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Sample records for alcoholics anonymous aa

  1. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.A.? For Professionals For A.A. Members eBooks Read Big Book and Twelve & Twelve A.A. ... Board Calendars G.S.O. Newsletters A.A. Literature | eBooks | Read the Big Book and Twelve & Twelve | 75th ...

  2. Mechanisms of Behavior Change in Alcoholics Anonymous: Does AA lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J. Scott; Pagano, Maria E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically-supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA’s effects. Method Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol dependent adults (N = 1,706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged, mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was partially mediated by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA’s proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. Conclusions AA attendance was both concurrently and predictively associated with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was additionally associated with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional well-being, which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change. PMID:20102345

  3. A review of Alcoholics Anonymous/ Narcotics Anonymous programs for teens.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The investigation of the applicability of Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous (AA/NA) for teens has only been a subject of empirical research investigation since the early 1990s. In the present review, the author describes teen involvement in AA/NA programming, provides an exhaustive review of the outcomes of 19 studies that used an AA/NA model as part of their formal teen substance abuse treatment programs, and provides data on the effects of AA/NA attendance on abstinence at follow-up, on which youth tend to become involved in AA/NA, and on mediation of the benefits of AA/NA participation. In addition, the author suggests the reasons for somewhat limited participation by teens in more informal, community-based 12-step meetings, and makes suggestions for maximizing participation at meetings in the community. The author concludes that AA/ NA participation is a valuable modality of substance abuse treatment for teens and that much can be done to increase teen participation, though more research is needed. PMID:20164105

  4. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    PubMed

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery. PMID:3975305

  5. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    PubMed

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery.

  6. Self-disclosure. Reconciling psychoanalytic psychotherapy and alcoholics anonymous philosophy.

    PubMed

    Mallow, A J

    1998-01-01

    Therapists working in the addictions field and practicing from a psychoanalytic psychodynamic framework are often confronted with the patient's need to know, the demand for therapist self-disclosure. Consistent with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) principles, many patients state that they cannot be helped unless the therapist is revealing of their personal background. This paper discusses the theoretical roots of therapist self-disclosure and the AA philosophy and offers suggestions for how the two might be reconciled.

  7. What Do Adolescents Exposed to Alcoholic Anonymous Think about 12-Step Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Rodolico, John

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Referral to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is a common continuing care recommendation. Evidence suggests some youth benefit, yet, despite referrals, youth participation is low. Little is known about adolescents' experiences of AA/NA. Greater knowledge would inform and help tailor aftercare recommendations.…

  8. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  9. Shared ideology in Alcoholics Anonymous: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright, K B

    1997-01-01

    This article uses grounded theory to explore the shared ideology espoused in Alcoholics Anonymous, specifically the nature and role of shared ideology in increasing the efficacy of the recovery process, and the features of the group's tenets and meetings that help facilitate members' indoctrination. Findings support Kassel and Wagner's (1993) contention of shared ideology's major role in the change process of the group, and Antze's (1976) categorizations of the AA ideology and alcoholics' characteristics. Antze's (1979) finding that AA ideology removes the concept of drinking from the voluntary sphere was also supported. The group was found to be a context in which members could change their assumptive worlds through reinterpreting life events, as Frank and Frank (1991) contended. Little support was found for Alexander and Rollins's (1984) comparison of AA to religious cults. The findings underscore the importance of human interaction as persuasion and reinforcement for AA ideology.

  10. Shared ideology in Alcoholics Anonymous: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright, K B

    1997-01-01

    This article uses grounded theory to explore the shared ideology espoused in Alcoholics Anonymous, specifically the nature and role of shared ideology in increasing the efficacy of the recovery process, and the features of the group's tenets and meetings that help facilitate members' indoctrination. Findings support Kassel and Wagner's (1993) contention of shared ideology's major role in the change process of the group, and Antze's (1976) categorizations of the AA ideology and alcoholics' characteristics. Antze's (1979) finding that AA ideology removes the concept of drinking from the voluntary sphere was also supported. The group was found to be a context in which members could change their assumptive worlds through reinterpreting life events, as Frank and Frank (1991) contended. Little support was found for Alexander and Rollins's (1984) comparison of AA to religious cults. The findings underscore the importance of human interaction as persuasion and reinforcement for AA ideology. PMID:10977242

  11. Predictors of Membership in Alcoholics Anonymous in a Sample of Successfully Remitted Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Perron, Brian E.; Cranford, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies factors associated with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership in a sample of 81 persons who have achieved at least one year of total abstinence from drugs and alcohol. Forty-four were AA members, 37 were not. Logistic regression was used to test the cross-sectional associations of baseline demographic, substance-related, spiritual and religious, and personality variables with AA membership. Significant variables from the bivariate analyses were included in a multivariate model controlling for previous AA involvement. Having more positive views of God and more negative consequences of drinking were significantly associated with AA membership. This information can be used by clinicians to identify clients for whom AA might be a good fit, and can help others overcome obstacles to AA or explore alternative forms of abstinence support. PMID:21615004

  12. Applying the nursing theory of human relatedness to alcoholism and recovery in alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.

  13. Questioning the Use of Alcoholics Anonymous with College Students: Is an Old Concept the Only Alternative for a New Generation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Ron, Sr.

    2000-01-01

    The recommended treatment for alcoholism in the past typically has been participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). However, the use of AA on college campuses has not been proven effective. With a new generation comes the opportunity to rethink this approach to the problem of alcohol abuse on campuses and to incorporate new methods in counseling…

  14. Alcoholics Anonymous and behavior therapy: can habits be treated as diseases? Can diseases be treated as habits?

    PubMed

    McCrady, B S

    1994-12-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and behavior therapy have often been characterized as having opposing views of the nature and treatment of alcohol problems. This article describes the theoretical foundations, view of the change process, and treatment practices of AA and behavior therapy. Theoretical and practice perspectives on integration of the two models are examined, and advantages and disadvantages of integration are discussed. PMID:7860813

  15. Do Drug-Dependent Patients Attending Alcoholics Anonymous Rather than Narcotics Anonymous Do As Well? A Prospective, Lagged, Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Greene, M. Claire; Bergman, Brandon G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most prevalent 12-step mutual-help organization (MHO), yet debate has persisted clinically regarding whether patients whose primary substance is not alcohol should be referred to AA. Narcotics Anonymous (NA) was created as a more specific fit to enhance recovery from drug addiction; however, compared with AA, NA meetings are not as ubiquitous. Little is known about the effects of a mismatch between individuals' primary substance and MHOs, and whether any incongruence might result in a lower likelihood of continuation and benefit. More research would inform clinical recommendations. Method: Young adults (N = 279, M age 20.4, SD 1.6, 27% female; 95% White) in a treatment effectiveness study completed assessments at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. A matching variable was created for ‘primary drug’ patients (i.e. those reporting cannabis, opiates or stimulants as primary substance; n = 198/279), reflecting the proportion of total 12-step meetings attended that were AA. Hierarchical linear models (HLMs) tested this variable's effects on future 12-step participation and percent days abstinent (PDA). Results: The majority of meetings attended by both alcohol and drug patients was AA. Drug patients attending proportionately more AA than NA meetings (i.e. mismatched) were no different than those who were better matched to NA with respect to future 12-step participation or PDA. Conclusion: Drug patients may be at no greater risk of discontinuation or diminished recovery benefit from participation in AA relative to NA. Findings may boost clinical confidence in making AA referrals for drug patients when NA is less available. PMID:25294352

  16. Gender and Extroversion as Moderators of the Association Between Alcoholics Anonymous and Sobriety

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Brower, Kirk J.; Cranford, James A.; Bradley, Jaclyn Christine; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although women make up one third of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership, research on gender and AA has been limited. Findings in the literature are mixed, with few empirical investigations of factors that may moderate any gender differences found. AA is highly interpersonal, and research has found that women are more extroverted than men. The current study explores the impact of AA on sobriety, gender differences in the relationship between AA and sobriety, and whether extroversion can inform our understanding of gender differences. Method: A sample of 276 alcohol-dependent adults (180 men, 96 women) was recruited from four sites and followed prospectively for 2.5–3 years. Participants completed the Timeline Followback interview. AA member ship was assessed by an item from the Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether gender, extroversion, AA membership, and their interaction would predict sobriety status at follow-up. Results: AA membership significantly increased the odds of achieving a year of sobriety, and this relationship was stronger for women than men (odds ratio [OR] = 4.42, 95% CI [1.14, 17.18]). There were no main or interactive effects of extroversion on sobriety. Conclusions: AA was founded by men, and early in its history it was exclusively attended by men. Some have criticized AA for women because of its emphasis on “powerless-ness.” Despite its historical beginnings and such debate, this study joins others in finding evidence that women fare better in AA than do men. In this sample, extroversion did not moderate the association between gender and sobriety. Further research is needed on gender differences in AA and its explanatory factors. PMID:22152661

  17. Evaluating Alcoholics Anonymous's Effect on Drinking in Project MATCH Using Cross-Lagged Regression Panel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magura, Stephen; Cleland, Charles M.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to determine whether Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation leads to reduced drinking and problems related to drinking within Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity), an existing national alcoholism treatment data set. Method: The method used is structural equation modeling of panel data with cross-lagged partial regression coefficients. The main advantage of this technique for the analysis of AA outcomes is that potential reciprocal causation between AA participation and drinking behavior can be explicitly modeled through the specification of finite causal lags. Results: For the outpatient subsample (n = 952), the results strongly support the hypothesis that AA attendance leads to increases in alcohol abstinence and reduces drinking/problems, whereas a causal effect in the reverse direction is unsupported. For the aftercare subsample (n = 774), the results are not as clear but also suggest that AA attendance leads to better outcomes. Conclusions: Although randomized controlled trials are the surest means of establishing causal relations between interventions and outcomes, such trials are rare in AA research for practical reasons. The current study successfully exploited the multiple data waves in Project MATCH to examine evidence of causality between AA participation and drinking outcomes. The study obtained unique statistical results supporting the effectiveness of AA primarily in the context of primary outpatient treatment for alcoholism. PMID:23490566

  18. Teaching Internal Medicine Resident Physicians About Alcoholics Anonymous: A Pilot Study of an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Adam J.; Stein, Melissa R.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Saitz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Greater physician confidence in treating alcoholism is associated with a higher frequency of referring alcoholic patients for treatment, but many physicians have limited experience with Alcoholics Anonymous. We implemented a brief, didactic and experiential educational intervention about AA and evaluated its effect on knowledge and attitudes, using a before-after repeated measures study design. Thirty-six first-year internal medicine resident physicians received an educational intervention, which consisted of a 45-minute lecture about AA, a visit to an AA meeting, and a 30-minute debriefing session the next day. Residents’ knowledge and attitudes were assessed by a brief written anonymous survey before and after the educational intervention. Residents reported increases in self-perceived knowledge about AA and had more favorable attitudes towards AA after the intervention. Our pilot study shows that a brief, didactic and experiential course can improve physician knowledge and attitudes about AA, and holds promise for improving physician interface with this commonly used intervention. PMID:17135175

  19. Alcoholics Anonymous-Related Helping and the Helper Therapy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helper’s health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry. PMID:23525280

  20. The General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery: The Adoption of 12-Step Practices and Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Brenna L.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Working the 12 steps is widely prescribed for Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members although the relative merits of different methods for measuring step-work have received minimal attention and even less is known about how step-work predicts later substance use. The current study (1) compared endorsements of step-work on an face-valid or direct measure, the Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory (AAI), with an indirect measure of step-work, the General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery (GAATOR), (2) evaluated the underlying factor structure of the GAATOR and changes in step-work over time, (3) examined changes in the endorsement of step-work over time, and (4) investigated how, if at all, 12-step-work predicted later substance use. New AA affiliates (N = 130) completed assessments at intake, 3, 6, and 9 months. Significantly more participants endorsed step-work on the GAATOR than on the AAI for nine of the 12 steps. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure for the GAATOR comprising Behavioral Step-Work and Spiritual Step-Work. Behavioral Step-Work did not change over time, but was predicted by having a sponsor, while Spiritual Step-Work decreased over time and increases were predicted by attending 12-step meetings or treatment. Behavioral Step-Work did not prospectively predict substance use. In contrast, Spiritual Step-Work predicted percent days abstinent, an effect that is consistent with recent work on the mediating effects of spiritual growth, AA, and increased abstinence. Behavioral and Spiritual Step-Work appear to be conceptually distinct components of step-work that have distinct predictors and unique impacts on outcomes. PMID:22867293

  1. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  2. Do women differ from men on Alcoholics Anonymous participation and abstinence? A multi-wave analysis of treatment seekers

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the widespread use of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other similar groups in the US and the increasing membership of women, the present paper compares women to men on their meeting attendance and AA-prescribed behaviors, factors associated with that AA participation, and tests how these relate to women’s and men’s abstinence across time. Methods All consecutive new admissions (age ≥ 18) from county-wide public and private alcohol and drug treatment programs representing the larger population of treatment seekers were approached to be in the study at treatment entry. Those consenting at baseline (n = 926) were sought for follow-up interviews 1, 3, 5 and 7 years later. Generalized linear models were used to test whether various help-seeking factors associated with AA participation differentially by gender and, controlling for AA and other confounders, whether women differ from men on abstinence. Results At each follow-up interview, women and men attended AA at similar rates and similarly practiced specific AA-behaviors, and they were alike on most factors associated with AA participation and abstention across time including abstinence goal, drink volume, negative consequences, prior treatment, and encouragement to reduce drinking. Relative to men, women with higher ASI drug severity were less likely to participate in AA. Though higher AA participation was a predictor of abstinence for both genders, males were less likely to be abstinent across time. Men were also more likely to reduce their AA participation across time. Conclusion These findings add to an emerging literature on how women compare to men on factors related to AA participation and subsequent drinking outcomes across time. Findings have clinical implications for service providers referring clients to such groups. PMID:21689121

  3. Humility and 12-Step Recovery: A Prolegomenon for the Empirical Investigation of a Cardinal Virtue in Alcoholics Anonymous

    PubMed Central

    Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors’ intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility. Finally, the coauthors have reviewed in brief some approaches to the measurement of humility in this context, and suggest several aims for future research. PMID:27429509

  4. Compatibility of Adlerian Theory and Practice with the Philosophy and Practices of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jane J.

    1999-01-01

    Tenets of Adlerian theory and practice are compatible with the philosophy and practices of Alcoholics Anonymous. Counselors can expect treatment approaches based on Adlerian counseling theory to be congruent with 12-step practices of individuals who are in recovery from alcohol dependence. (Author)

  5. The 10-year course of Alcoholics Anonymous participation and long-term outcomes: a follow-up study of outpatient subjects in Project MATCH.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Maria E; White, William L; Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Tonigan, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the 10-year course and impact of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)-related helping (AAH), step-work, and meeting attendance on long-term outcomes. Data were derived from 226 treatment-seeking alcoholics recruited from an outpatient site in Project MATCH and followed for 10 years post treatment. Alcohol consumption, AA participation, and other-oriented behavior were assessed at baseline, end of the 3-month treatment period, and 1, 3, and 10 years post treatment. Controlling for explanatory baseline and time-varying variables, results showed significant direct effects of AAH and meeting attendance on reduced alcohol outcomes and a direct effect of AAH on improved other-oriented interest. PMID:23327504

  6. Feedback from recently returned veterans on an anonymous web-based brief alcohol intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) are at increased risk for alcohol misuse, and innovative methods are needed to improve their access to alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBI). This study adapted an electronic SBI (e-SBI) website shown to be efficacious in college students for OEF/OIF veterans and reported findings from interviews with OEF/OIF veterans about their impressions of the e-SBI. Methods Outpatient veterans of OEF/OIF who drank ≥3 days in the past week were recruited from a US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Deployment Health Clinic waiting room. Veterans privately pretested the anonymous e-SBI then completed individual semistructured audio-recorded interviews. Their responses were analyzed using template analysis to explore domains identified a priori as well as emergent domains. Results During interviews, all nine OEF/OIF veterans (1 woman and 8 men) indicated they had received feedback for risky alcohol consumption. Participants generally liked the standard-drinks image, alcohol-related caloric and monetary feedback, and the website’s brevity and anonymity (a priori domains). They also experienced challenges with portions of the e-SBI assessment and viewed feedback regarding alcohol risk and normative drinking as problematic, but described potential benefits derived from the e-SBI (emergent domains). The most appealing e-SBIs would ensure anonymity and provide personalized transparent feedback about alcohol-related risk, consideration of the context for drinking, strategies to reduce drinking, and additional resources for veterans with more severe alcohol misuse. Conclusions Results of this qualitative exploratory study suggest e-SBI may be an acceptable strategy for increasing OEF/OIF veteran access to evidenced-based alcohol SBI. PMID:23186354

  7. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... and More Information Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) World Services Internet address: www.aa.org Phone: 212–870–3400 ... the telephone book. Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters Internet address: www.al-anon.alateen.org For locations ...

  8. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Effects of Long-Term AA Attendance and Spirituality on the Course of Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n=253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains, [Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire (RBB)] and completion of 12-step work [(Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory (AAI)]. Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−3.40, p= 0.01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−0.10, p=0.02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In sum, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. PMID:26076099

  10. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076099

  11. Effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous Easier (MAAEZ), a group format 12-step facilitation approach

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Subbaraman, Mina; Witbrodt, Jane; Zemore, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Most treatment programs recommend clients attend 12-step groups, but many drop out post-treatment. The effectiveness of “MAAEZ” (Making AA Easier), a manual-guided intervention designed to help clients connect with individuals encountered in AA, was tested using an “OFF/ON” design (n=508). MAAEZ effectiveness was determined by comparing abstinence rates of participants recruited during ON and OFF conditions, and studying the effect of the number of MAAEZ sessions attended. At 12 months, more clients in the ON condition (vs. OFF) reported past-30-day abstinence from alcohol (p=.012), drugs (p=.009), and both alcohol/ drugs (p=.045). In multivariate analyses, ON condition participants had significantly increased odds of abstinence from alcohol (OR=1.85) and from drugs (OR=2.21); abstinence odds also increased significantly for each additional MAAEZ session received. MAAEZ appeared especially effective for those with more prior AA exposure, severe psychiatric problems, and atheists/agnostics. MAAEZ represents an evidence-based intervention that is easily implemented in existing treatment programs. PMID:19339148

  12. Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse or alcoholism: Al–Anon Family Group Headquarters Internet address: www.al–anon.alateen.org Makes referrals ... Anonymous (AA) World Services Phone: (212) 870–3400 Internet address: www.aa.org Makes referrals to local ...

  13. The Impact of Counselor Recovery Status Similarity on Perceptions of Attractiveness with Members of Alcoholics Anonymous: An Exception to the Repulsion Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priester, Paul E.; Azen, Razia; Speight, Suzette; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of counselor alcoholism recovery status on perceptions of recovering alcoholics who are active members of Alcoholics Anonymous. The participants (n = 116) were given a description of an analogue counselor and rated this counselor using the "Counselor Rating Form-Short." There were three forms of the analogue…

  14. An Existential Approach: An Alternative to the AA Model of Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria A.; Cobia, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most widely used organization for the treatment of alcoholism. AA's philosophy has changed how many people view themselves and their substance use. The majority of substance abuse programs in the United States use the 12 steps, either by making them the basis of their treatment program, or by introducing AA to…

  15. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcohol-dependent fathers' treatment involvement and their children's externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcohol-dependent fathers' 12-step treatment involvement and their children's internalizing and externalizing problems (N = 125, M(age) = 9.8 +/- 3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers' greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior and that this effect would be mediated by fathers' posttreatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers' treatment involvement and children's externalizing problems only, whereas Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers' greater treatment involvement predicted children's lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers' posttreatment behaviors mediated this association: Greater treatment involvement predicted greater posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers' abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18715745

  16. Determinants of alcohol preference in the AA and ANA rat lines selected for differential ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Kiianmaa, K; Stenius, K; Sinclair, J D

    1991-01-01

    A selective breeding program conducted in this laboratory has resulted in the establishment of the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) and alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko Nonalcohol) rat lines. These lines have been used as a tool for attempting to identify the behavioral, neurochemical, and biochemical correlates of differential voluntary ethanol consumption. Some of the differences that have been found between the lines involve differential reinforcement: AA rats, but not ANA rats, rapidly acquire an ethanol-reinforced operant response. The AA's greater development of tolerance to the depressant effects of ethanol and their faster ethanol metabolism would also allow them to drink more. Neurochemical studies have suggested differential functioning of brain monoaminergic mechanisms. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase, and the brain dopamine concentrations are higher in the AA rats than in the ANA rats, and the maximal number of dopamine D2 receptors is lower in the AA rats. The concentration of noradrenaline is higher in the brain of ANA rats than in that of AA rats, while the 5-hydroxytryptamine levels do not seem to differ greatly. The importance of these differences to the line difference in ethanol intake is not, however, clear, since there appears to be no difference in the sensitivity of monoamine systems of the two lines to ethanol. PMID:1726981

  17. Reframing Spirituality: AA, the 12 Steps, and the Mental Health Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys literature and explores ways to understand spirituality in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Topics explored range from Jungian and Jamesian psychology, to Stoicism, the work of Bateson, and transpersonal psychology and therapy. Speculates that difficulty some mental health counselors have in accepting AA as therapy could be a result of…

  18. The AA and ANA rat lines, selected for differences in voluntary alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Lê, A D; Kiianmaa, K

    1989-09-15

    The offspring of rats that voluntarily select larger quantities of alcohol are heavier consumers of alcohol than the offspring of rats that tend to avoid it. Such selective breeding, repeated over many generations, was used to develop the AA (Alko, Alcohol) line of rats which prefer 10% alcohol to water, and the ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) line of rats which choose water to the virtual exclusion of alcohol. In addition to demonstrating the likely role of genetic factors in alcohol consumption, these lines have been used to find behavioral, metabolic, and neurochemical correlates of differential alcohol intake. Some of the line differences that have been found involve the reinforcing effects of ethanol, the changes in consumption produced by alcohol deprivation and nutritional factors, the behavioral and adrenal monoamine reactions to mild stress, the development of tolerance, the accumulation of acetaldehyde during ethanol metabolism, and the brain levels of serotonin. It is hoped that these studies will lead to a better understanding of the genetically-determined mechanisms that influence the selection of alcohol.

