazardous pattern of alcohol misuse in the previous 12 months. Thus, for these male DWI drivers, interventions that could impact PCC could be most advantageous. Continued multidimensional sex analysis of the neural characteristics of male and female DWI offenders is warranted. PMID:27016386

  17. Adolescent Sexual Offenders: The Relationship Between Typology and Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Chi Meng Chu; Thomas, Stuart D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M follow-up = 56.99 months, SD follow-up = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M follow-up = 67.83 months, SD follow-up = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders. PMID:20458125

  18. Adolescent sexual offenders: the relationship between typology and recidivism.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2010-06-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M(follow-up) = 56.99 months, SD(follow-up) = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M (follow-up) = 67.83 months, SD(follow-up) = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders. PMID:20458125

  19. Clinical Assessment of Psychopathology in Violent and Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Linda M.; And Others

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach test are frequently used in juvenile justice settings to assess current psychological functioning and to predict future behavior. The Exner Comprehensive System, which standardized the Rorschach, made possible a comparison of the Rorschach and the MMPI in an investigation of…

  20. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Fimińska, Zuzanna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Method We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder) on outcomes. Results Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949) after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%), and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613) with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied—substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:27196309

  1. Nepotistic patterns of violent psychopathy: evidence for adaptation?

    PubMed

    Krupp, Daniel Brian; Sewall, Lindsay A; Lalumière, Martin L; Sheriff, Craig; Harris, Grant T

    2012-01-01

    Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individual's inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to protect relatives. Thus, mental disorder and adaptation accounts of psychopathy generate opposing hypotheses: psychopathy should be associated with an increase in the victimization of kin in the former account but not in the latter. Contrary to the mental disorder hypothesis, we show here in a sample of 289 violent offenders that variation in psychopathy predicts a decrease in the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders; that is, psychopathy predicts an increased likelihood of harming non-relatives. Because nepotistic inhibition in violence may be caused by dispersal or kin discrimination, we examined the effects of psychopathy on (1) the dispersal of offenders and their kin and (2) sexual assault frequency (as a window on kin discrimination). Although psychopathy was negatively associated with coresidence with kin and positively associated with the commission of sexual assault, it remained negatively associated with the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders after removing cases of offenders who had coresided with kin and cases of sexual assault from the analyses. These results stand in contrast to models positing psychopathy as a pathology, and provide support for the hypothesis that psychopathy reflects an evolutionary strategy largely favoring the exploitation of non-relatives. PMID:22973244

  2. A practical guide for the evaluation of sexual recidivism risk in mentally retarded sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Phenix, Amy; Sreenivasan, Shoba

    2009-01-01

    Although sex offender risk assessment has progressed greatly over the past decade and a half since most states implemented the sexually violent predator/sexually dangerous person (SVP/SDP) laws, there continues to be limited applicability of such models to intellectually disabled sex offenders because there has been no empirical validation. However, SVP/SDP civil commitment programs have reported increased admission of developmentally disabled sex offenders. Differentiating sexual deviance, the primary factor predisposing most individuals to criminal sexual violence, from impulsive, immature, and inappropriate behavior stemming from cognitive deficits presents yet another challenge to the clinician tasked with performing such evaluations. This article reviews actuarial risk models and their limited applicability to mentally retarded sex offenders and offers a conceptual method of assessing the risk of recidivism in intellectually disabled sex offenders under SVP/SDP evaluation. PMID:20018999

  3. Juvenile Sexual Homicide Offenders: Thirty-Year Follow-Up Investigation.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Sexual homicide by a juvenile offender occurs approximately 9 times per year in the United States. Little is known about the post-incarceration adjustment of these offenders. The current study was designed to follow up 30 years later on a sample of eight adolescent sexual homicide offenders who were convicted of murder and sentenced to adult prison. The results indicated that six out of eight offenders were released from prison, and their mean sentence length was 12 years and 2 months. Four offenders out of the six released were rearrested, but none of the arrests were for homicide, sexual or otherwise. The post-incarceration arrests were for violent, drug-related, and property crimes, as well as possession of a firearm. Three out of the four recidivists have been recommitted to prison. Implications concerning the comparability of results to past research, time served in prison, and types of post-release offenses are discussed. PMID:25245207

  4. The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice conferences: focusing on juvenile offenders' perceptions in Australian reintegrative shaming experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Joo; Gerber, Jurg

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences through the eyes of juvenile offenders. In Australia, Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) are based on Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming. Previous studies, although showing that RISE reported high levels of victim satisfaction and positive changes in the attitudes of offenders, also demonstrated that it has different outcomes for juvenile offenders depending on the type of offense with which they were charged. However, the effectiveness of RISE in terms of the offenders' perceptions has not been addressed, and the impact of the offenders' perceptions about RISE still remains under investigation. Using Australian data from RISE between 1995 and 1999, this article examines juvenile offenders' perceptions on preventing reoffending, repaying the victim and society, and the degree of repentance. The data were taken from interviews with juvenile offenders to measure their perceptions after the court or RISE processing. A comparison of standard court processing effects and RISE on juvenile offending, including property crime, shoplifting, and violent offenses, was undertaken. The results from this study were somewhat inconsistent with previous research. In this study, there was no significant relationship between RJ conference and the offenders' own perceptions on the prevention of future offending. However, it was found that there were treatment effects on repaying the victim, repaying society, and the degree of feeling repentance, and that younger offenders wanted to repay the victim/society and feel repentance. PMID:21824891

  5. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort. PMID:23818657

  6. Posthospitalization Outcomes for Psychiatric Sex Offenders: Comparing Two Treatment Protocols.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jill D; McVay, Lee Ann; Becker, Judith V

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of safe offender strategies (SOS) in comparison with relapse prevention (RP) in a sample of 91 inpatient males in a secure psychiatric setting. All men evidenced a history of violent sexual offending and were diagnosed with serious psychiatric disorders and/or intellectual disabilities. Participants who received SOS (n= 58) and RP (n= 33) were followed from 6 to 36 months post release. SOS clients were significantly less likely to be arrested (0%) or rehospitalized (5.2%) than RP clients (9% arrested; 54.5% rehospitalized). In addition, SOS clients were more likely to transition continuously to less restrictive alternatives, with no returns to high security, in comparison with RP clients. The authors discuss implications for use of SOS, a treatment that facilitates skills development and affects global self-regulatory functioning, particularly in sex offenders with serious mental illness or intellectual impairment, in promoting community reintegration and limiting returns to psychiatric settings. PMID:26205684

  7. Interpreting multiple risk scales for sex offenders: evidence for averaging.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Robert J B; Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska; Biedermann, Jürgen; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    This study tested 3 decision rules for combining actuarial risk instruments for sex offenders into an overall evaluation of risk. Based on a 9-year follow-up of 940 adult male sex offenders, we found that Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), Static-99R, and Static-2002R predicted sexual, violent, and general recidivism and provided incremental information for the prediction of all 3 outcomes. Consistent with previous findings, the incremental effect of RRASOR was positive for sexual recidivism but negative for violent and general recidivism. Averaging risk ratios was a promising approach to combining these risk scales, showing good calibration between predicted (E) and observed (O) recidivism rates (E/O index = 0.93, 95% CI [0.79, 1.09]) and good discrimination (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI [0.69, 0.77]) for sexual recidivism. As expected, choosing the lowest (least risky) risk tool resulted in underestimated sexual recidivism rates (E/O = 0.67, 95% CI [0.57, 0.79]) and choosing the highest (riskiest) resulted in overestimated risk (E/O = 1.37, 95% CI [1.17, 1.60]). For the prediction of violent and general recidivism, the combination rules provided similar or lower discrimination compared with relying solely on the Static-99R or Static-2002R. The current results support an averaging approach and underscore the importance of understanding the constructs assessed by violence risk measures. PMID:23730829

  8. The Marginally Employed Offender: A Unique Phenomenon among Released Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nally, John; Lockwood, Susan; Knutson, Katie; Ho, Taiping

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to explore the characteristics of marginally employed (earnings less than $5,000 per year) ex-offenders. Findings from this study include the following: (1) The number of employed offenders varied from 47.7 percent of recently released offenders in 2006 to 49.8 percent of recently released offenders in 2009; (2)…

  9. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  10. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  11. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood. PMID:27222141

  12. Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard B.

    The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…

  13. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  14. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  15. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  16. Treating Traumatized Offenders and Veterans by Means of Narrative Exposure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Violent offenders and soldiers are at high risk of developing appetitive aggression and trauma-related disorders, which reduce successful integration into societies. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) for forensic offender rehabilitation (FORNET) aims at reducing symptoms of traumatic stress (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder) and controlling readiness for aggressive behavior. It follows the logic of the evidence-based trauma-focused NET with special emphasis on violent acts in past and future behavior. In NET, the therapist guides the client by means of exposure through his traumatic experiences in chronological order linking the negative emotions, such as fear, shame, and disgust, to the past context and integrating the traumatic experiences into the autobiographical memory. During FORNET, we also encourage verbalization of any positive emotions and experiences linked to past violent and aggressive behaviors. This recall of positive emotions (linked to the there and then) is contrasted with feelings that emerge during the narration process (here and now). In this way, the therapist helps the client to anchor the whole range of sensory and bodily experiences, cognitions, and emotions to the contextual cues. Over the process of the therapy, we support the client to begin the role change from a violent offender to a citizen, who is capable of living a non-violent and socially adjusted life. Finally, the client develops visions and wishes for the future to support a successful integration into society. Several studies with veterans and violent youths have proven the feasibility of FORNET, found evidence of a positive outcome (recovered mental health, fewer offenses committed, less drug intake, and improved integration into civil society), and highlighted the importance of addressing the whole range of experiences while treating violent offenders or veterans. PMID:26157395

  17. Treating Traumatized Offenders and Veterans by Means of Narrative Exposure Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Violent offenders and soldiers are at high risk of developing appetitive aggression and trauma-related disorders, which reduce successful integration into societies. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) for forensic offender rehabilitation (FORNET) aims at reducing symptoms of traumatic stress (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder) and controlling readiness for aggressive behavior. It follows the logic of the evidence-based trauma-focused NET with special emphasis on violent acts in past and future behavior. In NET, the therapist guides the client by means of exposure through his traumatic experiences in chronological order linking the negative emotions, such as fear, shame, and disgust, to the past context and integrating the traumatic experiences into the autobiographical memory. During FORNET, we also encourage verbalization of any positive emotions and experiences linked to past violent and aggressive behaviors. This recall of positive emotions (linked to the there and then) is contrasted with feelings that emerge during the narration process (here and now). In this way, the therapist helps the client to anchor the whole range of sensory and bodily experiences, cognitions, and emotions to the contextual cues. Over the process of the therapy, we support the client to begin the role change from a violent offender to a citizen, who is capable of living a non-violent and socially adjusted life. Finally, the client develops visions and wishes for the future to support a successful integration into society. Several studies with veterans and violent youths have proven the feasibility of FORNET, found evidence of a positive outcome (recovered mental health, fewer offenses committed, less drug intake, and improved integration into civil society), and highlighted the importance of addressing the whole range of experiences while treating violent offenders or veterans. PMID:26157395

  18. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. PMID:25285642

  19. Understanding the female offender.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female offender. Cauffman begins by reviewing historical trends in arrest rates, processing, and juvenile justice system experiences of female offenders. She also describes the adult outcomes commonly observed for female offenders and points out that the long-term consequences of offending for females are often more pronounced than those for males, with effects that extend to the next generation. She also considers common patterns of offending in girls, as well as factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood of offending. She then reviews what is known about effective treatment strategies for female offenders. Female delinquents have a high frequency of mental health problems, suggesting that effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems. Once girls with mental health problems come into the juvenile justice system, says Cauffman, diverting them to community-based treatment programs would not only improve their individual outcomes, but allow the juvenile justice system to focus on cases that present the greatest risk to public safety. Evidence is emerging that gender-specific treatment methods can be effective for female offenders, especially when treatment targets multiple aspects of offenders' lives, including family and peer environments. But it is also becoming clear that female offenders are not a homogeneous group and that treatment ultimately should be tailored to suit individual needs defined more specifically than by gender alone. Despite myriad differences between male and female offending, many of the primary causes of

  20. Why Doesn't He Leave? Relationship Continuity and Satisfaction among Male Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Kris; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the extensive literature on women's decisions to leave violent relationships, there is little research examining relationship continuity from the offending male's perspective. Similarly, research exploring relationship satisfaction in men arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) is lacking, despite the fact that dissatisfaction…

  1. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24556314

  2. Violent crime and victim compensation: implications for social justice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hayden P

    2006-06-01

    Restorative justice offers several innovative methods designed to heal the injury that the offender may have caused to the victim. One of these innovative methods is victim compensation, a form of income redistribution designed to redistribute wealth from offenders to victims of crime. Restitution, particularly through the Victim of Crime Act (VOCA), is a needs-based form of justice designed to assist the most needy victims of violent crime. Recent studies suggest that while state-level compensation programs may target poor, young, African American men, compensation at the national level tends to be received more by older, White women who experienced domestic violence. The author suggests that this disparity between state and local resource distribution in the allocation of victim compensation is a reflection of the ideological differences between the established theoretical frameworks of liberalism and radical feminism. PMID:16761856

  3. The Utility of the YLS/CMI-SV for Assessing Youth Offenders in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; Lee, Yirong; Zeng, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory–Screening Version (YLS/CMI-SV) is designed to provide a preliminary estimate of the level of risk for antisocial behaviors as well as an indication of areas for intervention in youth offenders. This study examined the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI-SV for violent, nonviolent, and general recidivism in a sample of 3,264 youth offenders within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,764.5 days; SDfollow-up = 521.5). Cox regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed that the YLS/CMI-SV is significantly predictive of general, violent, and nonviolent recidivism for the male youth offenders, but there were mixed results for the female youth offenders. Overall, these results indicated that the YLS/CMI-SV is a useful measure for assessing the levels of risk for male youth offenders, and more investigation is needed to determine the suitability of the YLS/CMI-SV for the female youth offenders. Its implications for clinical practice and policy are discussed. PMID:25983353

  4. Factors Associated with Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos; Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Cabral de Oliveira, Antônio César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify prevalence and factors associated with violent behavior among adolescents in Aracaju and Metropolitan region. The study included 2207 adolescents (16.03 ± 1.08 years old) enrolled in high schools of the State Public Network. Violent behavior was identified from question 14 of the YRBS-2007 questionnaire with responses categorized as “never” and “one or more times.” Higher prevalence in males in relation to risk factors for adoption of violent behavior was found: cigarette consumption (7.3%), alcohol consumption (39.1%), and marijuana use (3.4%). Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression with hierarchical model at two levels: (a) sociodemographic variables and (b) behavioral variables. For both sexes, association between violent behavior and cigarette smoking (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 2.06–6.92 and OR = 1.99, CI 95% = 1.04 to 3.81, male and female, resp.) and alcohol consumption (OR = 3.38, CI 95% = 2.22 to 5.16 and OR = 1.83, CI 95% = 1.28 to 2.63, male and female, resp.) was verified. It was concluded that violent behavior is associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes among adolescents. PMID:25548796