  19. WHAT PSYCHIATRISTS THINK ABOUT ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Max

    1955-01-01

    The one approach most favored for alcoholism by psychiatrists in Southern California who answered a questionnaire is membership in Alcoholics Anonymous. Ninety-nine per cent of them approved Alcoholics Anonymous, and 80 per cent had referred patients to the organization. Yet they believed only 10 per cent of the persons who join A.A. remain sober for over two years. This against the claim of A.A. that 60 per cent or more of their fellowship are recovered emphasized the pessimism of the psychiatrists questioned. Ninety per cent of the psychiatrists who replied said they do not treat alcoholics or that they limit the number or the type they will accept for treatment. They obtain recovery, they said, of 10 per cent of patients, improvement of 50 per cent, and the rest are unchanged. The emphasis in psychiatry is on elimination of the anxieties leading to alcoholism; in Alcoholics Anonymous the emphasis is on the strength to bear these anxieties. Ninety per cent of the replies received were in favor of clinics for alcoholics, and the respondents felt that governmental agencies should support these clinics. Under such circumstances psychiatrists would combine their abilities with psychologists, social workers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Thirty-five per cent of psychiatrists said they are willing to work in a clinic, the majority without recompense. PMID:13270110

  20. Against anonymity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile. PMID:24724540

  1. Against anonymity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile.

  2. Innate BDNF expression is associated with ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Raivio, Noora; Miettinen, Pekka; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2014-09-01

    We have shown recently that acute administration of ethanol modulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in several rat brain areas known to be involved in the development of addiction to ethanol and other drugs of abuse, suggesting that BDNF may be a factor contributing to the neuroadaptive changes set in motion by ethanol exposure. The purpose of the present study was to further clarify the role of BDNF in reinforcement from ethanol and in the development of addiction to ethanol by specifying the effect of acute administration of ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) on the expression profile of BDNF mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the terminal areas of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the brain of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats, selected for high and low voluntary ethanol intake, respectively. The level of BDNF mRNA expression was higher in the amygdala and ventral tegmental area of AA than in those of ANA rats, and there was a trend for a higher level in the nucleus accumbens. In the amygdala and hippocampus, a biphasic change in the BDNF mRNA levels was detected: the levels were decreased at 3 and 6h but increased above the basal levels at 24h. Furthermore, there was a difference between the AA and ANA lines in the effect of ethanol, the ANA rats showing an increase in BDNF mRNA levels while such a change was not seen in AA rats. These findings suggest that the innate levels of BDNF expression may play a role in the mediation of the reinforcing effects of ethanol and in the control of ethanol intake.

  3. Predictors of Initial AA-Related Helping: Findings From Project MATCH*

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Onder, Casey C.; Stout, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to identify the factors that predict initial Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)-related helping following treatment admission. Method: Data were derived from Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity), a longitudinal investigation of the efficacy of three behavioral treatments for alcohol abuse and dependence. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to determine the extent to which demographic, clinical, belief, and AA factors predicted initial AA-related helping. Results: Demographic characteristics, drinking severity, antisocial personality, and purpose in life were not associated with initial AA-related helping. Increased self-efficacy, faith-based practices, meeting attendance, number of steps worked, having a sponsor, and length of sobriety predicted initial AA-related helping. Alcoholics reported elevated depressive symptoms before initial AA-related helping, lowered depressive symptoms at the start of AA-related helping, and similarly lowered depressive symptoms in the interval following initial AA-related helping. Conclusions: The profile of prospective helpers in AA is not limited to alcoholics from certain backgrounds or higher functioning in terms of drinking or clinical severity. To increase participation in AA-related helping, and hence outcomes, results suggest strengthening self-efficacy and progress in other AA programmatic components. PMID:19118400

  4. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  5. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, Dmitri; Kilin, Sergei

    2011-02-01

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  6. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  7. [Anonymity and gamete donation].

    PubMed

    Bujan, L; Le Lannou, D; Kunstmann, J-M

    2012-08-01

    In France the gamete donation is based on the major principles: anonymity, no payment, solidarity and this mode of procreation can be used only if a medical indication is present in recipient couples. In prerequisite and during the revision of the law of bioethics, a wide debate took place about the anonymity of gamete donation. The objectives of this article is to review the concept of the anonymity and its links with the questions of the origin, the secret of the modalities of the conception and the mourning of the fertility, children, donors and the recipient couples waiting for gamete donation. The international situation is also addressed. The contribution of the CECOS, the centers which practice the sperm and the egg donations is highlighted. The anonymity cannot be discussed without addressing all these links and the complexity of this particular mode of conception. To date, the French society has maintained the anonymity in the new law of bioethics. PMID:23141592

  8. A novel application of propensity score matching to estimate Alcoholics Anonymous’ effect on drinking outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Magura, Stephen; McKean, Joseph; Kosten, Scott; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mutual aid, including Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), are notoriously difficult to conduct and correlational studies are problematic to interpret due to potential confounds. Methods A secondary analysis was conducted of Project MATCH, a RCT of alcoholism treatments. Although MATCH did not randomly assign subjects to AA vs. no AA, the 12 Step Facilitation (TSF) condition did result in a higher proportion of subjects attending community AA meetings than in the other two treatment conditions. The key inference is that there exists a latent subgroup in MATCH who attended AA only because its constituents received TSF, not because of the “normal” factors leading to self-selection of AA. A novel application of propensity score matching (PSM) allowed four latent AA-related subgroups to be identified to estimate an unconfounded effect of AA on drinking outcomes. Results The study hypotheses were supported: subjects who consistently attended AA solely due to their exposure to TSF (the “Added AA” subgroup) had better drinking outcomes than equivalent subjects who did not consistently attend AA, but would have so attended, had they been exposed to TSF (the “Potential AA” subgroup); this indicates an AA effect on drinking. Conclusions The analysis presents evidence that consistent AA attendance improves drinking outcomes, independent of “normal” confounding factors that make correlations between AA attendance and outcomes difficult to interpret. PMID:23040721

  9. Spirituality, drugs, and alcohol: a philosophical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Godlaski, Theodore M; Staton-Tindall, Michele

    2013-09-01

    Spirituality has long been associated with recovery from the socially constructed "addictive disease." Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its analogs have enjoyed widespread acceptance as a spiritual approach for achieving recovery. AA or its derivatives are the predominant approaches in treatment programs even though a wide array of evidence-based approaches are now promoted by governmental sources in the United States. This philosophical analysis contrasts the state of science about addictive disorders with the reliance on a spiritual approach that is heavily grounded in Christian theology. We present four problems that need consideration before accepting the applicability of 12-step spiritual practices as the backbone of addiction treatment or recovery.

  10. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  11. The twelve-step recovery model of AA: a voluntary mutual help association.

    PubMed

    Borkman, Thomasina

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism treatment has evolved to mean professionalized, scientifically based rehabilitation. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is not a treatment method; it is far better understood as a Twelve-Step Recovery Program within a voluntary self-help/mutual aid organization of self-defined alcoholics. The Twelve-Step Recovery Model is elaborated in three sections, patterned on the AA logo (a triangle within a circle): The triangle's legs represent recovery, service, and unity; the circle represents the reinforcing effect of the three legs upon each other as well as the "technology" of the sharing circle and the fellowship. The first leg of the triangle, recovery, refers to the journey of individuals to abstinence and a new "way of living." The second leg, service, refers to helping other alcoholics which also connects the participants into a fellowship. The third leg, unity, refers to the fellowship of recovering alcoholics, their groups, and organizations. The distinctive AA organizational structure of an inverted pyramid is one in which the members in autonomous local groups direct input to the national service bodies creating a democratic, egalitarian organization maximizing recovery. Analysts describe the AA recovery program as complex, implicitly grounded in sound psychological principles, and more sophisticated than is typically understood. AA provides a nonmedicalized and anonymous "way of living" in the community and should probably be referred to as the Twelve-Step/Twelve Tradition Recovery Model in order to clearly differentiate it from professionally based twelve-step treatments. There are additional self-help/mutual aid groups for alcoholics who prefer philosophies other than AA. PMID:19115761

  12. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6 months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients.

  13. Pilot test of twelve-step linkage for alcohol abusing women in leaving jail

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than a million U.S. women are detained in jails each year; many have alcohol use disorders (AUD). AUD intervention with pretrial jail detainees presents a logistical challenge due to limited jail stays and lack of resources for post release treatment. The availability, no-cost entry, and promise of anonymity of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) make it a highly accessible resource for underserved populations. However, the outreach of AA volunteers into jails (as opposed to prisons) has been limited, and incarcerated women are unlikely to seek out strangers for help after release. This study pilot tested an enhanced referral approach introducing a twelve-step volunteer to a woman in jail who would attend a meeting with her after release. Methods Participants were 14 unsentenced female pretrial jail detainees with AUD. Intervention consisted of introducing participants detained in jail to female AA volunteers who could accompany them to an AA meeting after release. Assessments took place at baseline and one month after release. This uncontrolled pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of this enhanced referral approach. We also report pre-post alcohol use, drug use, alcohol problems, and AA attendance. Results Enhanced referral was feasible and acceptable. Many (57%) of the 14 participants who met with AA volunteers in jail were in contact with those volunteers after release from jail. Participants had significantly fewer drinking days, heavy drinking days, alcohol problems, and drug-using days during the post-release follow-up than they did before jail detention. Conclusions Providing linkage between women in jail and female AA volunteers who can accompany them to post-release a meeting is achievable, and may be a disseminable and low-cost method to improve alcohol outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:24588287

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  18. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  19. Extension of the LOPLS-AA Force Field for Alcohols, Esters, and Monoolein Bilayers and its Validation by Neutron Scattering Experiments.

    PubMed

    Pluhackova, Kristyna; Morhenn, Humphrey; Lautner, Lisa; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Nemkovski, Kirill S; Unruh, Tobias; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2015-12-10

    The recently presented LOPLS-AA all-atom force field for long hydrocarbon chains, based on the OPLS-AA force field, was extended to alcohols, esters, and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) lipids as a model lipid. Dihedral angles were fitted against high level ab initio calculations, and ester charges were increased to improve their hydration properties. Additionally, the ester Lennard-Jones parameters were readjusted to reproduce experimental liquid bulk properties, densities, and heats of vaporization. This extension enabled the setup of LOPLS-AA parameters for GMO molecules. The properties of the lipid force field were tested for the liquid-crystalline phase of a GMO bilayer. The obtained area per lipid for GMO is in good agreement with experiment. Additionally, the lipid dynamics on the subpicosecond to the nanosecond time scale is in excellent agreement with results from time-of-flight (TOF) quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments on a multilamellar monoolein system, enabling here for the first time the critical evaluation of the short-time dynamics obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation of a membrane system. PMID:26537654

  20. Extension of the LOPLS-AA Force Field for Alcohols, Esters, and Monoolein Bilayers and its Validation by Neutron Scattering Experiments.

    PubMed

    Pluhackova, Kristyna; Morhenn, Humphrey; Lautner, Lisa; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Nemkovski, Kirill S; Unruh, Tobias; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2015-12-10

    The recently presented LOPLS-AA all-atom force field for long hydrocarbon chains, based on the OPLS-AA force field, was extended to alcohols, esters, and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) lipids as a model lipid. Dihedral angles were fitted against high level ab initio calculations, and ester charges were increased to improve their hydration properties. Additionally, the ester Lennard-Jones parameters were readjusted to reproduce experimental liquid bulk properties, densities, and heats of vaporization. This extension enabled the setup of LOPLS-AA parameters for GMO molecules. The properties of the lipid force field were tested for the liquid-crystalline phase of a GMO bilayer. The obtained area per lipid for GMO is in good agreement with experiment. Additionally, the lipid dynamics on the subpicosecond to the nanosecond time scale is in excellent agreement with results from time-of-flight (TOF) quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments on a multilamellar monoolein system, enabling here for the first time the critical evaluation of the short-time dynamics obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation of a membrane system.

  1. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  2. Technology for Anonymity: Names By Other Nyms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayner, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Provides a summary of some of the technical solutions for producing anonymous communication on the Internet and presents an argument that anonymity is as much a part of crime prevention as requiring people to provide their names. Discusses identity theft; the three major techniques that make anonymous cash possible; and anonymizing Internet…

  3. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  4. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  5. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  6. Revocable Anonymous Access to the Internet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Joris; Diaz, Claudia; Goemans, Caroline; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos; Dumortier, Jos

    2003-01-01

    Users of telecommunications networks are concerned about privacy, and desire anonymous access, while some organizations are concerned about how this anonymous access might be abused. Proposes a solution for revocable anonymous access to the Internet. Presents some legal background and motivation for such a solution. Indicates some difficulties and…

  7. Protecting Privacy Using k-Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    El Emam, Khaled; Dankar, Fida Kamal

    2008-01-01

    Objective There is increasing pressure to share health information and even make it publicly available. However, such disclosures of personal health information raise serious privacy concerns. To alleviate such concerns, it is possible to anonymize the data before disclosure. One popular anonymization approach is k-anonymity. There have been no evaluations of the actual re-identification probability of k-anonymized data sets. Design Through a simulation, we evaluated the re-identification risk of k-anonymization and three different improvements on three large data sets. Measurement Re-identification probability is measured under two different re-identification scenarios. Information loss is measured by the commonly used discernability metric. Results For one of the re-identification scenarios, k-Anonymity consistently over-anonymizes data sets, with this over-anonymization being most pronounced with small sampling fractions. Over-anonymization results in excessive distortions to the data (i.e., high information loss), making the data less useful for subsequent analysis. We found that a hypothesis testing approach provided the best control over re-identification risk and reduces the extent of information loss compared to baseline k-anonymity. Conclusion Guidelines are provided on when to use the hypothesis testing approach instead of baseline k-anonymity. PMID:18579830

  8. Identification with mainstream culture and preference for alternative alcohol treatment approaches in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Dillworth, Tiara M; Kaysen, Debra; Montoya, Heidi D; Larimer, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    Although various treatment approaches are available for alcohol problems, less than 25% of individuals with alcohol use disorders obtain treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate interest in attending alternative alcohol treatments, such as meditation and acupuncture, compared to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). A community sample of 156 adult participants concerned about their drinking were recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements to complete a Web-based survey assessing identification with mainstream culture, sexual identity, and likelihood to attend alternative alcohol treatments. Participants reported higher likelihood of attending alternative treatments as compared to AA, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants (28.2% of the sample) were more likely to attend alternative treatments than heterosexual participants. A series of regression analyses were conducted to test whether the relationship between sexual identity and likelihood to attend alternative treatments was mediated by identification with mainstream culture. Participants who were less strongly identified with mainstream culture, regardless of sexual identity, reported higher likelihood of attending alternative treatments. These findings highlight that, for certain subgroups of the population, alternative treatments for alcohol misuse are appealing and suggest the need for future research testing the efficacy of alternative treatments for alcohol problems.

  9. Anonymous and non-anonymous oocyte donation preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Junca, A M; Cohen, J; Mandelbaum, J; Alnot, M O; Debache, C; Plachot, M; Pez, J P

    1988-01-01

    During the past year, we have developed an oocyte donation programme in 10 patients with complete absence of endogenous ovarian function (premature ovarian failure in seven cases, castration in two cases and Turner's syndrome in one case). In cases of anonymous donation, donors were volunteers devoid of any major genetical risk who were included in our IVF programme and who consented to donate one oocyte when at least seven oocytes were recovered, and two oocytes when at least 11 oocytes were recovered, to a recipient couple. As far as possible, morphological characteristics of both couples were paired. In cases of non-anonymous donation, donors were 'affective' donors, having at least one child. The resulting embryos after IVF of donated oocytes were either replaced directly in recipient women which required synchronization of the donor's and recipient's cycles, or cryopreserved and then thawed, usually at day 16 of recipient's artificial cycle, i.e. 2 days after introduction of the progestational compound. On the 10 patients entering this oocyte donation programme (20 cycles), 13 transfers were carried out resulting in four clinical pregnancies in three patients with premature ovarian failure and one with Turner's syndrome (20% pregnancy per cycle and 31% per transfer). Despite the small numbers, these good results prompted us to develop this protocol. PMID:3350933

  10. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  11. Using Boolean reasoning to anonymize databases.

    PubMed

    Ohrn, A; Ohno-Machado, L

    1999-03-01

    This paper investigates how Boolean reasoning can be used to make the records in a database anonymous. In a medical setting, this is of particular interest due to privacy issues and to prevent the possible misuse of confidential information. As electronic medical records and medical data repositories get more common and widespread, the issue of making sensitive data anonymous becomes increasingly important. A theoretically well-founded algorithm is proposed that via cell suppression can be used to make a database anonymous before releasing or sharing it to the outside world. The degree of anonymity can be tailored according to the specific needs of the recipient, and according to the amount of trust we place in the recipient. Furthermore, the required measure of anonymity can be specified as far down as to the individual objects in the database. The algorithm can also be used for anonymization relative to a particular piece of information, effectively blocking deterministic inferences about sensitive database fields.

  12. Disease recognition is related to specific autobiographical memory deficits in alcohol-dependence.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Marie; Neumann, Aurore; Luminet, Olivier; Vande Weghe, Noémie; Philippot, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    The particularly high treatment gap in alcohol-dependence suggests the existence of important barriers to treatment decision and in particular difficulties in problem recognition. This study tested the relation between problem recognition and self-related memories. Forty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (AD) were compared to twenty alcoholic subjects that were abstinent for 6 months or more (recruited among alcoholics-anonymous (AA)), and to twenty controls on autobiographical memories elicited by pictures depicting or not alcohol using the autobiographical memory test. Autonoetic consciousness was measured with the Remember/Know paradigm. We tested whether memories performances were related with data obtained on the readiness to change questionnaire (RCQ) or with consciousness of the severity of drinking. AD subjects provided less specific memories than control and AA subjects, and fewer Remember responses than controls. The deficits in AD subjects were not specific for memories elicited by pictures depicting alcohol, suggesting a global deficit. Autobiographical memories specificity was negatively correlated to scores of consciousness of the severity of drinking but not to RCQ. Our results support potential recovery of autobiographical memory with abstinence. AD's deficits in autobiographical memory were related to capacities to recognize the severity and therefore may be a barrier to treatment decision. PMID:26365688

  13. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  14. Self-tallying quantum anonymous voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingle; Yu, Chaohua; Gao, Fei; Qi, Haoyu; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2016-08-01

    Anonymous voting is a voting method of hiding the link between a vote and a voter, the context of which ranges from governmental elections to decision making in small groups like councils and companies. In this paper, we propose a quantum anonymous voting protocol assisted by two kinds of entangled quantum states. Particularly, we provide a mechanism of opening and permuting the ordered votes of all the voters in an anonymous manner; any party who is interested in the voting results can acquire a permutation copy and then obtains the voting result through a simple calculation. Unlike all previous quantum works on anonymous voting, our quantum anonymous protocol possesses the properties of privacy, self-tallying, nonreusability, verifiability, and fairness at the same time. In addition, we demonstrate that the entanglement of the quantum states used in our protocol makes an attack from an outside eavesdropper and inside dishonest voters impossible. We also generalize our protocol to execute the task of anonymous multiparty computation, such as anonymous broadcast and anonymous ranking.

  15. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  16. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  17. Utilization of Alcohol Treatment Among HIV-Positive Women with Hazardous Drinking.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xingdi; Harman, Jeffrey; Winterstein, Almut G; Zhong, Yue; Wheeler, Amber L; Taylor, Tonya N; Plankey, Michael; Rubtsova, Anna; Cropsey, Karen; Cohen, Mardge H; Adimora, Adaora A; Milam, Joel; Adedimeji, Adebola; Cook, Robert L

    2016-05-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption has been frequently reported among women with HIV infection and is associated with a variety of negative health consequences. Treatments to reduce alcohol use may bring in health benefits. However, little is known regarding the utilization of alcohol treatment services among HIV+ women with hazardous drinking. Using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), this study assessed utilization of any alcohol treatment in the past 6 months and performed multivariable logistic regression to determine correlates of receipt of any alcohol treatment. Among 474 HIV+ women reporting recent hazardous drinking, less than one in five (19%) reported recent utilization of any alcohol treatment. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) was the most commonly reported (12.9%), followed by inpatient detoxification (9.9%) and outpatient alcohol treatment program (7.0%). Half (51%) receiving any alcohol treatment reported utilization of multiple treatments. Multivariable analyses found alcohol treatment was more often utilized by those who had social support (odds ratio [OR]=1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00 to 2.83), fewer economic resources (income ≤$12,000 vs. >$12,000, OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.53 to 6.27), higher levels of drinking (16-35 drinks/week vs. 12-15 drinks/week, OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.47 to 6.21; 36+ drinks/week vs. 12-15 drinks/week, OR=4.41, 95% CI=2.03 to 9.59), and those who reported any illicit drug use (OR=2.77, 95% CI=1.44 to 5.34). More efforts are needed to enhance the utilization of alcohol treatment. Our findings highlight the unique profile of those who utilized alcohol treatment. Such information is vital to improve treatment delivery to address unmet need in this particular population. PMID:26961420

  18. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider’s desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users’ desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly “re-anonymize” their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  19. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims.

  20. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Panel, Review of RFA AA10-007 & AA10- 008 Gut-Liver-Brain Interactions in Alcohol Induced...

  1. Alcoholic patients' response to their disease: perspective of patients and family

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Domínguez-Sánchez, Isabel; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to know the perspective of alcoholic patients and their families about the behavioral characteristics of the disease, identifying the issues to modify the addictive behavior and seek rehabilitation. Method: ethnographic research using interpretative anthropology, via participant observation and a detailed interview with alcoholic patients and their families, members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Alanon in Spain. Results: development of disease behavior in alcoholism is complex due to the issues of interpreting the consumption model as a disease sign. Patients often remain long periods in the pre-contemplation stage, delaying the search for assistance, which often arrives without them accepting the role of patient. This constrains the recovery and is related to the social thought on alcoholism and self-stigma on alcoholics and their families, leading them to deny the disease, condition of the patient, and help. The efforts of self-help groups and the involvement of health professionals is essential for recovery. Conclusion: understanding how disease behavior develops, and the change process of addictive behavior, it may be useful for patients, families and health professionals, enabling them to act in a specific way at each stage. PMID:26626009

  2. Narcotics Anonymous: Understanding the "Bridge of Recovery."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronel, Natti

    1998-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is investigated as a subculture of recovery bridging the drug subculture and the prevailing culture. A phenomenological study of NA in Israel is reported. Innovation, cultural conflict, the value of recovery and its norms, supporting social mechanisms, limitations of the program, and intercultural attributes are…

  3. "Dear Professor: I Hate You"--Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Flip through a stack of anonymous student evaluations of professors and the mild comments, even the compliments, tend to blend together. But often, hidden among them, is a dagger. Then there are the out-and-out insults. Students' comments can be more than simply mean. Sometimes student comments aren't cruel, just weird. In this article, some…

  4. Altruism and anonymity: A behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Locey, Matthew L; Rachlin, Howard

    2015-09-01

    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting - the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant - was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation. PMID:26051191

  5. Altruism and anonymity: A behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Locey, Matthew L; Rachlin, Howard

    2015-09-01

    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting - the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant - was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation.

  6. Anonymization server system for DICOM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Amano, M.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nishitani, H.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed an anonymization system for DICOM images. It requires consent from the patient to use the DICOM images for research or education. However, providing the DICOM image to the other facilities is not safe because it contains a lot of personal data. Our system is a server that provides anonymization service of DICOM images for users in the facility. The distinctive features of the system are, input interface, flexible anonymization policy, and automatic body part identification. In the first feature, we can use the anonymization service on the existing DICOM workstations. In the second feature, we can select a best policy fitting for the Protection of personal data that is ruled by each medical facility. In the third feature, we can identify the body parts that are included in the input image set, even if the set lacks the body part tag in DICOM header. We installed the system for the first time to a hospital in December 2005. Currently, the system is working in other four facilities. In this paper we describe the system and how it works.

  7. Altruism and Anonymity: A Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Locey, Matthew L.; Rachlin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting – the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant – was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation. PMID:26051191

  8. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues. PMID:26763729

  9. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. PMID:24724541

  10. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues.

  11. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Johnson, Aaron; Syverson, Paul

    Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until now, however, it has had no formal model and therefore no rigorous analysis of its anonymity guarantees. We give an IO-automata model of an onion-routing protocol and, under possibilistic definitions, characterize the situations in which anonymity and unlinkability are guaranteed.

  12. Extraction and anonymity protocol of medical file.

    PubMed Central

    Bouzelat, H.; Quantin, C.; Dusserre, L.

    1996-01-01

    To carry out the epidemiological study of patients suffering from a given cancer, the Department of Medical Informatics (DIM) has to link information coming from different hospitals and medical laboratories in the Burgundy region. Demands from the French department for computerized information security (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés: CNIL), in regard to abiding by the law of January 6, 1978, completed by the law of July 1st, 1994 on nominal data processing in the framework of medical research have to be taken into account. Notably, the CNIL advised to render anonymous patient identities before the extraction of each establishment file. This paper describes a recently implemented protocol, registered with the French department for computerized information security (Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'information : SCSSI) whose purpose is to render anonymous medical files in view of their extraction. Once rendered anonymous, these files will be exportable so as to be merged with other files and used in a framework of epidemiological studies. Therefore, this protocol uses the Standard Hash Algorithm (SHA) which allows the replacement of identities by their imprints while ensuring a minimal collision rate in order to allow a correct linkage of the different information concerning the same patient. A first evaluation of the extraction and anonymity software with regard to the purpose of an epidemiological survey is described here. In this paper, we also show how it would be possible to implement this system by means of the Internet communication network. PMID:8947681

  13. Anonymous grading: an ethical teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, C

    1994-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on student rights, as well as attention to ethics, has focused awareness on strategies that faculty can implement to ensure that the subject of ethics is illustrated in classroom teaching. The author discusses anonymous grading as one strategy to operationalize ethics in the classroom. As an ethical concept, justice is a primary concern in the implementation of impartial and fair evaluation of students' work.

  14. Medical document anonymization with a semantic lexicon.

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, P.; Baud, R. H.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Bouillon, P.; Robert, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present an original system for locating and removing personally-identifying information in patient records. In this experiment, anonymization is seen as a particular case of knowledge extraction. We use natural language processing tools provided by the MEDTAG framework: a semantic lexicon specialized in medicine, and a toolkit for word-sense and morpho-syntactic tagging. The system finds 98-99% of all personally-identifying information. PMID:11079980

  15. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  16. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  17. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  18. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  19. Alcoholic Recovery and the 12 Steps: White Bison Presents a Native View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes an alcohol recovery program offered by White Bison, Inc. (Colorado Springs), that integrates the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous with traditional Native American ceremonies and medicine wheel teachings symbolizing the life cycle. (LP)

  20. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Chris Y. T.; Yau, David K. Y.; Yip, Nung Kwan; Rao, Nageswara S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Mobility traces of people and vehicles have been collected and published to assist the design and evaluation of mobile networks, such as large-scale urban sensing networks. Although the published traces are often made anonymous in that the true identities of nodes are replaced by random identifiers, the privacy concern remains. This is because in real life, nodes are open to observations in public spaces, or they may voluntarily or inadvertently disclose partial knowledge of their whereabouts. Thus, snapshots of nodes’ location information can be learned by interested third parties, e.g., directly through chance/engineered meetings between the nodes and their observers, or indirectly through casual conversations or other information sources about people. In this paper, we investigate how an adversary, when equipped with a small amount of the snapshot information termed as side information, can infer an extended view of the whereabouts of a victim node appearing in an anonymous trace. Our results quantify the loss of victim nodes’ privacy as a function of the nodal mobility, the inference strategies of adversaries, and any noise that may appear in the trace or the side information. Generally, our results indicate that the privacy concern is significant in that a relatively small amount of side information is sufficient for the adversary to infer the true identity (either uniquely or with high probability) of a victim in a set of anonymous traces. For instance, an adversary is able to identify the trace of 30%-50% of the victims when she has collected 10 pieces of side information about a victim.

  1. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Chris Y. T.; Yau, David K. Y.; Yip, Nung Kwan; Rao, Nageswara S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Mobility traces of people and vehicles have been collected and published to assist the design and evaluation of mobile networks, such as large-scale urban sensing networks. Although the published traces are often made anonymous in that the true identities of nodes are replaced by random identifiers, the privacy concern remains. This is because in real life, nodes are open to observations in public spaces, or they may voluntarily or inadvertently disclose partial knowledge of their whereabouts. Thus, snapshots of nodes’ location information can be learned by interested third parties, e.g., directly through chance/engineered meetings between the nodes and their observers,more » or indirectly through casual conversations or other information sources about people. In this paper, we investigate how an adversary, when equipped with a small amount of the snapshot information termed as side information, can infer an extended view of the whereabouts of a victim node appearing in an anonymous trace. Our results quantify the loss of victim nodes’ privacy as a function of the nodal mobility, the inference strategies of adversaries, and any noise that may appear in the trace or the side information. Generally, our results indicate that the privacy concern is significant in that a relatively small amount of side information is sufficient for the adversary to infer the true identity (either uniquely or with high probability) of a victim in a set of anonymous traces. For instance, an adversary is able to identify the trace of 30%-50% of the victims when she has collected 10 pieces of side information about a victim.« less

  2. Anonymity: an impediment to performance in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are "Always" or "Often" able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either "Often" or "Sometimes" page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either "Rarely" or "Never" able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were "Rarely" or "Never" recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  3. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason J.; Bond, Robert M.; Fariss, Christopher J.; Settle, Jaime E.; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being “leaked” or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records. PMID:23441156

  4. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  5. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Spectrum Disorders in Young Children (U01), RFA AA-10-005. Date: March 2, 2010. Time: 2 p.m. to 6...

  6. Rating AAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  7. ["Baby cradle coop slots" for abandoned (anonymous) babies: legal problems].

    PubMed

    Riedel, U

    2006-04-01

    It is illegal to propagate or offer anonymous births or to "cradle" abandoned babies in anonymous coop slots ("Babyklappen" in German). Such offers must be rescinded. Offers concerning anonymity of births are ill-suited, since they do not save life. They are unnecessary, because women and children can be assisted even if they are in dire straits, by utilising available help as offered by statutory German child and adolescent aid institutions. Those illegal offers do not solve any problems but create new difficulties and result in lifelong misery for children and parents. Offers for anonymousness create a previously non-existent demand and discredit legal help facilities. Persons assisting anonymous deliveries or recovering "baby cradle" ("Babyklappen") children are obliged to report this to the local registrar's office (in hospitals by the hospital director). Anonymous babies must be immediately reported by hospitals or institutions to local police authorities, and they should be reported to the municipal Youth Office.

  8. Divisible E-Cash Systems Can Be Truly Anonymous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canard, Sébastien; Gouget, Aline

    This paper presents an off-line divisible e-cash scheme where a user can withdraw a divisible coin of monetary value 2 L that he can parceled and spend anonymously and unlinkably. We present the construction of a security tag that allows to protect the anonymity of honest users and to revoke anonymity only in case of cheat for protocols based on a binary tree structure without using a trusted third party. This is the first divisible e-cash scheme that provides both full unlinkability and anonymity without requiring a trusted third party.

  9. Reconstructing Spatial Distributions from Anonymized Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Forrest, Stephanie; Groat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and sensors are often equipped with GPS that accurately report a person's location. Combined with wireless communication, these devices enable a wide range of new social tools and applications. These same qualities, however, leave location-aware applications vulnerable to privacy violations. This paper introduces the Negative Quad Tree, a privacy protection method for location aware applications. The method is broadly applicable to applications that use spatial density information, such as social applications that measure the popularity of social venues. The method employs a simple anonymization algorithm running on mobile devices, and a more complex reconstruction algorithm on a central server. This strategy is well suited to low-powered mobile devices. The paper analyzes the accuracy of the reconstruction method in a variety of simulated and real-world settings and demonstrates that the method is accurate enough to be used in many real-world scenarios.

  10. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  12. What Does Anonymization Mean? DataSHIELD and the Need for Consensus on Anonymization Terminology.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    Anonymization is a recognized process by which identifiers can be removed from identifiable data to protect an individual's confidentiality and is used as a standard practice when sharing data in biomedical research. However, a plethora of terms, such as coding, pseudonymization, unlinked, and deidentified, have been and continue to be used, leading to confusion and uncertainty. This article shows that this is a historic problem and argues that such continuing uncertainty regarding the levels of protection given to data risks damaging initiatives designed to assist researchers conducting cross-national studies and sharing data internationally. DataSHIELD and the creation of a legal template are used as examples of initiatives that rely on anonymization, but where the inconsistency in terminology could hinder progress. More broadly, this article argues that there is a real possibility that there could be possible damage to the public's trust in research and the institutions that carry it out by relying on vague notions of the anonymization process. Research participants whose lack of clear understanding of the research process is compensated for by trusting those carrying out the research may have that trust damaged if the level of protection given to their data does not match their expectations. One step toward ensuring understanding between parties would be consistent use of clearly defined terminology used internationally, so that all those involved are clear on the level of identifiability of any particular set of data and, therefore, how that data can be accessed and shared.

  13. What Behavioral Scientists Know--and What They Can Do--about Alcoholism. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Peter E.

    Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in 1935 and observed its 50th anniversary in 1985. This document discusses the changes that have taken place in knowledge about alcoholism. Specifically, this booklet compares what behavioral scientists knew about alcohol abuse and alcoholism in 1935 and what they knew and could do about them in 1985. Contributions…

  14. Anonymous predictive testing for Huntington's disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Visintainer, C L; Matthias-Hagen, V; Nance, M A

    2001-01-01

    The widespread use of a predictive genetic test for Huntington's disease (HD) since 1993 has brought to the forefront issues regarding genetic privacy. Although the possibility of anonymous genetic testing has been discussed, its use in the United States has not been described previously. We review the experiences of 11 genetics specialists with anonymous predictive testing for HD. We found that more men than women requested anonymous testing, for reasons that more often related to personal privacy than to insurance or discrimination concerns. A number of approaches to anonymity were used, and genetics specialists varied in the degree to which they were comfortable with the process. A number of legal, medical, and practical questions are raised, which will require resolution if anonymous testing is to be performed with a greater frequency in the future.

  15. The effects of juror anonymity on jury verdicts.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, D L; Brigham, J C

    1998-12-01

    This study examined the effects of anonymity on jurors' verdicts and on jurors' feelings of accountability for their jury's verdicts. Twenty four-person anonymous juries and 20 four-person nonanonymous juries rendered individual and group verdicts for three student defendants charged with selling drugs on a school campus. When unanimous guilty verdicts were reached, juries imposed one of five punishments. Finally, jurors completed postdeliberation opinion and accountability questionnaires. As predicted, anonymous juries showed a higher rate of conviction (70%) than did nonanonymous juries (40%) when the evidence against the defendant was strong, supporting the hypothesis that anonymity would have a greater effect for situations in which there was relatively strong evidence of the defendant's guilt. Anonymous juries imposed the harshest punishment (expulsion) significantly more often than did nonanonymous juries. Contrary to predictions from differential self-awareness theory, anonymous juries did not report feeling less accountable than did nonanonymous juries. However, anonymous juries did see the process as significantly more fair than did identifiable juries.

  16. An Enhanced Secure Authentication Scheme with Anonymity for Wireless Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woongryul; Kim, Jeeyeon; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    As anonymity increasingly becomes a necessary and legitimate aim in many applications, a number of anonymous authentication schemes have been suggested over the years. Among the many schemes is Lee and Kwon's password-based authentication scheme for wireless environments. Compared with previous schemes, Lee and Kwon's scheme not only improves anonymity by employing random temporary IDs but also provides user-friendliness by allowing human-memorable passwords. In this letter, we point out that Lee and Kwon's scheme, despite its many merits, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and a forgery attack. In addition, we show how to eliminate these vulnerabilities.

  17. Use of paradox in the treatment of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Shore, J J

    1981-02-01

    Using a paradoxical approach in dealing with an alcoholic's denial of alcoholism and resistance to treatment allows the therapist to maintain an empathic stance while placing the responsibility for change on the alcoholic. The author discusses the theory of paradox, its use by Alcoholics Anonymous and Al-Anon, the power dynamics of the therapeutic process, and the specific strategies and ethics of this approach to therapy. PMID:7215985

  18. Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2010-01-01

    Users are being tracked on the Internet more than ever before as Web sites and search engines gather pieces of information sufficient to identify and study their behavior. While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required. In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on. The scheme leverages the natural grouping of hosts in the same subnet and the universally available broadcast primitive to provide anonymity at line speeds. Our scheme is strongly resistant against all active or passive adversaries as long as they are outside the subnet. Even within the subnet, our scheme provides reasonable resistance against adversaries, providing anonymity that is suitable for common Internet applications.

  19. Anonymization of DICOM electronic medical records for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert; Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a cancer clinic. In addition to this we were unable to find a commercial software tool that met the minimum requirements for anonymization and preservation of data integrity for radiation therapy research. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype software code to meet the requirements for the anonymization of radiation therapy treatment plans and to develop a way to validate that code and demonstrate that it properly anonymized treatment plans and preserved data integrity. We extended an open-source code to process all relevant PHI and to allow for the automatic anonymization of multiple EMRs. The prototype code successfully anonymized multiple treatment plans in less than 1min/patient. We also tested commercial optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms for the detection of burned-in text on the images, but they were unable to reliably recognize text. In addition, we developed and tested an image filtering algorithm that allowed us to isolate and redact alpha-numeric text from a test radiograph. Validation tests verified that PHI was anonymized and data integrity, such as the relationship between DICOM unique identifiers (UID) was preserved. PMID:25147130

  20. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  1. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  2. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  3. Social Context, Sensation Seeking, and Teen-age Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire examined alcohol use, the social context of drinking, and sensation seeking among rural seventh through 12th graders. The sensation-seeking trait proved of moderate importance in distinguishing among different alcohol abuse practices. Social context measures were effective in distinguishing among levels on each indicant…

  4. Relationship of Age of First Drink to Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…

  5. Surrender To Win: How Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Users Change Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Courtney; Long, Wesley

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the uniqueness and complexity of adolescent drug and alcohol abuse recovery, particularly the early years and events catalyzing the surrender process. Offers individual interviews of seven adolescents who surrendered their alcohol and drug addictions and constructed sober identities through participation in Alcoholics Anonymous. (GCP)

  6. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  7. Anonymous and Confidential Communications from an IP Addressless Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on a mediating computer interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity to the receivers. In this model, the strength of the system to protect the identity of the sender depends on the ability and willingness of the mediator to keep the secret. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous message over the Internet which does not depend on a third party. Our idea departs from the traditional approach by sending the anonymous messages from an Internet wireless and addressless computer, such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) bridged to the Internet by a Mobile Support Station (MSS).

  8. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality.

    PubMed

    van Drie, A; Ganzevoort, R R; Spiering, M

    2014-12-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria on the other. We analyzed helpseeking questions of two protestant Christian organizations in the Netherlands providing anonymous pastoral care: Refoweb and EO-Nazorg. Sexual themes were addressed in 19 and 2.3 % of the submitted questions, respectively. Of the helpseekers, 56 % is female, 15 % male, and 29 % unknown. Questions and problems for which people seek anonymous pastoral care focus primarily on premarital abstinence, gender roles, contraception, sexual orientation and masturbation. The authority of the Bible seems to be important for questioners, especially when dealing with ethical questions. Different relations between the normativity of the church tradition and sexual and spiritual health are discussed. PMID:23784431

  9. Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Michael; Hamerlik, Marek; Linari, Alessandro; Maffei, Matteo; Tryfonopoulos, Christos; Weikum, Gerhard

    This paper presents Clouds, a peer-to-peer protocol that guarantees both anonymity and censorship resistance in semantic overlay networks. The design of such a protocol needs to meet a number of challenging goals: enabling the exchange of encrypted messages without assuming previously shared secrets, avoiding centralised infrastructures, like trusted servers or gateways, and guaranteeing efficiency without establishing direct connections between peers. Anonymity is achieved by cloaking the identity of protocol participants behind groups of semantically close peers. Censorship resistance is guaranteed by a cryptographic protocol securing the anonymous communication between the querying peer and the resource provider. Although we instantiate our technique on semantic overlay networks to exploit their retrieval capabilities, our framework is general and can be applied to any unstructured overlay network. Experimental results demonstrate the security properties of Clouds under different attacks and show the message overhead and retrieval effectiveness of the protocol.

  10. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant. PMID:23675490

  11. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  12. Road to Sobriety Is Difficult, but Possible

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby rehabilitation centers) Support groups like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). More information on AA can be found at www.aa.org . Prescription medication ​​​​​​ Share This Your browser does ...

  13. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  14. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  15. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyas, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…

  16. Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lisa

    This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

  17. An Analysis of College Students' Anonymous Questions about Human Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Waring, Kathryn A.

    1991-01-01

    Study analyzed the frequency and type of questions about sexuality submitted anonymously by college students in health education courses over five semesters. The most common categories were sexual arousal/response; general anatomy/physiology; contraception; dating/relationships; pregnancy/fertility; and sexually transmitted diseases. The appendix…

  18. The Efficacy of Non-Anonymous Measures of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, John H. F.; Myron, Rowan; Crawshaw, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Olweus checklist, along with most of the questionnaires commonly used in bullying research, is anonymous. The respondent is not required to put down his/her name. This has been accepted as the "best suited" method of assessing bullying. However, this assumption has not been adequately tested, and there is contrary evidence that this method is…

  19. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor painting of Fort McHenry bombardment of 1814. Peale Museum, Baltimore. View of southeast bastion and sally port. - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  1. Reversible anonymization of DICOM images using automatically generated policies.

    PubMed

    Onken, Michael; Riesmeier, Jörg; Engel, Marcel; Yabanci, Adem; Zabel, Bernhard; Després, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Many real-world applications in the area of medical imaging like case study databases require separation of identifying (IDATA) and non-identifying (MDATA) data, specifically those offering Internet-based data access. These kinds of projects also must provide a role-based access system, controlling, how patient data must be organized and how it can be accessed. On DICOM image level, different image types support different kind of information, intermixing IDATA and MDATA in a single object. To separate them, it is possible to reversibly anonymize DICOM objects by substituting IDATA by a unique anonymous token. In case that later an authenticated user needs full access to an image, this token can be used for re-linking formerly separated IDATA and MDATA, thus resulting in a dynamically generated, exact copy of the original image. The approach described in this paper is based on the automatic generation of anonymization policies from the DICOM standard text, providing specific support for all kinds of DICOM images. The policies are executed by a newly developed framework based on the DICOM toolkit DCMTK and offer a reliable approach to reversible anonymization. The implementation is evaluated in a German BMBF-supported expert network in the area of skeletal dysplasias, SKELNET, but may generally be applicable to related projects, enormously improving quality and integrity of diagnostics in a field focused on images. It performs effectively and efficiently on real-world test images from the project and other kind of DICOM images. PMID:19745435

  2. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  3. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  4. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  5. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  6. Spirituality and purpose in life in alcoholism recovery.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S

    1993-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between spirituality and recovery from alcoholism. Spirituality was defined as the extent of practice of Alcoholics Anonymous Steps 11 and 12 and was measured by a Step Questionnaire developed by the researcher. Step 11 suggests prayer and meditation and Step 12 suggests assistance of other alcoholics. Expressed degree of purpose in life was also seen as a reflection of spirituality. It was postulated that the extent to which Steps 11 and 12 were practiced would be positively correlated with the extent of purpose in life reported by 100 Alcoholics Anonymous members. The major findings of this study are significant positive correlations between practice of Step 11 and purpose in life scores (r = .59, p < .001) and between Step 11 and length of sobriety (r = .25, p < .01). Number of Alcoholics Anonymous meetings attended was significantly correlated with purpose in life scores (r = .24, p < .01) and length of sobriety (r = .25, p < .01). These findings suggest that a sense of purpose in life increases with continuing sobriety and practice of the spiritual principles of Alcoholics Anonymous.