  5. Domestic violence exposure in Colombian adolescents: pathways to violent and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Roberto; Kliewer, Wendy; Williams, Larry

    2006-04-01

    Associations between domestic violence exposure and violent and prosocial behavior were tested in a sample of Colombian adolescents, with attention to impulsivity and substance use problems as mediators of these associations. A representative sample of 1,152 school youths and a convenience group of 148 juvenile offenders aged 11-19 years participated. Results using structural equation modeling showed indirect effects of impulsivity and substance use problems between family violence (i.e., exposure to interparental violence) and violent behavior. Maltreatment (i.e., harsh parenting) was directly associated with violent behavior, though impulsivity and substance use problems also mediated this relation. Maltreatment directly and inversely contributed to prosocial behavior but there was no evidence of mediation. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive and behavioral factors that explain violent and prosocial behavior among Colombian youths. Limitations and implications for prevention are described. PMID:16612821

  6. He Sends Rain upon the Wicked: A Panel Study of the Influence of Religiosity on Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Christopher J.; Burek, Melissa W.; Clark-Miller, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates low religiosity as a predictor of violent victimization. The theoretical framework the authors present here posits that religiosity should help structure daily activities in such a way as to (a) limit exposure to offenders by encouraging contact with peers who are less deviant, (b) lessen one's target suitability by…

  7. The impact of prison-based treatment on sex offender recidivism: evidence from Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Duwe, Grant; Goldman, Robin A

    2009-09-01

    Using a retrospective quasi-experimental design, this study evaluates the effectiveness of prison-based treatment by examining recidivism outcomes among 2,040 sex offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 1990 and 2003 (average follow-up period of 9.3 years). To reduce observed selection bias, the authors used propensity score matching to create a comparison group of 1,020 untreated sex offenders who were not significantly different from the 1,020 treated offenders. In addition, intent-to-treat analyses and the Rosenbaum bounds method were used to test the sensitivity of the findings to treatment refuser and unobserved selection bias. Results from the Cox regression analyses revealed that participating in treatment significantly reduced the hazard ratio for rearrest by 27% for sexual recidivism, 18% for violent recidivism, and 12% for general recidivism. These findings are consistent with the growing body of research supporting the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for sex offenders. PMID:19531811

  8. Family or Caregiver Instability, Parental Attachment, and the Relationship to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    PubMed

    Felizzi, Marc V

    2015-01-01

    A violent or unstable home life-characterized by caregivers physically or sexually abusing children, physical violence in the home, homelessness, and other factors-and disrupted parental attachment are examined in this secondary data analysis for their possible relationship to juvenile sex offending. Parent or caregiver instability is measured by a demographic questionnaire administered to participants. Parental attachment is measured by the Inventory of Peer and Personal Attachment. The population included 502 adjudicated juvenile male sexual and nonsexual offenders in a Midwest state who responded to questionnaires in order to examine juvenile offending antecedents. The highest correlated parent or caregiver instability variables to juvenile sex offending status were multiple relocations or homelessness, children placed out of the home, slapping or punching in the home, and sexual abuse victimization. The quality of parental attachment had little impact on the respondents' offense status. PMID:26340072

  9. Protective strengths, risk, and recidivism in a sample of known sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Holly A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between protective strengths and risk, as assessed by the Inventory of Offender Risk, Needs, and Strengths, was examined with respect to the recidivism rate and type of reoffense in a sample of 110 adult males incarcerated for sexual offenses. The sample included offenders who were completing a prison-based sexual offense treatment program during the last 18 months of their incarceration. Approximately 40% of the sample recidivated in some way, including 6% sexually, within the 6-year follow-up time. Self-perceived protective strengths were significantly valid predictors for sexual, violent, and general recidivism. In regression analyses, protective strengths accounted for a unique portion of the variance in sexual recidivism while controlling for overall risk. Consistent with research on the importance of protective strengths with other offender types, the continued study and inclusion of protective strengths in the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders is warranted. PMID:25567534

  10. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. Violent patients in the emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Citrome, L; Volavka, J

    1999-12-01

    Violent or threatening behavior is a common reason for presentation to the ED. Patients with aggressive behavior must first be assessed for the possibility of comorbid medical conditions. Acute withdrawal from alcohol or sedatives needs to be ruled out. Short-term sedation with lorazepam is a safe and effective choice for managing patients with acute agitation. The use of typical neuroleptics may lead to side effects, such as akathisia, which may in turn precipitate additional agitation. This may be obviated with the introduction of IM preparations of atypical antipsychotics. PMID:10623971

  12. Outcomes in a community sex offender treatment program: a comparison between polygraphed and matched non-polygraphed offenders.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia F; Hoke, Stephen E; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2007-12-01

    This study compared a group of 104 adult male sex offenders who received community cognitive-behavioral treatment, correctional supervision, and periodic polygraph compliance exams with a matched group of 104 sex offenders who received the same type of treatment and supervision services but no polygraph exams. Polygraph exams focused on whether participants were following their conditions of community supervision and treatment and had avoided committing new sexual offenses. The two groups were exact pair-wise matched on three variables: (1) Static-99 risk score (Hanson & Thornton 2000, Law and Human Behavior, 24, 119-136), (2) status as a completer of prison sex offender treatment, and (3) date placed in the community. At fixed 5-year follow-up periods, the number of individuals in the polygraph group charged with committing a new non-sexual violent offense was significantly lower than in the no polygraph group (2.9% versus 11.5%). However, there were no significant between-group differences for the number of individuals charged for new sexual (5.8% versus 6.7%), any sexual or violent (8.7% versus 16.3%), or any criminal offense (39.4% versus 34.6%). The results are discussed in terms of their clinical and research implications. PMID:17914673

  13. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  14. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. PMID:26233829

  15. Understanding the relationship between self-reported offending and official criminal charges across early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Amanda B.; Hill, Karl G.; Kim, B.K. Elizabeth; Nevell, Alyssa; Hawkins, J. David; Farrington, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been very little research examining criminal careers in adulthood using both self-report data and official records. Aims The aims of this paper are to use self-reports and official criminal records to explore (1) the prevalences and frequencies of offending behaviour in adulthood; (2) continuity in offending behaviour across the life course; and (3) predictors of official court charges in adulthood. Method Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a longitudinal study of 808 participants followed from childhood into early adulthood. Data from ages 21 through 33 are used to examine criminal careers. Results Prevalences of offending behaviour decreased with age, while frequency among offenders remained stable or increased. There was significant continuity in offending from adolescence to adulthood in both self-reports and official records, especially for violence. Violent offences were most likely to result in a court charge. Even after controlling for self-reported frequency of offending, demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, and poverty) were significantly related to a court charge. Conclusions Self-report and official records, both separately and together, provide valuable information for understanding criminal careers in adulthood, especially with regard to offending continuity across the life course and predicting the likelihood of a court charge. PMID:25294157

  16. Identification With a Violent and Sadistic Aggressor: A Rorschach Study of Criminal Debt Collectors.

    PubMed

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Grønnerød, Cato; Hartmann, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined personality functioning in a group of 27 incarcerated criminal debt collectors as assessed by the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ). To explore whether these individuals represent a distinct subgroup within the violent offender population, we compared them to a group of incarcerated homicide offenders (n = 23) without a previous history of significant violence and a group who had committed less serious violent crimes (n = 21). Results revealed significantly more Rorschach indicators of past trauma (Trauma Content Index), aggressive urges (Aggressive Potential) and identification (Aggressive Content) among the debt collectors than the 2 other groups. In addition, debt collectors displayed significantly more interpersonal interest (Sum Human content), and significantly higher scores on the PCL-R. Our findings suggest that the debt collector might be viewed as a hostile variant of psychopathy. PMID:26226052

  17. Self-harm in young offenders.

    PubMed

    Borschmann, Rohan; Coffey, Carolyn; Moran, Paul; Hearps, Stephen; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kinner, Stuart A; Patton, George

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicidal behavior in 515 young offenders (mean age 17.3 years, SD = 1.7) serving community-based orders (CBOs; n = 242) or custodial sentences (n = 273) in Victoria, Australia, are described. Results from structured interviews showed that 83 (16.1%) participants reported self-harming in the previous 6 months, and this was more common among those serving custodial sentences than those serving CBOs (19.4% vs. 12.4%; OR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.74-5.55). Multiple incidents were more common in females and 24% (95% CI: 19-39) of participants who had self-harmed reported having done so with suicidal intent. Self-harm was associated with recent bullying victimization, expulsion from school, past year violent victimization, cannabis dependence, and risk-taking behavior in the preceding year. The epidemiological profile of self-harm in this population appears to be distinct from that seen in the general population. Young offenders who self-harm are a vulnerable group with high rates of psychiatric morbidity, substance misuse problems, and social risk factors. They may benefit from targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, delivered both within-and during the transition from-the youth justice system. PMID:24773535

  18. Comparing Sexual Offender Treatment Efficacy: Mainstream Sexual Offenders and Sexual Offenders with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This paper investigates the efficacy of a treatment program for sexual offenders with special needs in comparison to treatment outcomes for mainstream sexual offenders. Follow-up data is also presented for the group of offenders with special needs. Method: Participants from the two groups were matched on four variables (risk category,…

  19. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  20. Protective factors and recidivism in accused juveniles who sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Klein, Verena; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Köhler, Nora; Briken, Peer

    2015-02-01

    To date, research on juvenile sexual offender recidivism has tended to focus on risk factors rather than protective factors. Therefore, very little is known about protective factors in the population of juveniles who sexually offended. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of protective factors on non-recidivism in a sample of accused juveniles who sexually offended (N = 71) in a mean follow-up period of 47.84 months. Protective factors were measured with the Protective Factor Scale of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), and the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF). Criminal charges served as recidivism data. The internal scale of the SAPROF, in particular, yielded moderate predictive accuracy for the absence of violent and general recidivism, though not for the absence of sexual recidivism. No protective factor of the SAVRY did reveal predictive accuracy regarding various types of the absence of recidivism. Furthermore, protective factors failed to achieve any significant incremental predictive accuracy beyond that captured by the SAVRY risk factors alone. The potential therapeutic benefit of protective factors in juvenile sexual offender treatment is discussed. PMID:25351199

  1. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  2. Vocabulary used by sexual offenders: meaning and implications.

    PubMed

    Muchoki, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how some sexual violence offenders use culturally acquired vocabularies to describe episodes of rape. The paper is based on an analysis of 12 accounts obtained from death-row inmates in Kenya who had been convicted of violent crimes and sexual violence. The accounts were elicited while conducting a larger study to explore the individual motivations, and social and cultural factors that predispose men to acts of rape. Findings suggest that some sex offenders are immersed in normative cultural expectations about sexuality and gender and that, within this framework, they endeavour to create a picture that shifts the blame from themselves to their victims. They attempt to foster the belief that women and girls, in one way or another, provoke rape. Such vocabularies are used to trivialise and neutralise instances of rape within the wider society. PMID:20721766

  3. Weapon-Carrying at Swiss Schools? A Gender-Specific Typology in Context of Victim and Offender Related Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel N.; Klingemann, Harald K.-H.

    2004-01-01

    After reviewing prevalence rates, this work tries to identify gender specific groups in which weapon-carrying occurs in the context of victim and offender related violent behaviours. [kappa]-Means cluster and logistic regression analyses were calculated, based on a cross-sectional survey of a national representative sample of 1549 15-year-olds as…

  4. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  5. Predicting Future Reconviction in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: The Predictive Efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV, and the HCR-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Nicola S.; Fitzgerald, Suzanne; Taylor, John; MacCulloch, Malcolm J.; Snowden, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate predictions of future reconviction, including those for violent crimes, have been shown to be greatly aided by the use of formal risk assessment instruments. However, it is unclear as to whether these instruments would also be predictive in a sample of offenders with intellectual disabilities. In this study, the authors have shown that…

  6. Violent female youth: an examination of instrumental violence, psychopathy, and offense characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Erin L; Woodworth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Female youth are a strikingly under-studied population within the accumulated forensic literature, yet they represent a significant and growing population within forensic contexts. Despite research demonstrating a relationship between the presence of psychopathic traits and instrumental violence among adult offenders, researchers have only recently begun to examine this relationship among juvenile offenders. Our investigation of this potential relationship among a large sample of female offenders (N = 145) who had committed a violent offense revealed that youths with more psychopathic traits were not significantly more likely to use instrumental violence in the commission of their crimes than those with less psychopathic traits. The findings are discussed in terms of offense severity, and a comprehensive overview of female youths' specific motivations and offense characteristics are provided. Research directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24470358

  7. Discriminating among incarcerated sexual offenders by their perception of interpersonal problems and experience-related anxiety.

    PubMed

    Eher, R; Fruehwald, S; Aigner, M; Schmidl-Mohl, B; Frottier, P; Dwyer, M; Gutierrez-Lobos, K

    1999-06-01

    Fifty-seven (57) incarcerated sex offenders were assessed for their capacity to perceive interpersonal difficulties and experience related anxiety. The findings suggest that the men who have sexually transgressed against minors view themselves as easily exploitable and nurturant, and those who have sexually aggressed against adult females demonstrated minimal regard for external negative views of them. These two groups did not differ significantly from each other along social avoidance and non assertiveness dimensions. Assertiveness was found to decrease as a consequence of multiple incarcerations in both groups. Furthermore, perception of interpersonal difficulties and experience related anxiety in our study correctly classified 72% of high and low violent sexual offenders. PMID:10489086

  8. Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence.

    PubMed

    Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie

    2016-06-01

    Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices. PMID:26780106

  9. Diagnostic profiles of civilly committed sexual offenders in Illinois and other reporting jurisdictions: what we know so far.