  7. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  8. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  9. "I'd Be So Much More Comfortable Posting Anonymously": Identified versus Anonymous Participation in Student Discussion Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.

    2013-01-01

    Academic staff members encourage university students to use online student discussion boards within learning management systems to ask and answer questions, share information and engage in discussion. We explore the impact of anonymity on student posting behaviour. An online survey was completed by 131 second year undergraduate psychology students…

  10. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  11. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  12. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  13. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  14. ARX - A Comprehensive Tool for Anonymizing Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Prasser, Fabian; Kohlmayer, Florian; Lautenschläger, Ronald; Kuhn, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and data sharing have become core elements of biomedical research. Especially when sensitive data from distributed sources are linked, privacy threats have to be considered. Statistical disclosure control allows the protection of sensitive data by introducing fuzziness. Reduction of data quality, however, needs to be balanced against gains in protection. Therefore, tools are needed which provide a good overview of the anonymization process to those responsible for data sharing. These tools require graphical interfaces and the use of intuitive and replicable methods. In addition, extensive testing, documentation and openness to reviews by the community are important. Existing publicly available software is limited in functionality, and often active support is lacking. We present ARX, an anonymization tool that i) implements a wide variety of privacy methods in a highly efficient manner, ii) provides an intuitive cross-platform graphical interface, iii) offers a programming interface for integration into other software systems, and iv) is well documented and actively supported. PMID:25954407

  15. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  16. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  17. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-10-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  18. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-06-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  19. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogami, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  20. Can Anonymous Posters on Medical Forums be Reidentified?

    PubMed Central

    Bobicev, Victoria; El Emam, Khaled; Jafer, Yasser; Dewar, Brian; Jonker, Elizabeth; Matwin, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Background Participants in medical forums often reveal personal health information about themselves in their online postings. To feel comfortable revealing sensitive personal health information, some participants may hide their identity by posting anonymously. They can do this by using fake identities, nicknames, or pseudonyms that cannot readily be traced back to them. However, individual writing styles have unique features and it may be possible to determine the true identity of an anonymous user through author attribution analysis. Although there has been previous work on the authorship attribution problem, there has been a dearth of research on automated authorship attribution on medical forums. The focus of the paper is to demonstrate that character-based author attribution works better than word-based methods in medical forums. Objective The goal was to build a system that accurately attributes authorship of messages posted on medical forums. The Authorship Attributor system uses text analysis techniques to crawl medical forums and automatically correlate messages written by the same authors. Authorship Attributor processes unstructured texts regardless of the document type, context, and content. Methods The messages were labeled by nicknames of the forum participants. We evaluated the system’s performance through its accuracy on 6000 messages gathered from 2 medical forums on an in vitro fertilization (IVF) support website. Results Given 2 lists of candidate authors (30 and 50 candidates, respectively), we obtained an F score accuracy in detecting authors of 75% to 80% on messages containing 100 to 150 words on average, and 97.9% on longer messages containing at least 300 words. Conclusions Authorship can be successfully detected in short free-form messages posted on medical forums. This raises a concern about the meaningfulness of anonymous posting on such medical forums. Authorship attribution tools can be used to warn consumers wishing to post

  1. Utility-preserving transaction data anonymization with low information loss

    PubMed Central

    Loukides, Grigorios; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2012-01-01

    Transaction data record various information about individuals, including their purchases and diagnoses, and are increasingly published to support large-scale and low-cost studies in domains such as marketing and medicine. However, the dissemination of transaction data may lead to privacy breaches, as it allows an attacker to link an individual’s record to their identity. Approaches that anonymize data by eliminating certain values in an individual’s record or by replacing them with more general values have been proposed recently, but they often produce data of limited usefulness. This is because these approaches adopt value transformation strategies that do not guarantee data utility in intended applications and objective measures that may lead to excessive data distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for anonymizing data in a way that satisfies data publishers’ utility requirements and incurs low information loss. To achieve this, we introduce an accurate information loss measure and an effective anonymization algorithm that explores a large part of the problem space. An extensive experimental study, using click-stream and medical data, demonstrates that our approach permits many times more accurate query answering than the state-of-the-art methods, while it is comparable to them in terms of efficiency. PMID:22563145

  2. Guaranteeing anonymity when sharing medical data, the Datafly System.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, L.

    1997-01-01

    We present a computer program named Datafly that maintains anonymity in medical data by automatically generalizing, substituting, and removing information as appropriate without losing many of the details found within the data. Decisions are made at the field and record level at the time of database access, so the approach can be used on the fly in role-based security within an institution, and in batch mode for exporting data from an institution. Often organizations release and receive medical data with all explicit identifiers, such as name, address and phone number, removed in the incorrect belief that patient confidentiality is maintained because the resulting data look anonymous; however, we show the remaining data can often be used to re-identify individuals by linking or matching the data to other databases or by looking at unique characteristics found in the fields and records of the database itself. When these less apparent aspects are taken into account, each released record can be made to ambiguously map to many possible people, providing a level of anonymity determined by the user. PMID:9357587

  3. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  4. Gamete donation and anonymity: the ethical and legal debate.

    PubMed

    Frith, L

    2001-05-01

    The British government is currently considering whether to review the law on information provision for donor offspring. This paper therefore provides an overview of the current international legal situation relating to donor anonymity and a review of the key arguments and evidence on both sides of the debate. While the British government is considering all aspects of information giving, both identifying and non-identifying donor information, this paper will focus on the most contentious issue: the provision of information that would identify the donor. The current legal situation in the UK and internationally is examined, drawing attention to a possible international trend towards more information giving. The evolution of the present British system is outlined and it is asked whether some of the concerns and values that gave rise to the practice of anonymous donation are still relevant today. Looking at the concept of a child's right to know their biological identity it examines the possible basis of such a right and its potential conflict with the perceived interests of the child's parents. Finally, some of the practical obstacles to non-anonymous donation are evaluated. The paper concludes that a review of the British law is both timely and desirable. PMID:11331623

  5. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%. PMID:27091755

  6. Section AA Pre2004 Fire, Section AA 2009, Section AA, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A-A Pre-2004 Fire, Section A-A 2009, Section A-A, South Elevation - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  7. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness.

  8. Molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of allyl alcohol (acrolein) in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Golla, Upendarrao; Bandi, Goutham; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2015-06-15

    Allyl alcohol (AA) is one of the environmental pollutants used as a herbicide and industrial chemical. AA undergoes enzymatic oxidation in vivo to form Acrolein (Acr), a highly reactive and ubiquitous environmental toxicant. The exposure to AA/Acr has detrimental effects on cells and is highly fatal. In corroboration to the current literature describing AA/Acr toxicity, this study aimed to investigate the molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of AA/Acr using budding yeast as a eukaryotic model organism. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with a sublethal dose of AA (0.4 mM) showed differential regulation of approximately 30% of the yeast genome. Functional enrichment analysis of the AA transcriptome revealed that genes belong to diverse cellular processes including the cell cycle, DNA damage repair, metal homeostasis, stress response genes, ribosomal biogenesis, metabolism, meiosis, ubiquitination, cell morphogenesis, and transport. Moreover, we have identified novel molecular targets of AA/Acr through genetic screening, which belongs to oxidative stress, DNA damage repair, iron homeostasis, and cell wall integrity. This study also demonstrated the epigenetic basis of AA/Acr toxicity mediated through histone tails and chromatin modifiers. Interestingly, our study disclosed the use of pyrazole and ethanol as probable antidotes for AA intoxication. For the first time, this study also demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of AA/Acr using the yeast gametogenesis (spermatogenesis) model. Altogether, this study unravels the molecular mechanisms of AA/Acr cytotoxicity and facilitates the prediction of biomarkers for toxicity assessment and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25919230

  9. The Influence of Al-Anon on Stress of Wives of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Phyllis W.

    This study assessed Alcoholics Anonymous (Al-Anon) participation as a factor in stress of wives of alcoholics. Additional data focused on attitude and behavior variables. Two groups of 20 subjects each were enlisted from Al-Anon, personal contacts, treatment centers, and referrals in three urban areas in the southeastern United States. Group A…

  10. The AAS Workforce Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Norman, D. J.; Evans, N. R.; Ivie, R.

    2014-01-01

    The AAS Demographics Committee, on behalf of the AAS, was tasked with initiating a biennial survey to improve the Society's ability to serve its members and to inform the community about changes in the community's demographics. A survey, based in part on similar surveys for other scientific societies, was developed in the summer of 2012 and was publicly launched in January 2013. The survey randomly targeted 2500 astronomers who are members of the AAS. The survey was closed 4 months later (April 2013). The response rate was excellent - 63% (1583 people) completed the survey. I will summarize the results from this survey, highlighting key results and plans for their broad dissemination.

  11. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rui-Rui; Yang, Li

    2012-08-01

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented, based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state. We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness, soundness, privacy, eligibility, unreusability, fairness, and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest. This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels. In addition, any irregularity in this scheme is sensible.

  12. Quantum anonymous ranking based on the Chinese remainder theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Song; Guo, Gong-De; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient quantum anonymous ranking protocol with single particles is proposed. A semitrusted server is introduced to help multiple users achieve this secure task. At the end of the protocol, each user can obtain the rankings of his private data, and keep these data secret. The Chinese remainder theorem is utilized to reduce the level of signal particles and to improve the efficiency of the presented protocol. Meanwhile, a secret transmission order of the signal particles is used to keep the traveling particles secure. Finally, we discuss the security of this protocol and prove it to be secure against certain common attacks under ideal conditions.

  13. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS) is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low positive alcohol expectancies

  14. The end of donor anonymity: how genetic testing is likely to drive anonymous gamete donation out of business.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Kennett, Debbie; Reisel, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of people worldwide have been conceived using donor gametes, but not all parents tell their children of their origin. Several countries now allow donor-conceived offspring to potentially know their genetic parent if they are informed of their donor-conceived status. At the same time, personal genetic testing is a rapidly expanding field. Over 3 million people have already used direct-to-consumer genetic testing to find information about their ancestry, and many are participating in international genetic genealogy databases that will match them with relatives. The increased prevalence of these technologies poses numerous challenges to the current practice of gamete donation. (i) Whether they are donating in a country that practices anonymous donation or not, donors should be informed that their anonymity is not guaranteed, as they may be traced if their DNA, or that of a relative, is added to a database. (ii) Donor-conceived adults who have not been informed of their status may find out that they are donor-conceived. (iii) Parents using donor conception need to be fully informed that their children's DNA will identify that they are not the biological parents and they should be encouraged to disclose the use of donor gametes to their children. Together, these concerns make urgent a wide-ranging societal conversation about how to best safeguard and promote the interests of donor-conceived offspring and protect the rights of donors. Specifically, there is a need to ensure that new genetic information is communicated in a way that promotes both the safety and the privacy rights of offspring and donors alike. All parties concerned must be aware that, in 2016, donor anonymity does not exist.

  15. The end of donor anonymity: how genetic testing is likely to drive anonymous gamete donation out of business.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Kennett, Debbie; Reisel, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of people worldwide have been conceived using donor gametes, but not all parents tell their children of their origin. Several countries now allow donor-conceived offspring to potentially know their genetic parent if they are informed of their donor-conceived status. At the same time, personal genetic testing is a rapidly expanding field. Over 3 million people have already used direct-to-consumer genetic testing to find information about their ancestry, and many are participating in international genetic genealogy databases that will match them with relatives. The increased prevalence of these technologies poses numerous challenges to the current practice of gamete donation. (i) Whether they are donating in a country that practices anonymous donation or not, donors should be informed that their anonymity is not guaranteed, as they may be traced if their DNA, or that of a relative, is added to a database. (ii) Donor-conceived adults who have not been informed of their status may find out that they are donor-conceived. (iii) Parents using donor conception need to be fully informed that their children's DNA will identify that they are not the biological parents and they should be encouraged to disclose the use of donor gametes to their children. Together, these concerns make urgent a wide-ranging societal conversation about how to best safeguard and promote the interests of donor-conceived offspring and protect the rights of donors. Specifically, there is a need to ensure that new genetic information is communicated in a way that promotes both the safety and the privacy rights of offspring and donors alike. All parties concerned must be aware that, in 2016, donor anonymity does not exist. PMID:27073260

  16. AAS 227: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  17. AAS 228: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  18. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23485899

  19. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  20. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  1. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  2. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  3. On the Design of Fast Prefix-Preserving IP Address Anonymization Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianli; Wang, Jilong; Li, Xing

    Traffic traces are generally anonymized before used in analysis. Prefix-preserving anonymization is often used to avoid privacy issues as well as preserve prefix relationship after anonymization. To facilitate research on real time high speed network traffic, address anonymization algorithm should be fast and consistent. In this paper, the bit string based algorithm and the embedded bit string algorithm will be introduced. Bit string based algorithm uses precomputed bit string to improve the anonymization performance. Instead of only using the LSB of each Rijndael output, the embedded bit string algorithm will take advantage of the full size Rijndael output to anonymize several bits at the same time. The implementation can be downloaded from https://sourceforge.net/projects/ipanon.

  4. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  5. Alcohol drinking and blood pressure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jerez, S J; Coviello, A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol consumption among adolescents from Tucuman, Argentina, and to determine its possible relationship with increased levels of blood pressure. Three hundred fifty-six students aged 13-18 included in the study were asked to answer questionnaires anonymously. Two blood pressures measures were then taken. Differences between both sexes were found in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Enjoyment was determined to be the main reason for drinking. There was an association between frequency and alcohol-related problems, and smoking habits. There were also differences in blood pressure among males and females. A weak, but significant, relationship between quantity/frequency index and diastolic blood pressure was found. A greater prevalence of hypertension in male heavy drinkers was noted as well. Because this addiction implies multiple social problems and it also accounts for a hypertension risk factor, the importance of aiming at developing prevention strategies for alcohol abuse among adolescents is stressed.

  6. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  7. Robust anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Na

    2013-04-01

    Patient can obtain sorts of health-care delivery services via Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS). Authentication, security, patient's privacy protection and data confidentiality are important for patient or doctor accessing to Electronic Medical Records (EMR). In 2012, Chen et al. showed that Khan et al.'s dynamic ID-based authentication scheme has some weaknesses and proposed an improved scheme, and they claimed that their scheme is more suitable for TMIS. However, we show that Chen et al.'s scheme also has some weaknesses. In particular, Chen et al.'s scheme does not provide user's privacy protection and perfect forward secrecy, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and impersonation attack once user's smart card is compromised. Further, we propose a secure anonymity authentication scheme to overcome their weaknesses even an adversary can know all information stored in smart card.

  8. Father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V S; Kommor, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were more likely than controls to endorse feeling damaged, psychologically injured, estranged from one or both parents, and shamed by others when they tried to open up about their experience. They had been eroticized early on by the incest experience, and it interfered with their adult sexuality. Incest victims experienced coitus earlier than controls and after reaching age 18 had more sex partners and were more likely to have casual sex outside their primary relationship and engage in sex for money than controls. They also had worse scores on scales measuring depression, sexual satisfaction, and communication about sex than controls.

  9. Participant Anonymity in the Internet Age: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Benjamin; Kitzinger, Jenny; Kitzinger, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative researchers attempting to protect the identities of their research participants now face a multitude of new challenges due to the wealth of information once considered private but now readily accessible online. We will draw on our research with family members of people with severe brain injury to discuss these challenges in relation to three areas: participant engagement with the mass media, the availability of court transcripts online, and participants’ use of social media. We suggest strategies for managing these challenges via disguise, refining informed consent, and discussion with interviewees. In the context of a largely theoretical literature on anonymization, this article offers concrete examples of the dilemmas we faced and will be of illustrative use to other researchers confronting similar challenges. PMID:25866484

  10. Robust anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Na

    2013-04-01

    Patient can obtain sorts of health-care delivery services via Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS). Authentication, security, patient's privacy protection and data confidentiality are important for patient or doctor accessing to Electronic Medical Records (EMR). In 2012, Chen et al. showed that Khan et al.'s dynamic ID-based authentication scheme has some weaknesses and proposed an improved scheme, and they claimed that their scheme is more suitable for TMIS. However, we show that Chen et al.'s scheme also has some weaknesses. In particular, Chen et al.'s scheme does not provide user's privacy protection and perfect forward secrecy, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and impersonation attack once user's smart card is compromised. Further, we propose a secure anonymity authentication scheme to overcome their weaknesses even an adversary can know all information stored in smart card. PMID:23321972

  11. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  12. Preliminary Report of Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Ontario Students in 1983, and Trends since 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; And Others

    Since 1977, alcohol and drug use among Ontario students has been studied every 2 years. To examine the patterns of alcohol and other drug use among Ontario students in 1983, a randomized sample of 5,835 students, representing grades 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13, from four geographical regions, completed an anonymous questionnaire. An analysis of the…

  13. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  14. Rethinking Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urge to drink becomes as compelling as hunger. Genetic makeup and environment contribute to the risk ... NIAAA) www.niaaa.nih.gov Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) World Services www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Group ...

  15. AAS Career Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  16. Oral History Research Ethics: Should Anonymity and Confidentially Issues Be Dealt with on Their Own Merit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Roux, C.

    2015-01-01

    A primary principle of ethical codes in research involving people is that of informed consent which ensures participants' right to privacy, confidentiality and anonymity. A blanket application of the principle of anonymity to Oral History (OH) research could well be counterproductive to the purported aims of OH research. The research comprised a…

  17. Survey Confidentiality vs. Anonymity: Young Men's Self-Reported Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roland S.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2002-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to see if respondents providing identification would be as forthcoming regarding substance use as anonymous respondents. No statistically significant differences were found between 2 groups' self-reported substance use over the previous 12 months. Findings suggest the lack of anonymity does not necessarily impede the same…

  18. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  19. Preference for Anonymous Classroom Participation: Linking Student Characteristics and Reactions to Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alyson; Hill, N. Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Electronic response systems (ERS) are a means to foster class participation by students who are reluctant to participate in class. In this study, we identify individual characteristics that relate to students' preference for anonymous classroom participation, and we also examine the extent to which preference for anonymity is related to their…

  20. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  1. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    PubMed

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback.

  2. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    PubMed

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity.

  3. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  4. Maxwell and creation: Acceptance, criticism, and his anonymous publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2007-08-01

    Although James Clerk Maxwell's religious views and discussions on atoms having the properties of ``manufactured articles'' have been discussed, some aspects of the responses by his contemporaries to his remarks on creation have been neglected. Various responses quoted here include a book from 1878 by ``Physicus'' (George John Romanes) attributing ``arrogance'' to Maxwell for his inferences. Relevant aspects of the evolution of the perspective of Romanes are noted. A response by B. F. Westcott indicated that Maxwell was the author of a related anonymous publication concerned with what eventually became known as the heat death of the universe. In his teaching to theology students, Westcott, a friend of Maxwell, emphasized Maxwell's reasoning based on the dissipation of energy. There are similarities between Maxwell's perspective on creation and Biblical commentaries by fellow Eranus Club members Westcott and J. B. Lightfoot. Interest in Maxwell's remarks extended into the twentieth century. The principal Baptist chapel attended by Maxwell and his wife when in London in the 1860s is identified and some relevant attributes of the chapel and of its pastor are described.

  5. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims.

  6. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection.

  7. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  8. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure. PMID:26267063

  9. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  10. AIB-OR: Improving Onion Routing Circuit Construction Using Anonymous Identity-Based Cryptosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  11. Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange: New Construction and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    An anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (anonymous PAKE) protocol is designed to provide both password-only authentication and user anonymity against a semi-honest server, who follows the protocol honestly. Very recently, Yang and Zhang [25] have proposed a new anonymous PAKE (NAPAKE) protocol that is claimed efficient compared to the previous constructions. In this paper, we propose a very-efficient anonymous PAKE (called, VEAP) protocol that provides the most efficiency among their kinds in terms of computation and communication costs. The VEAP protocol guarantees semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model under the chosen target CDH problem, and unconditional user anonymity against a semi-honest server. If the pre-computation is allowed, both the user and the server are required to compute only one modular exponentiation, respectively. Surprisingly, this is the same computation cost of the well-known Diffie-Hellman protocol that does not provide authentication at all. In addition, we extend the VEAP protocol in two ways: the first is designed to reduce the communication costs of the VEAP protocol and the second shows that stripping off anonymity parts from the VEAP protocol results in a new PAKE protocol.

  12. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  14. Seeking Insights About Cycling Mood Disorders via Anonymized Search Logs

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Mood disorders affect a significant portion of the general population. Cycling mood disorders are characterized by intermittent episodes (or events) of the disease. Objective Using anonymized Web search logs, we identify a population of people with significant interest in mood stabilizing drugs (MSD) and seek evidence of mood swings in this population. Methods We extracted queries to the Microsoft Bing search engine made by 20,046 Web searchers over six months, separately explored searcher demographics using data from a large external panel of users, and sought supporting information from people with mood disorders via a survey. We analyzed changes in information needs over time relative to searches on MSD. Results Queries for MSD focused on side effects and their relation to the disease. We found evidence of significant changes in search behavior and interests coinciding with days that MSD queries are made. These include large increases (>100%) in the access of nutrition information, commercial information, and adult materials. A survey of patients diagnosed with mood disorders provided evidence that repeated queries on MSD may come with exacerbations of mood disorder. A classifier predicting the occurrence of such queries one day before they are observed obtains strong performance (AUC=0.78). Conclusions Observed patterns in search behavior align with known behaviors and those highlighted by survey respondents. These observations suggest that searchers showing intensive interest in MSD may be patients who have been prescribed these drugs. Given behavioral dynamics, we surmise that the days on which MSD queries are made may coincide with commencement of mania or depression. Although we do not have data on mood changes and whether users have been diagnosed with bipolar illness, we see evidence of cycling in people who show interest in MSD and further show that we can predict impending shifts in behavior and interest. PMID:24568936

  15. Security analysis and improvement of an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  16. The relationship between young adults' beliefs about anonymity and subsequent cyber aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2013-12-01

    Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given.

  17. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  18. Security analysis and improvement of an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  19. The relationship between young adults' beliefs about anonymity and subsequent cyber aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2013-12-01

    Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given. PMID:23849002

  20. Alcoholism: newer methods of management.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, S; Satyanarayana, M; Rajeswari, K R

    1986-01-01

    Chronic alcoholics were selected from hospitals and A.A. Centres and subjected to different methods of treatment namely, psycho therapy, stereotaxic surgery, nonvolitional biofeedback, Yoga and meditation and extremely low frequency Pulsed Magnetic Field. Each group comprised a minimum of 20 subjects. All were males between the ages of 20 and 45 years. Investigations done were clinical, psychological, biochemical, neurochemical and electrophysiological. Improvement was noticed in all the patients, the degree varying with the different methods of treatment. The patients were followed up at least for a period of one year.

  1. Alcoholism: newer methods of management.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, S; Satyanarayana, M; Rajeswari, K R

    1986-01-01

    Chronic alcoholics were selected from hospitals and A.A. Centres and subjected to different methods of treatment namely, psycho therapy, stereotaxic surgery, nonvolitional biofeedback, Yoga and meditation and extremely low frequency Pulsed Magnetic Field. Each group comprised a minimum of 20 subjects. All were males between the ages of 20 and 45 years. Investigations done were clinical, psychological, biochemical, neurochemical and electrophysiological. Improvement was noticed in all the patients, the degree varying with the different methods of treatment. The patients were followed up at least for a period of one year. PMID:3818032

  2. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  3. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  4. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  5. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  6. Prevention of alcoholic fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Olsson, Nils U.; Salem, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims We reported that reduced dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as arachidonic (AA,20:4n6, omega-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA,22:6n3, omega-3) acids led to alcohol-induced fatty liver and fibrosis. This study was aimed at studying the mechanisms by which a DHA/AA-supplemented diet prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver. Methods Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol or control liquid-diet with or without DHA/AA for 9 weeks. Plasma transaminase levels, liver histology, oxidative/nitrosative stress markers, and activities of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins were evaluated. Results Chronic alcohol administration increased the degree of fatty liver but fatty liver decreased significantly in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Alcohol exposure increased oxidative/nitrosative stress with elevated levels of ethanol-inducible CYP2E1, nitric oxide synthase, nitrite and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide. However, these increments were normalized in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The number of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins was markedly increased following alcohol exposure but significantly reduced in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The suppressed activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in ethanol-exposed rats were also recovered in animals fed the ethanol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Conclusions Addition of DHA/AA prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model by protecting various mitochondrial enzymes most likely through reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress. PMID:18571270

  7. Strategic Change in AAS Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Julie

    2015-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society has embarked on a process of strategic change in its publishing program. The process has incuded authors, AAS leaders, editors, publishing experts, librarians, and data scientists. This session will outline the still ongoing process and present some both upcoming and already available new AAS Publishing features and services to the global astronomy community.

  8. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  9. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  10. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  11. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  12. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  13. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  14. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  15. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  16. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  17. Taste preferences in rat lines selected for low and high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Kampov-Polevoy, A; Stewart, R; Li, T K

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol-avoiding (ANA), alcohol-preferring (AA), and control Wistar rats were tested sequentially for their initial preferences for single concentration solutions of quinine, saccharin, salt, and citric acid, and then for an ascending series of saccharin concentrations. A similar study was subsequently conducted with the alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) and alcohol-preferring (P) rat lines. Both lines developed for low alcohol consumption drank much less saccharin than their respective lines developed for high alcohol intake when tested with the single concentration and with the ascending series. The ANAs also generally drank less of the bitter, salty, and sour solutions than the AAs or Wistars but little difference was found between the NPs and Ps with the other tastes. The curve relating saccharin consumption to concentration reached a maximum at about the same concentrations for AAs, Wistars, NPs, and Ps but for the ANAs, was shifted to the left. The results support a close relationship between the genetic factors influencing alcohol and saccharin intake in both line pairs. This relationship is probably not caused by saccharin tasting like alcohol to a rat, because other results indicate that the NPs do not have more negative reactions initially to the taste of alcohol, but it might be related to similar mechanisms mediating the reinforcement from sweet tastes and from systemic alcohol. PMID:1599627

  18. [Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rok, B

    1999-01-01

    The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication.

  19. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  20. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  1. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  2. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  3. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  4. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  5. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions.

  6. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    will be a huge first step.Gender in Astronomy Conferences: Jim Davenport (WWU), Ben Nelson (Northwestern), Mehmet Alpsalan (NASA Ames), and Erin Maier (University of Iowa) analyzed data collected during the conference on the gender breakdown of who asks questions after oral presentations. Now in its third year, one new finding from the study is that women dont ask questions as much as men do, but they tend to ask questions more when the speaker is a woman or the first question-asker is a woman.More from #hackaas at #aas227: Gender of speaker vs. 1st to ask a question for all 3 years of Gender in Astro survey pic.twitter.com/l74D3rSUOD Erin Maier (@fallelujah) January 9, 2016The Early Reference Project: Many pre-1950 publications lack up-to-date citation information because the text is digitally archived as an image. Brendan Wells (UC Santa Cruz) worked with representatives from ADS and Zooniverse to set up a crowd-sourced platform to identify references in these old papers.Glassdome: Ellie Schwab (CUNY) and colleagues Paige Godfrey, Munazza Alam, and Cam Buzzard began work on a website modeled after glassdoor for safely sharing experiences throughout their astronomy careers. Glassdome will feature career path stories, department reviews, and salaries, all optionally anonymous. The site is hosted by ScienceBetter and is under development.Observing Run Sharing: Sometimes near the end of a long night at the telescope you have observed everything you need but still have time left. Short of choosing randomly or hoping a colleague is online in the middle of the night, there is currently no good solution. To address this, Brooke Simmons (UC San Diego) designed a web app that would allow astronomers to submit their favorite night sky targets. The project is still a work in progress.ArXiv Podcast: Ruth Angus (Oxford) started a podcast featuring astronomers summarizing their new papers submitted to astro-ph in one minute. Its like audio astrobites! If youve recently published a

  7. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  8. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  9. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  10. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  11. The culture of science and the ethics of alcohol administration in research.

    PubMed

    Goldman, M S

    2000-12-01

    The failure of ethicists to develop an absolute ethical code has led to the consideration of ethics in particular contexts. In the alcohol field, such consideration has resulted in considerable controversy, because this field has been influenced by parallel cultural contexts: a scientific research culture and a layman's spiritual culture (represented by Alcoholics Anonymous). Both cultures can inform ethical decisions, but for scientific decisions to be made the influence of these cultures must be disentangled. This article reviews issues pertaining to this disentangling in connection with the use of alcohol administration in research.

  12. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  14. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  15. Models of Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment for Consideration When Working with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthmann, Debra

    This paper discusses several models for treating chemical dependency in individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. It begins by describing the 12-step model, a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary approach to the treatment of addiction which is abstinence oriented and based on the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. This model includes group…

  16. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  17. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  18. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  19. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    PubMed

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case. PMID:26844025

  20. The Effect of Computer-Mediated Communication on Anonymous End-of-Course Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Nancy; Rovai, Alfred; Ponton, Michael; Derrick, Gail; Davis, John

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of student comments on anonymous end-of-course evaluations differed relative to course delivery medium. Comments evaluated were submitted by 202 graduate students enrolled in face-to-face (F2F) and online versions of research and statistics courses over a four-year period. Results suggested…

  1. Communication Channels, Anonymity and the Reduction of Upward Communication Distortion: A Controlled Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housel, Thomas J.

    A sample of 54 subjects, representing four levels of management in a chain of retail stores, participated in an experimental study of the effects of channel of communication (face-to-face, telephone, and written) and anonymity on satisfaction with, and distortion of, upward communication. Results indicated that the channel used led to significant…

  2. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  3. Understanding the Role of Storytelling in the Transformation of Female Cocaine Addicts in Narcotics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Melissa Weida

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the role of storytelling in the transformation of female cocaine addicts in Narcotics Anonymous. For this research the primary investigator utilized a theoretical orientation of transformative learning theory and storytelling. The rationale for employing transformative learning theory is that…

  4. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  5. A Variation on the Use of Interactive Anonymous Quizzes in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an interesting variation on the use of interactive anonymous quizzes (IAQs) in the chemistry classroom. In this variation, IAQs are used to introduce new material or topics in a course, as opposed to their traditional use for reviewing previously covered material. Two examples of IAQs used to introduce new topics in a…

  6. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  7. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  8. Anonymity to Promote Peer Feedback: Pre-Service Teachers' Comments in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Craig D.; Barrett, Andrew F.; Frick, Theodore W.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental case study, we compared five sections of a basic undergraduate technology course. Within an asynchronous web forum, pre-service teachers wrote short critiques of websites designed by their classmates. This peer feedback was provided anonymously by students in two classes (n = 35) whereas providers and recipients of peer…

  9. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  10. Enhancing self-report of adolescent smoking: the effects of bogus pipeline and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jane; Parkinson, Lynne; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Walsh, Raoul A

    2008-10-01

    Adolescent smoking prevalence is usually assessed via self-complete questionnaires. However, concern has been expressed about the validity of such self-report. One approach to increase validity involves the threat of biological validation, known as the bogus pipeline method (BPL).This study aimed to assess the effects of BPL, using an expired air carbon monoxide monitor, and of questionnaire anonymity on student smoking self-report data. High school students (n=801) were randomly allocated to one of four conditions: anonymous questionnaire+BPL, named questionnaire+BPL, anonymous questionnaire without BPL and named questionnaire without BPL. Overall, 37% of students agreed that questionnaires were a good way to obtain honest answers. In a logistic regression analysis, students in the BPL condition had significantly higher odds of reporting weekly smoking (OR=1.83 95% CI 1.27-2.65) and monthly smoking (OR=1.66 95% CI 1.21-2.28) but not of lifetime smoking compared with non-BPL students. Students in the named questionnaire condition had a significantly higher odds of reporting lifetime smoking (OR=1.49 95% CI 1.08-2.04) compared with anonymous students. Studies assessing current smoking patterns in adolescents should consider incorporating a BPL method.

  11. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  12. Parents Anonymous[SM]: Strengthening Families. Family Strengthening Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafael, Teresa; Pion-Berlin, Lisa

    Asserting that problems arising within the family may lead to children's problem behaviors, this bulletin from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention describes Parents Anonymous, Inc., a program designed to enhance the capability of families to help their children. The oldest national child abuse prevention organization, Parents…

  13. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  14. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  15. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  16. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  19. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  20. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  1. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  3. Alcohol drinking and blood pressure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jerez, S J; Coviello, A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol consumption among adolescents from Tucuman, Argentina, and to determine its possible relationship with increased levels of blood pressure. Three hundred fifty-six students aged 13-18 included in the study were asked to answer questionnaires anonymously. Two blood pressures measures were then taken. Differences between both sexes were found in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Enjoyment was determined to be the main reason for drinking. There was an association between frequency and alcohol-related problems, and smoking habits. There were also differences in blood pressure among males and females. A weak, but significant, relationship between quantity/frequency index and diastolic blood pressure was found. A greater prevalence of hypertension in male heavy drinkers was noted as well. Because this addiction implies multiple social problems and it also accounts for a hypertension risk factor, the importance of aiming at developing prevention strategies for alcohol abuse among adolescents is stressed. PMID:9650629

  4. Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and anonymous real-time team competition in a networked gaming learning environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Han, Chialing; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of anonymous, computerized, synchronized team competition on students' motivation, satisfaction, and interpersonal relationships. Sixty-eight fourth-graders participated in this study. A synchronous gaming learning system was developed to have dyads compete against each other in answering multiple-choice questions set in accordance with the school curriculum in two conditions (face-to-face and anonymous). The results showed that students who were exposed to the anonymous team competition condition responded significantly more positively than those in the face-to-face condition in terms of motivation and satisfaction at the 0.050 and 0.056 levels respectively. Although further studies regarding the effects of anonymous interaction in a networked gaming learning environment are imperative, the positive effects detected in this preliminary study indicate that anonymity is a viable feature for mitigating the negative effects that competition may inflict on motivation and satisfaction as reported in traditional face-to-face environments.

  5. Adolescents' reply intent for sexual disclosure in cyberspace: gender differences and effects of anonymity and topic intimacy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the effects of anonymity and topic intimacy on adolescents' reply intent for cyber partners' sexual disclosure on the Internet. Two hundred thirty-seven Taiwanese adolescents with sexual self-disclosure experiences on the Internet participated in an experimental study. Regardless of anonymity and topic intimacy, male adolescents were more willing than females to respond to cyber friends' sexual disclosure. The higher the anonymity was, the higher the reply intent for sexual self-disclosure. Participants exhibited higher reply intent when cyber friends self-disclosed sexual topics with higher intimacy. However, the effect of topic intimacy was moderated by anonymity. Topic intimacy displayed prominent influence on adolescents' reply intent in responding to cyber friends' sexual disclosure only when their disclosing condition was under moderate and high anonymity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17927545

  6. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  7. Assessment of Club Patrons’ Alcohol and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy C.; Voas, Robert; B. Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adulthood (ages 18–25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. Purpose This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected anonymously during 2010–2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. Results At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%–0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Conclusions Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harms is indicated by the findings. PMID:24139778

  8. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  9. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  10. Long-term alcohol self-administration and alcohol withdrawal differentially modulate microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) gene expression in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Putzke, J; De Beun, R; Schreiber, R; De Vry, J; Tölle, T R; Zieglgänsberger, W; Spanagel, R

    1998-11-20

    Chronic alcohol intoxication is known to produce neuronal degeneration in the central and peripheral nervous system of experimental animals and of humans. It is suggested that various components of the cytoskeleton undergo profound changes following chronic alcohol use and misuse. Here we studied the expression of the neuronal cytoskeletal microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) following long-term alcohol consumption and subsequent alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alkohol) rats with a high voluntary alcohol consumption for a period of 16 months were compared with age-matched control rats without prior experience with alcohol. For comparison, in a second experiment, heterogeneous Wistar rats that also had voluntary access to alcohol for 8 months were examined following alcohol consumption and withdrawal. In situ hybridization and subsequent dot blot and Northern blot analysis for further quantification revealed that chronically alcoholized animals exhibit markedly decreased MAP2 mRNA levels in several parts of the extrapyramidal system (mainly in the caudate putamen, the substantia nigra pars compacta and the globus pallidus), the mesolimbic system, in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the nucleus inferior colliculus. Other areas such as the hippocampus, frontoparietal cortex and cerebellum were less affected by chronic alcohol intake, however, in these regions the MAP2 mRNA levels were increased during alcohol withdrawal. These results suggest that long-term alcohol self-administration affects central neurons involved in motor control via the influence on the integrity of the cytoskeleton and may thus induce motor dysfunction.

  11. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs. PMID:25352490

  12. Anonymous Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Scheme for Telecare Medical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Dong, Na; Wong, Duncan S.

    2014-01-01

    Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS) provide an effective way to enhance the medical process between doctors, nurses and patients. For enhancing the security and privacy of TMIS, it is important while challenging to enhance the TMIS so that a patient and a doctor can perform mutual authentication and session key establishment using a third-party medical server while the privacy of the patient can be ensured. In this paper, we propose an anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange (3PAKE) protocol for TMIS. The protocol is based on the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem. For security, we apply the pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our 3PAKE protocol for TMIS can provide anonymity for patient and doctor while at the same time achieves mutual authentication and session key security. The proposed scheme is secure and efficient, and can be used in TMIS. PMID:25047235

  13. Cryptanalysis of the Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka Anonymous Attribute Authentication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Haeryong

    Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka proposed a perfectly ano-nymous attribute authentication scheme that realizes unidentifiable and untraceable authentication with offline revocation checking. The Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka scheme uses a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly. Thus, the certificate is modified for each authentication and the authentication scheme has the unidentifiable property and the untraceable property. However, in this letter, we show that the Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka scheme is insecure against the impersonation attack.

  14. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy. PMID:21532265

  15. The Dining Cryptographer Problem-Based Anonymous Quantum Communication via Non-maximally Entanglement State Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ronghua; Su, Qian; Guo, Ying; Huang, Dazu

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate an anonymous quantum communication (AQC) via the non-maximally entanglement state analysis (NESA) based on the dining cryptographer problem (DCP). The security of the present AQC is ensured due to the quantum-mechanical impossibility of local unitary transformations between non-maximally entanglement states, which provides random numbers for the secure AQC. The analysis shows that the DCP-based AQC can be performed without intractability through the NESA in the multi-photon entangled quantum system.

  16. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  17. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  18. Reliability and validity of young adults’ anonymous online reports of marijuana use and thoughts about use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    With growing interest in online assessment of substance abuse behaviors, there is a need to formally evaluate the validity of the data gathered. The current investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of anonymous, online reports of young adults’ marijuana use and related cognitions. Young adults age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days were recruited over 14 months to complete an anonymous online survey. Of 3106 eligible cases, 1617 (52%) completed the entire survey. Of those, 54% (n = 884) reported past-month marijuana use (65% male, 70% Caucasian, mean age was 20.4 years [SD = 2.0]). Prevalence of marijuana use was reported reliably across three similar items, and inter-item correlations ranged from fair to excellent for measures of marijuana dependence symptoms and thoughts about marijuana use. Marijuana use frequency demonstrated good construct validity through expected correlations with marijuana use constructs, and non-significant correlations with thoughts about tobacco use. Marijuana frequency distinguished among stages of change for marijuana use and goals for use, but not among gender, ethnicity, or employment groups. Marijuana use and thoughts about use differed by stage of change in the hypothesized directions. Self-reported marijuana use and associated cognitions reported anonymously online from young adults are generally reliable and valid. Online assessments of substance use broaden the reach of addictions research. PMID:22082344

  19. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  20. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  1. Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol for Location Privacy in WSN: A Modular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN. PMID:25763649

  2. Gamete donor anonymity and limits on numbers of offspring: the views of three stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Margaret K.; Hertz, Rosanna; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the attitudes of three groups of stakeholders in the world of assisted reproduction gamete donors, parents who use donated gamete, and offspring conceived with donated gametes with respect to the two issues of donor anonymity and limits on the number of offspring a single donor can produce. The data are drawn from on-line surveys which were made available between May 12, 2104 and August 15, 2014 to gamete donors, donor-conceived offspring, and parents who used donated gametes to conceive. A total of 325 donors (176 egg donors; 149 sperm donors) responded to the survey as did 2134 parents and 419 offspring. The data show that offspring are more opposed to donor anonymity than are parents and donors. Among offspring opposition to anonymity grows as they age. On the other hand, parents are most in favor of limits on numbers of offspring produced by a single donor. Parents worry about health and accidental contact between people conceived from the same donor. PMID:27774232

  3. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections.A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems.Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79-1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42-1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82-1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41-1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61-1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.98-2.16). Having higher Center

  4. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  5. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  6. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Final report: Report period, 15 April 1993--15 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    This Report concludes the DOE Human Genome Program project, ``Identification of Genes in Anonymous DNA Sequence.`` The central goals of this project have been (1) understanding the problem of identifying genes in anonymous sequences, and (2) development of tools, primarily the automated identification system gm, for identifying genes. The activities supported under the previous award are summarized here to provide a single complete report on the activities supported as part of the project from its inception to its completion.

  7. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  9. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  10. The national alcohol helpline in Sweden: an evaluation of its first year

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Telephone helplines are easily available and can offer anonymity. Alcohol helplines may be a potential gateway to a more advanced support protocol, and they may function as a primary support option for some. However, although telephone helplines (quitlines) make up an established evidence-based support arena for smoking cessation, few studies have described such telephone-based alcohol counseling. Methods This study describes the basic characteristics of callers (n = 480) to the Swedish Alcohol Helpline during its first year of operation, and assesses aspects of change in alcohol behavior in a selected cohort of clients (n = 40) willing to abstain from anonymity and enter a proactive support protocol. Results During the study period, 50% of callers called for consultation regarding their own alcohol use (clients), a third called about relatives with alcohol problems, and the others called for information. The clients’ average age was 49 years, and half were females. The clients’ average AUDIT score at baseline was 21 (std. dev. =7.2). Approximately a quarter had scores indicating hazardous alcohol use at baseline, while the others had higher scores. In a follow-up pilot study, the average AUDIT score had decreased from 21 to 14. While clients reporting more severe alcohol use showed a significant decrease at follow-up, hazardous users exhibited no change during the study period. Conclusion The study indicates that telephone helplines addressing the general public can be a primary-care option to reduce risky alcohol use. A randomized controlled study is needed to control for the effect of spontaneous recovery. PMID:25015403

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cyt1Aa synergizes Cry11Aa toxin by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudia; Fernandez, Luisa E; Sun, Jianguang; Folch, Jorge Luis; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2005-12-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces crystal proteins, Cry (4Aa, 4Ba, 10Aa, and 11Aa) and Cyt (1Aa and 2Ba) proteins, toxic to mosquito vectors of human diseases. Cyt1Aa overcomes insect resistance to Cry11Aa and Cry4 toxins and synergizes the toxicity of these toxins. However, the molecular mechanism of synergism remains unsolved. Here, we provide evidence that Cyt1Aa functions as a receptor of Cry11Aa. Sequential-binding analysis of Cyt1Aa and Cry11Aa revealed that Cyt1Aa binding to Aedes aegypti brush border membrane vesicles enhanced the binding of biotinylated-Cry11Aa. The Cyt1Aa- and Cry11Aa-binding epitopes were mapped by means of the yeast two-hybrid system, peptide arrays, and heterologous competition assays with synthetic peptides. Two exposed regions in Cyt1Aa, loop beta6-alphaE and part of beta7, bind Cry11Aa. On the other side, Cry11Aa binds Cyt1Aa proteins by means of domain II-loop alpha8 and beta-4, which are also involved in midgut receptor interaction. Characterization of single-point mutations in Cry11Aa and Cyt1Aa revealed key Cry11Aa (S259 and E266) and Cyt1Aa (K198, E204 and K225) residues involved in the interaction of both proteins and in synergism. Additionally, a Cyt1Aa loop beta6-alphaE mutant (K198A) with enhanced synergism to Cry11Aa was isolated. Data provided here strongly indicates that Cyt1Aa synergizes or suppresses resistance to Cry11Aa toxin by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a highly effective pathogenic bacterium because it produces a toxin and also its functional receptor, promoting toxin binding to the target membrane and causing toxicity. PMID:16339907

  12. Blinded Anonymization: a method for evaluating cancer prevention programs under restrictive data protection regulations.