    PubMed

    Jumper, Shan; Babula, Mark; Casbon, Todd

    2012-09-01

    The records of 377 men civilly committed under Illinois' Sexually Violent Persons Act were compared with similar published samples from seven other states. Civilly committed sexual offenders in Illinois were more likely to be diagnosed with any personality disorder and more likely to exceed the cutoff score for psychopathy than similar offenders in other states. The authors then present a national composite of demographic, victim, and diagnostic information on men referred or pursued for civil commitment in eight states to better understand how these individuals differ from sex offender populations in correctional settings. Results suggest that there may be less victim specificity in sexually violent person (SVP) populations, as although nearly 50% of SVPs are diagnosed with pedophilia, 80% had committed at least one sexual offense against a child or adolescent victim. Across all samples, 72.7% of SVPs were diagnosed with a personality disorder, with antisocial personality disorder the most prevalent. PMID:21771777

  10. Effectiveness of sex offender treatment for psychopathic sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Doren, Dennis M; Yates, Pamela M

    2008-04-01

    Meta-analyses have suggested that sexual offender treatment (SOT) completion is associated with lowered sexual recidivism rates for convicted sexual offenders. The paucity of properly designed studies allows for the alternative explanation of less recidivism among treated samples as reflecting that lower risk offenders disproportionately self-select into treatment. A test of the "self-selection explanation" can occur by investigating treatment effect on known high-risk offenders. Psychopathy correlates with increased sexual recidivism risk, such that an exploration of the SOT effect on psychopathic offenders could clarify the accuracy of the self-selection hypothesis. Additionally, the debated degree to which psychopaths are treatable might obtain clarification by a research review. This article examines empirical findings concerning the effectiveness of SOT for psychopathic sexual offenders. Ten studies were found to meet the minimal quality standards used, stemming from only four data sources. Shortcomings of existing research precluded clear conclusions, though trends in the data are delineated. PMID:17615428

  11. Intimate partner violence: Are the risk factors similar for men and women, and similar to other types of offending?

    PubMed

    Thornton, Abigail J V; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2016-07-01

    We studied intimate partner violence (IPV) within a framework of other violent and nonviolent offending, to explore whether the risk factors for offending were similar across the different offense categories, and also for men and women. A comprehensive measure of offending behavior was administered to 184 men and 171 women, together with measures of anger, self-control, and psychopathic traits. The measure, the nonviolent and violent offending behavior scale (NVOBS), assesses IPV, general violence, and nonviolent offending behavior. Men perpetrated higher levels of general violence and nonviolent offenses than women, whereas women perpetrated significantly more IPV than men. Regression analyses showed that the predictors of offending behavior are generally similar for men and women, with the exception of IPV, where self-control was a better predictor of IPV for men and anger was a better predictor of IPV for women. Limitations of the present sample and suggestions for future work are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:404-412, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26678658

  12. Interactive Journaling as a Brief Intervention for Level-II DUI and DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheck, Amy Mary; Hoffmann, Norman G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Couillou,Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief alcohol intervention in increasing basic alcohol-related knowledge, and the intention to change high-risk drinking behaviors, among a sample of DUI and DWI offenders. Pre- and post-test data, in addition to program evaluation data, from 872 Level-II DUI and DWI offenders…

  13. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners. PMID:25494051

  14. Correlates of Serious Violent Crime for Recently Released Parolees With a History of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Leake, Barbara; Marlow, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Faucette, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study used baseline data on recently-released homeless paroled men who are homeless (N = 157), residing in a residential drug treatment program, and enrolled in a longitudinal study to examine personal, developmental, and social correlates of parolees who are homeless and parolees who have committed serious violent offenses. Having experienced childhood sexual abuse, poor parental relationships, and early-onset incarceration (prior to 21 years of age) were important correlates of serious violent crimes. These findings highlight the need for interventions that address offenders’ prior adult and childhood victimization, and suggest that policies for reentering violent offenders should encompass an understanding of the broader family contexts in which these patterns of maltreatment often occur. PMID:23155727

  15. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  16. Potential mediators between child abuse and both violence and victimization in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Day, David M; Hart, Trevor A; Wanklyn, Sonya G; McCay, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Alison; Burnier, Nathalie

    2013-02-01

    Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population. PMID:22924801

  17. Psychopathic Traits and Their Relationship with the Cognitive Costs and Compulsive Nature of Lying in Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Bruno; in ´t Hout, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We explored the costs of instructed lying versus truth telling through RTs and error rates in 52 violent male offenders, who were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). Our deception paradigm also included trials with the free choice to lie or tell the truth. By coupling monetary loss to slow and erroneous responding, we hypothesized that the frequency of lying despite likely negative consequences, would provide an index of compulsive lying. Offenders were slower and erred more often when lying than when telling the truth, and there was no robust association between psychopathy and the cognitive cost of lying. From an applied perspective, this suggests that psychopathy may not threaten the validity of computerized cognition-based lie detection. In the face of probable negative consequences, high grandiose-manipulative offenders chose to lie three times as often as low grandiose-manipulative offenders. Our new lying frequency index is a first attempt to create a much needed tool to empirically examine compulsive lying, and provides preliminary support for the compulsive nature of lying in grandiose-manipulative offenders. Alternative interpretation of the findings are discussed. PMID:27391854

  18. Psychopathic Traits and Their Relationship with the Cognitive Costs and Compulsive Nature of Lying in Offenders.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; In T Hout, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We explored the costs of instructed lying versus truth telling through RTs and error rates in 52 violent male offenders, who were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). Our deception paradigm also included trials with the free choice to lie or tell the truth. By coupling monetary loss to slow and erroneous responding, we hypothesized that the frequency of lying despite likely negative consequences, would provide an index of compulsive lying. Offenders were slower and erred more often when lying than when telling the truth, and there was no robust association between psychopathy and the cognitive cost of lying. From an applied perspective, this suggests that psychopathy may not threaten the validity of computerized cognition-based lie detection. In the face of probable negative consequences, high grandiose-manipulative offenders chose to lie three times as often as low grandiose-manipulative offenders. Our new lying frequency index is a first attempt to create a much needed tool to empirically examine compulsive lying, and provides preliminary support for the compulsive nature of lying in grandiose-manipulative offenders. Alternative interpretation of the findings are discussed. PMID:27391854

  19. Risk and the preventive detention of sex offenders in Australia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Ogloff, James R P

    2007-01-01

    The development of recent statutory schemes, in both the United States and Australia, aim to keep the most dangerous sex offenders detained beyond the expiration of their prison sentence. In Kansas v. Hendricks (1997), the United States Supreme Court found constitutional Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) legislation that allows for the post-sentence, indefinite civil commitment of a subclass of dangerous offenders. More recently, the Australian High Court in Attorney-General (Qld) v. Fardon (2004) similarly upheld the constitutionality of Queensland's Dangerous Prisoners (Sexual Offenders) Act (2003), which allows for the post-sentence preventive detention of sex offenders deemed to be at high risk of serious sexual recidivism. Because an evaluation of a sex offender's likelihood of re-offending is fundamental to these schemes, this article provides an overview of recent advances in the risk assessment literature, discussing base rates of sexual recidivism, the identification of empirically validated risk factors, and the utility of structured risk assessment tools. Although it is recommended that risk assessment measures be utilized to assist the courts in making sound decisions about commitment, the limits of current research knowledge and areas of future research need are discussed. PMID:17157911

  20. Substance Use Treatment Outcomes in a Sample of Male Serious Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Naranjo, Diana

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined drug treatment-related reductions in alcohol and marijuana use, cigarette smoking, and non-drug offending among male adolescents who had been adjudicated of a serious (almost exclusively felony) offense. Results indicated that the “real world” drug treatments that these adolescents experienced had significant effects on substance use, which could not be explained solely by incarceration in controlled environments. However, effects on cigarette smoking and criminal offending were found only for treatments that included family involvement. Results suggest that involving families in adolescents’ treatment may be useful for promoting desistence from criminal offending in this population. PMID:18657942

  1. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  2. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spergel, David N.; Hernquist, Lars

    1992-01-01

    We propose a functional that is extremized through violent relaxation. It is based on the Ansatz that the wave-particle scattering during violent dynamical processes can be approximated as a sequence of discrete scattering events that occur near a particle's perigalacticon. This functional has an extremum whose structure closely resembles that of spheroidal stellar systems such as elliptical galaxies. The results described here, therefore, provide a simple framework for understanding the physical nature of violent relaxation and support the view that galaxies are structured in accord with fundamental statistical principles.

  3. Profile and programming needs of federal offenders with histories of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lynn A; Power, Jenelle

    2014-10-01

    This study presents data on male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV) in the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) using two samples: (a) a snapshot of all male offenders in CSC who had been assessed for DV (n = 15,166) and (b) a cumulative sample of male offenders in CSC from 2002-2010 who had been assessed as moderate or high risk for further DV (n = 4,261) DV offenders were compared to a cohort sample of non-DV offenders (n = 4,261). Analyses were disaggregated for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. Results indicated that 40% of the federal male population had a suspected history of DV and were therefore screened in for in-depth DV risk assessment. Of these, 45% were assessed as moderate or high risk for future DV. DV offenders had higher risk and criminogenic need ratings, more learning disabilities, more mental health problems, and more extensive criminal histories than those without DV histories. Aboriginal DV offenders had high levels of alcohol dependence, suggesting a need for substance abuse treatment as part of DV programming. Most federal offenders with DV histories would be described as belonging to the Antisocial/Generalized Aggressive typology and, therefore, adhering to the Risk-Need-Responsivity principles of the effective correctional literature, cognitive-behavioral treatment that focuses on teaching skills of self-management, and changing attitudes supporting relationship violence would be recommended. PMID:24664249

  4. Sexual Offending Theories and Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been limited theoretical developments with respect to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities [Lindsay (2005) Mental Retardation, Vol. 43, pp. 428-441], especially when compared with the development of theories for mainstream sexual offenders. This paper aims at examining a range of theories in their…

  5. Emotions and Young Offenders' Suitability for Victim-Offender Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Tracey A.

    Although evidence indicates that Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) provides an effective alternative to traditional sanctioning for young offenders, research investigating suitable candidates for VOM is lacking. Reintegrative shaming is theorized to be the mechanism underlying successful mediation; however, it is difficult to determine whether shame…

  6. Psychosocial profile of Swiss sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Curtin, F; Niveau, G

    1998-07-01

    Background data on psychosocial characteristics of sexual offenders are sparse in Europe. From 67 experts' reports done between 1982 and 1995 in Geneva, Switzerland, demographic, criminological and psychiatric characteristics were collected for three groups of sexual offenders: offenders against adults, offenders against non-relative minors (< 18 yr), and offenders against minors with incest. The results showed that the offenders against adults were younger (p = 0.02), more frequently single (p = 0.0007) and with a lower educational level (p = 0.05) than the offenders against minors. Incest offenders had no prior conviction compared with 50% of the other offenders. Violence was more often used by offenders against adults (86%) than by offenders against minors (45%) (p = 0.005). About two-thirds of the sexual offenders had no psychiatric history, but a personality disorder (mainly borderline) was diagnosed in half of the offenders. A history of sexual abuse during childhood was reported by a third of the offenders against minors and by 5% of the offenders against adults (p = 0.04). It is concluded that a low socio-economic status and social isolation characterized offenders against adults, whereas offenders against minors had a relatively normal psychosocial profile. PMID:9670495

  7. Cross-validation of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ): an offender risk and need assessment measure on Australian, British, Canadian, Singaporean, and American offenders.

    PubMed

    Loza, Wagdy; Cumbleton, Anita; Shahinfar, Ariana; Neo, Lee Hong; Evans, Maggie; Conley, Michael; Summers, Roger

    2004-10-01

    The Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) is a 72-item self-report measure designed to predict violent and nonviolent recidivism among adult criminal offenders. The results from using samples from Australia, Canada, England, Singapore, and two samples from the United States (North Carolina and Pennsylvania) indicated that (a) the SAQ has sound psychometric properties, with acceptable reliability and concurrent validity for assessing recidivism and institutional adjustment; (b) there were no significant differences among the scores of the White, African American, Hispanic, and Aboriginal Australian offenders on the SAQ; (c) there were no significant differences among offenders who completed the SAQ for research purposes versus offenders who completed it as part of a decision-making process. Results provided support for the validity of the SAQ to be used with the culturally diverse offenders involved in this research and provided further evidence that contradicts concerns that the SAQ as a self-report measure may be susceptible to lying, and self-presentation biases. PMID:15358941

  8. Field validity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in sex offender risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Caperton, Jennifer; Rufino, Katrina

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have concluded that scores from Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) predict reoffense among sexual offenders, but most of those studies examined the predictive validity of scores from trained research staff, not clinicians in the field scoring the measure as part of actual forensic assessments. Therefore, we examined the field validity of PCL-R scores that forensic evaluators assigned to 333 male sexual offenders who underwent evaluations during a civil commitment selection process. Overall, no PCL-R score was a significant predictor of sexually violent recidivism. Facet 4 was the only PCL-R score with an area under the curve (AUC) greater than .50 (AUC = .53, p = .85) and the only PCL-R score that approached statistical significance for predicting the combined category of violent or sexually violent offending (AUC = .63, p = .08). However, scores from a subset of evaluators revealed stronger predictive effects, indicating that predictive validity was higher for scores from some evaluators than others. Overall, these results suggest that the stronger predictive validity values in controlled research studies may not apply to all evaluators when the PCL-R is administered in the field. PMID:22023560

  9. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  10. A criminal offender introspective report.

    PubMed

    Barnett, O; Barnett, D J

    1975-08-01

    The development of a new scale suitable for research with the criminal offender was described. Based on the factor analysis of an item pool delineating sociopathic personality traits, five factors were derived to compose an 80-item criminal offender introspective report (COIR). PMID:1195092

  11. Status Offenders and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mason P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews recent changes in North Carolina law and policy affecting compulsory school attendance and status offenders. Status offenders are children who commit offenses that are unique to children--such as being truant, running away from home, or being beyond the disciplinary control of their parents. (Author/IRT)

  12. Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galski, Thomas; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)

  13. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  14. Characteristics of sexual homicides committed by psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen; Woodworth, Michael; Earle, Jeff; Drugge, Jeff; Boer, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy and the prepetration of sexual homicide was investigated. The official file descriptions of sexual homicides committed by 18 psychopathic and 20 nonpsychopathic Canadian offenders were coded (by coders unaware of Psychopathy Checklist--Revised [PCL--R] scores) for characteristics of the victim, victim/perpetrator relationship, and evidence of gratuitous and sadistic violent behavior. Results indicated that most (84.7%) of the sexual murderers scored in the moderate to high range on the PCL--R. The majority of victims (66.67%) were female strangers, with no apparent influence of psychopathy on victim choice. Homicides committed by psychopathic offenders (using a PCL--R cut-off of 30) contained a significantly higher level of both gratuitous and sadistic violence than nonpsychopathic offenders. Most (82.4%) of the psychopaths exhibited some degree of sadistic behavior in their homicides compared to 52.6% of the nonpsychopaths. Implications for homicide investigations are discussed. PMID:14593792

  15. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  16. Community Maintenance Programs for Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Carollyne

    2013-01-01

    While optimism regarding the treatment of sexual offenders has increased over the past couple of decades, research into the factors that assist offenders in maintaining therapeutic changes remains in the dark. Maintenance programs for offenders, while theoretically appearing to have a solid place in offender rehabilitation, surprisingly have not…

  17. Deaf Sex Offenders in a Prison Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay

    2003-01-01

    A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  18. Restraining potentially violent patients.