    PubMed

    Bartholomäus, Sebastian; Hense, Hans Werner; Heidinger, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating cancer prevention programs requires collecting and linking data on a case specific level from multiple sources of the healthcare system. Therefore, one has to comply with data protection regulations which are restrictive in Germany and will likely become stricter in Europe in general. To facilitate the mortality evaluation of the German mammography screening program, with more than 10 Million eligible women, we developed a method that does not require written individual consent and is compliant to existing privacy regulations. Our setup is composed of different data owners, a data collection center (DCC) and an evaluation center (EC). Each data owner uses a dedicated software that preprocesses plain-text personal identifiers (IDAT) and plaintext evaluation data (EDAT) in such a way that only irreversibly encrypted record assignment numbers (RAN) and pre-aggregated, reversibly encrypted EDAT are transmitted to the DCC. The DCC uses the RANs to perform a probabilistic record linkage which is based on an established and evaluated algorithm. For potentially identifying attributes within the EDAT ('quasi-identifiers'), we developed a novel process, named 'blinded anonymization'. It allows selecting a specific generalization from the pre-processed and encrypted attribute aggregations, to create a new data set with assured k-anonymity, without using any plain-text information. The anonymized data is transferred to the EC where the EDAT is decrypted and used for evaluation. Our concept was approved by German data protection authorities. We implemented a prototype and tested it with more than 1.5 Million simulated records, containing realistically distributed IDAT. The core processes worked well with regard to performance parameters. We created different generalizations and calculated the respective suppression rates. We discuss modalities, implications and limitations for large data sets in the cancer registry domain, as well as approaches for further

  13. Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Stephen P; Lynam, Donald R

    2003-08-01

    The present study explores the relation among 4 personality traits associated with impulsive behavior and alcohol abuse. Personality traits were measured using the 4 subscales of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS; S. P. Whiteside & D. R. Lynam, 2001). The UPPS and measures of psychopathology were administered to clinical samples of alcohol abusers high in antisocial personality traits (AAPD), alcohol abusers low in antisocial personality traits (AA), and a control group (total N = 60). Separate analyses of variance indicated that AAPDs had significant elevations on all 4 UPPS scales, whereas the AAs and controls differed only on the Urgency subscale. However, when controlling for psychopathology, group differences on the UPPS scales disappeared. The results suggest that personality traits related to impulsive behavior are not directly related to alcohol abuse but rather are associated with the elevated levels of psychopathology found in a subtype of alcohol abusers. PMID:12940500

  14. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability. PMID:24350272

  15. An Improved Biometrics-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme with User Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability. PMID:24350272

  16. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  17. An analysis of the role of overeaters anonymous in women's recovery from bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Diane H; Jackson, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative analysis of the role of the self-help group Overeaters Anonymous (OA) in the treatment experiences of women with bulimia nervosa. It specifies how various elements of OA facilitate or maintain recovery. Using focus groups and individual interviews, data were collected from 26 women who met the criteria for bulimia nervosa. Data analysis revealed that those participants used five OA skills or strategies. These included: (1) OA meeting attendance and participation, (2) interaction with a sponsor, (3) processing (i.e., writing and journaling), (4) spirituality (i.e., prayer and meditation), and (5) adherence to a food plan.

  18. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Guang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer.

  19. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  20. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  1. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  2. Neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure: assessment of voluntary maternal participation in an open meconium screening program.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-05-01

    Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are validated biomarkers of fetal alcohol exposure. Meconium FAEE testing can potentially be used as a screen by health-care professionals to identify neonates at-risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, thereby permitting diagnostic follow-up of these children and early intervention in those who develop disabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess whether women would willingly partake in a screening program of this nature. This was determined by launching a pilot screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure in a high-risk obstetric unit previously shown to have a high prevalence of FAEE-positive meconium via anonymous meconium testing. The program involved voluntary testing of meconium for FAEEs and long-term developmental follow-up of positive cases through an existing public health program. The participation rate in the screening program was significantly lower than when testing was conducted anonymously (78% vs. 95%, respectively; p < 0.05), and the positivity rate was 3% in contrast to 30% observed under anonymous conditions (p < 0.001). These low rates suggest that the majority of mothers who consumed alcohol in pregnancy refused to participate. We conclude that despite the potential benefits of such screening programs, maternal unwillingness to consent, likely due to fear, embarrassment, and guilt, may limit the effectiveness of meconium testing for population-based open screening, highlighting the need for public education and social marketing efforts for such programs to be of benefit. PMID:22440689

  3. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  4. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  5. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems. Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79–1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42–1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82–1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03–1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00–1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41–1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61–1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1

  6. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  7. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1) alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2) alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3) Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4) alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1) multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2) spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics, geographical information science

  8. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  9. Method for rehabilitation of the alcohol-addicted pilot in a commercial airline.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, F R; Kidera, G J

    1978-05-01

    Based upon data available from the National Council on Alcoholism and encouraged by the emerging concept of alcoholism as a disease responsive to the multidisciplinary approach to its management, a program to assist alcoholic employees was instituted in 1968 at the United Airlines Maintenance Operations Center in San Francisco. This program was developed through the tripartite efforts of management, union and the medical department. Using this basic model, a similar effort to assist flight crew members of our San Francisco pilot domicile emerged in 1970. The method is oriented to the three-fold process of identification, referral for treatment, and followup. The mechanism of identification includes an intervention process. Treatment is accomplished in a specialty hospital embracing the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. The essential monthly followup is continued for 2 years. Twenty-five pilots in United's system have been returned to flight deck duties after treatment and recertification. PMID:655998

  10. Development of a computerized alcohol screening instrument for the university community.

    PubMed

    Rathbun, J

    1993-07-01

    An anonymous, self-administered alcohol screening instrument, suitable for faculty, students, and staff, combines two already existing alcohol screening questionnaires, the CAGE and the AUDIT. The composite instrument, Alcohol Screening Instrument for Self-Assessment (ASISA) was developed at the University of Michigan with the university's extensive computer networking capabilities in mind. It was designed as a "frontline" self-identification screening questionnaire to help individuals determine whether or not their current drinking practices are problematic or if they have the potential for becoming problematic. The ASISA is not a replacement for an in-depth alcohol evaluation; its aim is to encourage members of the university community to take a closer look at their drinking patterns and seek a comprehensive clinical assessment if indicated by the scores received on the ASISA. PMID:8376677

  11. Beer consumers' perceptions of the health aspects of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wright, C A; Bruhn, C M; Heymann, H; Bamforth, C W

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions about alcohol are shaped by numerous factors. This environment includes advertisements, public service announcements, product labels, various health claims, and warnings about the dangers of alcohol consumption. This study used focus groups and questionnaires to examine consumers' perceptions of alcoholic beverages based on their nutritional value and health benefits. The overall purpose of this study was to examine beer consumers' perceptions of the health attributes and content of alcoholic beverages. Volunteers were surveyed at large commercial breweries in California, Missouri, and New Hampshire. The anonymous, written survey was presented in a self-explanatory format and was completed in 5 to 10 min. The content and style of the survey were derived from focus groups conducted in California. The data are separated by location, gender, and over or under the age of 30. Parametric data on beverage rating were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while the nonparametric data from True/False or Yes/No questions were analyzed using chi-square. Although statistically significant variances did exist between survey location, gender, and age, general trends emerged in areas of inquiry. The findings indicate that a great opportunity exists to inform consumers about the health benefits derived from the moderate consumption of all alcoholic beverages.

  12. Relationship between pathological gambling, alcoholism and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, V; Cristofoletti, M; Majori, S; Cibin, M; Peron, C; Dal Zotto, A; Zampieri, N; Saia, M; Trivello, R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the distribution of pathological gamblers treated in an alcohol or drug addiction treatment program run by the Italian National Health Service providing assistance to alcohol and drug abusers in Venice (North east Italy) from September 1 to December 31, 2001. Each drug- or alcohol-dependent patient retained for treatment for at least one month was administrated an anonymous precoded questionnaire to collect personal and socio-demographic features. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was used to measure pathological gambling and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) to measure psychological distress levels and psychiatric symptoms. Among the 113 enrolled subjects we found a greater prevalence of pathological gamblers among drug users than among alcoholics and drug abusers were younger than alcoholics; moreover, there was a prevalence of single status, low schooling, and a low-medium income despite full-time occupation. Only pathological gamblers revealed a significant positive correlation with a family history of gambling and reached positive scores (>1.5) for some likely psychiatric symptoms. Abuse disorders and pathological gambling are frequently associated with multidependence personality traits. Preventing substance abuse may reduce the pathological gambling rates and better results can be obtained with educational campaigns beginning earlier in life. PMID:16649512

  13. Beer consumers' perceptions of the health aspects of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wright, C A; Bruhn, C M; Heymann, H; Bamforth, C W

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions about alcohol are shaped by numerous factors. This environment includes advertisements, public service announcements, product labels, various health claims, and warnings about the dangers of alcohol consumption. This study used focus groups and questionnaires to examine consumers' perceptions of alcoholic beverages based on their nutritional value and health benefits. The overall purpose of this study was to examine beer consumers' perceptions of the health attributes and content of alcoholic beverages. Volunteers were surveyed at large commercial breweries in California, Missouri, and New Hampshire. The anonymous, written survey was presented in a self-explanatory format and was completed in 5 to 10 min. The content and style of the survey were derived from focus groups conducted in California. The data are separated by location, gender, and over or under the age of 30. Parametric data on beverage rating were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while the nonparametric data from True/False or Yes/No questions were analyzed using chi-square. Although statistically significant variances did exist between survey location, gender, and age, general trends emerged in areas of inquiry. The findings indicate that a great opportunity exists to inform consumers about the health benefits derived from the moderate consumption of all alcoholic beverages. PMID:18211353

  14. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P.; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  15. A user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zuowen

    2014-03-01

    The telecare medicine information system enables the patients gain health monitoring at home and access medical services over internet or mobile networks. In recent years, the schemes based on cryptography have been proposed to address the security and privacy issues in the telecare medicine information systems. However, many schemes are insecure or they have low efficiency. Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems. In this paper, we show that their scheme is vulnerable to the reflection attacks. Furthermore, it fails to provide three-factor security and the user anonymity. We propose a new three-factor authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme provides mutual authentication, server not knowing password and freedom of password, biometric update and three-factor security. Moreover, the new scheme provides the user anonymity. As compared with the previous three-factor authentication schemes, the proposed scheme is more secure and practical. PMID:24643750

  16. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    PubMed

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  17. A robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengtong

    2013-12-01

    User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In a recent paper, Das et al. proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. This scheme uses three factors, e.g. biometrics, password, and smart card, to protect the security. It protects user privacy and is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das et al.'s scheme, and show that the scheme is in fact insecure against the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks. Then, we also propose a robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. Compared with the existing schemes, our protocol uses a different user authentication mechanism to resist replay attack. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security than previous protocols. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme through the BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic. PMID:24146334

  18. Moves on the Street: Classifying Crime Hotspots Using Aggregated Anonymized Data on People Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month. PMID:27442957

  19. Privacy preserving data publishing of categorical data through k-anonymity and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Aristodimou, Aristos; Antoniades, Athos; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2016-03-01

    In healthcare, there is a vast amount of patients' data, which can lead to important discoveries if combined. Due to legal and ethical issues, such data cannot be shared and hence such information is underused. A new area of research has emerged, called privacy preserving data publishing (PPDP), which aims in sharing data in a way that privacy is preserved while the information lost is kept at a minimum. In this Letter, a new anonymisation algorithm for PPDP is proposed, which is based on k-anonymity through pattern-based multidimensional suppression (kPB-MS). The algorithm uses feature selection for reducing the data dimensionality and then combines attribute and record suppression for obtaining k-anonymity. Five datasets from different areas of life sciences [RETINOPATHY, Single Proton Emission Computed Tomography imaging, gene sequencing and drug discovery (two datasets)], were anonymised with kPB-MS. The produced anonymised datasets were evaluated using four different classifiers and in 74% of the test cases, they produced similar or better accuracies than using the full datasets.

  20. A user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zuowen

    2014-03-01

    The telecare medicine information system enables the patients gain health monitoring at home and access medical services over internet or mobile networks. In recent years, the schemes based on cryptography have been proposed to address the security and privacy issues in the telecare medicine information systems. However, many schemes are insecure or they have low efficiency. Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems. In this paper, we show that their scheme is vulnerable to the reflection attacks. Furthermore, it fails to provide three-factor security and the user anonymity. We propose a new three-factor authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme provides mutual authentication, server not knowing password and freedom of password, biometric update and three-factor security. Moreover, the new scheme provides the user anonymity. As compared with the previous three-factor authentication schemes, the proposed scheme is more secure and practical.

  1. Moves on the Street: Classifying Crime Hotspots Using Aggregated Anonymized Data on People Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month.

  2. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    PubMed

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  3. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    will be a huge first step.Gender in Astronomy Conferences: Jim Davenport (WWU), Ben Nelson (Northwestern), Mehmet Alpsalan (NASA Ames), and Erin Maier (University of Iowa) analyzed data collected during the conference on the gender breakdown of who asks questions after oral presentations. Now in its third year, one new finding from the study is that women dont ask questions as much as men do, but they tend to ask questions more when the speaker is a woman or the first question-asker is a woman.More from #hackaas at #aas227: Gender of speaker vs. 1st to ask a question for all 3 years of Gender in Astro survey pic.twitter.com/l74D3rSUOD Erin Maier (@fallelujah) January 9, 2016The Early Reference Project: Many pre-1950 publications lack up-to-date citation information because the text is digitally archived as an image. Brendan Wells (UC Santa Cruz) worked with representatives from ADS and Zooniverse to set up a crowd-sourced platform to identify references in these old papers.Glassdome: Ellie Schwab (CUNY) and colleagues Paige Godfrey, Munazza Alam, and Cam Buzzard began work on a website modeled after glassdoor for safely sharing experiences throughout their astronomy careers. Glassdome will feature career path stories, department reviews, and salaries, all optionally anonymous. The site is hosted by ScienceBetter and is under development.Observing Run Sharing: Sometimes near the end of a long night at the telescope you have observed everything you need but still have time left. Short of choosing randomly or hoping a colleague is online in the middle of the night, there is currently no good solution. To address this, Brooke Simmons (UC San Diego) designed a web app that would allow astronomers to submit their favorite night sky targets. The project is still a work in progress.ArXiv Podcast: Ruth Angus (Oxford) started a podcast featuring astronomers summarizing their new papers submitted to astro-ph in one minute. Its like audio astrobites! If youve recently published a

  4. The Microjet of AA Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. W.; Hilton, G. M.; Williger, G. M.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B.

    2005-12-01

    The microjet of AA Tau A.W. Cox (Atholton High School, Columbia MD), G.M. Hilton (SSAI and GSFC), G.M. Williger (JHU and U. Louisville), C.A. Grady (Eureka Scientific and GSFC) B.Woodgate (NASA's GSFC) AA Tau is a classical T Tauri star with a spatially resolved disk viewed at approximately 70 degrees from pole-on. Photo-polarimetric variability of the star has been interpreted as being caused by the stellar magnetic field being inclined at 30 degrees with respect to the stellar rotation axis, producing a warp in the inner disk. Under these conditions, any jet should be less collimated than typical of T Tauri microjets, and should show signs of the jet axis precessing around the stellar rotation axis. When compared with the microjets imaged in the HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging survey, the AA Tau jet has an opening half-angle of approximately 10-15 degrees rather than the 3-5 degrees typical of the other T Tauri stars which have been coronagraphically imaged by HST/STIS. Using the HST data with ultra-narrowband imagery and long slit spectroscopy obtained with the Goddard Fabry-Perot and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, we derive the jet inclination, knot ejection epochs, and ejection frequency. We also compare the jet opening angle with model predictions. Apache Point Observatory observations with the Goddard Fabry-Perot were made through a grant of Director's Discretionary Time. Apache Point Observatory is operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. The GFP was supported under NASA RTOP 51-188-01-22 to GSFC. Grady is supported under NASA contract NNH05CD30C to Eureka Scientific.

  5. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  6. Anonymity versus Privacy in the Dictator Game: Revealing Donor Decisions to Recipients Does Not Substantially Impact Donor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Winking, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Anonymity is often offered in economic experiments in order to eliminate observer effects and induce behavior that would be exhibited under private circumstances. However, anonymity differs from privacy in that interactants are only unaware of each others' identities, while having full knowledge of each others' actions. Such situations are rare outside the laboratory and anonymity might not meet the requirements of some participants to psychologically engage as if their actions were private. In order to explore the impact of a lack of privacy on prosocial behaviors, I expand on a study reported in Dana et al. (2006) in which recipients were left unaware of the Dictator Game and given donations as “bonuses” to their show-up fees for other tasks. In the current study, I explore whether differences between a private Dictator Game (sensu Dana et al. (2006)) and a standard anonymous one are due to a desire by dictators to avoid shame or to pursue prestige. Participants of a Dictator Game were randomly assigned to one of four categories—one in which the recipient knew of (1) any donation by an anonymous donor (including zero donations), (2) nothing at all, (3) only zero donations, and (4) and only non-zero donations. The results suggest that a lack of privacy increases the shame that selfish-acting participants experience, but that removing such a cost has only minimal effects on actual behavior. PMID:25532025

  7. Interface Formation During Fusion™ Casting of AA3003/AA4045 Aluminum Alloy Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ciano, Massimo; Caron, E. J. F. R.; Weckman, D. C.; Wells, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fusion™ casting is a unique Direct Chill continuous casting process whereby two different alloys can be cast simultaneously, producing a laminated ingot for rolling into clad sheet metal such as AA3003/AA4045 brazing sheet. Better understanding of the wetting and interface formation process during Fusion™ casting is required to further improve process yields and also explore use of other alloy systems for new applications. In this research, AA3003-core/AA4045-clad ingots were cast using a well-instrumented lab-scale Fusion™ casting system. As-cast Fusion™ interfaces were examined metallurgically and by mechanical testing. Computational fluid dynamic analyses of the FusionTM casts were also performed. It was shown that the liquid AA4045-clad alloy was able to successfully wet and create an oxide-free, metallurgical, and mechanically sound interface with the lightly oxidized AA3003-core shell material. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that the bond formation process at the alloys interface during casting is a result of discrete penetration of AA4045 liquid at defects in the preexisting AA3003 oxide, dissolution of underlying AA3003 by liquid AA4045, and subsequent bridging between penetration sites. Spot exudation on the AA3003 chill cast surface due to remelting and inverse segregation may also improve the wetting and bonding process.

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  9. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  10. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  11. A polyvinyl alcohol-functionalized sorbent for extraction and determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics in honey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Ji, Shunli; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-07-17

    A novel highly hydrophilic sorbent simply prepared by coating polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) onto silica gel was used for extraction and determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics (AAs). The fabricated PVA coating is aimed to effectively protect core silica gel inside and offers good hydrophilic property. In combination of hydrophilic interaction chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, the performance of the sorbent was evaluated by selecting four model AAs (dihydrostreptomycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, spectinomycin). The sorbent was found to have effective adsorption ability to hydrophilic AAs, which was superior or comparable to those of commercial ones. Good recoveries (84-112%) of model AAs spiked in honey were obtained with good precision (<12.4%) and the limit of quantitation for the proposed method was in the range of 7.8-19.4ng/mL.

  12. A polyvinyl alcohol-functionalized sorbent for extraction and determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics in honey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Ji, Shunli; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-07-17

    A novel highly hydrophilic sorbent simply prepared by coating polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) onto silica gel was used for extraction and determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics (AAs). The fabricated PVA coating is aimed to effectively protect core silica gel inside and offers good hydrophilic property. In combination of hydrophilic interaction chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, the performance of the sorbent was evaluated by selecting four model AAs (dihydrostreptomycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, spectinomycin). The sorbent was found to have effective adsorption ability to hydrophilic AAs, which was superior or comparable to those of commercial ones. Good recoveries (84-112%) of model AAs spiked in honey were obtained with good precision (<12.4%) and the limit of quantitation for the proposed method was in the range of 7.8-19.4ng/mL. PMID:26047525

  13. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  14. Modulation of nucleus accumbens connectivity by alcohol drinking and naltrexone in alcohol-preferring rats: A manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2016-03-01

    The nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone is now used for the treatment of alcoholism, yet naltrexone's central mechanism of action remains poorly understood. One line of evidence suggests that opioid antagonists regulate alcohol drinking through interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine system. Hence, our goal here was to examine the role of the nucleus accumbens connectivity in alcohol reinforcement and naltrexone's actions using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Following long-term free-choice drinking of alcohol and water, AA (Alko Alcohol) rats received injections of MnCl2 into the nucleus accumbens for activity-dependent tracing of accumbal connections. Immediately after the accumbal injections, rats were imaged using MEMRI, and then allowed to drink either alcohol or water for the next 24h. Naltrexone was administered prior to the active dark period, and the second MEMRI was performed 24h after the first scan. Comparison of signal intensity at 1 and 24h after accumbal MnCl2 injections revealed an ipsilateral continuum through the ventral pallidum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, globus pallidus, and lateral hypothalamus to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Activation was also seen in the rostral part of the insular cortex and regions of the prefrontal cortex. Alcohol drinking resulted in enhanced activation of these connections, whereas naltrexone suppressed alcohol-induced activity. These data support the involvement of the accumbal connections in alcohol reinforcement and mediation of naltrexone's suppressive effects on alcohol drinking through their deactivation.

  15. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  16. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  17. Is the introduction of anonymous delivery associated with a reduction of high neonaticide rates in Austria? A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Klier, Claudia M; Chryssa, Grylli; Amon, Sabine; Fiala, Christian; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Pruitt, Sandi L; Putkonen, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess rates of neonaticide after the implementation of a preventative “anonymous delivery” law in mid-2001 in Austria. Women are allowed to access antenatal care and give birth in a hospital anonymously, without showing any ID and free of charge. Design Retrospective Study Setting A complete census of police-reported neonaticides was obtained from the police statistics of Austria, Sweden and Finland. Population All neonaticides reported to the police, 1991-2009. Main outcome measures Neonaticide rates pre- (1991-2001) and post- (2002-2009) anonymous delivery legislation per 100,000 births. Methods The Mann-Whitney U test for two independent samples was used to compare neonaticide rates during the pre-law period to the rates observed after the implementation of the new law for each country. Results On average the rate of police-reported neonaticides was 7.2 per 100.000 births (SD=3.5, median=7.1) in Austria prior to passage of the law and 3.1 per 100.000 births (SD= 2.1; median= 2.6) after passage of the law. A significant decrease in neonaticide was observed in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery (Mann-Whitney U test p=.017). Whereas the Finnish and Swedish rates were lower than the Austrian rates before and after the implementation of the Austrian law, they remained unchanged over the study period. Conclusion Our data demonstrate a significant decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery. Even though underlying factors associated with neonaticide are complex, the findings could indicate an effect of anonymous delivery in the prevention of this crime. PMID:23210536

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  20. Novel Haloperoxidase from the Agaric Basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita Oxidizes Aryl Alcohols and Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, René; Nüske, Jörg; Scheibner, Katrin; Spantzel, Jörg; Hofrichter, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Agrocybe aegerita, a bark mulch- and wood-colonizing basidiomycete, was found to produce a peroxidase (AaP) that oxidizes aryl alcohols, such as veratryl and benzyl alcohols, into the corresponding aldehydes and then into benzoic acids. The enzyme also catalyzed the oxidation of typical peroxidase substrates, such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) or 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). A. aegerita peroxidase production depended on the concentration of organic nitrogen in the medium, and highest enzyme levels were detected in the presence of soybean meal. Two fractions of the enzyme, AaP I and AaP II, which had identical molecular masses (46 kDa) and isoelectric points of 4.6 to 5.4 and 4.9 to 5.6, respectively (corresponding to six different isoforms), were identified after several steps of purification, including anion- and cation-exchange chromatography. The optimum pH for the oxidation of aryl alcohols was found to be around 7, and the enzyme required relatively high concentrations of H2O2 (2 mM) for optimum activity. The apparent Km values for ABTS, DMP, benzyl alcohol, veratryl alcohol, and H2O2 were 37, 298, 1,001, 2,367 and 1,313 μM, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the main AaP II spots blotted after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were almost identical and exhibited almost no homology to the sequences of other peroxidases from basidiomycetes, but they shared the first three amino acids, as well as two additional amino acids, with the heme chloroperoxidase (CPO) from the ascomycete Caldariomyces fumago. This finding is consistent with the fact that AaP halogenates monochlorodimedone, the specific substrate of CPO. The existence of haloperoxidases in basidiomycetous fungi may be of general significance for the natural formation of chlorinated organic compounds in forest soils. PMID:15294788

  1. Development and validation of the alcohol-related God locus of control scale.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas S; Goggin, Kathy; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2006-03-01

    Control beliefs and spirituality appear to be important factors in recovery from alcoholism. However, the integration of these two constructs has received little attention, and the relationship of spiritually related control beliefs to recovery remains unclear. Currently no measures exist to specifically assess these beliefs. To address this need, the Alcohol-Related God Locus of Control scale (AGLOC) was developed. This 12-item self-report measure assesses perceptions of God/Higher Power's role in recovery from alcoholism. The AGLOC was administered to 144 recovering alcoholics attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution with one factor related to attributions of God control over initial cessation of drinking (Cessation) and the other factor related to attributions of God control over one's continued maintenance of sobriety (Maintenance). Both subscales and the overall scale demonstrated adequate to high internal consistency. Demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, the total AGLOC scale and the Cessation subscale were significantly but moderately correlated with spirituality (both frequency and importance), and independent of perceptions of internal control over drinking. Maintenance subscale scores were inversely associated with internal drinking-related scores and were not associated with spiritual importance or frequency of spiritual practice. Findings support the utility of this instrument for the assessment of alcohol-related God/Higher Power locus of control beliefs in an alcoholic population and suggest the importance of further research on changes in alcohol-related God control beliefs throughout the course of recovery.

  2. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  3. Finding erotic oases: locating the sites of men's same-sex anonymous sexual encounters.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Because anonymous sexual relations between two men are widely considered deviant many men seeking such activities look to erotic oases-natural environments appropriated for covert, often furtive sexual purposes. Previous research on erotic oases has focused on characteristics of involved men and processes of locating, negotiating with, and consummating sexual relations with others. This study draws on one major Web site listing of "cruising places" in the United States to identify common locations for erotic oases. Results show that the most common locations identified as erotic oases by users are public parks, adult bookstores, health clubs, and college campuses. Locations most likely to be listed as believed to be under law enforcement surveillance are outdoor, high traffic locations. Based on these results existing research has only begun to examine the most common locations for this highly stigmatized, deviant behavior and subculture.

  4. Anonymous self-evaluation of performance by ethics board members: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Feldman, James A; Rebholz, Casey M

    2009-03-01

    EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A Reserch Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board (IRB) continues to be a difficult task. There are limited data that examine the perceptions of members of IRBs about their own performance or methods that would allow comparison among IRB panels at a single institution or between institutions. We piloted an anonymous survey instrument that examined members' attitudes about the efficiency, procedures and outcomes of IRB meetings and developed a process for presentation and discussion of these results with panel members. This quality improvement process was initially completed with one panel, and then replicated with two other IRB panels at one institution. This allowed comparison of perceived IRB performance across panels at a single institution. Further research is required to determine the association between IRB members' perception of performance and other measures of IRB effectiveness and to examine the perceived performance of IRBs by other research stakeholders.

  5. Improvement of a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Wenhao; Wang, Shengbao; Han, Lidong; Hu, Bin; Wu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Patient's privacy-preserving, security and mutual authentication between patient and the medical server are the important mechanism in connected health care applications, such as telecare medical information systems and personally controlled health records systems. In 2013, Wen showed that Das et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme using biometrics, password and smart card to overcome these weaknesses. However, we show that Wen's scheme is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks, does not provide user's anonymity and perfect forward secrecy. Further, we propose an improved scheme to fix these weaknesses, and use the applied pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove the security and authentication. PMID:24994512

  6. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  7. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  8. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  9. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  10. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  11. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  12. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  13. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  14. The association between low alcohol use and traffic risk behaviors among Brazilian college students.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Malbergier, André; do Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Yang, Jasmine J; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2012-11-01

    Although there are a large number of studies focused on binge drinking and traffic risk behaviors (TRB), little is known regarding low levels of alcohol consumption and its association to TRB. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association of low to moderate alcohol intake pattern and TRB in college students in Brazil. 7037 students from a National representative sample were selected under rigorous inclusion criteria. All study participants voluntarily fulfilled a structured, anonymous, and self-questionnaire regarding alcohol and drug use, social-demographic data, and TRB. Alcohol was assessed according to the average number of alcoholic units consumed on standard occasions over the past 12 months. The associations between alcohol intake and TRB were summarized with odds ratio and their confidence interval obtained from logistic regression. Compared with abstainers students who consumed only one alcohol unit had the risk of being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver increased by almost four times, students who reported using five or more units were increased by almost five times the risk of being involved in a car crash. Compared with students who consumed one alcohol unit, the risk of driving under the influence of alcohol increased four times in students using three alcohol units. Age group, use of illicit drugs, employment status, gender, and marital status significantly influenced occurrence of TRB among college students. Our study highlights the potential detrimental effects of low and moderate pattern of alcohol consumption and its relation to riding with an intoxicated driver and other TRB. These data suggest that targeted interventions should be implemented in order to prevent negative consequences due to alcohol use in this population. PMID:22921955

  15. What affects your MS? Responses to an anonymous, Internet-based epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Rex D; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; van der Mei, Ingrid A F; Sheridan, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Evolving information technology has raised the possibility of new methods of data collection in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. An anonymous, self-report, Internet-based survey was developed, which asked people with MS their opinion on how various extrinsic factors affected their condition. From September 2001 to July 2002, a total of 2529 people completed the questionnaire. The demographic and clinical profiles of the anonymous respondents indicated that most were likely to have MS. Common factors reported as beneficial were cannabis, cold baths, meditation and dietary factors. Common adverse factors reported were high stress, exposure to high temperatures and viral infections. There was an increasing report of high temperatures as being adverse with increasing respondent age (test for trend, P < 0.001). The adverse report of high temperatures correlated significantly with the report of strong sunlight apparently making MS worse (r = 0.35, P < 0.0001). In Australia, high temperatures were more likely to be reported as adverse in warmer, lower latitude regions. The association between strong sunlight as adverse and age or region did not persist after adjustment for high temperatures. Thus, this apparent adverse factor appeared to relate to solar heat, not solar light. People with MS may risk vitamin D deficiency because of sun avoidance due to heat-related fatigue or intolerance. This is of clinical significance not only for bone health but because vitamin D may have beneficial immunomodulatory properties. The present study provides new information from people with MS on factors that may influence symptoms or clinical course. This information will now be used in the design of formal epidemiological cohort studies.

  16. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  17. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  18. Brain activation induced by voluntary alcohol and saccharin drinking in rats assessed with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Hermann, Derik; Brown, Matthew; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of alcohol reward has been studied extensively, but global alterations of neural activity in reward circuits during chronic alcohol use remain poorly described. Here, we measured brain activity changes produced by long-term voluntary alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) rats using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MEMRI is based on the ability of paramagnetic manganese ions to accumulate in excitable neurons and thereby enhance the T1-weighted signal in activated brain areas. Following 6 weeks of voluntary alcohol drinking, AA rats were allowed to drink alcohol for an additional week, during which they were administered manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps before MEMRI. A second group with an identical alcohol drinking history received MnCl2 during the abstinence week following alcohol drinking. For comparing alcohol with a natural reinforcer, MEMRI was also performed in saccharin-drinking rats. A water-drinking group receiving MnCl2 served as a control. We found that alcohol drinking increased brain activity extensively in cortical and subcortical areas, including the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and their afferents. Remarkably similar activation maps were seen after saccharin ingestion. Particularly in the prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus, activation persisted into early abstinence. These data show that voluntary alcohol recruits an extensive network that includes the ascending dopamine systems and their afferent connections, and that this network is largely shared with saccharin reward. The regions displaying persistent alterations after alcohol drinking could participate in brain networks underlying alcohol seeking and relapse.

  19. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  20. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  1. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  2. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  3. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  4. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  5. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  6. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  7. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  8. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  9. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  10. The 10 Year Course of AA Participation and Long-Term Outcomes: A Follow-up Study of Outpatient Subjects in Project MATCH

    PubMed Central

    White, William L.; Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Carter, Rebecca R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the 10-year course and impact of AA-related helping (AAH), step-work, and meeting attendance on long-term outcomes. Data were derived from 226 treatment-seeking alcoholics recruited from an outpatient site in Project MATCH and followed for 10 years post-treatment. Alcohol consumption, AA participation, and other-oriented behavior were assessed at baseline, end of the 3-month treatment period, and one year, three years, and 10 years post-treatment. Controlling for explanatory baseline and time-varying variables, results showed significant direct effects of AAH and meeting attendance on reduced alcohol outcomes and a direct effect of AAH on improved other-oriented interest. PMID:23327504

  11. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  12. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  13. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users’ privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  14. Anonymous nuclear markers data supporting species tree phylogeny and divergence time estimates in a cactus species complex in South America.

    PubMed

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-03-01

    Supportive data related to the article "Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America" (Perez et al., 2016) [1]. Here, we present pyrosequencing results, primer sequences, a cpDNA phylogeny, and a species tree phylogeny. PMID:26900589

  15. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Chen, Zewei; Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  16. The Person in Crisis.; How Help Anonymous Helps.; Reactions from Volunteers.; The Use and Abuse of Back-Up Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Betty Jo, Ed.; Vigil, Lyle, Ed.

    Help Anonymous, a volunteer-operated telephone service for persons in crisis, is presented in its various aspects. Five key areas, descriptive of the person in crisis, are delineated as are the external signs which signal that a crisis is impending or ongoing. The service is viewed as the right arm of the Pueblo Suicide Prevention Center, and in…

  17. An Anonymous Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship Directors regarding Breaches of Contracts and a Proposal for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, James L.; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. Results: It is fairly common for applicants to sign…

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  19. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  20. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  1. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N

    2013-01-01

    Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry.

  4. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  5. Intermolecular interaction between Cry2Aa and Cyt1Aa and its effect on larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Bideshi, Dennis K; Waldrop, Greer; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Wirth, Margaret C; Johnson, Jeffrey J; Park, Hyun-Woo; Federici, Brian A

    2013-08-01

    The Cyt1Aa protein of Bacillus thuringiensis susbp. israelensis elaborates demonstrable toxicity to mosquito larvae, but more importantly, it enhances the larvicidal activity of this species Cry proteins (Cry11Aa, Cry4Aa, and Cry4Ba) and delays the phenotypic expression of resistance to these that has evolved in Culex quinquefasciatus. It is also known that Cyt1Aa, which is highly lipophilic, synergizes Cry11Aa by functioning as a surrogate membrane-bound receptor for the latter protein. Little is known, however, about whether Cyt1Aa can interact similarly with other Cry proteins not primarily mosquitocidal; for example, Cry2Aa, which is active against lepidopteran larvae, but essentially inactive or has very low toxicity to mosquito larvae. Here we demonstrate by ligand binding and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that Cyt1Aa and Cry2Aa form intermolecular complexes in vitro, and in addition show that Cyt1Aa facilitates binding of Cry2Aa throughout the midgut of C. quinquefasciatus larvae. As Cry2Aa and Cry11Aa share structural similarity in domain II, the interaction between Cyt1Aa and Cry2Aa could be a result of a similar mechanism previously proposed for Cry11Aa and Cyt1Aa. Finally, despite the observed interaction between Cry2Aa and Cyt1Aa, only a 2-fold enhancement in toxicity resulted against C. quinquefasciatus. Regardless, our results suggest that Cry2Aa could be a useful component of mosquitocidal endotoxin complements being developed for recombinant strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. sphaericus aimed at improving the efficacy of commercial products and avoiding resistance. PMID:23727800

  6. The quinoline compound, S4 effectively antagonizes alcohol intake in mice: Possible association with the histone H3 modifications.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tuhin Suvro; Hazra, Abhijit; Mondal, Nirup Bikash; Das, Sumantra

    2015-08-01

    Opioidergic system plays an important role in controlling alcohol seeking behavior. We have previously shown that a quinoline compound, S4 (2-(2-methylquinolin-4-ylamino)-N-phenyl acetamide), having dual affinity for µ- and κ-opioid receptors, could successfully inhibit withdrawal symptoms in mice rendered dependent on morphine. Accordingly, in the present study, we sought to determine the potential of S4 in attenuating voluntary alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring (AP) mice and the mechanism thereof. The study was conducted in different mice strains initially screened for AP and alcohol-avoiding (AA) behavior. S4 was injected subcutaneously (20 mg/kg) to evaluate its efficacy in reducing voluntary alcohol consumption along with prevention of body weight loss during withdrawal from alcohol after discontinuation of the drug. The results showed that S4 significantly reduced the alcohol intake in AP mice and also in a dose dependent manner. Mechanistic studies on the post translational histone H3 modifications in brain of AP mice compared to the AA mice were determined. Compared to AA mice, histone H3 trimethylation at lys9 and its regulators, jumonji domain containing 2A and phosphorylated histones H3 at thr11 as well as the expression of 14-3-3 protein and phosphorylated histones H3 at ser28, were altered in the AP animals, most of which were restored post S4 treatment in the AP mice. Together, the present results suggest that S4 effectively blocked alcohol drinking behavior by restoring the altered epigenetic signature in the AP mice. The study provides a novel compound which could lead to developing effective drugs against alcoholism/alcohol abuse.

  7. [Association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among students from Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Dallos Bareño, Carlos Manuel; González Rueda, Silvia Juliana; Sánchez Herrera, Zayda Marcela; Díaz-Martínez, Luis Alfonso; Rueda-Jaimes, Germán Eduardo; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have reported an important association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse. However, the topic had not been investigated in Colombian students. This study focused on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among high school students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A self-reported anonymous questionnaire was answered by 560 15-19-year-olds. The survey included the Zung Self-Reported Depression Scale, CAGE Questionnaire for Alcohol Use, and VESPA questionnaire (Epidemiological Surveillance of Psychoactive Drugs). Logistic regression was used to establish associations. Prevalence was 5.7% for alcohol dependence and 39.5% for depressive symptoms. Associations were found between alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms (PR = 3.33; 95%CI: 1.41-7.83), poor self-perceived academic achievement (PR = 2.59; 95%CI: 1.16-5.37), and smoking (PR = 2.47; 95%CI: 1.13-5.40). The authors conclude that there is a strong association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse in Colombian high school students. Preventive programs are needed to identify early depressive disorders and alcohol abuse. PMID:16158145

  8. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  9. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  10. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  11. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  12. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  13. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  14. [Utilization of anonymous HIV testing by the federal health office--developments and motives].

    PubMed

    Scheibner, J; Waldvogel, B

    1993-01-01

    In the state-run health office in Ulm a survey of the frequency of anonymous HIV-antibody tests was taken between 1985 to 1991, of the age and gender representation from 1988 to 1991, of the test motives from 1.1.1990 to 1.3.1991. The result was a regressive trend following the test boom of 1987 and 1988, which is becoming more and more stable. The relation of men and women has been amounting to 6:4 in the last four years; the proportion of women receding slightly but constantly. The main motive of being tested was finding out about a high-risk or potentially high-risk sexual contact, mostly at the beginning of a new partnership. The motive ranking second in frequency was the investigation of the consequences of blood exposure, mostly relating to medical work. The third place was taken by irrational anxieties as a test motive. The article discusses the fact that test at the beginning of a new partnership frequently have the meaning of a sacrifice and a symbol of bondage in combination with a vow to be faithful. In case of irrational anxieties about AIDS the test-counsellor gets a chance to diagnose a possibly neurotic development at a very early stage, so that painful and expensive chronification and generalisation could be stopped or eased. PMID:8435542

  15. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  16. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data.

  17. Evolution of fairness in the one-shot anonymous Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Rand, David G.; Tarnita, Corina E.; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Classical economic models assume that people are fully rational and selfish, while experiments often point to different conclusions. A canonical example is the Ultimatum Game: one player proposes a division of a sum of money between herself and a second player, who either accepts or rejects. Based on rational self-interest, responders should accept any nonzero offer and proposers should offer the smallest possible amount. Traditional, deterministic models of evolutionary game theory agree: in the one-shot anonymous Ultimatum Game, natural selection favors low offers and demands. Experiments instead show a preference for fairness: often responders reject low offers and proposers make higher offers than needed to avoid rejection. Here we show that using stochastic evolutionary game theory, where agents make mistakes when judging the payoffs and strategies of others, natural selection favors fairness. Across a range of parameters, the average strategy matches the observed behavior: proposers offer between 30% and 50%, and responders demand between 25% and 40%. Rejecting low offers increases relative payoff in pairwise competition between two strategies and is favored when selection is sufficiently weak. Offering more than you demand increases payoff when many strategies are present simultaneously and is favored when mutation is sufficiently high. We also perform a behavioral experiment and find empirical support for these theoretical findings: uncertainty about the success of others is associated with higher demands and offers; and inconsistency in the behavior of others is associated with higher offers but not predictive of demands. In an uncertain world, fairness finishes first. PMID:23341593

  18. Capturing genomic signatures of DNA sequence variation using a standard anonymous microarray platform

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, C. H.; Kua, C. S.; Lobenhofer, E. K.; Hurban, P.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genomics, using the model organism approach, has provided powerful insights into the structure and evolution of whole genomes. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of Earth's biodiversity will have its genome sequenced in the foreseeable future. Most wild organisms have radically different life histories and evolutionary genomics than current model systems. A novel technique is needed to expand comparative genomics to a wider range of organisms. Here, we describe a novel approach using an anonymous DNA microarray platform that gathers genomic samples of sequence variation from any organism. Oligonucleotide probe sequences placed on a custom 44 K array were 25 bp long and designed using a simple set of criteria to maximize their complexity and dispersion in sequence probability space. Using whole genomic samples from three known genomes (mouse, rat and human) and one unknown (Gonystylus bancanus), we demonstrate and validate its power, reliability, transitivity and sensitivity. Using two separate statistical analyses, a large numbers of genomic ‘indicator’ probes were discovered. The construction of a genomic signature database based upon this technique would allow virtual comparisons and simple queries could generate optimal subsets of markers to be used in large-scale assays, using simple downstream techniques. Biologists from a wide range of fields, studying almost any organism, could efficiently perform genomic comparisons, at potentially any phylogenetic level after performing a small number of standardized DNA microarray hybridizations. Possibilities for refining and expanding the approach are discussed. PMID:17000641

  19. Prospective parents' intentions regarding disclosure following the removal of donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    This short survey of UK infertility counsellors was designed to determine whether the removal of donor anonymity resulted in noticeable changes in prospective parents' stated intentions regarding disclosure of their origins to any children conceived through donor conception. Members of the British Infertility Counselling Association working in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) -- licensed centres, before and after the legal changes, were sent a short questionnaire that included space for free comments (take-up: 62%). Three-quarters reported changes. Of these, two-thirds said prospective parents were more likely to say they would disclose, while less than a tenth said prospective parents were less likely do so. Where no changes were noted, this was primarily because the majority of prospective parents had stated their intention to be open even prior to the legal changes. Possible influences on intentions included: the culture within the centre, moves towards openness within the wider society, and parents' lack of confidence regarding how to go about disclosure. Follow-up studies are needed to improve understanding of whether influences on decision making carry through to patterns of actual disclosure; whether involvement in counselling affects outcomes; and whether access to professional assistance at the time of planned disclosure is helpful.