    PubMed

    Splawn, G

    1991-10-01

    People who are emotionally distraught or mentally ill are rarely predictable. A calm, reassuring, but firm and decisive manner is most effective in dealing with out-of-control patients. Staff members should be careful to never position themselves with a potentially violent or distraught patient between them and the door. A room should be emptied of all extraneous, potentially dangerous objects before restraint of a patient. A clear plan of what is to be done and who is to do what is necessary. All staff members should remove glasses, pens, scissors, and other items that are potential weapons before restraining a patient. A humane attitude when restraining patients is extremely important. Sometimes the attitude of those applying restraints can be more traumatic than the actual application of the restraints. It is important that staff members remember that patients who need restraint are not "bad" people. For whatever reason, they have lost the ability to control themselves. These people do not like being out of control; given a choice, they would choose not to be. The staff attitude during this stressful event, which is becoming all too common in the emergency department, can have a tremendous effect on patients who require this procedure. When a patient is restrained in a competent, humane manner, staff members can pride themselves on their skills in dealing successfully with this emergency, just as they can when dealing with a cardiac arrest. Finally, it has been said that you cannot truly understand what another person is going through until you have had the same experience yourself.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1921070

  19. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. PMID:25173178

  20. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually. PMID:15974425

  1. The Predictive Validity of Savry Ratings for Assessing Youth Offenders in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Goh, Mui Leng; Chong, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Empirical support for the usage of the SAVRY has been reported in studies conducted in many Western contexts, but not in a Singaporean context. This study compared the predictive validity of the SAVRY ratings for violent and general recidivism against the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) ratings within the Singaporean context. Using a sample of 165 male young offenders (Mfollow-up = 4.54 years), results showed that the SAVRY Total Score and Summary Risk Rating, as well as YLS/CMI Total Score and Overall Risk Rating, predicted violent and general recidivism. SAVRY Protective Total Score was only significantly predictive of desistance from general recidivism, and did not show incremental predictive validity for violent and general recidivism over the SAVRY Total Score. Overall, the results suggest that the SAVRY is suited (to varying degrees) for assessing the risk of violent and general recidivism in young offenders within the Singaporean context, but might not be better than the YLS/CMI. PMID:27231403

  2. A multi-site controlled trial of a cognitive skills program for mentally disordered offenders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of offending behaviour programs in forensic mental health settings is not well established. Thus this study aimed to evaluate the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health program (R&R2 MHP) among a mentally disordered offender (MDO) population. Methods A sample of 121 adult males drawn from 10 forensic mental health sites completed questionnaires at baseline and post-treatment to assess violent attitudes, locus of control, social problem-solving and anger. An informant measure of social and psychological functioning, including disruptive behaviour, was completed by unit staff at the same time. At three month follow-up patients completed again the violent attitudes and locus of control questionnaires. The data of 67 patients who participated in the group condition were compared with 54 waiting-list controls who received treatment as usual. Results 78% of group participants completed the program. In contrast to controls, significant treatment effects were found at outcome on self-reported measures of violent attitudes, rational problem-solving and anger cognitions. Improvements were endorsed by informant ratings of social and psychological functioning within the establishments. At follow-up significant treatment effects were found for both violent attitudes and locus of control. Conclusions R&R2 MHP was effective in a sample of MDOs and had a comparatively low drop-out rate. Future research should use a randomized controlled design. PMID:22607165

  3. [Cognition-Emotion Interactions and Psychopathic Personality: Distinct Pathways to Antisocial and Violent Behavior].

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have long acknowledged heterogeneity among persons who exhibit antisocial and violent behaviours. The study of psychopathic personality or psychopathy can help elucidate this heterogeneity through examination of the different facets that constitute this disorder. In particular, the distinct correlates of the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy suggest at least two possible pathways to antisocial behaviours. Building on basic studies in cognitive and affective neuroscience, we provide a focused, non-comprehensive review of work identifying the biopsychological mechanisms involved in these two pathways, with special attention to studies using event-related potential (ERP) methods. In specific, a series of studies are discussed which examined affective and cognitive processes that may distinguish offenders high on psychopathic traits from other offenders, with emphasis on alterations in emotion-cognition interactions related to each factor of psychopathy. The set of findings reviewed highlight a central conclusion: Factor 1 represents a pathway involving reduced emotional responding, exacerbated by attentional abnormalities, that make for a more deliberate and emotionally insensitive offender profile. In contrast, Factor 2 characterizes a pathway marked by emotional and behavioural dysregulation and cognitive control dysfunctions, particularly in emotional contexts. Implications for identifying etiological processes and the further understanding of antisocial and violent behaviours are discussed. PMID:27570952

  4. Invalidity of "Disconfirmation of the Predictive Validity of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire in a Sample of High-Risk Drug Offenders" (2006): A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaliwal, Gurmeet K.; Loza, Wagdy; Reddon, John R.

    2007-01-01

    In their article, "Disconfirmation of the Predictive Validity of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire in a Sample of High-Risk Drug Offenders," criminologists Mitchell and MacKenzie (2006) purported to evaluate psychometric properties of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), the first self-report risk/need measure estimating violent and nonviolent…

  5. A study of outrage of modesty offenders in a Singapore prison.

    PubMed

    Lim, L E; Yap, A K; Ong, S H; Chan, K L; Chan, A O

    2000-07-01

    Outrage of modesty (OOM) offenders cause considerable annoyance and distress to their victims. The offending behaviours include touching, grabbing or fondling of erogenous or non-erogenous parts of the victim's body. The purpose of this study is to examine a prison cohort of OOM offenders and to compare them with a group of OOM offenders who had been remanded in a state mental hospital. All prisoners serving sentence over a two-year study period were interviewed. They were of similar mean age to the hospital cohort but were better educated, more likely to be married and most were working. Victims tended to be young females with an average age of 19 years. Psychotic disorders were rarely present, although 15% had a dissocial personality disorder. Those with previous OOM convictions were likely to have had past psychiatric consultations and were more likely to be unmarried. However, there were no statistically significant differences between convicted first-time offenders and repeat offenders with respect to age, educational level, nature of offences and alcohol consumption. The prisoners were less inclined to commit their offences in the mornings. Breasts and genitalia were the favoured targets for molest action, irrespective of time or place or whether the offence was committed by a first or repeat offender. The offences were often committed along staircases, corridors and in crowded public places. PMID:10976188

  6. INVESTIGATING THE LONGITUDINAL RELATION BETWEEN OFFENDING FREQUENCY AND OFFENDING VARIETY

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in longitudinal patterns of criminal offending have paid close attention to several dimensions of criminal careers. Although it might be expected that several dimensions are strongly linked to one another, research has not explored their joint distribution. The study uses trajectory-based methodology to examine the joint relation between offending variety and offending frequency in a large sample of serious offenders from adolescence to early adulthood and also tests how several risk factors relate to the joint covariation between variety and frequency. Results indicate strong concordance between low and high rate variety and frequency trajectories but a more modest concordance among moderate rate variety and frequency trajectories. Criminal history, individual, parent, and peer characteristics predict differences in concordance between variety and frequency trajectories. Theoretical implications and directions for further research are outlined. PMID:20037667

  7. INVESTIGATING THE LONGITUDINAL RELATION BETWEEN OFFENDING FREQUENCY AND OFFENDING VARIETY.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Piquero, Alex R

    2009-07-01

    Researchers interested in longitudinal patterns of criminal offending have paid close attention to several dimensions of criminal careers. Although it might be expected that several dimensions are strongly linked to one another, research has not explored their joint distribution. The study uses trajectory-based methodology to examine the joint relation between offending variety and offending frequency in a large sample of serious offenders from adolescence to early adulthood and also tests how several risk factors relate to the joint covariation between variety and frequency. Results indicate strong concordance between low and high rate variety and frequency trajectories but a more modest concordance among moderate rate variety and frequency trajectories. Criminal history, individual, parent, and peer characteristics predict differences in concordance between variety and frequency trajectories. Theoretical implications and directions for further research are outlined. PMID:20037667

  8. Child care providers who commit sexual offences: a description of offender, offence, and victim characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moulden, Heather M; Firestone, Philip; Wexler, Audrey F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to undertake an exploratory analysis of child care providers who sexually offend against children and adolescents and the circumstances related to these offences. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (ViCLAS) reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim and offence, were selected for analyses. A descriptive approach was used to analyze the qualitative reports for a group of 305 Canadian sexual offenders between 1995 and 2002. Adult male (N = 163) and female ( N = 14), along with juvenile male (N = 100) and female (N = 28) child care providers who were involved in a sexual offence against a child or adolescent are described. This article provides unique information about the crimes committed by child care providers in that it is focused on crime characteristics, rather than on personality or treatment variables. Furthermore, it represents a comprehensive examination of this type of offender by including understudied groups, namely juvenile and female offenders. PMID:17652144

  9. At a Crossroads: Reentry Challenges and Healthcare Needs among Homeless Female Ex-Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Idemundia, Faith; Slaughter, Regina; Ames, Masha

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase in the number of women parolees and probationers in the last decade has made women the most rapidly growing group of offenders in the United States. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study is to understand the unique gendered experiences of homeless female ex-offenders, in the context of healthcare needs, types of health services sought, and gaps in order to help them achieve a smooth transition post prison release. Focus group qualitative methodology was utilized to engage 14 female ex-offenders enrolled in a residential drug treatment program in Southern California. The findings suggested that for homeless female ex-offenders, there are a myriad of healthcare challenges, knowledge deficits, and barriers to moving forward in life, which necessitates strategies to prevent relapse. These findings support the development of gender-sensitive programs for preventing or reducing drug and alcohol use, recidivism, and sexually transmitted infections among this hard-to-reach population. PMID:24078800

  10. Evaluation of a program to motivate impaired driving offenders to install ignition interlocks.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Blackman, K O; Tippetts, A S; Marques, P R

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 30,000 alcohol ignition interlocks, which prevent a drinking driver from operating a vehicle, are in use in the United States and Canada. Currently available studies indicate that interlocks reduce impaired driving recidivism while on the vehicle. However, in the United States, the practical effectiveness of these devices is limited because few offenders are willing to install them in order to drive legally. This paper reports on a study of a court policy that created a strong incentive for impaired driving offenders to install interlocks by making penalties (e.g., jail or electronically monitored house arrest) the alternative to the interlock. Comparison of the recidivism rates of offenders subject to this policy with offenders in similar, nearby courts not using interlocks indicated that the policy was producing substantial reductions in DUI recidivism. PMID:12214357

  11. Female sexual homicide offenders: an analysis of the offender racial profiles in offending process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-12-10

    Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered. PMID:24314528

  12. Violent Society, Violent Schools: It's a Question of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Robert E.

    A contemporary theory of behavior is that faulty patterns of thinking divide the criminal from the noncriminal. The causation of school violence is children choosing to be violent; and the problem of school violence is acceptance of their choice. Short-term control measures are adherence to systematic school rules, use of technology, security…

  13. Optimizing risk mitigation in management of sexual offenders: a structural model.

    PubMed

    Lamade, Raina; Gabriel, Adeena; Prentky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence is an insidious and pervasive problem that insinuates itself into all aspects of contemporary society. It can neither be mitigated nor adequately controlled through current socio-legal practices. A more promising approach must embrace four integrated elements: (1) public policy, (2) primary prevention, (3) statutory management, and (3) secondary intervention. In the present paper we tackle the 3rd and 4th elements by proposing an integrated model for reducing and managing sexual violence among known sex offenders. Relying on the highly effective Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model as the core of our Sex Offender Risk Mitigation and Management Model (SORM(3)), we draw together evidence based practices from clinical interventions and risk assessment strategies. Developed by Andrews & Bonta (2006), RNR has a strong empirical track record of efficacy when applied to diverse samples of offenders, including sex offenders (Hanson, Bourgon, Helmus, & Hodgson, 2009). We offer a detailed structural model that seeks to provide a more seamless integration of risk assessment with management and discretionary decisions, including a primary focus on RNR-based post-release aftercare. We end with the mantra that sex offender treatment alone will never effectively mitigate sexual violence in society, since the problem is not confined to the handful of offenders who spend time in prison and are offered some limited exposure to treatment. Any truly effective model must go well beyond the management of those known to be violent and embrace a comprehensive and integrated approach that begins by recognizing the seeds of sexual violence sown by society. Such a public health paradigm places victims - not offenders - at the center, forcing society to come to address the full gamut of hazards that fuel sexual violence. PMID:21565406

  14. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Margari, Lucia; Matera, Emilia; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed. Methods The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes). Results Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01) and conduct problems (P=0.034). Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18%) and conduct problems (20%) than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement. Conclusion These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. PMID:25709458

  15. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  16. Sex offender treatment and legislation.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Fred S

    2003-01-01

    The current issue of the Journal contains three articles related to sex offenders. The first, by Scott and Holmberg, discusses legislation that mandates either "chemical or surgical castration." The second, by Saleh and Guidry, reviews diagnostic and treatment considerations. The third, by Scott and Gerbasi, discusses sex offender registration and community notification. Much of the relevant sex offender legislation, including that pertaining to testosterone-lowering treatments, has been enacted in response to intense public passion. When it comes to the issue of sex offenders, there is a pressing need to develop a coherent body of evidence-based forensic concepts and knowledge that can rationally inform both clinical practice and future public policy. That may require a closer collaboration between both the criminal justice and legislative sectors, and the scientific-medical communities. The three papers published in this issue provide useful information that may assist toward such a goal. PMID:14974807

  17. Psychopathology of incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Ahlmeyer, Sean; Kleinsasser, Dennis; Stoner, John; Retzlaff, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The psychopathology and particularly the personality disorders of sex offenders were compared to general inmates of the Colorado Department of Corrections. Using the MCMI-III (Millon, 1994, 1997), sex offenders in general were found to have more varied types of personalities than general population inmates. Specifically, they were more schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, self-defeating, and schizotypal. General population inmates had the more classically criminal personality characteristics of antisocial, narcissistic, and sadistic. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent, Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Schizotypal scales to be the most differentiating. Sex offenders were also found to have more affective psychopathology such as anxiety, dysthymia, PTSD, and major depression. A similar trend was found when comparing child molesters to rapists. The child molesters were more neurotic, affective, and socially impaired than the rapists. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent scale to be the most important in differentiating these two types of sex offenders. PMID:14521179

  18. Assessing Youth Who Sexually Offended

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kynaston; Fong, June; Teoh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggested that the predictive validity of adult sexual offender risk assessment measures can be affected when used cross-culturally, but there is no published study on the predictive validity of risk assessment measures for youth who sexually offended in a non-Western context. This study compared the predictive validity of three youth risk assessment measures (i.e., the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism [ERASOR], the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II [J-SOAP-II], and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory [YLS/CMI]) for sexual and nonviolent recidivism in a sample of 104 male youth who sexually offended within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,637 days; SD follow-up = 491). Results showed that the ERASOR overall clinical rating and total score significantly predicted sexual recidivism but only the former significantly predicted time to sexual reoffense. All of the measures (i.e., the ERASOR overall clinical rating and total score, the J-SOAP-II total score, as well as the YLS/CMI) significantly predicted nonsexual recidivism and time to nonsexual reoffense for this sample of youth who sexually offended. Overall, the results suggest that the ERASOR appears to be suited for assessing youth who sexually offended in a non-Western context, but the J-SOAP-II and the YLS/CMI have limited utility for such a purpose. PMID:21825111

  19. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  20. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  1. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  2. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  3. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement measures will be applied uniformly to offenders driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. When...

  4. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  5. Adolescents from Maritally Violent Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maura; Lebovics, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that between 3.3 million and 10 million children in the U.S. witness physical violence between their parents each year. This type of violence ranges from overhearing some form of violent behavior from their bedrooms, to seeing severe acts of violence such as beatings or assaults with guns and knives. In many cases, these youth…

  6. Marital Violence in the Year before and after Spouse-Involved Alcoholism Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Choquette, Keith A.

    The Conflict Tactics Scale questionnaire on marital violence was administered to 29 alcoholics and their wives at entry to, and 1 year after, completing a behavioral marital therapy (BMT) treatment program. In the year prior to BMT, prevalence rates of any violent act, of minor to moderate violent acts, and of severe violent acts were five to six…

  7. Alcohol availability and youth homicide in the 91 largest US cities, 1984-2006.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert N; Williams, Kirk R; McCaffree, Kevin J; Acensio, Emily K; Browne, Angela; Strom, Kevin J; Barrick, Kelle

    2011-09-01

    The aggregate relationship between homicide and alcohol availability is well established across a number of national and sub-national settings in North America, Europe and some parts of Asia. However, results linking youth homicide and alcohol availability at the retail level are largely absent from the literature, especially at the city level and across longer time periods. In a multivariate, pooled time series and cross-section study, youth homicide offending rates for two age groups, 13-17 and 18-24, were analysed for the 91 largest cities in the USA between 1984 and 2006. Data for social and economic characteristics, drug use, street gang activity and gun availability were also used as time series measures. Data on the availability of alcohol for each city were gathered from the US Census of Economic Activity, which is conducted every 5 years. These data were used to construct an annual time series for the density of retail alcohol outlets in each city. Results indicated that net of other variables, several of which had significant impacts on youth homicide, the density of alcohol outlets had a significant positive effect on youth homicide for those aged 13-17 and 18-24. Such positive effects have been found for adults in national and neighbourhood level studies, but this is the first study to report such evidence for teenagers and young adults. An important policy implication of these findings is that the reduction of the density of retail alcohol outlets in a city may be an effective tool for violent crime reduction among such youth. PMID:21896073

  8. Violent Crime, Hazing, and Arson on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvers, Suzanne E.

    The extent of violent crimes reported on New Jersey colleges and universities in 1985 is discussed, based on reports from the institutions. Recommendations for crime prevention made by the Chancellor's Special Advisory Committee on Violent Crimes, Hazing, and Arson on Campus are also considered. There were 477 reported incidents of violent crime,…

  9. Gentle Teaching in a Violent Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The society is violent, the urban neighborhoods are violent, and the schools are violent. People who want to teach in urban schools need to recognize the reality of the situation they will enter. Beginning teachers must recognize that preventing violence is an integral part of their legitimate work; the more effective they are at empowering…

  10. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  11. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  12. Differences between homicide and filicide offenders; results of a nationwide register-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Lindberg, Nina; Eronen, Markku; Häkkänen, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide, the killing of one's child, is an extraordinary form of homicide. It has commonly been associated with suicide and parental psychiatric illness. In the research on filicide, nationwide studies with comparison groups, specific perpetrator subgroups, and assessment of possible risk factors have been called for. The purpose of the current study was to provide all that. Methods In this nationwide register-based case-control study all filicide offenders who were in a forensic psychiatric examination in Finland 1995–2004 were examined and compared with an age- and gender matched control group of homicide offenders. The assessed variables were psychosocial history, index offence, and psychiatric variables as well as psychopathy using the PCL-R. Results Filicide offenders were not significantly more often diagnosed with psychotic disorders than the controls but they had attempted suicide at the crime scene significantly more often. Filicide offenders had alcohol abuse/dependence and antisocial personality less often than the controls. Filicide offenders scored significantly lower on psychopathy than the controls. Within the group of filicide offenders, the psychopathy items with relatively higher scores were lack of remorse or guilt, shallow affect, callous/lack of empathy, poor behavioral controls, and failure to accept responsibility. Conclusion Since filicide offenders did not seem significantly more mentally disordered than the other homicide offenders, psychiatry alone cannot be held responsible for the prevention of filicide. Extensive international studies are needed to replicate our findings and provide more specific knowledge in order to enhance prevention. PMID:19480648

  13. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  14. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Violent Crime: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Zetterqvist, Johan; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Background Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed, associations with violence are uncertain. Methods and Findings From Swedish national registers we extracted information on 856,493 individuals who were prescribed SSRIs, and subsequent violent crimes during 2006 through 2009. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed these medications with the rate in the same individuals while not receiving medication. Adjustments were made for other psychotropic medications. Information on all medications was extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, with complete national data on all dispensed medications. Information on violent crime convictions was extracted from the Swedish national crime register. Using within-individual models, there was an overall association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08–1.32, p < 0.001, absolute risk = 1.0%). With age stratification, there was a significant association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions for individuals aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.19–1.73, p < 0.001, absolute risk = 3.0%). However, there were no significant associations in those aged 25–34 y (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.95–1.52, p = 0.125, absolute risk = 1.6%), in those aged 35–44 y (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.83–1.35, p = 0.666, absolute risk = 1.2%), or in those aged 45 y or older (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.84–1.35, p = 0.594, absolute risk = 0.3%). Associations in those aged 15 to 24 y were also found for violent crime arrests with preliminary investigations (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.16–1.41, p < 0.001), non-violent crime convictions (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, p < 0.001), non-violent crime arrests (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07–1.20, p < 0.001), non-fatal injuries from accidents (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.22–1.36, p < 0.001), and emergency inpatient or outpatient treatment for alcohol intoxication or misuse

  15. Analysis and implications of the omission of offenders in the DoD Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force report.

    PubMed

    Houser, Kristen

    2007-09-01

    This note addresses the weaknesses in the Department of Defense (DoD) Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force (CVSATF) Report, released in May 2004. Sound policy and protocol cannot be developed to prevent and to respond to sexual assault in the military if the role of sex offenders is not understood, yet the report excludes information relevant to understanding sex offender behavior and to responsibility. Shortcomings in the CVSATF recommendations to improve military definitions of sexually violent behavior and data collection are summarized, as are limitations in the recommendations for sexual assault prevention strategies. This analysis highlights problems with the DoD CVSATF recommendations to improve offender accountability and secure safety for communities and discusses how the military social climate is prohibitive to facilitating these goals. This note suggests that policy and procedures guided by recommendations that omit information about sex offenders may actually leave communities at continued risk of sexual assault. PMID:17704054

  16. Sex offender registration and recidivism risk in juvenile sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F; Dickinson, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders are increasingly included in sex offender registration laws, based, in part, on the assumption that they pose a distinctively high risk for future sexual violence and registration may help to mitigate this risk. To test this assumption, the current study compares risk scores on the static scales of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II; Prentky & Righthand, 2003) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI; Hoge, Andrews, & Leschied, 2002), between samples of 106 registered and 66 unregistered juvenile sex offenders. New criminal charges, including sexually based crimes, were examined over a mean follow-up of 49.2 months (SD = 29.6 months). Results indicated that registered youth had lower risk scores on scales that most accurately predicted recidivism and registered youth were charged with new crimes at rates similar to those of unregistered youth. Reoffense risk, as measured by the risk scales, was not moderated by registration. The findings did not support the assumption that registration can effectively lower the risk for reoffense in juvenile offenders. PMID:19937920

  17. Finnish sexual homicides: offence and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Lindberg, Nina; Salenius, Stephan; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-07-01

    Information on sexual homicide offenders is limited. The current study estimates the rate of sexual homicides in Finland and analyses sociodemographic characteristics, crime history, life course development, psychopathy, and psychopathology in sexual homicide and nonsexual homicide offenders. Crime reports and forensic examination reports of all offenders subjected to forensic examination and convicted for homicide in 1995-2004 (n=676) were retrospectively analyzed for offence and offender variables and scored with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Eighteen sexual homicides (2.8%) were identified. Co-offending, strangulation and disposal of the body were more frequent crime scene variables in sexual than nonsexual homicides. Mental health problems and sexual abuse in childhood and sexual crime history were significantly more frequent in sexual than nonsexual homicide offenders. Over half of the sexual homicide offenders were psychopathic: compared to nonsexual homicide offenders they scored significantly higher on interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy. PMID:19403249

  18. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  19. Juvenile First Offenders: Characteristics of At-Risk Families and Strategies for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation undertaken to develop a family-based intervention model designed to address problems of juvenile offenders and reduce effects of delinquency. Risk factors investigated included age at first court referral, seriousness of offenses, parental supervision, school functioning, peer group, alcohol and drug use, and criminality in…

  20. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…

  1. Jurors report that risk measure scores matter in sexually violent predator trials, but that other factors matter more.

    PubMed

    Turner, Darrel B; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Murrie, Daniel C; Harris, Paige B

    2015-02-01

    After deliberating to a verdict, jurors (N = 462) from 40 sexually violent predator (SVP) trials completed a questionnaire asking them to rate the extent to which risk measure scores, diagnoses, expert witness testimony, and offender characteristics described during the trials influenced their commitment decisions. Jurors reported that offenders' sexual offending history, failure to change, and lack of remorse had the strongest influence on their commitment decisions. They reported that testimony about risk instrument scores (e.g., Static-99) and psychopathy had less influence on their decisions, but those who did report being influenced by instrument results were especially likely to view the offender as being at a high risk for reoffending. Overall, findings suggest that SVP jurors view risk measure results as important, but not as important as other offender, offense, and testimony characteristics, including some that have limited relevance to recidivism risk. Thus, findings also suggest that experts may need to better educate jurors regarding factors that do and do not relate to recidivism risk. PMID:25613035

  2. Violent deaths of media workers associated with conflict in Iraq, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. The violent deaths of media workers is a critical issue worldwide, especially in areas of political and social instability. Such deaths can be a particular concern as they may undermine the development and functioning of an open and democratic society. Method. Data on the violent deaths of media workers in Iraq for ten years (2003–2012) were systematically collated from five international databases. Analyses included time trends, weapons involved, nationality of the deceased, outcome for perpetrators and location of death. Results. During this ten-year period, there were 199 violent deaths of media workers in Iraq. The annual number increased substantially after the invasion in 2003 (peaking at n = 47 in 2007) and then declined (n = 5 in 2012). The peak years (2006–2007) for these deaths matched the peak years for estimated violent deaths among civilians. Most of the media worker deaths (85%) were Iraqi nationals. Some were killed whilst on assignment in the field (39%) and 28% involved a preceding threat. Common perpetrators of the violence were: political groups (45%), and coalition forces (9%), but the source of the violence was often unknown (29%). None of the perpetrators have subsequently been prosecuted (as of April 2014). For each violent death of a media worker, an average of 3.1 other people were also killed in the same attack (range 0–100 other deaths). Discussion. This analysis highlights the high number of homicides of media workers in Iraq in this conflict period, in addition to the apparently total level of impunity. One of the potential solutions may be establishing a functioning legal system that apprehends offenders and puts them on trial. The relatively high quality of data on violent deaths in this occupational group, suggests that it could act as one sentinel population within a broader surveillance system of societal violence in conflict zones. PMID:24883251

  3. Violent deaths of media workers associated with conflict in Iraq, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Lucie; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. The violent deaths of media workers is a critical issue worldwide, especially in areas of political and social instability. Such deaths can be a particular concern as they may undermine the development and functioning of an open and democratic society. Method. Data on the violent deaths of media workers in Iraq for ten years (2003-2012) were systematically collated from five international databases. Analyses included time trends, weapons involved, nationality of the deceased, outcome for perpetrators and location of death. Results. During this ten-year period, there were 199 violent deaths of media workers in Iraq. The annual number increased substantially after the invasion in 2003 (peaking at n = 47 in 2007) and then declined (n = 5 in 2012). The peak years (2006-2007) for these deaths matched the peak years for estimated violent deaths among civilians. Most of the media worker deaths (85%) were Iraqi nationals. Some were killed whilst on assignment in the field (39%) and 28% involved a preceding threat. Common perpetrators of the violence were: political groups (45%), and coalition forces (9%), but the source of the violence was often unknown (29%). None of the perpetrators have subsequently been prosecuted (as of April 2014). For each violent death of a media worker, an average of 3.1 other people were also killed in the same attack (range 0-100 other deaths). Discussion. This analysis highlights the high number of homicides of media workers in Iraq in this conflict period, in addition to the apparently total level of impunity. One of the potential solutions may be establishing a functioning legal system that apprehends offenders and puts them on trial. The relatively high quality of data on violent deaths in this occupational group, suggests that it could act as one sentinel population within a broader surveillance system of societal violence in conflict zones. PMID:24883251

  4. [Offender's health state and his typing process].

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta; Sygit, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The problem of offender typing has been repeatedly discussed in criminalistic literature. The inference about physical health or psychophysical health of an unknown offender may significantly accelerate his identification. To achieve this objective, both serological as well as bacteriological tests have been used. The considerable progress in natural sciences indicates a possibility of employing genetic research to define the offender's health state. PMID:19441693

  5. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... requirements relating to periodic verification of registration information for sex offenders. The proposed rule, if finalized, would permit CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits...

  6. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  7. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  8. Career Salience of Institutionalized Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Wayne W.; Strauss, Christine F.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated self-esteem and career salience of institutionalized male adolescent offenders (n=185) in context of Super's lifespan career development theory. Results indicated that participation, commitment, and values expectations in home-family roles contributed significantly to self-esteem in adolescent offenders. Adolescent offenders differed…

  9. Predictors of Sex Offender Treatment Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Donna L.; Bergman, Barbara A.; Knox, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews records of 126 incarcerated offenders who participated in a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Discriminate function analysis reveals that offenders who completed treatment were more often diagnosed with a substance disorder, had a history of nonviolence offenses, and were less often diagnosed as having an antisocial personality…

  10. Models of violently relaxed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Tremaine, Scott; Johnstone, Doug

    1989-02-01

    The properties of spherical self-gravitating models derived from two distribution functions that incorporate, in a crude way, the physics of violent relaxation are investigated. The first distribution function is identical to the one discussed by Stiavelli and Bertin (1985) except for a change in the sign of the 'temperature', i.e., e exp(-aE) to e exp(+aE). It is shown that these 'negative temperature' models provide a much better description of the end-state of violent relaxation than 'positive temperature' models. The second distribution function is similar to the first except for a different dependence on angular momentum. Both distribution functions yield single-parameter families of models with surface density profiles very similar to the R exp 1/4 law. Furthermore, the central concentration of models in both families increases monotonically with the velocity anisotropy, as expected in systems that formed through cold collapse.

  11. [Genes for extreme violent behaviour?].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new genetic study focussing on the degree of violence in criminals and using both candidate gene and GWAS approaches finds statistically significant associations of extreme violent behaviour with low activity alleles of monoamine oxydase A (MAOA) and with the CD13 gene. However, the alleles implicated are common in the general population, thus they cannot be causal, and only represent potential indicators of increased risk. PMID:25658738

  12. Alcohol use and prior alcohol-related convictions as predictors of probation officer perceptions and sentencing.

    PubMed

    Harrell, W A

    1980-11-01

    Presentence reports for 740 offenders were content analyzed. Regression techniques were used to evaluate a number of predictors of sentencing, including the effects of number of prior alcohol-related convictions and whether the offender was intoxicated while committing the offense he was charged with. The two most prominent variables affecting the severity of sentence were the probation officer's assessment of the offender's probable success on probation and the legal seriousness of the offense. While failing to have any significant direct effects on sentencing, our measures of alcohol use had significant indirect effects which were mediated by the probation officer's assessment of success on probation and legal seriousness. An extensive criminal record of prior alcohol-related convictions resulted in a poorer prognosis for success on probation this, in turn, led to more severe sentences for these offenders. Intoxication while committing an offense was related to the commission of minor crimes which, subsequently, yielded more lenient treatment for alcohol-users compared to nonusers. Finally, native offenders were more likely than nonnatives to have many prior alcohol-related convictions and to have been intoxicated while committing an offense. PMID:7216566

  13. Male suicides and alcohol consumption in the former USSR.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, D; Värnik, A; Eklund, G

    1994-05-01

    A significant decline (34.5%) in the suicide rate occurred in 1984-1988 throughout the USSR. The decline was observed shortly after the introduction of strict restrictions on the sale of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that the restrictive alcohol policy in the first years of perestroika (June 1985) caused the fall in suicide rates in the former USSR. Data on alcohol consumption, violent death caused by external injury and poisoning (n = 916,315), death due to accidental alcohol poisoning (n = 77,837), suicide (n = 192,305) and death undetermined whether accidentally or purposely (n = 54,253) were analyzed for all former Soviet republics for 1984, 1986, 1988 and 1990. Men were chosen for the analysis, since men are more prone to abuse alcohol than women. Regression analysis with alcohol consumption as the independent variable and suicide rates and violent death rates as dependent variables shows that suicide and alcohol consumption were positively correlated as were violet death and alcohol consumption. In the republics with high alcohol consumption (Slavic and Baltic), suicide rates were also high. In the Caucasian republics, low alcohol consumption was associated with low suicide rates. For most republics, alcohol seems to explain more than 50% of suicides. Alcohol also has considerable explanatory value for violent death. Thus, a restrictive alcohol policy might be a way to reduce suicide and violent death. PMID:8067268

  14. A forensic-psychiatric study of sexual offenders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Freire, Rafael; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-04-01

    Sexual violence is defined as any sexual act forced upon a person who did not give his or her consent. Our objective is to investigate the socio-demographic features, clinical correlates, criminal behaviour characteristics, and the level of penal responsibility of sexual offenders who were referred to forensic psychiatric assessment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. All written reports made in the year of 2008 by court-appointed psychiatric experts on individuals charged with having committed sexual crimes and referred to the main forensic hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for assessment were reviewed. Forty-four expert reports were identified. All alleged offenders were male. Nineteen (43.2%) offenders did not receive any psychiatric diagnostic. Nine offenders (20.4%) were diagnosed with mental retardation. In 16 cases (36.4%), some form of mental or neurological disorder was diagnosed. Thirty-one (70.4%) offenders were considered fully responsible, eight (18.2%) partially responsible, and five (11.4%) not responsible by reason of insanity. The sexual crimes allegedly perpetrated by the offenders were rape (n=14, 32%), attempted rape (n=4, 9%), indecent assault (n=26, 59%), and indecent exposure (n=5, 11.4%). In 10 cases (22.7%), the offender was under alcohol influence at the moment of the crime. The profile of Brazilian sex offenders subject to forensic psychiatric assessment were male, caucasian, single, working part time, with no mental disorder, who perpetrated indecent assault. PMID:25735780

  15. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  16. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R

    2015-06-01

    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders. PMID:25404275

  17. Women don't do such things! Characteristics of female sex offenders and offender types.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment. PMID:20237394

  18. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. PMID:25013121

  19. Relations of Distinct Psychopathic Personality Traits with Anxiety and Fear: Findings from Offenders and Non-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1) and violent offenders (Study 2). In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs. PMID:26569411

  20. Relations of Distinct Psychopathic Personality Traits with Anxiety and Fear: Findings from Offenders and Non-Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Mitchell, Ian J.; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R.; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1) and violent offenders (Study 2). In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs. PMID:26569411

  1. Wide-area continuous offender monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.

    1997-02-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  2. Sex offender registration and community notification challenges: the Supreme Court continues its trend.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Gerbasi, Joan B

    2003-01-01

    All states and the District of Columbia have passed sex offender registration and community notification laws. While the specific provisions of these statutes vary, all have public safety as a primary goal. The authors discuss two recent cases heard by the United States Supreme Court that challenged the constitutionality of Alaska's and Connecticut's statutes. The laws were challenged as violations of the United States Constitution's prohibition on ex post facto laws and its Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of procedural due process. In both cases, the statutes were upheld. As it has found in challenges to sexually violent predator statutes, the Court emphasized that the registration and community notification schemes are civil and not criminal in nature. The article concludes with a discussion of possible implications for clinicians involved in evaluating or treating sex offenders. PMID:14974805

  3. Psychological profiling of offender characteristics from crime behaviors in serial rape offences.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W; Irwin, Harvey J

    2002-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has progressively been incorporated into police procedures despite a dearth of empirical research. Indeed, in the study of serial violent crimes for the purpose of psychological profiling, very few original, quantitative, academically reviewed studies actually exist. This article reports on the analysis of 62 incidents of serial sexual assault. The statistical procedure of multidimensional scaling was employed in the analysis of this data, which in turn produced a five-cluster model of serial rapist behavior. First, a central cluster of behaviors were identified that represent common behaviors to all patterns of serial rape. Second, four distinct outlying patterns were identified as demonstrating distinct offence styles, these being assigned the following descriptive labels brutality, intercourse, chaotic, and ritual. Furthermore, analysis of these patterns also identified distinct offender characteristics that allow for the use of empirically robust offender profiles in future serial rape investigations. PMID:12113160

  4. How useful are psychometric scores in predicting recidivism for treated sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Georgia D; Wakeling, Helen C; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Rakestrow, Janine

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychometric test scores, psychometric test profiles, and sexual and/or violent reconviction. A sample of 3,402 convicted sexual offenders who attended a probation service-run sexual offender treatment programme in the community completed a battery of psychometric tests pre- and posttreatment. Using Cox regression, posttreatment scores on measures of self-esteem, an ability to relate to fictional characters, and recognition of risk factors were, individually, predictive of recidivism. When psychometric tests were grouped into dynamic risk domains, only the pretreatment scores of the domain labelled socioaffective functioning (SAF) predicted recidivism and added predictive power to a static risk assessment. The number of risk domains that were dysfunctional pretreatment also predicted recidivism outcome; however, this did not add predictive power to a static risk assessment tool. Possible explanations for the superiority of pre- over posttreatment scores in predicting reconviction are discussed, and directions for further research considered. PMID:21518697

  5. Violent death in Connecticut, 2001 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Borrup, Kevin; Gelven, Erica S; Carver, H Wayne; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry

    2008-04-01

    We reviewed medical examiner, law enforcement, crime laboratory data, and death certificates on all 1,530 violent deaths (homicide, suicide, undetermined firearm) in Connecticut occurring from 2001-2004. There was an average of 383 deaths (rate = 11.2 deaths per 100,000 persons annually). Overall, males aged 20 to 29 were at the greatest risk of violent death (rate = 30.5/100,000). Of all violent deaths 72% were suicides and 28% were homicides. Firearms were used in 33% of suicides and 58% of homicides. The rate of violent death is lower than most other states in the country. In Connecticut suicide is the leading cause of violent death overall; however, in areas characterized by the highest levels of poverty and lowest levels of education, homicide is the leading cause of violent death. PMID:18478984

  6. Clozapine's Effect on Recidivism Among Offenders with Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Depiang, Gu

    2016-03-01

    Mental disorder is associated with criminal reoffending, especially violent acts of offending. Features of mental disorder, psychosocial stresses, substance use disorder, and personality disorder combine to increase the risk of criminal recidivism. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is indicated in the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. This article is the report of a community follow-up study of a matched control of those treated with clozapine (n = 41) and those treated with other antipsychotics (n = 21). Rates of reoffending behavior in the general, nonviolent, violent, and sexual categories were calculated after two years of follow-up. Although not statistically significant, the two-year criminal conviction rates of those treated with other antipsychotics in all offense categories except sexual reoffending were two-fold higher than in those treated with clozapine. The time from release to the first offense and crime-free time in the community were significantly longer in the clozapine group. By prolonging the time it takes from release to first offense, clozapine confers additional crime-reduction advantages. PMID:26944747

  7. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade during a rat's first violent encounter inhibits its subsequent propensity for violence.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Menno R; Haller, Jozsef; Meelis, Wout; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2013-08-01

    In individuals naïve to serious conflict in an unfamiliar environment, violence has long-lasting effects on subsequent aggressive behavior. This effect of the stressful experience of a first violent conflict occurs in victims as well as offenders. The authors study in the male rat as offender the role of a rapid corticosterone signal mediated by brain mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in adjusting the threshold of aggressive responses. For this purpose, the authors have applied electrical stimulation of the brain's aggression circuit via the hypothalamic attack area or HAA. Using this paradigm, they found that in inexperienced rats, retesting of the animals on subsequent days facilitated aggression. Hypothalamic attack thresholds decreased to about 50% of their initial level. However, blocking the MR once with the mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone, during the very first evoked attacks, permanently prevented attack facilitation in subsequent conflicts in that same environment. The MR-mediated effect blocked by the antagonist occurred within an hour following the start of the first aggression tests only. A later MR blockade was not effective. These findings suggest that the corticosterone stress response during a very first serious conflict initializes an enhanced propensity for violent aggression through the brain MR. PMID:23895062

  8. Accuracy of sexually violent person assessments of juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F

    2013-10-01

    This study reviewed the records of 198 juveniles who were committed to secured custody after being adjudicated delinquent for a sexually violent offense that qualified them for possible commitment under a Sexually Violent Person's (SVP) civil commitment law. For an individual to be committed, the statute requires that the individual have a qualifying mental disorder and is "likely," to commit a future act of sexual violence. Each youth was screened by at least two expert examiners in a two-step process. Fifty-four of the youth were found to meet the commitment criteria in an initial examination and were subject to an SVP petition. The remaining 144 were screened out. Subsequent criminal charges were collected over a 4.97-year mean follow-up. The results showed that the prevalence rates for general sexual offending and felony sexual offending did not differ between youth who were screened out and those who were subject to a petition. Among petitioned youth, 11.76% were charged with a new sexual offense including 9.80% who were charged with a felony sexual assault. By comparison, 17.36% of the youth that were screened out were charged with a sexual offense including 13.19% who were charged with a felony sexual assault, a nonsignificant difference. PMID:23508828

  9. Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict crimes and offences was weak, as

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  11. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  12. Sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Koch, Judith; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas; Briken, Peer

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and "psychopathy" in homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders and to investigate the specificity of previous studies on psychiatric morbidity of a sample of sexual murderers. Information from court reports of 166 homicidal and 56 nonhomicidal sex offenders was evaluated using standardized instruments (SCID-II, PCL-R) and classification systems (DSM-IV). Sexual murderers were diagnosed more often with a personality disorder (80.1% vs. 50%; p < 0.001), especially schizoid personality disorder (16.3% vs. 5.4%; p < 0.05), as well as with sexual sadism (36.7% vs. 8.9%; p < 0.001) and sexual dysfunctions (21.7% vs. 7.1%; p < 0.05). Additionally, they had more often used alcohol during the offense (63.2% vs. 41%; p < 0.05). The results indicate that sexual murderers have more and a greater variety of psychiatric disorders when compared to nonhomicidal sex offenders. PMID:21981447

  13. Sex Offender Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of the Youth Authority, Sacramento.

    This report includes the findings of a California task force convened to examine juvenile and youthful sex offenders and the impact of their behavior on the citizenry. The foreword notes this report attempts to identify informational and research needs and encourage networking and coordination to support state and local efforts to improve the…

  14. Supervising Prerelease Offenders: Clarifying Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benekos, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Presents and discusses a conceptual model of the concerns of prerelease offenders and community supervisors. The conceptualization suggests that "perceptual differences" of the concerns of prerelease status is one alternative for examining the supervisorial relationship. Attempts to identify and confront the different expectations of supervisors…

  15. Women offenders and reentry issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S D

    1996-01-01

    Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills-training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living, and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose crack-cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women. PMID:8714337

  16. Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its…

  17. Personal Space of Incarcerated Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormith, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the proxemic test and a psychometric test battery to 49 incarcerated offenders on two occasions, with a three-year follow-up. The Behind distance was largest on both occasions. There were no changes in the four distance measures over time. An algebraic formula was devised to calculate personal space area. (JAC)

  18. Loathing the sinner, medicalizing the sin: why sexually violent predator statutes are unjust.

    PubMed

    Douard, John

    2007-01-01

    In seventeen states, persons convicted of one or more sexually violent offenses may be involuntarily civilly committed at the end of their criminal terms if they suffer from a mental disorder that renders them likely to reoffend sexually. These statutes place the burden on states to show that the sex offender meets the United States Constitutional standard of dangerousness. The key to proving dangerousness is proof of a mental disorder. However, the United States Supreme Court recently found that the offender need not be mentally ill. He need only "suffer" from "mental abnormality" or "personality disorder" that affects his cognitive, emotional or volitional capacities such that he is highly likely to sexually reoffend. These statutes are expressions of disgust: a fear of contamination by persons who engage in sexual conduct that forces us to confront our dark impulses. We do not merely hate the sin; we hate the sinner, and we want the sinner to be removed from our presence. Moreover, the emotions these statutes express are the source of widespread moral panic not warranted by data about recidivism risk. Laws that express disgust are likely to result in the unjust treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17157910

  19. Offense Characteristics of Incompetent to Stand Trial Defendants Charged With Violent Offenses.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Jeremy; Green, Debbie; Kunz, Michal; Belfi, Brian; Pequeno, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    The current study compared offender and offense characteristics of pretrial defendants found incompetent to stand trial (IST) against those described as general offenders by victims in the 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) survey and evaluated factors that differentiated IST defendants who allegedly used weapons from those who did not during the course of a violent offense. IST defendants were older and used "weapons" more frequently than those reported in the BJS survey; however, other characteristics, including use of firearms, did not differ. No demographic, clinical, or legal factors differentiated pretrial defendants who used weapons from those who did not. Overall, pretrial defendants were frequently diagnosed with a comorbid substance use disorder, and were homeless, unemployed, and had an extensive history of psychiatric hospitalizations and prior arrests at the time of their alleged offenses. Such results indicate that models for comprehensive discharge planning may have utility in addressing the unique needs of this subgroup of mentally disordered offenders. The findings also raise questions about the federal and state prohibition of gun rights to all IST defendants. PMID:25827534

  20. Relapse prevention with intellectually disabled sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Jenny A; Rose, John L

    2005-10-01

    The adaptation of relapse prevention theory to sexual offending (W. D. Pithers, J. K. Marques, C. C. Gibat, & G. A. Marlatt, 1983) has represented an important movement in cognitive-behavioural treatment for sexual offenders. However, this model of relapse prevention has been criticised for its limited view and oversimplification of the relapse prevention process (R. K. Hanson, 2000; T. Ward & S. M. Hudson, 1996). As a result, T. Ward and S. M. Hudson (2000a) have developed a multiple pathway model of the relapse prevention process based on self-regulation theory. Although this model continues to be empirically validated on sexual offenders (J. A. Bickley & A. R. Beech, 2002; T. Ward, S. M. Hudson, & J. C. McCormick, 1999), there has been no empirical research regarding the application of this theory to intellectually disabled sexual offenders. This paper discusses whether the characteristics of offenders in each of the relapse offence pathways, as described by T. Ward and S. M. Hudson (2000a), may be similar to the characteristics of intellectually disabled sexual offenders. From a review of the literature, it appears that the intellectually disabled sexual offender may be most likely to offend via the approach-automatic pathway or the avoidant-passive pathway. The potential treatment implications of the self-regulation model for intellectually disabled sexual offenders is discussed, as well as the need for empirical evaluation with regards to the application of this model to the intellectually disabled sexual offender population. PMID:16341602

  1. The characteristics of online sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Hermann, Chantal A

    2011-03-01

    There is much debate as to whether online offenders are a distinct group of sex offenders or if they are simply typical sex offenders using a new technology. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which online and offline offenders differ on demographic and psychological variables. Online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian and were slightly younger than offline offenders. In terms of psychological variables, online offenders had greater victim empathy, greater sexual deviancy, and lower impression management than offline offenders. Both online and offline offenders reported greater rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse than the general population. Additionally, online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian, younger, single, and unemployed compared with the general population. Many of the observed differences can be explained by assuming that online offenders, compared with offline offenders, have greater self-control and more psychological barriers to acting on their deviant interests. PMID:20660639

  2. Assessment of alcohol problems using AUDIT in a prison setting: more than an 'aye or no' question

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol problems are a major UK and international public health issue. The prevalence of alcohol problems is markedly higher among prisoners than the general population. However, studies suggest alcohol problems among prisoners are under-detected, under-recorded and under-treated. Identifying offenders with alcohol problems is fundamental to providing high quality healthcare. This paper reports use of the AUDIT screening tool to assess alcohol problems among prisoners. Methods Universal screening was undertaken over ten weeks with all entrants to one male Scottish prison using the AUDIT standardised screening tool and supplementary contextual questions. The questionnaire was administered by trained prison officers during routine admission procedures. Overall 259 anonymised completed questionnaires were analysed. Results AUDIT scores showed a high prevalence of alcohol problems with 73% of prisoner scores indicating an alcohol use disorder (8+), including 36% having scores indicating 'possible dependence' (20-40). AUDIT scores indicating 'possible dependence' were most apparent among 18-24 and 40-64 year-olds (40% and 56% respectively). However, individual questions showed important differences, with younger drinkers less likely to demonstrate habitual and addictive behaviours than the older age group. Disparity between high levels of harmful/hazardous/dependent drinking and low levels of 'treatment' emerged (only 27% of prisoners with scores indicating 'possible dependence' reported being 'in treatment'). Self-reported associations between drinking alcohol and the index crime were identified among two-fifths of respondents, rising to half of those reporting violent crimes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify differing behaviours and needs among prisoners with high AUDIT score ranges, through additional analysis of individual questions. The study has identified high prevalence of alcohol use, varied problem behaviours, and

  3. Is basic personality related to violent and non-violent video game play and preferences?

    PubMed

    Chory, Rebecca M; Goodboy, Alan K

    2011-04-01

    Based on the uses and gratifications perspective, personality was expected to relate to violent video game play frequency and game preferences. Participants completed measures of personality and frequency of violent video game play, and identified their most frequently played video games. Results indicate that individuals higher in openness but lower in agreeableness played violent video games more frequently. In addition, more open and extroverted but less agreeable and neurotic individuals generally preferred to play video games that are more violent. Results suggest personality may be more predictive of violent video game use than traditional media use, though the predictive personality dimensions may be consistent across media types. PMID:21083411

  4. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  5. The Violent Content in Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Deighton, Stephanie; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel; Addington, Jean

    2016-08-30

    The relationship between psychosis and violence has typically focused on factors likely to predict who will commit violent acts. One unexplored area is violence in the content of subthreshold positive symptoms. The current aim was to conduct an exploratory analysis of violent content in the attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) of those at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) who met criteria for attenuated psychotic symptom syndrome (APSS). The APS of 442 CHR individuals, determined by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, were described in comprehensive vignettes. The content of these symptoms were coded using the Content of Attenuated Positive Symptoms Codebook. Other measures included clinical symptoms, functioning, beliefs and trauma. Individuals with violent content had significantly higher APS, greater negative beliefs about the self and others, and increased bullying. The same findings and higher ratings on anxiety symptoms were present when participants with self-directed violence were compared to participants with no violent content. Individuals reporting violent content differ in their clinical presentation compared to those who do not experience violent content. Adverse life events, like bullying, may impact the presence of violent content in APS symptoms. Future studies should explore violent content in relation to actual behavior. PMID:27259137

  6. Violent Behavior in Female Inmates: Possible Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia M.; Davis, Joanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Research findings have been equivocal regarding the relationship between experiencing trauma and exhibiting violent behavior in women. This study seeks to determine predictors of violent behavior in female inmates utilizing various conceptualizations of traumatic experiences. Results indicate a significant univariate relationship between…

  7. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:25504258

  8. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24085715

  9. Comparing the validity of the RM2000 scales and OGRS3 for predicting recidivism by Internet sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Helen Catherine; Howard, Philip; Barnett, Georgia

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of four actuarial risk assessment tools with sexual offenders convicted of Internet offenses in England and Wales. Risk Matrix 2000 scales (RM2000/s, RM2000/v, and RM2000/c) and Offender Group Reconviction Scale 3 were examined to establish their accuracy in predicting sexual, violent, sexual and violent, and general reoffending in a sample of 1,344 Internet offenders who had either started a community sentence or been released from prison into the community by March 2007. A modified version of RM2000/s was used. Rates of proven reoffending were examined at 1 year for the majority of the sample (n = 1,326), and 2 years (n = 994) for those for whom these data were available. Proven reoffending was defined as any caution or conviction for a new offense. Reoffending rates were very low among this sample, and three quarters of the sexual reoffending was Internet related. The results indicate that all four tools had moderate to very good predictive accuracy as measured using receiver operating characteristics statistics when used to predict the outcome they were designed to (areas under the curve between .67 and .87). The results were also examined for generalist sexual offenders (those who had both Internet-related and other sexual offenses in their offense history) and Internet specialists (those whose sexual offenses were only Internet related) separately. The very low reoffending rate of the Internet specialists made these comparisons difficult. Further research is required with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods before firm conclusions can be made regarding the accuracy of these tools with Internet offenders. PMID:21349831

  10. Do Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities Benefit from Sex Offender Treatment Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the clinical and practical issues in relation to sex offender treatment in prisons and compares, through the experience of one offender who has been called Sam, how the experiences may differ between offenders with and without learning disabilities. It gives a brief overview of how programmes have developed in…

  11. Model Underpinning Treatment for Sex Offenders with Mild Intellectual Disability: Current Theories of Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending,…

  12. Frequency and Seriousness of Parental Offending and Their Impact on Juvenile Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent the frequency and seriousness of parental offending were related to their offspring offending. Police officers in one Dutch province completed a form to register risk factors and the actions undertaken when they came into contact with offenders aged 8-14 years. These juveniles were followed for 18…

  13. Misperceptions of Sex Offender Perpetration: Considering the Impact of Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    A popular misconception among the general public is that sex offenders most often victimize strangers. To better understand these misconceptions about sex offenders, this study determines the frequency of misperception in the general public and establishes if the misconceptions are related to the policy of sex offender registration. Using a…

  14. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  15. Offender Research Project. A Handbook for Designing and Implementing Offender Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Carol S.; And Others

    A product of the Offender Research Project, this handbook is intended for use in designing and implementing offender programs. The first of six chapters explains the necessity and techniques for developing community and financial support for offender programs. Chapter 2 is a synopsis of the twelve model projects developed as a part of the research…

  16. A Comparison of Anger in Offenders and Non-Offenders Who Have Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Matthew; Beail, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy to treat anger in offenders with intellectual disabilities. The aim is to lower anger levels; the rationale is that this will reduce recidivism. However, the hypothesis that anger levels amongst offenders are higher than non-offenders has not been tested.…

  17. A Comparison of Diversity, Frequency, and Severity Self-Reported Offending Scores among Female Offending Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Erbacher, Monica K.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    2012-01-01

    Despite general consensus over the value of measuring self-reported offending, discrepancies exist in methods of scoring self-reported offending and the length of the reference period over which offending is assessed. This analysis compared the concurrent interassociations and longitudinal predictive strength of diversity, frequency, and severity…

  18. A Naturalistic Alcohol Availability Experiment: Effects on Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Previous investigators have looked at many types of criminal offenses in order to determine alcohol involvement in crime. This longitudinal (4-year) naturalistic experimental and control designed study examined the effects of change in alcohol availability on rates of offending in a small provincial region of New Zealand following the closure of…

  19. Offenders with Cognitive Deficits in a Canadian Prison Population: Prevalence, Profile, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lynn A; Wilton, Geoff; Sapers, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Impaired cognitive function has been associated with criminal behavior. In Canada it is unknown the extent to which this disorder affects federal inmates or its impact on key correctional outcomes. In this study, 488 incoming male offenders were assessed on the Cognistat, a neuropsychological screening tool. Twenty-five percent of offenders were found to have some level of cognitive deficit. Lower levels of educational achievement, unstable employment history, learning disability, serious alcohol problems, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were significantly associated with the presence of cognitive deficits in this sample. Although there was a significant trend for offenders with cognitive deficits to have more admissions to segregation, level of cognitive deficit was not consistently related to rates of institutional charges or rates of completion of required correctional programs. On release, cognitive deficits were not related to returns to custody or returns to custody with an offence. These results indicate that while offenders with cognitive deficits may require assistance with educational upgrading and employment to improve their reintegration potential, they do not pose a particular management problem in the community after release relative to offenders without cognitive deficits. PMID:26341309

  20. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  1. [Characteristics of sexual offenders in our data].

    PubMed

    Savić, B; Misić-Pavkov, G; Novović, Z

    1990-01-01

    By analyzing two groups of sexual delinquents: those which have committed rape, attempted rape or committed rape with murder (the first group) and the commiters of indecent acts (the second group), it was established that the named groups are substantially different in relation to some of the studied parameters. In the first group of delinquents, there is considerably less of those who are married (35.48%), in relation to the second group (73.68%). Indecent acts are most often committed in the apartment of the sexual offender (63.16%), while this is the case in 22.58% of the offences from the first group. The victims of indecent acts were only minors. In both groups the most frequent psychiatric diagnosis was psychopathy. Alcoholic state at the time of committing the offence was considerably greater in the first group (87.10%), in relation to the other one (47.37%). There were no important differences relating earlier criminal offences, as well as the psychiatric estimates of accountability between the groups. PMID:2077374

  2. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, A F

    2001-01-01

    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality. PMID:11254928

  3. Cognition, empathy, and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Georgia D; Mann, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Most empathy research in the forensic context has assumed that empathy has two components. In this two-component model, the cognitive component involves perspective taking, and the affective component involves experiencing appropriate emotion. In this review, we identify how this assumption has both dominated and limited empathy research with offenders, nearly all of which has been conducted with sexual offenders. We propose instead that five components are involved in the experience of empathy: perspective taking, the ability to experience emotion, a belief that others are worthy of compassion and respect, situational factors, and an ability to manage personal distress. We suggest that the non-situational factors that blocked empathy for the victim at the time of a sexual offense are probably other dispositions known to be related to sexual offending, such as sexual preoccupation, generalized hostility to others, implicit theories about children and sex, and/or poor coping with negative emotions. We conclude with directions for practice and research, and urge greater caution in correctional policies on victim empathy programs. PMID:23258800

  4. Modelling and evaluating against the violent insider

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, D.S.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Saleh, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    The violent insider threat poses a special challenge to facilities protecting special nuclear material from theft or diversion. These insiders could potentially behave as nonviolent insiders to deceitfully defeat certain safeguards elements and use violence to forcefully defeat hardware or personnel. While several vulnerability assessment tools are available to deal with the nonviolent insider, very limited effort has been directed to developing analysis tools for the violent threat. In this paper, we present an approach using the results of a vulnerability assessment for nonviolent insiders to evaluate certain violent insider scenarios. Since existing tools do not explicitly consider violent insiders, the approach is intended for experienced safeguards analysts and relies on the analyst to brainstorm possible violent actions, to assign detection probabilities, and to ensure consistency. We then discuss our efforts in developing an automated tool for assessing the vulnerability against those violent insiders who are willing to use force against barriers, but who are unwilling to kill or be killed. Specifically, we discuss our efforts in developing databases for violent insiders penetrating barriers, algorithms for considering the entry of contraband, and modelling issues in considering the use of violence.

  5. Modelling and evaluating against the violent insider

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, D.S.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Saleh, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The violent insider threat poses a special challenge to facilities protecting special nuclear material from theft or diversion. These insiders could potentially behave as nonviolent insiders to deceitfully defeat certain safeguards elements and use violence to forcefully defeat hardware or personnel. While several vulnerability assessment tools are available to deal with the nonviolent insider, very limited effort has been directed to developing analysis tools for the violent threat. In this paper, the authors present an approach using the results of a vulnerability assessment for nonviolent insiders to evaluate certain violent insider scenarios. Since existing tools do not explicitly consider violent insiders, the approach is intended for experienced safeguards analysts and relies on the analyst to brainstorm possible violent actions, to assign detection probabilities, and to ensure consistency. The authors then discuss our efforts in developing an automated tool for assessing the vulnerability against those violent insiders who are willing to use force against barriers, but who are unwilling to kill or be killed. Specifically, the authors discuss our efforts in developing databases for violent insiders penetrating barriers, algorithms for considering the entry of contraband, and modelling issues in considering the use of violence.

  6. Prefrontal structural and functional brain imaging findings in antisocial, violent, and psychopathic individuals: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian

    2009-11-30

    Brain-imaging studies suggest that antisocial and violent behavior is associated with structural and functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex, but there is heterogeneity in findings and it is unclear whether findings apply to psychopaths, non-violent offenders, community-based samples, and studies employing psychiatric controls. A meta-analysis was conducted on 43 structural and functional imaging studies, and the results show significantly reduced prefrontal structure and function in antisocial individuals. Effect sizes were significant for both structural and functional studies. With minor exceptions, no statistically significant moderating effects of sample characteristics and methodological variables were observed. Findings were localized to the right orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior cingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Findings confirm the replicability of prefrontal structural and functional impairments in antisocial populations and highlight the involvement of orbitofrontal, dorsolateral frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex in antisocial behavior. PMID:19833485

  7. Sexual Offending in Adolescence: A Comparison of Sibling Offenders and Nonsibling Offenders across Domains of Risk and Treatment Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Natasha E.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Scalora, Mario J.; Ullman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sibling sexual offending has received limited empirical attention, despite estimates that approximately half of all adolescent-perpetrated sexual offenses involve a sibling victim. The present study addresses this gap by examining male adolescent sibling (n = 100) and nonsibling offenders (n = 66) with regard to maltreatment histories and scores…

  8. A non-randomised controlled trial of the R&R2MHP cognitive skills program in high risk male offenders with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing popularity of offending behavior programs has led to the interest of whether such programs are effective with mentally disordered offenders. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation program adapted for offenders with severe mental illness (R&R2 MHP). Methods A sample of 59 adult high risk males detained in a high secure hospital completed questionnaires at baseline and post treatment to assess violent attitudes, anger, coping processes and social problem-solving. An informant measure of social and psychological functioning, including disruptive behavior, was completed by staff at the same time. The data of 30 patients who participated in the group condition were compared using intention to treat analysis with 29 controls who received treatment as usual. Results 80% of group participants completed the program. In contrast to controls, significant medium-large treatment effects were found at outcome on self-reported measures of violent attitudes, social problem-solving and coping processes. Improvements were endorsed by informant ratings of disruptive behavior, social and psychological functioning. Conclusions The R&R2MHP had a comparatively low dropout rate and was effective in a sample of high risk mentally disordered offenders requiring detention in high security. Future research should use a randomized controlled design. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12613000216718. PMID:24498962

  9. Violent Girls or Relabeled Status Offenders?: An Alternative Interpretation of the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Barry C.

    2009-01-01

    Policy makers and juvenile justice officials express alarm over the rise in arrests of girls for simple and aggravated assault. Others see this perceived increase as an artifact of decreased public tolerance for violence, changes in parental attitudes or law enforcement policies, or heightened surveillance of domestic violence, which…

  10. Controlling Violent Offenders Released to the Community: An Evaluation of the Boston Reentry Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Anthony A.; Piehl, Anne M.; Hureau, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite the high level of funding and policy interest in prisoner reentry, there is still little rigorous scientific evidence to guide jurisdictions in developing reentry programs to enhance public safety, particularly for managing those who pose the greatest safety risks. The Boston Reentry Initiative (BRI) is an interagency initiative to help…

  11. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…

  12. Sex Offender Treatment: The Case for Manualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out the case for the manualization of sex offender treatment. The movement towards evidence-based practice in psychotherapy has led to strongly voiced opposing views on the value of manualization. However, "what works" evidence, i.e. the meta-analytical research behind the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation,…

  13. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  14. Toward a Rational Policy on Status Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisvert, Maurice J.; Wells, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Records of 125 randomly selected status offenders who appeared before Worcester, Massachusetts Juvenile Court (1973) were reviewed; demographic and offense-related data were analyzed. Exposes myths surrounding decriminalization, views decriminalization as effective in removing status offenders from stigmatizing effects of court involvement. (NRB)

  15. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  16. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  17. Danger and the Decision to Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2005-01-01

    Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…

  18. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  19. 78 FR 23835 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... it can be found at 77 FR 73558. The proposed rule was published to allow CSOSA to better meet the... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... verification of registration information for sex offenders. Furthermore, the rule permits CSOSA to...

  20. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  1. Probation's role in offender mental health.

    PubMed

    Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy. PMID:27548020

  2. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  3. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  4. Psychosocial and Sociodemographic Characteristics of DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veneziano, Carol; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined demographic characteristics, arrest and treatment data, symptoms of problem drinking, drug use, stressful life events, and depressive symptomatology among 498 driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders. DWI offenders were likely to have experienced financial problems, new job, job loss or unemployment, conflict at home, illness or death of…

  5. Validating the Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charmeka

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor…

  6. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly more physical,…

  7. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  8. Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Korcha, Rachael A.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Witbrodt, Jane; Borges, Guilherme; Hejazi-Bazargan, Shahrzad; Bond, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs. Method Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the six hours prior to a violence-related injury in probability samples of patients presenting to emergency departments (n=9686). Results Patients with violence-related injuries reported the highest rates of alcohol use (49% of men; 23% of women) and alcohol use combined with illicit drugs (8% of men; 4% of women) prior to the injury event while non-violent injury patients reported lower rates of alcohol use (17% of men; 8% of women) and alcohol use combined with drugs (2% for men; 1% for women). Marijuana/hashish was the most commonly reported drug. The odds of a violent injury were increased when alcohol was used (men: odds ratio [OR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–6.3; women: OR=4.0, 95% CI 3.0–5.5) or when alcohol was combined with illicit drug use prior to the injury (men: OR=6.6, 95% CI 4.7–9.3; women: OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.7–12.2) compared to non-users. No significant change in the odds of a violent injury was observed for men or women when alcohol users were compared with alcohol and drug users. Conclusion The positive association between alcohol and violent injury does not appear to be altered by the added use of drugs. Additional work is needed to understand the interpersonal, contextual and cultural factors related to substance use to identify best prevention practices and develop appropriate policies. PMID:24261437

  9. Correlates of Heroin and Methamphetamine Use among Homeless Male Ex-Jail and Prison Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Farabee, David; Hall, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Musto, Stefanie; Leake, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Homeless men exiting California State jails and prisons are a heterogeneous community with varied childhood, incarceration and drug use histories. This cross-sectional study assessed whether homeless men who were discharged from either jail or prison into a residential substance abuse treatment program, differed in terms of methamphetamine and heroin use. This study utilized baseline data collected on 540 recently paroled men randomized to one of three programs that assessed the impact of a peer coaching intervention on subsequent drug use and re-incarceration. We found that younger ex-offenders exiting prisons and jails were more likely to have used methamphetamine alone, whereas African American ex-offenders were less likely to have used methamphetamine alone when compared to other ethnic groups. Further, ex-offenders exiting jails and self-reporting use of heroin only at baseline were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have been removed from home before age 18. For men exiting jails, there was an association between lower self-esteem and having used methamphetamine but not heroin. However, having used both heroin and methamphetamine was associated with both violent crime and cognitive problems in both jail and prison samples. Our findings showcase the need to understand unique correlates of both heroin and methamphetamine as they relate to jail and prison populations. PMID:25489295

  10. Sex offenders' response to treatment and its association with recidivism as a function of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Langton, Calvin M; Barbaree, Howard E; Harkins, Leigh; Peacock, Edward J

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between recidivism and ratings of response to specialized cognitive behavioral treatment conducted in a prison setting among 418 sex offenders released to the community for an average follow-up period of over 5 years. As well as testing for a main effect for treatment ratings, the potential role of psychopathy assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) as a moderator of response to treatment was investigated. Ratings of response to treatment failed to predict either serious (violent including sexual) or sexual recidivism. For the more inclusive outcome of serious recidivism, there was no significant interaction between psychopathy and treatment ratings; however, the ubiquitous effect of psychopathy on recidivism was found to be significant. For sexual recidivism, psychopathy was not significant as a main effect, but a significant interaction between psychopathy and treatment ratings was found. Among sex offenders with PCL-R scores of 25 or higher, those with ratings reflecting a more negative response to treatment recidivated sexually at a faster rate than others. This interaction effect was not significant when treatment noncompleters were removed from the data set. The results were discussed in terms of the methodology involved in the assessment of response to treatment among sex offenders. PMID:16598661

  11. Risk factors for overall recidivism and severity of recidivism in serious juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2011-02-01

    This study was aimed at finding risk factors that predict both overall recidivism and severity of recidivism in serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors associated with family characteristics, peers, psychopathology, substance abuse, psychological factors, and behavior during treatment were assessed with the Juvenile Forensic Profile in a sample of 728 juvenile offenders. Official reconviction data were used to register recidivism with a minimum time at risk of 2 years. Severity of offending was categorized according to the maximum sentence for the offense committed combined with expert opinion. Several risk factors for recidivism were found: past criminal behavior (number of past offenses, young age at first offense, unknown victim of past offenses), conduct disorder, family risk factors (poor parenting skills, criminal behavior in the family, a history of physical and emotional abuse), involvement with criminal peers, and lack of treatment adherence (aggression during treatment, lack of coping strategies). Having an unknown victim in past offenses, criminal behavior in the family, lack of treatment adherence, and lack of positive coping strategies were predictive of serious (violent) recidivism. The results are discussed in terms of their use for risk assessment and in improving treatment effect. Targeting poor parenting skills, involvement in criminal environment, lack of treatment adherence, and problematic coping strategies should reduce the severity of recidivism. PMID:20181776

  12. A community service for high-risk mentally disordered sex offenders: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Craissati, Jackie; Blundell, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    There is sparse literature on mentally disordered sex offenders, and little is published on treatment participation and outcomes for this group. This article aims to describe the characteristics of a cohort of high-risk mentally disordered-largely personality disordered-sex offenders at risk in the community in southeast London. Drawing on various measures of personality dysfunction-including key developmental variables, a self-report personality disorder questionnaire Millon Clinical Multi-axial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV)-the researchers describe the characteristics of a cohort of mentally disordered sex offenders referred to the Challenge project. Follow-up data for those placed in treatment are reported and include consideration of treatment completion and reconviction: the relationship between personality dysfunction and a dynamic measure of risk are also explored. Of the 137 participants, 53% were placed in the community treatment project. Seventy five percent completed treatment, and were followed up for an average of 40 months. Eleven percent were sexually reconvicted, 3% violently reconvicted. Community failure was best predicted by a combination of static risk and personality-related variables. PMID:23315709

  13. Universal bursty behaviour in human violent conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoli, S.; Castillo-Mussot, M. Del; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and processes underlying the dynamics of collective violence is of considerable current interest. Recent studies indicated the presence of robust patterns characterizing the size and timing of violent events in human conflicts. Since the size and timing of violent events arises as the result of a dynamical process, we explore the possibility of unifying these observations. By analyzing available catalogs on violent events in Iraq (2003-2005), Afghanistan (2008-2010) and Northern Ireland (1969-2001), we show that the inter-event time distributions (calculated for a range of minimum sizes) obeys approximately a simple scaling law which holds for more than three orders of magnitude. This robust pattern suggests a hierarchical organization in size and time providing a unified picture of the dynamics of violent conflicts.

  14. A comparison of the predictive properties of nine sex offender risk assessment instruments.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daniël J

    2014-09-01

    Sex offender treatment is most effective when tailored to risk-need-responsivity principles, which dictate that treatment levels should match risk levels as assessed by structured risk assessment instruments. The predictive properties, missing values, and interrater agreement of the scores of 9 structured risk assessment instruments were compared in a national sample of 397 Dutch convicted sex offenders. The instruments included the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism, Static-99, Static-99R, a slightly modified version of Static-2002 and Static-2002R, Structured Anchored Clinical Judgments Minimum, Risk Matrix 2000, Sexual Violence Risk 20, and a modified version of the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide; sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism was assessed over 5- and 10-year fixed and variable follow-up periods. In general, the instrument scores showed moderate to large predictive accuracy for the occurrence of reoffending and the number of reoffenses in this sample. Predictive accuracy regarding latency showed more variability across instrument scores. Static-2002R and Static-99R scores showed a slight but consistent advantage in predictive properties over the other instrument scores across outcome measures and follow-up periods in this sample. The results of Sexual Violence Risk 20 and Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism scores were the least positive. A positive association between predictive accuracy and interrater agreement at the item level was found for both sexual recidivism (r = .28, p = .01) and violent (including sexual) recidivism (r = .45, p < .001); no significant association was found between predictive accuracy and missing values at the item level. Results underscore the feasibility and utility of these instruments for informing treatment selection according to the risk-need-responsivity principles. PMID:24773035

  15. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  16. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  17. Treatment of Juveniles Who Sexually Offend: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efta-Breitbach, Jill; Freeman, Kurt A.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile sexual offending is increasingly being recognized as a serious crime among youth. The prevalence of sexual offending and sexual reoffending suggests that many juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) may repeat their offending behaviors if not treated. However, clinical trials evaluating specific interventions are virtually nonexistent. Instead, the…

  18. [Sexual offending in schizophrenia - a comparative trial].

    PubMed

    Pitum, S V; Konrad, N

    2008-11-01

    Studies suggest a complex relationship between schizophrenia and sexually offensive behaviour. The mental disorder itself, antisocial personality traits, drug abuse and adverse childhood experiences are suggested to have an impact on sexual offending in mentally disordered offenders. Similarities in psychosexual variables for schizophrenic and sexual offenders in general are found. This study aimed to preserve first findings of sex offence features and behaviours exhibited by psychotic men in Germany. Furthermore a typology of the schizophrenic offenders was developed. Records of 64-male restricted hospital order in-patients (32 patients with and 32 patients without an ICD-10 psychotic disorder) examined at the Institute for Forensic Psychiatry or resident in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the prisons in Berlin from 1980 - 2006 with an index conviction for a contact sex offence against a woman provided the material for research. A comparative trial design was used to differentiate the psychotic and non psychotic offender group. A check list which based on the method of a content analysis containing items related to the offender and the index offence was developed and applied to the records of men. A similar extent of social isolation, psychosexual variables and adverse childhood experiences are found for schizophrenic and non schizophrenic offenders. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia as well as antisocial traits had a great impact on schizophrenic sexual offending. Solely the occurrence of bizarre behaviour was influenced by positive symptoms. Different offence characteristics appeared in the four outlined schizophrenic subgroups such as bizarre behaviour of the psychotic, assaultive behaviour of the dissocial, chaotic behaviour of the substance abusive and negative childhood experiences of the sadistic schizophrenic offenders. The partly controversial findings underline the need for further studies to understand sexual offending in the

  19. An exploration of crossover sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Kleban, Holly; Chesin, Megan S; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-10-01

    Studies have produced equivocal findings regarding whether sex offenders are stable in their choice of victims. Indeed, it remains unclear whether a sex offender's subsequent victims are typically of the same gender, age range, and victim-perpetrator relationship as that of the initial victim. Although some differences may be attributed to methodological disparities, others are not. This study sought to clarify this question by examining the tendency of sex offenders to switch from one type of victim to another, both within an index offense and across offenses and all victims. Archival records of 789 incarcerated sex offenders were examined. Of those offenders who had multiple victims at the index offense (n = 279), 13% had victims of both genders, 14% had victims in different age categories (child, adolescent, and adult), and 13% had varying relationships with the victims (i.e., family member, acquaintance, or stranger). When the records of those with past sexual convictions were examined (n = 208), 20% of offenders had a prior victim of a different gender; 40% crossed over across age categories, and 48% of the repeat offenders had varying relationships with the victim across convictions. Offenders who had both male and female victims and offenders who had victims of varied relationship status across crimes had higher Static-99 risk scores than offenders who were more stable with regard to victim selection. These findings are compared to those of previous studies, focusing on how these results add clarity to a previous literature whose conclusions were challenged by the use of disparate sampling and research methodologies. PMID:23144168

  20. Outcome of an institutional sexual offender treatment program: a comparison between treated and matched untreated offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, T; Gordon, A; Gu, D; Wong, S

    2000-04-01

    Data from a sexual offender treatment program operated by the Correctional Service of Canada at the Regional Psychiatric Center (Saskatoon) supported the conclusion that cognitive behavioral treatment can reduce sexual offense recidivism. The study compared 296 treated and 283 untreated offenders followed for a mean of 6 years after their release. An untreated comparison subject was located for each treated offender on three dimensions: (a) age at index offense, (b) date of index offense, and (c) prior criminal history. Data were analyzed using tests of proportion, survival analysis, and analysis of offender Criminal Career Profiles. Over a mean follow-up period of almost 6 years, convictions for new sexual offenses among treated offenders were 14.5% versus 33.2% for untreated offenders. During the follow-up period, 48% of treated offenders remained out of prison compared to 28.3% of untreated offenders. Time series comparisons of treated and comparison samples also showed that treated men reoffended at significantly lower rates after 10 years. A Criminal Career Profile (CCP) was constructed by taking the Age at First Conviction and plotting the offender's successive lengths of time free against time incarcerated. Pre- and posttreatment slopes of the CCP were lower for both groups posttreatment; however, the degree of change was significantly greater for the treated group, indicating a greater reduction in criminal activity among these offenders. Taken together, the results of all three analytic techniques supported the efficacy of appropriate correctional treatment for effective reduction of recidivism. PMID:10872242