  20. An Anonymous User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme without Pairings for Multiserver Architecture Using SCPKs

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiaoyan; Li, Wenmin; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With advancement of computer community and widespread dissemination of network applications, users generally need multiple servers to provide different services. Accordingly, the multiserver architecture has been prevalent, and designing a secure and efficient remote user authentication under multiserver architecture becomes a nontrivial challenge. In last decade, various remote user authentication protocols have been put forward to correspond to the multi-server scenario requirements. However, these schemes suffered from certain security problems or their cost consumption exceeded users' own constrained ability. In this paper, we present an anonymous remote user authentication with key agreement scheme for multi-server architecture employing self-certified public keys without pairings. The proposed scheme can not only retain previous schemes' advantages but also achieve user privacy concern. Moreover, our proposal can gain higher efficiency by removing the pairings operation compared with the related schemes. Through analysis and comparison with the related schemes, we can say that our proposal is in accordance with the scenario requirements and feasible to the multi-server architecture. PMID:23844397

  1. Brother-sister incest: data from anonymous computer-assisted self interviews.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The other 1,230 served as controls. The victims of brother-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures (e.g., more likely than the controls to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse). However, victims of brother-sister incest also had significantly less problematic outcomes than victims of father-daughter incest on some measures (e.g., significantly less likely than the father-daughter incest victims to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse).

  2. A more secure anonymous user authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengtong

    2014-05-01

    Secure and efficient user mutual authentication is an essential task for integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system. Recently, several authentication schemes have been proposed to meet this requirement. In a recent paper, Lee et al. proposed an efficient and secure password-based authentication scheme used smart cards for the integrated EPR information system. This scheme is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks. Especially, they claimed that their scheme could resist lost smart card attack. However, we reanalyze the security of Lee et al.'s scheme, and show that it fails to protect off-line password guessing attack if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. This also renders that their scheme is insecure against user impersonation attacks. Then, we propose a new user authentication scheme for integrated EPR information systems based on the quadratic residues. The new scheme not only resists a range of network attacks but also provides user anonymity. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security. PMID:24760224

  3. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data. PMID:23321970

  4. Parents' perception of self-advocacy of children with myositis: an anonymous online survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with complex medical issues experience barriers to the transition of care from pediatric to adult providers. We sought to identify these barriers by elucidating the experiences of patients with idiopathic inflammatory muscle disorders. Methods We collected anonymous survey data using an online website. Patients and their families were solicited from the US and Canada through established clinics for children with idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases as well as with the aid of a nonprofit organization for the benefit of such individuals. The parents of 45 older children/young adults suffering from idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases were surveyed. As a basis of comparison, we similarly collected data from the parents of 207 younger children with inflammatory muscle diseases. The survey assessed transition of care issues confronting families of children and young adults with chronic juvenile myositis. Results Regardless of age of the patient, respondents were unlikely to have a designated health care provider assigned to aid in transition of care and were unlikely to be aware of a posted policy concerning transition of care at their pediatrician's office. Additionally, regardless of age, patients and their families were unlikely to have a written plan for moving to adult care. Conclusions We identified deficiencies in the health care experiences of families as pertain to knowledge, self-advocacy, policy, and vocational readiness. Moreover, as children with complex medical issues grow up, parents attribute less self-advocacy to their children's level of independence. PMID:21649897

  5. Intuitive presentation of clinical forensic data using anonymous and person-specific 3D reference manikins.

    PubMed

    Urschler, Martin; Höller, Johannes; Bornik, Alexander; Paul, Tobias; Giretzlehner, Michael; Bischof, Horst; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of CT/MR devices in forensic analysis motivates the need to present forensic findings from different sources in an intuitive reference visualization, with the aim of combining 3D volumetric images along with digital photographs of external findings into a 3D computer graphics model. This model allows a comprehensive presentation of forensic findings in court and enables comparative evaluation studies correlating data sources. The goal of this work was to investigate different methods to generate anonymous and patient-specific 3D models which may be used as reference visualizations. The issue of registering 3D volumetric as well as 2D photographic data to such 3D models is addressed to provide an intuitive context for injury documentation from arbitrary modalities. We present an image processing and visualization work-flow, discuss the major parts of this work-flow, compare the different investigated reference models, and show a number of cases studies that underline the suitability of the proposed work-flow for presenting forensically relevant information in 3D visualizations. PMID:24952238

  6. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  7. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  8. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  9. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  10. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  11. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  12. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  14. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  15. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  16. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  17. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  18. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  19. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  20. Powerlessness Reinterpreted: Reframing Step One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan L.

    The 12 steps of the well-known mutual help group, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), begin with Step One, admitting powerlessness. Although Step One has helped many problem drinkers and other addicts, its spiritual concepts have been criticized. The possibility of reconceptualizing powerlessness as empowering, not only within AA and its offshoot programs,…

  1. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. Objective We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Design, Settings and Participants Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health’s 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11–20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Main Outcome Measures Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Results Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. Conclusions and Relevance TBI remains a

  2. Early alcoholism treatment: the Emmanuel Movement and Richard Peabody.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K

    1984-01-01

    The history of alcoholism treatment in the early twentieth century is outlined. The methods of the Emmanuel Movement and of Richard Peabody are described, biographical details of their main practitioners are given, the populations treated are described, and the predecessors and successors of the two methods are discussed. In addition, the two methods are compared with each other and with the methods of Alcoholics Anonymous and Freudian psychoanalysis. The founder of the E. Movement was a clergyman, Dr. Elwood Worcester, whose method was designed to treat a variety of neurotic disorders. He felt that all diseases, including alcoholism, had physical, mental and spiritual components. His principal techniques of relaxation therapy and suggestion (including autosuggestion) were used to reach the unconscious. Worcester felt that alcoholics could be helped by redirecting their attention away from their problems to a life of service and spirituality. Prayer, group support and self-help were important. Worcester tried to reduce patients' guilt and rejected temperance preaching. He felt that recovery must come from surrender to external forces and to the healing capacities of the unconscious. One patient of his, Courtenay Baylor, began to work with him at the E. Church. Like Worcester, Baylor believed that alcohol, and not one's life history, caused alcoholism. Baylor believed that alcoholism resulted from mental and physical "tenseness" and, like Worcester, he used relaxation therapy. He believed in giving a longer period of treatment than did Worcester and in providing more treatment for the families of alcoholics. One of Baylor's most famous patients was Peabody. Peabody had no credentials but he refined and professionalized the E. treatment method. He was a strong believer in the control of one's feelings and in increased efficiency--his patients were told to follow detailed time plans. He believed that early family history caused alcoholism. Like the E. Movement, he

  3. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  4. MDCT evaluation of acute aortic syndrome (AAS).

    PubMed

    Valente, Tullio; Rossi, Giovanni; Lassandro, Francesco; Rea, Gaetano; Marino, Maurizio; Muto, Maurizio; Molino, Antonio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic acute thoracic aortic syndromes (AAS) describe a spectrum of life-threatening aortic pathologies with significant implications on diagnosis, therapy and management. There is a common pathway for the various manifestations of AAS that eventually leads to a breakdown of the aortic intima and media. Improvements in biology and health policy and diffusion of technology into the community resulted in an associated decrease in mortality and morbidity related to aortic therapeutic interventions. Hybrid procedures, branched and fenestrated endografts, and percutaneous aortic valves have emerged as potent and viable alternatives to traditional surgeries. In this context, current state-of-the art multidetector CT (MDCT) is actually the gold standard in the emergency setting because of its intrinsic diagnostic value. Management of acute aortic disease has changed with the increasing realization that endovascular therapies may offer distinct advantages in these situations. This article provides a summary of AAS, focusing especially on the MDCT technique, typical and atypical findings and common pitfalls of AAS, as well as recent concepts regarding the subtypes of AAS, consisting of aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer and unstable aortic aneurysm or contained aortic rupture. MDCT findings will be related to pathophysiology, timing and management options to achieve a definite and timely diagnostic and therapeutic definition. In the present article, we review the aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, outcomes and therapeutic approaches to acute aortic syndromes. PMID:27033344

  5. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  6. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  7. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally.

  8. Anonymous HIV testing: what does it mean in policy and practice? A case study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Amanda; Gustafson, Diana L

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is not a legally notifiable disease at the national level in Canada; however, provincial and territorial officials voluntarily undertake notification to the Public Health Agency of Canada. A case study involving four community-based sites in Newfoundland and Labrador found that the absence of clear legislation concerning HIV testing presented challenges for nurses who had to interpret and comply with provincial legislation and agency policy while meeting the needs of test-seekers. This ambiguous messaging is part of other conflicting information about the availability of anonymous HIV testing that, along with other factors, may contribute to under-testing and under-diagnosis in the province. From a social justice perspective, developing a national HIV strategy and amending legislation to facilitate anonymous HIV testing might provide clearer direction to nurses and agencies, and promote public health by improving service delivery and increasing testing in under-tested, higher-risk-taking populations.

  9. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  10. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  11. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  12. Assessment of wishes regarding disposition of oocytes and embryo management among ovum donors in an anonymous egg donation program.

    PubMed

    Adsuar, Natalie; Zweifel, Julianne E; Pritts, Elizabeth A; Davidson, Marie A; Olive, David L; Lindheim, Steven R

    2005-11-01

    Revealing possible clinical scenarios to potential anonymous donors for their donated oocytes appears to uncover ambivalence in the majority of prospective candidates about their donation and unwillingness in some to proceed. Full disclosure to a prospective donor candidate of the program's policies for directives of donated oocytes and embryo management emphasizes the importance of the informed consent process and how it may affect the decision to donate.

  13. Features of Men with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Dependence: A Comparison With Nondependent AAS Users and With AAS Nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) dependence has been a recognized syndrome for some 20 years, but remains poorly understood. Methods We evaluated three groups of experienced male weightlifters: 1) men reporting no history of AAS use (N = 72); 2) nondependent AAS users reporting no history of AAS dependence (N = 42); and 3) men meeting adapted DSM-IV criteria for current or past AAS dependence (N = 20). We assessed demographic indices, lifetime history of psychiatric disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, variables related to AAS use, and results from drug tests of urine and hair. Results Nondependent AAS users showed no significant differences from AAS nonusers on any variable assessed. Dependent AAS users, however, differed substantially from both other groups on many measures. Notably, they reported a more frequent history of conduct disorder than nondependent AAS users (odds ratio [95% CI]: 8.0 [1.7, 38.0]) or AAS nonusers (13.1 [2.8, 60.4]) and a much higher lifetime prevalence of opioid abuse and dependence than either comparison group (odds ratios 6.3 [1.2, 34.5] and 18.6 [3.0, 116.8], respectively). Conclusions Men with AAS dependence, unlike nondependent AAS users or AAS nonusers, showed a distinctive pattern of comorbid psychopathology, overlapping with that of individuals with other forms of substance dependence. AAS dependence showed a particularly strong association with opioid dependence – an observation that recalls recent animal data suggesting similarities in AAS and opioid brain reward mechanisms. Individuals with AAS dependence and individuals with “classical” substance dependence may possibly harbor similar underlying biological and neuropsychological vulnerabilities. PMID:19339124

  14. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.'s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.'s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance.

  15. Reconsidering Anonymization-Related Concepts and the Term “Identification” Against the Backdrop of the European Legal Framework

    PubMed Central

    Schlünder, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Sharing data in biomedical contexts has become increasingly relevant, but privacy concerns set constraints for free sharing of individual-level data. Data protection law protects only data relating to an identifiable individual, whereas “anonymous” data are free to be used by everybody. Usage of many terms related to anonymization is often not consistent among different domains such as statistics and law. The crucial term “identification” seems especially hard to define, since its definition presupposes the existence of identifying characteristics, leading to some circularity. In this article, we present a discussion of important terms based on a legal perspective that it is outlined before we present issues related to the usage of terms such as unique “identifiers,” “quasi-identifiers,” and “sensitive attributes.” Based on these terms, we have tried to circumvent a circular definition for the term “identification” by making two decisions: first, deciding which (natural) identifier should stand for the individual; second, deciding how to recognize the individual. In addition, we provide an overview of anonymization techniques/methods for preventing re-identification. The discussion of basic notions related to anonymization shows that there is some work to be done in order to achieve a mutual understanding between legal and technical experts concerning some of these notions. Using a dialectical definition process in order to merge technical and legal perspectives on terms seems important for enhancing mutual understanding. PMID:27104620

  16. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.’s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.’s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance. PMID:27101305

  17. Risk factors for father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; Kuo, Shih-Ya; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Swindell, Sam; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective data from 2,034 female participants, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for father-daughter incest (FDI). A total of 51 participants had reported having experienced FDI. The risk factors identified within the nuclear family by the multiple logistic regression analysis included the following: (a) Having parents whose relationship included verbal or physical fighting or brutality increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 5 times; (b) families accepting father-daughter nudity as measured by a scale with values ranging from 0 to 4 increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 2 times for each unit value increase of 1 above 0; (c) demonstrating maternal affection protected against FDI. The likelihood of being a victim of FDI was highest if the participant's mother never kissed or hugged her; it decreased by 0.44 for a 1-unit increase in affection and by 0.19 times for a 2-unit increase; and (d) being in homes headed by single-parent mothers or where divorce or death of the father had resulted in a man other than the biological father living in the home increased the risk of FDI by approximately 3.2 times. The results were consistent with the idea that FDI in many families was the cumulative result of a circular pattern of interactions, a finding that has implications for treatment of the perpetrator, the victim, and the families. The data also suggested it may be possible to design an information program for parents that will result in reducing the risk of FDI in families implementing the program's recommendations.

  18. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    PubMed

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed.

  19. Risk factors for father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; Kuo, Shih-Ya; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Swindell, Sam; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective data from 2,034 female participants, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for father-daughter incest (FDI). A total of 51 participants had reported having experienced FDI. The risk factors identified within the nuclear family by the multiple logistic regression analysis included the following: (a) Having parents whose relationship included verbal or physical fighting or brutality increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 5 times; (b) families accepting father-daughter nudity as measured by a scale with values ranging from 0 to 4 increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 2 times for each unit value increase of 1 above 0; (c) demonstrating maternal affection protected against FDI. The likelihood of being a victim of FDI was highest if the participant's mother never kissed or hugged her; it decreased by 0.44 for a 1-unit increase in affection and by 0.19 times for a 2-unit increase; and (d) being in homes headed by single-parent mothers or where divorce or death of the father had resulted in a man other than the biological father living in the home increased the risk of FDI by approximately 3.2 times. The results were consistent with the idea that FDI in many families was the cumulative result of a circular pattern of interactions, a finding that has implications for treatment of the perpetrator, the victim, and the families. The data also suggested it may be possible to design an information program for parents that will result in reducing the risk of FDI in families implementing the program's recommendations. PMID:23363491

  20. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    PubMed

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed. PMID:25432976

  1. [Public free anonymous HIV testing centers: cost analysis and financing options].

    PubMed

    Dozol, Adrien; Tribout, Martin; Labalette, Céline; Moreau, Anne-Christine; Duteil, Christelle; Bertrand, Dominique; Segouin, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The services of general interest provided by hospitals, such as free HIV clinics, have been funded since 2005 by a lump sum covering all costs. The allocation of the budget was initially determined based on historical and declarative data. However, the French Ministry of Health (MoH) recently outlined new rules for determining the allocation of financial resources and contracting hospitals for each type of services of general interest provided. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual cost of a public free anonymous HIV-testing center and to assess the budgetary implications of new financing systems. Three financing options were compared: the historic block grant; a mixed system recommended by the MoH associating a lump sum covering the recurring costs of an average center and a variable part based on the type and volume of services provided; and a fee-for-services system. For the purposes of this retrospective study, the costs and activity data of the HIV testing clinic of a public hospital located in the North of Paris were obtained for 2007. The costs were analyzed from the perspective of the hospital. The total cost was estimated at 555,698 euros. Personnel costs accounted for 31% of the total costs, while laboratory expenses accounted for 36% of the total costs. While the estimated deficit was 292,553 euros under the historic system, the financial balance of the clinic was found to be positive under a fee-for-services system. The budget allocated to the HIV clinic under the system recommended by the MoH covers most of the current expenses of the HIV clinic while meeting the requirements of free confidential care.

  2. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are...

  3. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well developed, and have good...

  4. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well developed, and have good...

  5. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are...

  6. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  7. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  8. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  10. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  12. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  13. Alcohol and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Ruth; And Others

    Prepared in response to a request from members of the United Methodist Church, this guide can be used with high school students generally, if the theological orientation is recognized. The guide provides opportunities, in four lesson outlines, to share experiences concerning alcohol use, to present information regarding the effect of alcohol on…

  14. [Alcohol and working].

    PubMed

    Mangili, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on both health and productivity, alcohol misuse is a serious concern in the workplace. Some occupations (e.g. employees of the catering and hotel trade, seamen, sales representatives, brewers and distillers, journalists, physicians, lawyers) are associated with a high rate of alcohol abuse. Alcohol intake can modify worker's behaviour (impaired judgement and vigilance, dulled reflexes) causing reduced performance, mistakes during operating procedures, accidents and injuries. Moreover it can affect the toxicokinetic and toxicodinamic properties of several substances in the workplace, inducing a more complex evaluation of exposure assessment and diagnostic procedures of occupational diseases. The occupational physician, during health surveillance program, can face several alcohol related issues. These entail diagnostic evaluation of alcoholism, job fitness evaluation, in heavy drinkers, advise of rehabilitation and health promotion program.

  15. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  16. Alcohol and sex.

    PubMed

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  17. AAS Nova and Astrobites: Making current astronomy research accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2016-10-01

    AAS Nova and Astrobites are two resources available for astronomers, astronomy students, and astronomy enthusiasts to keep up with some of the most recent research published across the field of astronomy. Both supported by the AAS, these two daily astrophysical literature blogs provide accessible summaries of recent publications on the arXiv and in AAS journals. We present the goals, content, and readership of AAS Nova and Astrobites, and discuss how they might be used as tools in the undergraduate classroom.

  18. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the 72-kilodalton dehydrogenase subunit of alcohol dehydrogenase from Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Sunagawa, M; Mori, A; Imai, C; Fukuda, M; Takagi, M; Yano, K

    1989-06-01

    A genomic library of Acetobacter aceti DNA was constructed by using a broad-host-range cosmid vector. Complementation of a spontaneous alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient mutant resulted in the isolation of a plasmid designated pAA701. Subcloning and deletion analysis of pAA701 limited the region that complemented the deficiency in alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant. The nucleotide sequence of this region was determined and showed that this region contained the full structural gene for the 72-kilodalton dehydrogenase subunit of the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme complex. The predicted amino acid sequence of the gene showed homology with sequences of methanol dehydrogenase structural genes of Paracoccus denitrificans and Methylobacterium organophilum.

  19. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA. 51.596 Section 51.596 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of...

  20. Clinician Suspicion of an Alcohol Problem: An Observational Study From the AAFP National Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Daniel C.; Turner, Barbara J.; MSED; Manning, Brian K.; Galliher, James M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE In clinical practice, detection of alcohol problems often relies on clinician suspicion instead of using a screening instrument. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of clinician suspicion compared with screening-detected alcohol problems in patients. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 94 primary care clinicians’ office visits. Brief questionnaires were completed separately after a visit by both clinicians and eligible patients. The patient’s anonymous exit questionnaire screened for hazardous drinking based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and for harmful drinking (alcohol abuse or dependence) based on 2 questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. After the visit, clinicians responded to the question, “Does this patient have problems with alcohol?” with answer options including “yes, hazardous drinking” and “yes, alcohol abuse or dependence.” Analyses assessed the associations between patients’ responses to screening questions and clinician’s suspicions. RESULTS Of 2,518 patients with an office visit, 2,173 were eligible, and 1,699 (78%) completed the exit questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (10.1%) patients had a positive screening test for hazardous drinking (an AUDIT-C score of 5 or greater) and 64 (3.8%) for harmful drinking. Clinicians suspected alcohol problems in 81 patients (hazardous drinking in 37, harmful drinking in 40, and both in 4). The sensitivity of clinician suspicion of either hazardous or harmful drinking was 27% and the specificity was 98%. Positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION Clinician suspicion of alcohol problems had poor sensitivity but high specificity for identifying patients who had a positive screening test for alcohol problems. These data support the routine use of a screening tool to supplement clinicians’ suspicions, which already provide reasonable

  1. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  2. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  3. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  4. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  5. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  6. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  7. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  8. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  10. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  11. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  12. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  13. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  14. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40...

  19. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  20. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by γ-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tüdös (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively.