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  1. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...

  2. A sociocultural history of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    PubMed

    Trice, H M; Staudenmeier, W J

    1989-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has not only helped numerous alcoholics, it has also influenced the current generation's view of, and response to, the alcoholic. This chapter describes the emergence of AA and analyzes its successful growth. During the period of reduced alternatives for helping the alcoholic, AA began and soon flourished, helped by favorable publicity, committed members, and AA publications. We argue that its founder, Bill W., played a crucial role as a charismatic leader and that AA found a unique organizational solution to the problem of charismatic succession, a solution that helped AA maintain growth and stability beyond the life of its founder. This chapter also reviews the social response to AA including early research on AA, the generally favorable response to AA, criticism of AA, and the widespread imitation of AA by other problem area groups.

  3. Spirituality and alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Tonigan, J Scott

    2007-04-01

    What can be confidently said about AA in general and about the role of spirituality in AA in particular? First, there is convincing evidence that alcoholism severity predicts later AA attendance. Second, atheists are less likely to attend AA, relative to individuals who already hold spiritual and/or religious beliefs. However, belief in God before AA attendance does not offer any advantage in AA-related benefits, and atheists, once involved, are at no apparent disadvantage in deriving AA-related benefits. Third, the spiritually-based principles of AA appear to be endorsed in AA meetings regardless of the perceived social dynamics or climate of a particular meeting, eg, highly cohesive or aggressive. Fourth, significant increases in spiritual and religious beliefs and practices seem to occur among AA-exposed individuals. Fifth, in spite of much discussion to the contrary there is little evidence that spirituality directly accounts for later abstinence. We are finding, however, that spirituality has an important indirect effect in predicting later drinking reductions. Specifically, in the past 20 years a number of effective methods have been developed to facilitate initial AA attendance (AA dropout is high, with some estimates ranging as high as 80%). Interventions that lead to initial increases in spirituality appear to lead to sustained AA affiliation, which, in turn, produces sustained recovery over time.

  4. Are the Twelve Steps more acceptable to drug users than to drinkers? A comparison of experiences of and attitudes to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among 200 substance misusers attending inpatient detoxification.

    PubMed

    Best, D W; Harris, J C; Gossop, M; Manning, V C; Man, L H; Marshall, J; Bearn, J; Strang, J

    2001-07-01

    The present study is a cross-sectional interview-based investigation comparing experiences of and attitudes towards Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) in a sample of 200 patients attending inpatient substance misuse detoxification services. Two hundred consecutive admissions were recruited; 100 each from one drug and one alcohol in-patient treatment service in which attendance at AA/NA was a voluntary adjunct to a generic treatment programme. Although there were no differences in the history of AA/NA attendance, the drug users (who were on average younger) reported significantly more positive attitudes towards AA/NA, more willingness to attend during their in-patient treatment and greater intention to attend following completion of their detoxification. In particular, despite no differences in spiritual/religious orientation, the drug users reported more positive views of the Twelve Steps. As AA/NA remain popular and accessible forms of substance misuse support, it is critical that we develop a clearer understanding of their impact and of the scope for their integration with generic forms of substance misuse treatment.

  5. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    PubMed

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery.

  6. Alcoholics Anonymous and nursing. Lessons in holism and spiritual care.

    PubMed

    McGee, E M

    2000-03-01

    Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) is a worldwide, million-member organization that has assisted countless alcoholics to achieve sobriety through a spiritual program of recovery from alcoholism. Based on spiritual principles known as the "Twelve Steps" and "Twelve Traditions," AA has provided a model for other recovery programs such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Gamblers Anonymous (GA), and Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous (SLAA). Recovery in AA appears to involve a process of self-transcendence. In recent years, nursing scholars have increasingly explored the concepts of self-transcendence and spirituality as they apply to nursing theory and practice. This article explores the roots and spiritual dimensions of 12-step recovery programs. It further explores the ways in which theoretical and clinical knowledge about the delivery of spiritual care interventions may be gained from an understanding of AA's spiritual approach to recovery.

  7. De profundis: spiritual transformations in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    PubMed

    Forcehimes, Alyssa A

    2004-05-01

    The mechanism of change in Alcoholics Anonymous is described as "spiritual transformation." A.A. acknowledges that such transformation can occur gradually; however, nearly all of the examples presented in the Big Book of A.A. involve discrete and sudden experiences that resemble the phenomenon of quantum change. The sequence offered describes how spiritual transformations transpire. The sequence begins with hitting bottom, recognition of inability to control the problem. A feeling of contrition follows, describing not only sorrow for the present state, but also desire for a new way. The final step is the act of surrendering one's will to a higher power. The de profundis sequence sets the process of spiritual transformation in motion, offering stabilization to sobriety.

  8. Measuring treatment process variables in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    PubMed

    Allen, J P

    2000-04-01

    Alcoholism treatment research has traditionally focused on direct questions of efficacy, such as is a particular intervention better than no treatment or is one treatment more effective than another. Recent projects, however, have also attempted to identify variables explaining why treatments vary in their effects. Many of these variables relate to the process of treatment itself or changes that may occur within the patients. Clinicians also need to continuously monitor progress of patients in engaging in behaviors supportive of long-term sobriety and how well the values and behaviors fostered by the particular treatment regimen are being incorporated into daily life. Measurement of process variables may assist in both regards. In the last decade several psychometric instruments have been developed to elucidate the processes involved in Alcoholic Anonymous (AA), a key adjunct of most formal alcoholism programs in the United States. These instruments measure dimensions such as involvement in AA, completion of steps, and adoption of values encouraged by AA. Six such measures are summarized here and several fruitful topics for future research on the measures are suggested.

  9. Alcoholics Anonymous and 12-step alcoholism treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) self-help groups are the most commonly accessed component of the de facto system of care for alcohol problems in the United States. Further, AA's concepts and approach have strongly influenced a significant number of professional treatment programs. Nevertheless, only a modest number of longitudinal, comparative outcome studies on AA and on professional 12-step treatment programs have been conducted, which has limited both the certainty and scope of conclusions that can be drawn about these interventions. Research indicates that participation in Alcoholics Anonymous and in 12-step treatment are associated with significant reductions in substance abuse and psychiatric problems. Further, such interventions, it has been found, reduce health care costs over time in naturalistic, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies. Evaluation studies have also begun to illuminate the processes through which self-help groups and 12-step treatment programs exert their effects. To build on this knowledge base, future research should (1) be methodologically flexible and well-matched to its phenomenon of interest, (2) include evaluation of the unique features of self-help organizations, (3) increase representation of African-Americans and women in research samples, and (4) increase statistical power through larger sample sizes and more reliable measurement. Key content areas for future enquiry include further longitudinal evaluation of the outcomes of participation in AA and 12-step treatment (particularly in outpatient samples); better specification of the aspects of AA that influence outcome; and individual-, community-, and health organization-level controlled studies of the health care cost consequences of 12-step interventions.

  10. Participation in alcoholics anonymous: intended and unintended change mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Owen, Patricia L; Slaymaker, Valerie; Tonigan, J Scott; McCrady, Barbara S; Epstein, Elizabeth E; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Humphreys, Keith; Miller, William R

    2003-03-01

    This article is a compilation of the information presented at a symposium at the 2001 RSA Meeting in Montreal, Canada. The presentations were: (1) Maintaining change after conjoint behavioral alcohol treatment for men: the role of involvement with Alcoholics Anonymous, by Barbara S. McCrady and Elizabeth E. Epstein; (2) Changing AA practices and outcomes: Project MATCH 3-year follow-up, by J. Scott Tonigan; (3) Life events and patterns of recovery of AA-exposed adults and adolescents, by Patricia L. Owen and Valerie Slaymaker; (4) Social networks and AA involvement as mediators of change, by Lee Ann Kaskutas and Keith Humphreys; and (5) What do we know about Alcoholics Anonymous? by William R. Miller, discussant.

  11. Self-disclosure. Reconciling psychoanalytic psychotherapy and alcoholics anonymous philosophy.

    PubMed

    Mallow, A J

    1998-01-01

    Therapists working in the addictions field and practicing from a psychoanalytic psychodynamic framework are often confronted with the patient's need to know, the demand for therapist self-disclosure. Consistent with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) principles, many patients state that they cannot be helped unless the therapist is revealing of their personal background. This paper discusses the theoretical roots of therapist self-disclosure and the AA philosophy and offers suggestions for how the two might be reconciled.

  12. What Do Adolescents Exposed to Alcoholic Anonymous Think about 12-Step Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Rodolico, John

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Referral to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is a common continuing care recommendation. Evidence suggests some youth benefit, yet, despite referrals, youth participation is low. Little is known about adolescents' experiences of AA/NA. Greater knowledge would inform and help tailor aftercare recommendations.…

  13. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  14. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  15. A Psychological Rationale in Support of the Alcoholics Anonymous' Concept of Fellowship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    This article creates a strong theoretical rationale in support of the concept of fellowship, the cornerstone healing influence of Alcoholic Anonymous (AA). It reviews the literature which supports the Alcoholic Anonymous' concept of fellowship or client perceived belongingness. It provides a strong rationale for the establishment of new…

  16. Social Network Variables in Alcoholics Anonymous: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Groh, D.R.; Jason, L.A.; Keys, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA’s impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  17. Predictors of Membership in Alcoholics Anonymous in a Sample of Successfully Remitted Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Perron, Brian E.; Cranford, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies factors associated with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership in a sample of 81 persons who have achieved at least one year of total abstinence from drugs and alcohol. Forty-four were AA members, 37 were not. Logistic regression was used to test the cross-sectional associations of baseline demographic, substance-related, spiritual and religious, and personality variables with AA membership. Significant variables from the bivariate analyses were included in a multivariate model controlling for previous AA involvement. Having more positive views of God and more negative consequences of drinking were significantly associated with AA membership. This information can be used by clinicians to identify clients for whom AA might be a good fit, and can help others overcome obstacles to AA or explore alternative forms of abstinence support. PMID:21615004

  18. Applying the nursing theory of human relatedness to alcoholism and recovery in alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.

  19. A Psychological Rationale in Support of the Alcoholics Anonymous' Concept of Fellowship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    1992-01-01

    Develops a theoretical rationale in support of the concept of "fellowship," the healing cornerstone of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Reviews supporting literature from the areas of personality theory, group psychotherapy, alcoholism psychopathology, and alcoholism psychological treatment. Suggests a common premise and common ground of…

  20. Evaluating alcoholics anonymous sponsor attributes using conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Edward B; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-12-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) considers sponsorship an important element of the AA program, especially in early recovery. 225 adult individuals who had experience as either a sponsor, sponsee, or both, participated in a hypothetical sponsor ranking exercise where five attributes were varied across three levels. Conjoint analysis was used to compute part-worth utility of the attributes and their levels for experience, knowledge, availability, confidentiality, and goal-setting. Differences in utilities by attribute were found where confidentiality had the greatest overall possible impact on utility and sponsor knowledge had the least. These findings suggest qualitative differences in sponsors may impact their effectiveness. Future research on AA should continue to investigate sponsor influence on an individual's overall recovery trajectory.

  1. Do Drug-Dependent Patients Attending Alcoholics Anonymous Rather than Narcotics Anonymous Do As Well? A Prospective, Lagged, Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Greene, M. Claire; Bergman, Brandon G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most prevalent 12-step mutual-help organization (MHO), yet debate has persisted clinically regarding whether patients whose primary substance is not alcohol should be referred to AA. Narcotics Anonymous (NA) was created as a more specific fit to enhance recovery from drug addiction; however, compared with AA, NA meetings are not as ubiquitous. Little is known about the effects of a mismatch between individuals' primary substance and MHOs, and whether any incongruence might result in a lower likelihood of continuation and benefit. More research would inform clinical recommendations. Method: Young adults (N = 279, M age 20.4, SD 1.6, 27% female; 95% White) in a treatment effectiveness study completed assessments at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. A matching variable was created for ‘primary drug’ patients (i.e. those reporting cannabis, opiates or stimulants as primary substance; n = 198/279), reflecting the proportion of total 12-step meetings attended that were AA. Hierarchical linear models (HLMs) tested this variable's effects on future 12-step participation and percent days abstinent (PDA). Results: The majority of meetings attended by both alcohol and drug patients was AA. Drug patients attending proportionately more AA than NA meetings (i.e. mismatched) were no different than those who were better matched to NA with respect to future 12-step participation or PDA. Conclusion: Drug patients may be at no greater risk of discontinuation or diminished recovery benefit from participation in AA relative to NA. Findings may boost clinical confidence in making AA referrals for drug patients when NA is less available. PMID:25294352

  2. Abstinence and well-being among members of Alcoholics Anonymous: personal experience and social perceptions.

    PubMed

    Kairouz, S; Dubé, L

    2000-10-01

    The authors examined the subjective experience of well-being (WB) among abstinent Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members and social perceptions of an abstinent alcoholic's WB among 3 nonalcoholic French-Canadian samples: male police officers, Catholic nuns, and university women. The short-term abstinent AA members, along with the university women, reported the lowest self-ratings of WB, whereas the Catholic nuns reported the highest. However, among the abstinent AA members, the level of WB was positively related to the length of abstention. The 3 nonalcoholic groups evaluated an abstinent AA member more positively than a nonabstinent alcoholic. These evaluations of an abstinent AA member converged with the AA members' self-evaluations on the measure of WB.

  3. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  4. Alcoholics anonymous involvement and positive alcohol-related outcomes: cause, consequence, or just a correlate? A prospective 2-year study of 2,319 alcohol-dependent men.

    PubMed

    McKellar, John; Stewart, Eric; Humphreys, Keith

    2003-04-01

    A positive corelation between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and better alcohol-related outcomes has been identified in research studies, but whether this correlation reflects a causal relationship remains a subject of meaningful debate. The present study evaluated the question of whether AA affiliation appears causally related to positive alcohol-related outcomes in a sample of 2,319 male alcohol-dependent patients. An initial structural equation model indicated that 1-year posttreatment levels of AA affiliation predicted lower alcohol-related problems at 2-year follow-up, whereas level of alcohol-related problems at 1-year did not predict AA affiliation at 2-year follow-up. Additional models found that these effects were not attributable to motivation or psychopathology. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AA participation has a positive effect on alcohol-related outcomes.

  5. Gender and Extroversion as Moderators of the Association Between Alcoholics Anonymous and Sobriety

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Brower, Kirk J.; Cranford, James A.; Bradley, Jaclyn Christine; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although women make up one third of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership, research on gender and AA has been limited. Findings in the literature are mixed, with few empirical investigations of factors that may moderate any gender differences found. AA is highly interpersonal, and research has found that women are more extroverted than men. The current study explores the impact of AA on sobriety, gender differences in the relationship between AA and sobriety, and whether extroversion can inform our understanding of gender differences. Method: A sample of 276 alcohol-dependent adults (180 men, 96 women) was recruited from four sites and followed prospectively for 2.5–3 years. Participants completed the Timeline Followback interview. AA member ship was assessed by an item from the Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether gender, extroversion, AA membership, and their interaction would predict sobriety status at follow-up. Results: AA membership significantly increased the odds of achieving a year of sobriety, and this relationship was stronger for women than men (odds ratio [OR] = 4.42, 95% CI [1.14, 17.18]). There were no main or interactive effects of extroversion on sobriety. Conclusions: AA was founded by men, and early in its history it was exclusively attended by men. Some have criticized AA for women because of its emphasis on “powerless-ness.” Despite its historical beginnings and such debate, this study joins others in finding evidence that women fare better in AA than do men. In this sample, extroversion did not moderate the association between gender and sobriety. Further research is needed on gender differences in AA and its explanatory factors. PMID:22152661

  6. The Impact of Alcoholics Anonymous on other substance abuse related Twelve Step programs

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the 12-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery 12-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addicted to alcohol. Future directions in 12-step research are noted in closing. PMID:19115764

  7. Lifetime Alcoholics Anonymous attendance as a predictor of spiritual gains in the Relapse Replication and Extension Project (RREP).

    PubMed

    Tonigan, J Scott; McCallion, Elizabeth A; Frohe, Tessa; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the association between extent of lifetime attendance in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and spiritual gains among treatment seeking adults for alcohol use disorder. Participants included 246 individuals from 2 of the 3 sites in the Relapse Replication and Extension Project (Lowman, Allen, Stout, & The Relapse Research Group, 1996). Baseline characteristics included 63% male, 39.9% single, and the average age was 34 years (SD = 8.2). The Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement questionnaire (Tonigan, Connors, & Miller, 1996) was used to assess lifetime AA attendance. The Religious Beliefs & Behaviors Questionnaire (Connors, Tonigan, & Miller, 1996) was used to assess spirituality. Percent days abstinent (PDA) and drinks per drinking day (DPDD) were measured using the Form 90. At baseline, adults with more extensive AA histories were more severely alcohol impaired although they were no older relative to adults with less past AA exposure. Clear patterns of AA engagement were found between the high-low AA history groups over follow-up, with adults with less AA experience reporting less AA participation across a swath of AA-specific measures. Gains in spiritual practices significantly mediated AA-related benefit as measured by PDA and DPDD. Tests for moderated-mediation indicated that the magnitude of the mediational effect of spiritual gains did not differ between high-low AA history groups. Having an extensive AA history did not advantage (or disadvantage) adults in mobilizing future spiritual practices that are prescribed in AA. Clinical assessment of client AA history is important, however, because it predicts both the nature and extent that clients may participate in AA. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Alcoholics Anonymous-Related Helping and the Helper Therapy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helper’s health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry. PMID:23525280

  9. Female and male life stories published in the Finnish Alcoholics Anonymous journal.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, I; Mäkelä, K

    1994-03-01

    To study differences in how women and men describe their drinking problems, key expressions were recorded in 50 female and 50 male stories published in the Finnish A.A. (Alcoholics Anonymous) journal. Men show more interest in the past and try to understand their lives in causal terms. Women focus on the present and on experiences in A.A. Men more frequently mention narcotics and alcohol substitutes; medical drugs are more common in female stories. Men's stories more frequently contain social deviance. Women pay more attention to social relationships. The phrase Higher Power is used with equal frequency, but women more commonly use the word God. Women express more positive emotions. Registers of negative emotions differ. The drinking man is threatened by feelings of inferiority; the drinking woman by shame and guilt.

  10. A pilot study: locus of control and spiritual beliefs in alcoholics anonymous and smart recovery members.

    PubMed

    Li, E C; Feifer, C; Strohm, M

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether Alcoholics Anonymous' (AA's) "higher power" concept encourages externally dependent behavior, this pilot study tested whether AA and Self Management and Recovery Training (SR) members are equal on measures of external locus of control. The AA sample (N = 48) and SR sample (N = 33) were similar in age, gender, and education levels, and both required a minimum of 8 weeks group involvement. A modified spiritual beliefs questionnaire (SBQ) was first administered to each sample to compare them on spiritual beliefs, and the drinking-related locus of control scale (DRIE) was then conducted to compare each sample on locus of control. Significant differences were found between both samples on five out of seven spiritual measures, with the AA group scoring consistently higher on these factors (p < .01). In addition, the AA sample was significantly more external on the DRIE scale than the SR sample (p = .00003). These findings suggest that AA members are generally more spiritually oriented and exhibit greater external locus of control relative to SR members. Future controlled trials are necessary to confirm whether these results are caused by particular programs or primarily due to a self-selective process.

  11. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  12. Evaluation of medical student attitudes toward alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Fazzio, Lydia; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Levounis, Petros

    2003-09-01

    This is a two-phase study on attitudes of medical students toward Alcoholics Anonymous. The first phase compares views of addiction faculty to third-year medical students on the importance of spirituality in addiction treatment. We administered a questionnaire to assess attitudes toward spiritual, biological, and psychosocial approaches to addiction treatment. The faculty viewed spirituality as relatively more important in addiction treatment than did the students. The second phase was designed to assess whether medical student attitudes toward spiritually based treatments changed over the course of a psychiatry clerkship. At the beginning of the clerkship, students rated a spiritually oriented approach as important in addiction treatment as a biological approach, whereas, at the end of the clerkship, they rated the biological approach as more important. It may be important to educate medical students about the spiritual dimensions of recovery so they can integrate this into their treatment of addiction.

  13. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  14. Humility and 12-Step Recovery: A Prolegomenon for the Empirical Investigation of a Cardinal Virtue in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    PubMed

    Post, Stephen G; Pagano, Maria E; Lee, Matthew T; Johnson, Byron R

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors' intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility. Finally, the coauthors have reviewed in brief some approaches to the measurement of humility in this context, and suggest several aims for future research.

  15. Humility and 12-Step Recovery: A Prolegomenon for the Empirical Investigation of a Cardinal Virtue in Alcoholics Anonymous

    PubMed Central

    Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors’ intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility. Finally, the coauthors have reviewed in brief some approaches to the measurement of humility in this context, and suggest several aims for future research. PMID:27429509

  16. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcoholic fathers’ treatment involvement and their children’s externalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcoholic fathers’ 12-step treatment involvement and their children’s internalizing and externalizing problems (N=125, Mage=9.8±3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers’ greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior, and that this effect would be mediated by fathers’ post-treatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers’ treatment involvement and children’s externalizing problems only, while structural equation (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers’ greater treatment involvement predicted children’s lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers’ post-treatment behaviors mediated this association: greater treatment involvement predicted greater post-treatment Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers’ abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18715745

  17. A historical review of perceptions of key aspects of spirituality and religion within alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Janice Cooke

    2013-01-01

    This historical research aimed to develop an accurate perception of the role of spirituality and religion within the history of Alcoholics Anonymous. Primary and secondary sources were reviewed. The study identified that Bill W. and Dr. Bob established the format for the support group based on the ideas of William James, which formed the base for the Oxford Groups. Alcoholics Anonymous was clearly viewed as a spiritual group and not a religion. The review also showed that the two founders had each experienced one of the two types of spiritual awakenings that James had addressed. These findings will help nurses clarify their own perceptions of this organization so they may accurately educate individuals who they are encouraging to participate in this program while recovering from an addiction.

  18. Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... combination with counseling. Mutual-Support Groups Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other 12-step programs provide peer support ... 800–662–HELP Mutual-support groups Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) www.aa.org 212–870–3400 or check ...

  19. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Effects of Long-Term AA Attendance and Spirituality on the Course of Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n=253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains, [Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire (RBB)] and completion of 12-step work [(Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory (AAI)]. Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−3.40, p= 0.01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−0.10, p=0.02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In sum, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. PMID:26076099

  1. An Exploratory Investigation of Important Qualities and Characteristics of Alcoholics Anonymous Sponsors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Edward B; Jason, Leonard A

    Alcoholics Anonymous recommends members to have sponsors, especially those early in their recovery, yet little research has been done on the qualities of an effective sponsor. 245 adults (117 females, 128 males) currently in substance use disorder recovery participated. 231 of these individuals had experience as a sponsor, sponsee or both (109 had experience as a sponsor). Qualitative results suggest effective sponsors are currently engaged in the program on a personal level, are trustworthy, and are available although a wide variety of attributes were cited. In a choice and ranking exercise, 12- step engagement and qualities of character were also most often ranked highly. No significant differences were found between genders or sponsor/sponsee roles. Implications based on breadth of responses and dominant themes are discussed as well as the need for further research on sponsor/sponsee characteristics, satisfaction, and recovery outcomes.

  2. Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse or alcoholism: Al–Anon Family Group Headquarters Internet address: www.al–anon.alateen.org Makes referrals ... Anonymous (AA) World Services Phone: (212) 870–3400 Internet address: www.aa.org Makes referrals to local ...

  3. The Impact of Counselor Recovery Status Similarity on Perceptions of Attractiveness with Members of Alcoholics Anonymous: An Exception to the Repulsion Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priester, Paul E.; Azen, Razia; Speight, Suzette; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of counselor alcoholism recovery status on perceptions of recovering alcoholics who are active members of Alcoholics Anonymous. The participants (n = 116) were given a description of an analogue counselor and rated this counselor using the "Counselor Rating Form-Short." There were three forms of the analogue…

  4. Alcoholics Anonymous Attendance, Aftercare, and Outcome: A Secondary Analysis of Two Years Posthospitalization Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    dependency treatment, they are encouraged to attend both aftercare and AA meetings.’ 6 This study attempted to look at the relationships between the subjects...Moos, and Mewborn, 1980; PettInati, et al., 1982; and Ornstein and Cherepon, 1985). In contrast to the above, this study looks at aftercare and AA...questions of this study look at the relationship between aftercare and AA attendance, and whether, as test variables, they correlated with selected outcome

  5. An Existential Approach: An Alternative to the AA Model of Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria A.; Cobia, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most widely used organization for the treatment of alcoholism. AA's philosophy has changed how many people view themselves and their substance use. The majority of substance abuse programs in the United States use the 12 steps, either by making them the basis of their treatment program, or by introducing AA to…

  6. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcohol-dependent fathers' treatment involvement and their children's externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcohol-dependent fathers' 12-step treatment involvement and their children's internalizing and externalizing problems (N = 125, M(age) = 9.8 +/- 3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers' greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior and that this effect would be mediated by fathers' posttreatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers' treatment involvement and children's externalizing problems only, whereas Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers' greater treatment involvement predicted children's lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers' posttreatment behaviors mediated this association: Greater treatment involvement predicted greater posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers' abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. THE TWELVE PROMISES OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS: PSYCHOMETRIC MEASURE VALIDATION AND MEDIATIONAL TESTING AS A 12-STEP SPECIFIC MECHANISM OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Greene, M. Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical support for the recovery utility of 12-step mutual-help organizations (MHOs) has led to increased investigation of how such organizations confer benefit. The Twelve Promises of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) feature prominently in 12-step philosophy and culture and are one of the few documented explications of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral benefits that members might accrue. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a measure of AA’s Twelve Promises and examined whether it mediated the effect of 12-step participation on abstinence. Method Young adults (N=302, M age 20.4 [1.6], range 18–25; 27% female; 95% White) enrolled in an addiction treatment effectiveness study completed assessments at intake and 3-, 6-, and 12-months post treatment including a 26-item, Twelve Promises Scale (TPS). Factor analyses examined the TPS’ psychometrics and lagged mediational analyses tested the TPS as a mechanism of behavior change. Results Robust principal axis factoring extraction with Varimax rotation revealed a 2-factor solution explaining 45–58% of the variance across three administrations (“Psychological Wellbeing” = 26–39%; “Freedom from Craving=17–21%); internal consistency was high (alpha = .83–.93). Both factors were found to increase in relation to greater 12-step participation, but significant mediation was found only for the Freedom from Craving factor explaining 21–34% of the effect of 12-step participation in increasing abstinence. Conclusions The TPS shows potential as a conceptually relevant, and psychometrically sound measure and may be useful in helping elucidate the extent to which the Twelve Promises emerge as an independent benefit of 12-step participation and/or explain SUD remission and recovery. PMID:24004905

  8. Enhanced morphine- and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in alcohol-preferring AA rats.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, A; Mikkola, J; Korpi, E R; Hyytiä, P; Seppälä, T; Ahtee, L

    1999-03-01

    Locomotor stimulation and behavioral sensitization induced by acute and repeated treatment with alcohol, cocaine or morphine were studied in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol), alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) rats and non-selected Wistar rats. Daily treatment with alcohol (ethanol, 0.4 or 1.0 g/kg, IP) for 6 days had no effect on locomotor activity either in the AA or ANA rats. Acute cocaine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, IP) produced a locomotor stimulation in the animals of all lines studied, and there was no difference in this effect between the AA and ANA rats. During a 4-day repeated cocaine treatment, the AA rats became sensitized with the 10 mg/kg dose, while the ANA rats did not show any sensitization with this dose. With the 20 mg/kg cocaine dose, in addition to locomotor stimulation, the rats of all lines studied showed stereotyped behavior, which response was enhanced during repeated treatment. Morphine-induced locomotor stimulation was larger in the AA rats than in the ANA or Wistar rats both with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg doses and only the AA rats were sensitized during 4-day treatment with the 1 mg/kg dose. With the 3.0 mg/kg morphine dose, only the AA rats showed a weak sensitization evident only during the initial 30 min after morphine injection. As the drug-induced behavioral sensitization is an important factor in the development of drug addiction, it is possible that mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility of the AA rats to morphine- and cocaine-induced sensitization contribute to the high intake of alcohol and other abused drugs by these animals.

  9. Spirituality: The Key to Recovery from Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Robert D.; Goldstein, Marc B.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that a condition of "negative spirituality" underlies and sustains alcoholism and perhaps all addictions. Argues that a secure recovery is not possible unless a "spiritual awakening," such as envisioned by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), is achieved. A broadly applicable conceptual model of spirituality is inferred from the…

  10. Alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) lines of rats after introgression of alien genes.

    PubMed

    Hyytiä, P; Halkka, O; Sarviharju, M; Eriksson, K

    1987-01-01

    Outcrossing has been used as a method for introducing new genetic variability into the high-drinking AA and low-drinking ANA rat lines that had reached their selection limits and were suffering of poor fertility and decreased litter size. The response to the renewed selection for differential alcohol consumption, and the effect of outcrossing upon the components of productivity are reported.

  11. Reframing Spirituality: AA, the 12 Steps, and the Mental Health Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys literature and explores ways to understand spirituality in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Topics explored range from Jungian and Jamesian psychology, to Stoicism, the work of Bateson, and transpersonal psychology and therapy. Speculates that difficulty some mental health counselors have in accepting AA as therapy could be a result of…

  12. Against anonymity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile.

  13. Associations of corticosterone and testosterone with alcohol drinking in F2 populations derived from AA and ANA rat lines.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, Tiina J; Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Eriksson, C J Peter

    2011-08-01

    In our previous studies on alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) and nonpreferring ANA (Alko nonalcohol) rats, we have observed that the AA rats exhibit lower endogenous levels of corticosterone, higher testosterone levels, and more frequent alcohol-induced testosterone elevations when compared with ANA rats. The objective of the present study was to get more conclusive evidence for the potential role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes in alcohol drinking by using the F2 experimental design. Alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-nonpreferring ANA rat lines were crossbred to form a F1 population from which the final F2 population was derived. Male animals were challenged with a priming alcohol dose after which a 3 weeks' voluntary alcohol drinking period took place. After a washout period of 1 week, one-half of the 40 highest and 40 lowest alcohol drinkers were challenged with a second dose of alcohol and the other half with saline. Serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were measured before and during the test. Higher endogenous testosterone levels were detected in the rats of the high alcohol consumption group compared with the low consumption group. Also supporting the original AA/ANA line differences, a trend for lower endogenous corticosterone levels were measured in the high alcohol consumption group compared with the low consumption group. The alcohol challenge test after the drinking period resulted in a higher frequency (38%) of testosterone elevations in the high drinkers compared with the low drinkers (5%). The present data confirms the validity of the positive connections between testosterone elevation and increased alcohol drinking, as well as between testosterone reduction and decreased alcohol drinking, in AA and ANA rats.

  14. Innate BDNF expression is associated with ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Raivio, Noora; Miettinen, Pekka; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2014-09-04

    We have shown recently that acute administration of ethanol modulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in several rat brain areas known to be involved in the development of addiction to ethanol and other drugs of abuse, suggesting that BDNF may be a factor contributing to the neuroadaptive changes set in motion by ethanol exposure. The purpose of the present study was to further clarify the role of BDNF in reinforcement from ethanol and in the development of addiction to ethanol by specifying the effect of acute administration of ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) on the expression profile of BDNF mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the terminal areas of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the brain of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats, selected for high and low voluntary ethanol intake, respectively. The level of BDNF mRNA expression was higher in the amygdala and ventral tegmental area of AA than in those of ANA rats, and there was a trend for a higher level in the nucleus accumbens. In the amygdala and hippocampus, a biphasic change in the BDNF mRNA levels was detected: the levels were decreased at 3 and 6h but increased above the basal levels at 24h. Furthermore, there was a difference between the AA and ANA lines in the effect of ethanol, the ANA rats showing an increase in BDNF mRNA levels while such a change was not seen in AA rats. These findings suggest that the innate levels of BDNF expression may play a role in the mediation of the reinforcing effects of ethanol and in the control of ethanol intake.

  15. Accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity and conditioned place preference in alcohol-preferring AA rats and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats treated repeatedly with cocaine.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Kristiina; Petteri Piepponen, T; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2007-07-30

    Transcription factor DeltaFosB has been implicated in the psychomotor responses and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we compared the effects of cocaine on the expression of DeltaFosB-like proteins by immunohistochemistry in striatal brain areas of alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats. Cocaine was administered using a previously verified treatment paradigm that sensitized the locomotor response to cocaine in AA but not in ANA rats. We also studied the rewarding effects of cocaine with a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in both lines of rats. Cocaine treatment increased the FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats but not in ANA rats. In addition, after repeated saline injections the accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB IR was significantly greater in saline-injected AA rats than in ANA rats. In the caudate-putamen cocaine significantly increased FosB/DeltaFosB IR, but no differences were found between the rats of two lines. In the CPP experiment, AA rats treated with cocaine 2.5 mg/kg preferred the cocaine-associated compartment, in contrast to ANA rats, which did not show such a preference. In conclusion, our findings show that AA rats are more sensitive to cocaine than ANA rats, and suggest that one possible mediator for this increased sensitivity could be the increased expression of fosB-derived proteins in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats.

  16. Dopaminergic modulation of reward-guided decision making in alcohol-preferring AA rats.

    PubMed

    Oinio, Ville; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Petteri; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2017-03-06

    R**esults from animal gambling models have highlighted the importance of dopaminergic neurotransmission in modulating decision making when large sucrose rewards are combined with uncertainty. The majority of these models use food restriction as a tool to motivate animals to accomplish operant behavioral tasks, in which sucrose is used as a reward. As enhanced motivation to obtain sucrose due to hunger may impact its reward-seeking effect, we wanted to examine the decision-making behavior of rats in a situation where rats were fed ad libitum. For this purpose, we chose alcohol-preferring AA (alko alcohol) rats, as these rats have been shown to have high preference for sweet agents. In the present study, AA rats were trained to self-administer sucrose pellet rewards in a two-lever choice task (one pellet vs. three pellets). Once rational choice behavior had been established, the probability of gaining three pellets was decreased over time (50%, 33%, 25% then 20%). The effect of d-amphetamine on decision making was studied at every probability level, as well as the effect of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-81297 and D2 agonist quinpirole at probability levels of 100% and 25%. d-Amphetamine increased unprofitable choices in a dose-dependent manner at the two lowest probability levels. Quinpirole increased the frequency of unprofitable decisions at the 25% probability level, and SKF-82197 did not affect choice behavior. These results mirror the findings of probabilistic discounting studies using food-restricted rats. Based on this, the use of AA rats provides a new approach for studies on reward-guided decision making.

  17. Quasi-Anonymous Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    QUASI- ANONYMOUS CHANNELS Ira S. Moskowitz Center for High Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC...Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA Abstract Although both anonymity and covert...channels are part of the larger topic of information hiding, there also exists an intrinsic linkage between anonymity and covert channels. This linkage

  18. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  19. Anonymous Atomic Transactions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    We show here an example of a protocol that satisfies anonymity properties while providing strong ACID (atomic, consistent, isolated, durable...transactional properties, resolving an open question. Blinded signatures are used to certify an anonymous asymmetric key which authorizes the use of a...key is spent. We show here an example of a protocol that satisfies anonymity properties while providing strong ACID (atomic, consistent, isolated

  20. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag. Proxies for Anonymous Routing, 12th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference...San Diego, CA, December 9-13, 1996. Proxies for Anonymous Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory...implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both

  1. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  2. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, Dmitri; Kilin, Sergei

    2011-02-01

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  3. Assessing Youth Participation in AA-Related Helping: Validity of the Service to Others in Sobriety (SOS) Questionnaire in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Maria E.; Kelly, John F.; Scur, Michael D.; Ionescu, Rebecca A.; Stout, Robert N.; Post, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    The positive outcomes derived from participation in Alcoholics Anonymous-related helping (AAH) found among adults has spurred study of AAH among minors with addiction. AAH includes acts of good citizenship in AA, formal service positions, public outreach, and transmitting personal experience to another fellow sufferer. Addiction research with…

  4. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  5. A novel application of propensity score matching to estimate Alcoholics Anonymous’ effect on drinking outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Magura, Stephen; McKean, Joseph; Kosten, Scott; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mutual aid, including Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), are notoriously difficult to conduct and correlational studies are problematic to interpret due to potential confounds. Methods A secondary analysis was conducted of Project MATCH, a RCT of alcoholism treatments. Although MATCH did not randomly assign subjects to AA vs. no AA, the 12 Step Facilitation (TSF) condition did result in a higher proportion of subjects attending community AA meetings than in the other two treatment conditions. The key inference is that there exists a latent subgroup in MATCH who attended AA only because its constituents received TSF, not because of the “normal” factors leading to self-selection of AA. A novel application of propensity score matching (PSM) allowed four latent AA-related subgroups to be identified to estimate an unconfounded effect of AA on drinking outcomes. Results The study hypotheses were supported: subjects who consistently attended AA solely due to their exposure to TSF (the “Added AA” subgroup) had better drinking outcomes than equivalent subjects who did not consistently attend AA, but would have so attended, had they been exposed to TSF (the “Potential AA” subgroup); this indicates an AA effect on drinking. Conclusions The analysis presents evidence that consistent AA attendance improves drinking outcomes, independent of “normal” confounding factors that make correlations between AA attendance and outcomes difficult to interpret. PMID:23040721

  6. Spirituality, drugs, and alcohol: a philosophical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Godlaski, Theodore M; Staton-Tindall, Michele

    2013-09-01

    Spirituality has long been associated with recovery from the socially constructed "addictive disease." Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its analogs have enjoyed widespread acceptance as a spiritual approach for achieving recovery. AA or its derivatives are the predominant approaches in treatment programs even though a wide array of evidence-based approaches are now promoted by governmental sources in the United States. This philosophical analysis contrasts the state of science about addictive disorders with the reliance on a spiritual approach that is heavily grounded in Christian theology. We present four problems that need consideration before accepting the applicability of 12-step spiritual practices as the backbone of addiction treatment or recovery.

  7. Enhanced Extracellular Glutamate and Dopamine in the Ventral Pallidum of Alcohol-Preferring AA and Alcohol-Avoiding ANA Rats after Morphine.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Heidi; Nurmi, Harri; Raivio, Noora; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of ventral pallidal opioidergic mechanisms in the control of ethanol intake by studying the effects of acute administration of morphine on the levels of GABA, glutamate, and dopamine in the ventral pallidum. The study was conducted using the alcohol-preferring Alko Alcohol (AA) and alcohol-avoiding Alko Non-Alcohol (ANA) rat lines that have well-documented differences in their voluntary ethanol intake and brain opioidergic systems. Therefore, examination of neurobiological differences between the lines is supposed to help to identify the neuronal mechanisms underlying ethanol intake, since selection pressure is assumed gradually to lead to enrichment of alleles promoting high or low ethanol intake, respectively. The effects of an acute dose of morphine (1 or 10 mg/kg s.c.) on the extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the ventral pallidum were monitored with in vivo microdialysis. The concentrations of GABA and glutamate in the dialyzates were determined with a high performance liquid chromatography system using fluorescent detection, while electrochemical detection was used for dopamine. The levels of glutamate in the rats injected with morphine 1 mg/kg were significantly above the levels found in the controls and in the rats receiving morphine 10 mg/kg. Morphine 10 mg/kg also increased the levels of dopamine. Morphine could not, however, modify the levels of GABA. The rat lines did not differ in any of the effects of morphine. The data suggest that the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems in the ventral pallidum may mediate some effects of morphine. Since there were no differences between the AA and ANA lines, the basic hypothesis underlying the use of the genetic animal model suggests that the effects of morphine detected probably do not underlie the different intake of ethanol by the lines and contribute to the control of ethanol intake in these animals.

  8. Anonymous Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Gambs, Sébastien; Tapp, Alain

    We introduce the first protocol for the anonymous transmission of a quantum state that is information-theoretically secure against an active adversary, without any assumption on the number of corrupt participants. The anonymity of the sender and receiver is perfectly preserved, and the privacy of the quantum state is protected except with exponentially small probability. Even though a single corrupt participant can cause the protocol to abort, the quantum state can only be destroyed with exponentially small probability: if the protocol succeeds, the state is transferred to the receiver and otherwise it remains in the hands of the sender (provided the receiver is honest).

  9. Differences in basal and morphine-induced FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB immunoreactivities in dopaminergic brain regions of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Kaste, Kristiina; Kivinummi, Tanja; Piepponen, T Petteri; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    Besides alcohol, alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats differ also with respect to other abused drugs. To study the molecular basis of these differences, we examined the expression of two transcription factors implicated in addiction, DeltaFosB and pCREB, in brain dopaminergic regions of AA and ANA rats. The effects of morphine and nicotine were studied to relate the behavioral and molecular changes induced by these drugs. Baseline FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens core and pCREB IR in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were elevated in AA rats. Morphine increased DeltaFosB-like IR more readily in the caudate-putamen of AA rats than in ANA rats. In the PFC morphine decreased pCREB IR in AA rats, but increased it in ANA rats. In addition to enhanced locomotor response, the development of place preference to morphine was enhanced in AA rats. The enhanced nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization found in AA compared with ANA rats seems to depend in addition to dopamine and DeltaFosB on other mechanisms. These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity of AA rats to morphine is related to augmented morphine-induced expression of FosB/DeltaFosB and morphine-induced reduction of pCREB levels. Moreover, altered innate expression of FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB in AA rats is likely to affect the sensitivity of these rats to abused drugs.

  10. The twelve-step recovery model of AA: a voluntary mutual help association.

    PubMed

    Borkman, Thomasina

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism treatment has evolved to mean professionalized, scientifically based rehabilitation. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is not a treatment method; it is far better understood as a Twelve-Step Recovery Program within a voluntary self-help/mutual aid organization of self-defined alcoholics. The Twelve-Step Recovery Model is elaborated in three sections, patterned on the AA logo (a triangle within a circle): The triangle's legs represent recovery, service, and unity; the circle represents the reinforcing effect of the three legs upon each other as well as the "technology" of the sharing circle and the fellowship. The first leg of the triangle, recovery, refers to the journey of individuals to abstinence and a new "way of living." The second leg, service, refers to helping other alcoholics which also connects the participants into a fellowship. The third leg, unity, refers to the fellowship of recovering alcoholics, their groups, and organizations. The distinctive AA organizational structure of an inverted pyramid is one in which the members in autonomous local groups direct input to the national service bodies creating a democratic, egalitarian organization maximizing recovery. Analysts describe the AA recovery program as complex, implicitly grounded in sound psychological principles, and more sophisticated than is typically understood. AA provides a nonmedicalized and anonymous "way of living" in the community and should probably be referred to as the Twelve-Step/Twelve Tradition Recovery Model in order to clearly differentiate it from professionally based twelve-step treatments. There are additional self-help/mutual aid groups for alcoholics who prefer philosophies other than AA.

  11. Deniable Anonymous Group Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    Deniable ring authentication. In ’02 CRYPTO, 2002. [48] L. Nguyen and R. Safavi-naini. Dynamic k-times anonymous authentication. In ’05 ACNS , 2005...Cryptography: Theory and Practice. 2005. [56] W. Susilo and Y. Mu. Deniable ring authentication revisited. In ’04 ACNS , 2004. [57] W. Susilo and Y. Mu. Non

  12. Alcohol-adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the six-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for six months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients. PMID:26387049

  13. Covert Channels and Anonymizing Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-30

    Covert Channels and Anonymizing Networks Ira S. Moskowitz Center for High Assurance Computer Systems Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375...ABSTRACT There have long been threads of investigation into covert channels, and threads of investigation into anonymity , but these two closely related...channel capacity and anonymity , and poses more questions than it answers. Even this preliminary work has proven difficult, but in this investigation lies

  14. Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory Abstract Onion Routing...eavesdropping and trac analysis. Onion routing’s anonymous connections are bidirectional and near real- time, and can be used anywhere a socket connection...can be used. Any identifying information must be in the data stream carried over an anonymous connec- tion. An onion is a data structure that is

  15. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. Six-Month Changes in Spirituality and Religiousness in Alcoholics Predict Drinking Outcomes at Nine Months*

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Krentzman, Amy R.; Webb, Jon R.; Brower, Kirk J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although spiritual change is hypothesized to contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence, few studies have used prospective data to investigate this hypothesis. Prior studies have also been limited to treatment-seeking and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) samples. This study included alcohol-dependent individuals, both in treatment and not, to investigate the effect of spiritual and religious (SR) change on subsequent drinking outcomes, independent of AA involvement. Method: Alcoholics (N = 364) were recruited for a panel study from two abstinence-based treatment centers, a moderation drinking program, and untreated individuals from the local community. Quantitative measures of SR change between baseline and 6 months were used to predict 9-month drinking outcomes, controlling for baseline drinking and AA involvement. Results: Significant 6-month changes in 8 of 12 SR measures were found, which included private SR practices, beliefs, daily spiritual experiences, three measures of forgiveness, negative religious coping, and purpose in life. Increases in private SR practices and forgiveness of self were the strongest predictors of improvements in drinking outcomes. Changes in daily spiritual experiences, purpose in life, a general measure of forgiveness, and negative religious coping also predicted favorable drinking outcomes. Conclusions: SR change predicted good drinking outcomes in alcoholics, even when controlling for AA involvement. SR variables, broadly defined, deserve attention in fostering change even among those who do not affiliate with AA or religious institutions. Last, future research should include SR variables, particularly various types of forgiveness, given the strong effects found for forgiveness of self. PMID:21683048

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  20. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  1. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, APRIL 2009 349 Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data...exploited by competitors and attackers. This paper describes a method for anonymizing router config- uration files by removing all information that...networking researchers. Anonymizing configuration files has unusual requirements, including preserving relationships between elements of data, anonymizing

  2. Technology for Anonymity: Names By Other Nyms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayner, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Provides a summary of some of the technical solutions for producing anonymous communication on the Internet and presents an argument that anonymity is as much a part of crime prevention as requiring people to provide their names. Discusses identity theft; the three major techniques that make anonymous cash possible; and anonymizing Internet…

  3. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  5. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  6. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  7. Extension of the LOPLS-AA Force Field for Alcohols, Esters, and Monoolein Bilayers and its Validation by Neutron Scattering Experiments.

    PubMed

    Pluhackova, Kristyna; Morhenn, Humphrey; Lautner, Lisa; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Nemkovski, Kirill S; Unruh, Tobias; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2015-12-10

    The recently presented LOPLS-AA all-atom force field for long hydrocarbon chains, based on the OPLS-AA force field, was extended to alcohols, esters, and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) lipids as a model lipid. Dihedral angles were fitted against high level ab initio calculations, and ester charges were increased to improve their hydration properties. Additionally, the ester Lennard-Jones parameters were readjusted to reproduce experimental liquid bulk properties, densities, and heats of vaporization. This extension enabled the setup of LOPLS-AA parameters for GMO molecules. The properties of the lipid force field were tested for the liquid-crystalline phase of a GMO bilayer. The obtained area per lipid for GMO is in good agreement with experiment. Additionally, the lipid dynamics on the subpicosecond to the nanosecond time scale is in excellent agreement with results from time-of-flight (TOF) quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments on a multilamellar monoolein system, enabling here for the first time the critical evaluation of the short-time dynamics obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation of a membrane system.

  8. k-Times Anonymous Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Isamu; Furukawa, Jun; Sako, Kazue

    We propose an authentication scheme in which users can be authenticated anonymously so long as times that they are authenticated is within an allowable number. The proposed scheme has two features: 1) no one, not even an authority, can identify users who have been authenticated within the allowable number, 2) anyone can trace, without help from the authority, dishonest users who have been authenticated beyond the allowable number by using the records of these authentications. Our scheme can be applied to e-voting, e-cash, electronic coupons, and trial browsing of content. In these applications, our scheme, unlike the previous one, conceals users' participation from protocols and guarantees that they will remain anonymous to everyone.

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  10. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  11. Rational recovery: alternative to AA for addiction?

    PubMed

    Galanter, M; Egelko, S; Edwards, H

    1993-01-01

    Rational Recovery (RR) is a new self-help movement for substance abusers, with a cognitive orientation. It has been suggested as an alternative to Alcoholics Anonymous. This study was designed to examine the nature of RR and its impact on those who join. A national sample of 433 substance-abusing people attending 63 established RR groups was evaluated, using codable self-report questionnaires completed at RR meetings. Members were mostly men with college experience who had previously attended AA. Among recruits who attended their first RR meeting in the last month, 38% were abstinent in the last month. Among members who had joined 3 or more months before, 73% were abstinent in the last month; they had attended an average of 4.1 RR meetings in that month, and carried out exercises at home based on Rational Emotive Therapy. Among those who joined 6 or more months before, 58% reported at least 6 months of abstinence. Among members with a history of heavy cocaine use, the portion reporting abstinence in the last month was not significantly different from those who had never used cocaine. The minority of members who were engaged for 3 months were still drinking, though, and did so on an average of 9.9 days in the last month. RR succeeded in engaging substance abusers and promoting abstinence among many of them while presenting a cognitive orientation that is different from the spiritual one of AA. Its utility in substance abuse treatment warrants further assessment.

  12. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  13. Driving While Intoxicated Among Individuals Initially Untreated for Alcohol Use Disorders: One- and Sixteen-Year Follow-Ups*

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Desai, Akash; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between frequency of driving while intoxicated (DWI) at baseline and obtaining alcohol-related help at follow-up, and between obtaining help and subsequent reductions in DWI. It also examined improvements on personal functioning and life context indices as mediators between obtaining help and reduced occurrences of DWI. Method: A total of 628 individuals who were initially untreated for alcohol use problems completed a baseline inventory; follow-ups were 1, 3, and 16 years later. Results: More extended participation in outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) during Year 1 was associated with a lower likelihood of DWI at the 1-year follow-up. More extended participation in AA through Year 3 was associated with a lower likelihood of DWI at the 16-year follow-up. Improvement on personal functioning and life context indices was associated with reduced risk of subsequent occurrences of DWI. Decreases in drinking-related problems, impulsivity, and drinking to reduce tension mediated associations between more AA participation and reductions in DWI at 1 year. Conclusions: Among initially untreated individuals, sustained mutual help may be associated with a reduced number of occurrences of DWI via fewer drinking consequences and improved psychological functioning and coping. Treatment providers should attend to these concomitants of DWI and consider actively referring individuals to AA to ensure ongoing AA affiliation. PMID:21388590

  14. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA AA-1 Member Conflict Applications...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute [[Page 59406

  15. More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    attempt to compromise his anonymity . How should he take this trust into account when he selects his paths? 2.1. The model To make this question concrete...It also does not take into account the total effect of an adversary’s actions on a user’s anonymity , such as the analysis performed in [24]. The...More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust Aaron Johnson Computer Science Department Yale University New Haven, CT 06520 USA aaron.johnson@yale.edu

  16. Dissent in Numbers: Making Strong Anonymity Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    4] offer convenience but limited security, since one compromised server—or one subpoena—can break a user’s anonymity . Users can create accounts ...CryptoPP cryptography library. The proto- type implements the complete Dissent anonymity proto- col along with the accountability sub-protocols...2008. [20] H. Corrigan-Gibbs and B. Ford. Dissent: accountable anonymous group messaging. In ACM CCS, Oct. 2010. [21] G. Danezis, R. Dingledine, and N

  17. LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    accountability that plagues PAR and XPAY, wherein anonymity inherently de- creases as the ability to detect cheaters improves. Ngan et al. propose a...LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity Rob Jansen Aaron Johnson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory {rob.g.jansen, aaron.m.johnson...prob- lems stemming from a lack of incentives for volunteers to contribute. Insufficient capacity limits scalability and harms the anonymity of its

  18. Protocols using Anonymous Connections: Mobile Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Protocols using Anonymous Connections: Mobile Applications Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag ? Naval Research Laboratory...Abstract. This paper describes security protocols that use anonymous channels as primitive, much in the way that key distribution protocols take...encryption as primitive. This abstraction allows us to focus on high level anonymity goals of these protocols much as abstracting away from encryption clari

  19. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  20. Self-tallying quantum anonymous voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingle; Yu, Chaohua; Gao, Fei; Qi, Haoyu; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2016-08-01

    Anonymous voting is a voting method of hiding the link between a vote and a voter, the context of which ranges from governmental elections to decision making in small groups like councils and companies. In this paper, we propose a quantum anonymous voting protocol assisted by two kinds of entangled quantum states. Particularly, we provide a mechanism of opening and permuting the ordered votes of all the voters in an anonymous manner; any party who is interested in the voting results can acquire a permutation copy and then obtains the voting result through a simple calculation. Unlike all previous quantum works on anonymous voting, our quantum anonymous protocol possesses the properties of privacy, self-tallying, nonreusability, verifiability, and fairness at the same time. In addition, we demonstrate that the entanglement of the quantum states used in our protocol makes an attack from an outside eavesdropper and inside dishonest voters impossible. We also generalize our protocol to execute the task of anonymous multiparty computation, such as anonymous broadcast and anonymous ranking.

  1. The Role of Anonymity in Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lan

    2017-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the impact of anonymity and training (an alternative strategy when anonymity was unattainable) on students' performance and perceptions in formative peer assessment. The training in this study focused on educating students to understand and appreciate formative peer assessment. A sample of 77 students…

  2. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  3. A flexible approach to distributed data anonymization.

    PubMed

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Eckert, Claudia; Kuhn, Klaus A

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive biomedical data is often collected from distributed sources, involving different information systems and different organizational units. Local autonomy and legal reasons lead to the need of privacy preserving integration concepts. In this article, we focus on anonymization, which plays an important role for the re-use of clinical data and for the sharing of research data. We present a flexible solution for anonymizing distributed data in the semi-honest model. Prior to the anonymization procedure, an encrypted global view of the dataset is constructed by means of a secure multi-party computing (SMC) protocol. This global representation can then be anonymized. Our approach is not limited to specific anonymization algorithms but provides pre- and postprocessing for a broad spectrum of algorithms and many privacy criteria. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and discuss which types of methods and criteria are supported. Our prototype demonstrates the approach by implementing k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness and δ-presence with a globally optimal de-identification method in horizontally and vertically distributed setups. The experiments show that our method provides highly competitive performance and offers a practical and flexible solution for anonymizing distributed biomedical datasets.

  4. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  5. Comments on ``Anonymous Reviews'' From D. Fisher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David

    I'd like to suggest that the recent letters complaining about reviewers' anonymity are on the wrong track. What we need is more anonymity, not less: we need double-blind mandatory anonymity. The main argument proposed so far is the unfairness of not being able to confront the reviewers' criticisms. But you don't need to know who someone is to be able to argue against their ideas. Reviewers' reports are spelled out clearly and can be rebutted without getting into personalities.

  6. Anonymity in P2P Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanares-Lopez, Pilar; Muñoz-Gea, Juan Pedro; Malgosa-Sanahuja, Josemaria; Sanchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos

    In the last years, the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications to share and exchange knowledge among people around the world has experienced an exponential growth. Therefore, it is understandable that, like in any successful communication mechanism used by a lot of humans being, the anonymity can be a desirable characteristic in this scenario. Anonymity in P2P networks can be obtained by means of different methods, although the most significant ones are broadcast protocols, dining-cryptographer (DC) nets and multiple-hop paths. Each of these methods can be tunable in order to build a real anonymity P2P application. In addition, there is a mathematical tool called entropy that can be used in some scenarios to quantify anonymity in communication networks. In some cases, it can be calculated analytically but in others it is necessary to use simulation to obtain the network entropy.

  7. Stationary Anonymous Sequential Games with Undiscounted Rewards.

    PubMed

    Więcek, Piotr; Altman, Eitan

    Stationary anonymous sequential games with undiscounted rewards are a special class of games that combine features from both population games (infinitely many players) with stochastic games. We extend the theory for these games to the cases of total expected reward as well as to the expected average reward. We show that in the anonymous sequential game equilibria correspond to the limits of those of related finite population games as the number of players grows to infinity. We provide examples to illustrate our results.

  8. 77 FR 39716 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of RFA AA-12-009. Date: July 17-19, 2012. Time: 10:00...

  9. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  10. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider’s desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users’ desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly “re-anonymize” their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  11. Comments on “Anonymous reviews”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emille A.

    I would like to add the triple perspective of a now-retired editor (GRL, 1993-19997), a reviewer and author to the ongoing debate in Eos about anonymous versus signed reviews.As an editor, I did not keep precise statistics, but my recollection would be that a little under (perhaps 40%) of the more than 3000 reviews I handled were signed. While some sort of "trend" expectedly existed between glowing reviews and signed ones, the correlation would probably not have passed a statistical test. By and large, my reviewers, whether or not they waived anonymity, were a professional and responsible pool, and the kind of personal and potentially unethical antagonisms described by Myrl Beck was the rare exception, rather than the rule, among anonymous reviews. The careful editor should be able to recognize this attitude in the tone and style of the review, and through comparison with other reviews of the same paper.

  12. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims.

  13. Narcotics Anonymous: Understanding the "Bridge of Recovery."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronel, Natti

    1998-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is investigated as a subculture of recovery bridging the drug subculture and the prevailing culture. A phenomenological study of NA in Israel is reported. Innovation, cultural conflict, the value of recovery and its norms, supporting social mechanisms, limitations of the program, and intercultural attributes are…

  14. Minimizing risk in anonymous egg donation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G; Nair, S; Rimington, M R; Armar, N A

    2003-11-01

    Assisted conception carries with it known and putative medical and surgical risks. Exposing healthy women to these risks in order to harvest eggs for donation when a safer alternative exists is morally and ethically unacceptable. Egg sharing minimizes risk and provides a source of eggs for donation. Anonymity protects all parties involved and should not be removed.

  15. In Defence of Anonymity: Rejoining the Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This article is a response to the growing criticisms of the British Educational Research Association (BERA) and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) ethical guidelines on anonymity and pseudonymity as default positions for participants in qualitative educational research. It discusses and responds to those criticisms under four…

  16. Anonymization server system for DICOM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Amano, M.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nishitani, H.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed an anonymization system for DICOM images. It requires consent from the patient to use the DICOM images for research or education. However, providing the DICOM image to the other facilities is not safe because it contains a lot of personal data. Our system is a server that provides anonymization service of DICOM images for users in the facility. The distinctive features of the system are, input interface, flexible anonymization policy, and automatic body part identification. In the first feature, we can use the anonymization service on the existing DICOM workstations. In the second feature, we can select a best policy fitting for the Protection of personal data that is ruled by each medical facility. In the third feature, we can identify the body parts that are included in the input image set, even if the set lacks the body part tag in DICOM header. We installed the system for the first time to a hospital in December 2005. Currently, the system is working in other four facilities. In this paper we describe the system and how it works.

  17. Altruism and Anonymity: A Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Locey, Matthew L.; Rachlin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting – the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant – was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation. PMID:26051191

  18. Parents Anonymous Chairperson-Sponsor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parents Anonymous, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA.

    Presented is a manual which focuses on the Chairperson-Sponsor relationship of Parents Anonymous (PA), an organization for helping parents with child abuse problems. Brief sections cover the following topics: Jolly and Leonard (the cases of two people, one an abusive mother and the other a psychiatric social worker, involved in PA); the basic…

  19. Alcoholic patients' response to their disease: perspective of patients and family

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Domínguez-Sánchez, Isabel; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to know the perspective of alcoholic patients and their families about the behavioral characteristics of the disease, identifying the issues to modify the addictive behavior and seek rehabilitation. Method: ethnographic research using interpretative anthropology, via participant observation and a detailed interview with alcoholic patients and their families, members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Alanon in Spain. Results: development of disease behavior in alcoholism is complex due to the issues of interpreting the consumption model as a disease sign. Patients often remain long periods in the pre-contemplation stage, delaying the search for assistance, which often arrives without them accepting the role of patient. This constrains the recovery and is related to the social thought on alcoholism and self-stigma on alcoholics and their families, leading them to deny the disease, condition of the patient, and help. The efforts of self-help groups and the involvement of health professionals is essential for recovery. Conclusion: understanding how disease behavior develops, and the change process of addictive behavior, it may be useful for patients, families and health professionals, enabling them to act in a specific way at each stage. PMID:26626009

  20. Alcohol-related symptoms in heterogeneous families of hospitalized alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1988-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of alcohol abuse was examined in 243 men and 305 women from families of hospitalized alcoholics, who had demonstrated different patterns of inheritance of susceptibility to alcoholism. Discriminant analysis was utilized to identify nine alcoholic symptoms that distinguished male relatives of alcoholic men from those of alcoholic women. Inability to abstain from alcohol, fighting and reckless driving while intoxicated, and alcohol treatment other than Alcoholics Anonymous were more prevalent in families of male probands. Male relatives of female probands experienced later onset of loss of control over drinking associated with benders, and cirrhosis and feelings of guilt. Female relatives of alcoholic men and women showed a marked predominance of the latter (Type 1) features, whereas male relatives had different clinical features, depending on the associated mode of inheritance.

  1. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Panel, Review of RFA AA10-007 & AA10- 008 Gut-Liver-Brain Interactions in Alcohol Induced...

  2. A Novel Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Complete Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liaojun; Yan, Xuxia; Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Huixian

    2016-01-01

    Anonymity, which is more and more important to multi-receiver schemes, has been taken into consideration by many researchers recently. To protect the receiver anonymity, in 2010, the first multi-receiver scheme based on the Lagrange interpolating polynomial was proposed. To ensure the sender's anonymity, the concept of the ring signature was proposed in 2005, but afterwards, this scheme was proven to has some weakness and at the same time, a completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme is proposed. In this completely anonymous scheme, the sender anonymity is achieved by improving the ring signature, and the receiver anonymity is achieved by also using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Unfortunately, the Lagrange interpolation method was proven a failure to protect the anonymity of receivers, because each authorized receiver could judge whether anyone else is authorized or not. Therefore, the completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption mentioned above can only protect the sender anonymity. In this paper, we propose a new completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme with a new polynomial technology used to replace the Lagrange interpolating polynomial, which can mix the identity information of receivers to save it as a ciphertext element and prevent the authorized receivers from verifying others. With the receiver anonymity, the proposed scheme also owns the anonymity of the sender at the same time. Meanwhile, the decryption fairness and public verification are also provided.

  3. A Novel Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Complete Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Liaojun; Yan, Xuxia; Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Huixian

    2016-01-01

    Anonymity, which is more and more important to multi-receiver schemes, has been taken into consideration by many researchers recently. To protect the receiver anonymity, in 2010, the first multi-receiver scheme based on the Lagrange interpolating polynomial was proposed. To ensure the sender’s anonymity, the concept of the ring signature was proposed in 2005, but afterwards, this scheme was proven to has some weakness and at the same time, a completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme is proposed. In this completely anonymous scheme, the sender anonymity is achieved by improving the ring signature, and the receiver anonymity is achieved by also using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Unfortunately, the Lagrange interpolation method was proven a failure to protect the anonymity of receivers, because each authorized receiver could judge whether anyone else is authorized or not. Therefore, the completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption mentioned above can only protect the sender anonymity. In this paper, we propose a new completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme with a new polynomial technology used to replace the Lagrange interpolating polynomial, which can mix the identity information of receivers to save it as a ciphertext element and prevent the authorized receivers from verifying others. With the receiver anonymity, the proposed scheme also owns the anonymity of the sender at the same time. Meanwhile, the decryption fairness and public verification are also provided. PMID:27832105

  4. Study on Privacy Protection Algorithm Based on K-Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FeiFei, Zhao; LiFeng, Dong; Kun, Wang; Yang, Li

    Basing on the study of K-Anonymity algorithm in privacy protection issue, this paper proposed a "Degree Priority" method of visiting Lattice nodes on the generalization tree to improve the performance of K-Anonymity algorithm. This paper also proposed a "Two Times K-anonymity" methods to reduce the information loss in the process of K-Anonymity. Finally, we used experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods.

  5. A Model of Onion Routing With Provable Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    Yale University Department of Computer Science A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity Aaron Johnson YALEU/DCS/TR-1368 August 30, 2006...2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-08-2006 to 00-08-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity 5a... Anonymity Aaron Johnson∗ Department of Computer Science Yale University New Haven, CT ajohnson@cs.yale.edu Abstract Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous

  6. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-010. Date: July 18, 2012. Time: 1... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member conflict SEP-- Neurosciences. Date: July...

  7. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AA13-001, Specialized Alcohol Research Centers. Date: August 15, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m. to...

  8. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Johnson, Aaron; Syverson, Paul

    Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until now, however, it has had no formal model and therefore no rigorous analysis of its anonymity guarantees. We give an IO-automata model of an onion-routing protocol and, under possibilistic definitions, characterize the situations in which anonymity and unlinkability are guaranteed.

  9. 64 FR 11360 - Evaluation of Parents AnonymousSUPSM/SUP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-03-08

    ... Justice Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Evaluation of Parents Anonymous SM ; Notice... Anonymous SM AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention... Anonymous SM program. The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the implementation and effectiveness of...

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  11. Medical document anonymization with a semantic lexicon.

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, P.; Baud, R. H.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Bouillon, P.; Robert, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present an original system for locating and removing personally-identifying information in patient records. In this experiment, anonymization is seen as a particular case of knowledge extraction. We use natural language processing tools provided by the MEDTAG framework: a semantic lexicon specialized in medicine, and a toolkit for word-sense and morpho-syntactic tagging. The system finds 98-99% of all personally-identifying information. PMID:11079980

  12. Extraction and anonymity protocol of medical file.

    PubMed Central

    Bouzelat, H.; Quantin, C.; Dusserre, L.

    1996-01-01

    To carry out the epidemiological study of patients suffering from a given cancer, the Department of Medical Informatics (DIM) has to link information coming from different hospitals and medical laboratories in the Burgundy region. Demands from the French department for computerized information security (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés: CNIL), in regard to abiding by the law of January 6, 1978, completed by the law of July 1st, 1994 on nominal data processing in the framework of medical research have to be taken into account. Notably, the CNIL advised to render anonymous patient identities before the extraction of each establishment file. This paper describes a recently implemented protocol, registered with the French department for computerized information security (Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'information : SCSSI) whose purpose is to render anonymous medical files in view of their extraction. Once rendered anonymous, these files will be exportable so as to be merged with other files and used in a framework of epidemiological studies. Therefore, this protocol uses the Standard Hash Algorithm (SHA) which allows the replacement of identities by their imprints while ensuring a minimal collision rate in order to allow a correct linkage of the different information concerning the same patient. A first evaluation of the extraction and anonymity software with regard to the purpose of an epidemiological survey is described here. In this paper, we also show how it would be possible to implement this system by means of the Internet communication network. PMID:8947681

  13. Anonymous donation: a transplant center's experience.

    PubMed

    Mitzel, Heather; Snyders, Michele

    2002-06-01

    As demands for organs increase, transplant centers are now considering alternative resources. This paper looks at the experiences of one kidney transplant center as it developed its anonymous donor protocol. The authors review the historical use of living donors and discuss why the program initially considered this type of donor. The team members and the decision-making process are identified, including ethical dilemmas confronted by the team. Finally, the protocol and anticipated concerns are presented.

  14. Remote Electronic Voting with Revocable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Matt; Ritter, Eike

    We present a new remote, coercion-free electronic voting protocol which satisfies a number of properties previously considered contradictory. We introduce (and justify) the idea of revocable anonymity in electronic voting, on the grounds of it being a legal requirement in the United Kingdom, and show a method of proving the validity of a ballot to a verifier in zero knowledge, by extension of known two-candidate proofs.

  15. Anonymous Peer Assessment of Medication Management Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Greg; Woulfe, Jim; Bartimote-Aufflick, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether pharmacy students' anonymous peer assessment of a medication management review (MMR) was constructive, consistent with the feedback provided by an expert tutor, and enhanced the students' learning experience. Design Fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students were randomly and anonymously assigned to a partner and participated in an online peer assessment of their partner's MMR. Assessment An independent expert graded a randomly selected sample of the MMR's using a schedule developed for the study. A second expert evaluated the quality of the peer and expert feedback. Students also completed a questionnaire and participated in a focus group interview. Student peers gave significantly higher marks than an expert for the same MMR; however, no significant difference between the quality of written feedback between the students and expert was detected. The majority of students agreed that this activity was a useful learning experience. Conclusions Anonymous peer assessment is an effective means of providing additional constructive feedback on student performance on the medication review process. Exposure to other students' work and the giving and receiving of peer feedback were perceived as valuable by students. PMID:20798808

  16. A 2-Round Anonymous Veto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Feng; Zieliński, Piotr

    The dining cryptographers network (or DC-net) is a seminal technique devised by Chaum to solve the dining cryptographers problem — namely, how to send a boolean-OR bit anonymously from a group of participants. In this paper, we investigate the weaknesses of DC-nets, study alternative methods and propose a new way to tackle this problem. Our protocol, Anonymous Veto Network (or AV-net), overcomes all the major limitations of DC-nets, including the complex key setup, message collisions and susceptibility to disruptions. While DC-nets are unconditionally secure, AV-nets are computationally secure under the Decision Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption. An AV-net is more efficient than other techniques based on the same public-key primitives. It requires only two rounds of broadcast and the least computational load and bandwidth usage per participant. Furthermore, it provides the strongest protection against collusion — only full collusion can breach the anonymity of message senders.

  17. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  18. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  19. Alcoholic Recovery and the 12 Steps: White Bison Presents a Native View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes an alcohol recovery program offered by White Bison, Inc. (Colorado Springs), that integrates the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous with traditional Native American ceremonies and medicine wheel teachings symbolizing the life cycle. (LP)

  20. Anonymity: An Impediment to Performance in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are “Always” or “Often” able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either “Often” or “Sometimes” page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either “Rarely” or “Never” able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were “Rarely” or “Never” recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  1. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Chris Y. T.; Yau, David K. Y.; Yip, Nung Kwan; ...

    2013-06-01

    Mobility traces of people and vehicles have been collected and published to assist the design and evaluation of mobile networks, such as large-scale urban sensing networks. Although the published traces are often made anonymous in that the true identities of nodes are replaced by random identifiers, the privacy concern remains. This is because in real life, nodes are open to observations in public spaces, or they may voluntarily or inadvertently disclose partial knowledge of their whereabouts. Thus, snapshots of nodes’ location information can be learned by interested third parties, e.g., directly through chance/engineered meetings between the nodes and their observers,more » or indirectly through casual conversations or other information sources about people. In this paper, we investigate how an adversary, when equipped with a small amount of the snapshot information termed as side information, can infer an extended view of the whereabouts of a victim node appearing in an anonymous trace. Our results quantify the loss of victim nodes’ privacy as a function of the nodal mobility, the inference strategies of adversaries, and any noise that may appear in the trace or the side information. Generally, our results indicate that the privacy concern is significant in that a relatively small amount of side information is sufficient for the adversary to infer the true identity (either uniquely or with high probability) of a victim in a set of anonymous traces. For instance, an adversary is able to identify the trace of 30%-50% of the victims when she has collected 10 pieces of side information about a victim.« less

  2. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Chris Y. T.; Yau, David K. Y.; Yip, Nung Kwan; Rao, Nageswara S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Mobility traces of people and vehicles have been collected and published to assist the design and evaluation of mobile networks, such as large-scale urban sensing networks. Although the published traces are often made anonymous in that the true identities of nodes are replaced by random identifiers, the privacy concern remains. This is because in real life, nodes are open to observations in public spaces, or they may voluntarily or inadvertently disclose partial knowledge of their whereabouts. Thus, snapshots of nodes’ location information can be learned by interested third parties, e.g., directly through chance/engineered meetings between the nodes and their observers, or indirectly through casual conversations or other information sources about people. In this paper, we investigate how an adversary, when equipped with a small amount of the snapshot information termed as side information, can infer an extended view of the whereabouts of a victim node appearing in an anonymous trace. Our results quantify the loss of victim nodes’ privacy as a function of the nodal mobility, the inference strategies of adversaries, and any noise that may appear in the trace or the side information. Generally, our results indicate that the privacy concern is significant in that a relatively small amount of side information is sufficient for the adversary to infer the true identity (either uniquely or with high probability) of a victim in a set of anonymous traces. For instance, an adversary is able to identify the trace of 30%-50% of the victims when she has collected 10 pieces of side information about a victim.

  3. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  4. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason J.; Bond, Robert M.; Fariss, Christopher J.; Settle, Jaime E.; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being “leaked” or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records. PMID:23441156

  5. Anonymization of Longitudinal Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Tamersoy, Acar; Loukides, Grigorios; Nergiz, Mehmet Ercan; Saygin, Yucel; Malin, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have enabled healthcare providers to collect detailed patient information from the primary care domain. At the same time, longitudinal data from EMRs are increasingly combined with biorepositories to generate personalized clinical decision support protocols. Emerging policies encourage investigators to disseminate such data in a deidentified form for reuse and collaboration, but organizations are hesitant to do so because they fear such actions will jeopardize patient privacy. In particular, there are concerns that residual demographic and clinical features could be exploited for reidentification purposes. Various approaches have been developed to anonymize clinical data, but they neglect temporal information and are, thus, insufficient for emerging biomedical research paradigms. This paper proposes a novel approach to share patient-specific longitudinal data that offers robust privacy guarantees, while preserving data utility for many biomedical investigations. Our approach aggregates temporal and diagnostic information using heuristics inspired from sequence alignment and clustering methods. We demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate anonymized data that permit effective biomedical analysis using several patient cohorts derived from the EMR system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. PMID:22287248

  6. Why do we still find anonymous ESTs?

    PubMed

    Cirera, S; Winterø, A K; Fredholm, M

    2000-08-01

    During recent years, there has been an exponential rise in the number of sequences accessible in the public databases. Despite this, a high percentage of partial sequences of cDNA (ESTs) submitted to the databases remain unrecognized (anonymous ESTs). This lack of similarities could be explained by several hypotheses: i) a different part of the transcript is present in the GenBank; ii) the transcript represents a novel gene not yet isolated in other species; iii) alternative splicing of the same gene in different species; iv) inaccurate sequence data; and/or v) the sequence of the transcript has diverged to the extent that it is not recognized as an ortholog. In the present study we selected a sample of 20 ESTs from a pool of 656 anonymous pig small intestine ESTs in order to investigate the possible cause for the lack of similarities with database entries. To test the significant hypotheses we carried out total sequencing of each insert along with zoo-blot and Northern-blot analysis. Extended analyses of the 20 ESTs showed significant matches to seven existing database entries, whereas 13 still did not show significant hits. The results are discussed in the context of the hypothesis listed above.

  7. Trust-based Anonymous Communication: Adversary Models and Routing Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Trust-based Anonymous Communication: Adversary Models and Routing Algorithms Aaron Johnson ∗ Paul Syverson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory... anonymous communication, and in particular onion routing, although we expect the approach to apply more broadly. This paper provides two main...contributions. First, we present a novel model to consider the various security con- cerns for route selection in anonymity networks when users vary their trust

  8. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymous Group Communication in Dissent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    Yale University Department of Computer Science Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymous Group Communication in Dissent Ewa Syta Aaron Johnson Henry...00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymous Group Communication in Dissent 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...are difficult to protect against traffic analysis, and accountable voting protocols are unsuited to general anonymous messaging. DISSENT, originally

  9. Deploying Low-Latency Anonymity: Design Challenges and Social Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Page 1 of 807-1226-2439.txt Printed: 12/16/08 Dec 16 4:39:54 PM Printed For: Kate Green Deploying Low-Latency Anonymity : Design Challenges and Social...Security & Privacy, September/October 2007 (Vol. 5, No. 5), pp. 83-87 Anonymous communication systems hide conversations against unwanted observations...Deploying an anonymous communications infrastructure presents surprises unlike those found in other types of systems. For example, given that

  10. Anonymity and Covert Channels in Simple Timed Mix-firewalls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Anonymity and Covert Channels in Simple Timed Mix- rewalls? Richard E. Newman1, Vipan R. Nalla1, and Ira S. Moskowitz2 1 CISE Department University...Washington, DC 20375 moskowitz@itd.nrl.navy.mil Abstract. Traditional methods for evaluating the amount of anonymity a orded by various Mix con...gurations have depended on either measur- ing the size of the set of possible senders of a particular message (the anonymity set size), or by measuring the

  11. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, RFA AA-12-001 DNA Repository for the NIAAA NESARC--III (U24). Date: August 5, 2011. Time: 11...

  12. Reconstructing Spatial Distributions from Anonymized Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Forrest, Stephanie; Groat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and sensors are often equipped with GPS that accurately report a person's location. Combined with wireless communication, these devices enable a wide range of new social tools and applications. These same qualities, however, leave location-aware applications vulnerable to privacy violations. This paper introduces the Negative Quad Tree, a privacy protection method for location aware applications. The method is broadly applicable to applications that use spatial density information, such as social applications that measure the popularity of social venues. The method employs a simple anonymization algorithm running on mobile devices, and a more complex reconstruction algorithm on a central server. This strategy is well suited to low-powered mobile devices. The paper analyzes the accuracy of the reconstruction method in a variety of simulated and real-world settings and demonstrates that the method is accurate enough to be used in many real-world scenarios.

  13. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  14. The k-Anonymity Problem Is Hard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Dondi, Riccardo

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. An interesting formalization recently proposed is the k-anonymity. This approach requires that the rows in a table are clustered in sets of size at least k and that all the rows in a cluster are related to the same tuple, after the suppression of some records. The problem has been shown to be NP-hard when the values are over a ternary alphabet, k = 3 and the rows length is unbounded. In this paper we give a lower bound on the approximation of two restrictions of the problem, when the records values are over a binary alphabet and k = 3, and when the records have length at most 8 and k = 4, showing that these restrictions of the problem are APX-hard.

  15. Comments on “Anonymous reviewers” [“Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    Mryl Beck's Forum article denouncing anonymous reviews (Eos, 1 July 2003) is right on the money. Perhaps he read my letter in Applied Physics in 1990 also denouncing anonymous reviews.Some years ago, I received an anonymous review of a paper I had submitted for journal publication. The reviewer raised such interesting questions that I wanted to discuss them with him. I phoned the editor of the journal and asked if he would tell me the name of the reviewer. He politely declined, but when I told him I thought I recognized the handwriting of the reviewer and named him, he relented and said I was correct! I called the reviewer and he was generous enough to spend a wonderful hour on the phone with me discussing the paper. The paper was published with great consideration given to his ideas, much to its betterment. Now that's a reviewer whose interest is in improving the paper and helping the author, not just showing how smart he is or slapping down a junior colleague. The AGU motto,“unselfish cooperation in research,” can be well exemplified by those who wish to help rather than to tear down.

  16. Anonymous statistical methods versus cryptographic methods in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Quantin; Allaert; Dusserre

    2000-11-01

    Sensitive data are most often indirectly identifiable and so need to be rendered anonymous in order to ensure privacy. Statistical methods to provide anonymity require data perturbation and so generate data processing difficulties. Encryption methods, while preserving confidentiality, do not require data modification.

  17. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  18. What Behavioral Scientists Know--and What They Can Do--about Alcoholism. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Peter E.

    Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in 1935 and observed its 50th anniversary in 1985. This document discusses the changes that have taken place in knowledge about alcoholism. Specifically, this booklet compares what behavioral scientists knew about alcohol abuse and alcoholism in 1935 and what they knew and could do about them in 1985. Contributions…

  19. Anonymous predictive testing for Huntington's disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Visintainer, C L; Matthias-Hagen, V; Nance, M A

    2001-01-01

    The widespread use of a predictive genetic test for Huntington's disease (HD) since 1993 has brought to the forefront issues regarding genetic privacy. Although the possibility of anonymous genetic testing has been discussed, its use in the United States has not been described previously. We review the experiences of 11 genetics specialists with anonymous predictive testing for HD. We found that more men than women requested anonymous testing, for reasons that more often related to personal privacy than to insurance or discrimination concerns. A number of approaches to anonymity were used, and genetics specialists varied in the degree to which they were comfortable with the process. A number of legal, medical, and practical questions are raised, which will require resolution if anonymous testing is to be performed with a greater frequency in the future.

  20. Utility-aware anonymization of diagnosis codes.

    PubMed

    Loukides, G; Gkoulalas-Divanis, A

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for performing large-scale and low-cost biomedical studies has led organizations to promote the reuse of patient data. For instance, the National Institutes of Health in the US requires patient-specific data collected and analyzed in the context of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) to be deposited into a biorepository and broadly disseminated. While essential to comply with regulations, disseminating such data risks privacy breaches, because patients genomic sequences can be linked to their identities through diagnosis codes. This work proposes a novel approach that prevents this type of data linkage by modifying diagnosis codes to limit the probability of associating a patients identity to their genomic sequence. Our approach employs an effective algorithm that uses generalization and suppression of diagnosis codes to preserve privacy and takes into account the intended uses of the disseminated data to guarantee utility. We also present extensive experiments using several datasets derived from the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, as well as a large-scale case-study using the EMRs of 79K patients, which are linked to DNA contained in the Vanderbilt University biobank. Our results verify that our approach generates anonymized data that permit accurate biomedical analysis in tasks including case count studies and GWAS.

  1. Comment on ``Anonymous Reviews'' From D. Forel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forel, David

    I recently read four letters against anonymous reviews (see references below) and zero letters for. I feel the need to add one to zero. When I started reviewing manuscripts, I had the ethical choice of whether to sign my name. After some thought, I decided I would not. Today I feel the same for the same reason: I do not want people to think about who I am; I want them to think about what I write. R.E. Criss and A.M. Hofmeister would have me throw off my ``cloak of secrecy- the costume of crooks.'' Would seeing my face make my argument clearer or is it an excuse to judge the messenger ? A while back, I spent two years as an associate editor. During that time, I signed my name because I felt people had the right to know who was passing judgment. In this, I agree with A. McBirney? ``A fundamental rule of our justice system holds that one who is being judged has the right to confront his accusers.'' As a lowly reviewer, I did not feel I passed judgment; I felt I was contributing to the discussion.

  2. Narcotics Anonymous participation and changes in substance use and social support.

    PubMed

    Toumbourou, John Winston; Hamilton, Margaret; U'Ren, Alison; Stevens-Jones, Pru; Storey, Gordon

    2002-07-01

    In Victoria (a southern Australian state) in 1995, Narcotics Anonymous had a small but growing membership providing an opportunity to study the early experience of new self-help members. Ninety-one new members were interviewed and 62 (68%) were reinterviewed after 12 months. Three measures of self-help participation were examined: service role involvement, step work, and stable meeting attendance. Lower prior involvement in treatment services and greater participation in self-help predicted subsequent self-help participation. Higher levels of secondary school education predicted service role involvement and longer periods in stable meeting attendance. Higher self-help participation through the 12 months prior to follow-up was associated with lower levels of hazardous alcohol use and higher emotional support at reinterview. Multivariate regression analysis suggested stable self-help meeting attendance and step work continued to predict reductions in hazardous alcohol use and improvements in social support, after controlling for a range of alternative predictors.

  3. Rating AAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  4. An Enhanced Secure Authentication Scheme with Anonymity for Wireless Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woongryul; Kim, Jeeyeon; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    As anonymity increasingly becomes a necessary and legitimate aim in many applications, a number of anonymous authentication schemes have been suggested over the years. Among the many schemes is Lee and Kwon's password-based authentication scheme for wireless environments. Compared with previous schemes, Lee and Kwon's scheme not only improves anonymity by employing random temporary IDs but also provides user-friendliness by allowing human-memorable passwords. In this letter, we point out that Lee and Kwon's scheme, despite its many merits, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and a forgery attack. In addition, we show how to eliminate these vulnerabilities.

  5. Defining ’Anonymity’ in Networked Communication, Version 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Anonymity ”  in  Networked   Communication,  version  1   Joan  Feigenbaum1   Technical  Report  YALEU/DCS/TR-­‐1448...December  2011         Support   for   anonymous   communication   in   hostile   environments   is   the   main...fact  that  the  word  is  regularly   encountered   in   common   parlance,   “ anonymity ”   is  

  6. Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2010-01-01

    Users are being tracked on the Internet more than ever before as Web sites and search engines gather pieces of information sufficient to identify and study their behavior. While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required. In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on. The scheme leverages the natural grouping of hosts in the same subnet and the universally available broadcast primitive to provide anonymity at line speeds. Our scheme is strongly resistant against all active or passive adversaries as long as they are outside the subnet. Even within the subnet, our scheme provides reasonable resistance against adversaries, providing anonymity that is suitable for common Internet applications.

  7. Anonymization of DICOM electronic medical records for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert; Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a cancer clinic. In addition to this we were unable to find a commercial software tool that met the minimum requirements for anonymization and preservation of data integrity for radiation therapy research. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype software code to meet the requirements for the anonymization of radiation therapy treatment plans and to develop a way to validate that code and demonstrate that it properly anonymized treatment plans and preserved data integrity. We extended an open-source code to process all relevant PHI and to allow for the automatic anonymization of multiple EMRs. The prototype code successfully anonymized multiple treatment plans in less than 1min/patient. We also tested commercial optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms for the detection of burned-in text on the images, but they were unable to reliably recognize text. In addition, we developed and tested an image filtering algorithm that allowed us to isolate and redact alpha-numeric text from a test radiograph. Validation tests verified that PHI was anonymized and data integrity, such as the relationship between DICOM unique identifiers (UID) was preserved.

  8. The Sniper Attack: Anonymously Deanonymizing and Disabling the Tor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    informatik.hu-berlin.de Abstract—Tor is a distributed onion -routing network used for achieving anonymity and resisting censorship online. Because of...users daily and transferring roughly 3 GiB/s in aggregate [4]. Tor uses onion routing [5] to route clients’ traffic through a circuit of geo...2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT Tor is a distributed onion -routing network used for achieving anonymity and resisting censorship online. Because of

  9. Scalable Anonymous Group Communication in the Anytrust Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    nets messaging phase was high and not a significant improvement over the shuffle alone. Herbivore [31] makes low latency guar- antees (100s of...practical anonymity systems such as Tor [16] or Herbivore [31], where a small number of “wrong” choices—e.g., the choice of entry and exit relay in Tor—can...of-service attacks makes them largely impractical. Herbivore [31] attempts to make DC-nets more scalable, but it provides unconditional anonymity only

  10. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    on-line advertising rm DoubleClick and consumer data company Abacus Direct was \\the most danger- ous assault against anonymity on the Internet since...registrations and ecommerce trans- Preprint - 2 Stuart G. Stubblebine, and Paul F. Syverson. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection...Brother, Big `Fun’ at Amazon", Wired News, Aug. 25, 1999. www.wired.com/news/news/ business /story/21417.html [18] David Mazieres and M. Frans Kaashoek. \\The

  11. Taxonomy for and Analysis of Anonymous Communications Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    with respect to preventing physical assault, but as newer business models and media coverage started to significantly affect society, intrusion into...activity are the most obvious drawbacks to anonymity. Governments, businesses and other organizations fear an inability to control abusive and illegal...On the other hand, law enforcement agencies encourage citizens to use anonymous e-mail to report crimes [Ale07, Ano07g, Jor07, Rob07]. Businesses

  12. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  13. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  14. Completely Anonymous Multi-Recipient Signcryption Scheme with Public Verification

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer’s anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer’s and the recipient’s anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer’s and the recipient’s anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant. Key words: Multi-recipient signcryption; Signcryption; Complete Anonymity; Public verification. PMID:23675490

  15. Relationship of Age of First Drink to Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…

  16. Surrender To Win: How Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Users Change Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Courtney; Long, Wesley

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the uniqueness and complexity of adolescent drug and alcohol abuse recovery, particularly the early years and events catalyzing the surrender process. Offers individual interviews of seven adolescents who surrendered their alcohol and drug addictions and constructed sober identities through participation in Alcoholics Anonymous. (GCP)

  17. Group Work as Facilitation of Spiritual Development for Drug and Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Berkow, Daniel N.

    1998-01-01

    Describes group work designed to promote spiritual development with drug and alcohol abusers. Provides a definition of spirituality. Discusses research that relates to the spiritual development of members of drug and alcohol groups. Compares the ways that group work and Alcoholics Anonymous promote spiritual development. (Author/MKA)

  18. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  19. Anonymous and Confidential Communications from an IP Addressless Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on a mediating computer interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity to the receivers. In this model, the strength of the system to protect the identity of the sender depends on the ability and willingness of the mediator to keep the secret. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous message over the Internet which does not depend on a third party. Our idea departs from the traditional approach by sending the anonymous messages from an Internet wireless and addressless computer, such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) bridged to the Internet by a Mobile Support Station (MSS).

  20. Enabling Genomic-Phenomic Association Discovery without Sacrificing Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Heatherly, Raymond D.; Loukides, Grigorios; Denny, Joshua C.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Roden, Dan M.; Malin, Bradley A.

    2013-01-01

    Health information technologies facilitate the collection of massive quantities of patient-level data. A growing body of research demonstrates that such information can support novel, large-scale biomedical investigations at a fraction of the cost of traditional prospective studies. While healthcare organizations are being encouraged to share these data in a de-identified form, there is hesitation over concerns that it will allow corresponding patients to be re-identified. Currently proposed technologies to anonymize clinical data may make unrealistic assumptions with respect to the capabilities of a recipient to ascertain a patients identity. We show that more pragmatic assumptions enable the design of anonymization algorithms that permit the dissemination of detailed clinical profiles with provable guarantees of protection. We demonstrate this strategy with a dataset of over one million medical records and show that 192 genotype-phenotype associations can be discovered with fidelity equivalent to non-anonymized clinical data. PMID:23405076

  1. Self-organized Anonymous Authentication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudiger, Julien; Raya, Maxim; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    Pervasive communications bring along new privacy challenges, fueled by the capability of mobile devices to communicate with, and thus “sniff on”, each other directly. We design a new mechanism that aims at achieving location privacy in these forthcoming mobile networks, whereby mobile nodes collect the pseudonyms of the nodes they encounter to generate their own privacy cloaks. Thus, privacy emerges from the mobile network and users gain control over the disclosure of their locations. We call this new paradigm self-organized location privacy. In this work, we focus on the problem of self-organized anonymous authentication that is a necessary prerequisite for location privacy. We investigate, using graph theory, the optimality of different cloak constructions and evaluate with simulations the achievable anonymity in various network topologies. We show that peer-to-peer wireless communications and mobility help in the establishment of self-organized anonymous authentication in mobile networks.

  2. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  3. Methadone Anonymous: A 12-Step Program for Methadone Maintained Heroin Addicts.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Stephen M.; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen

    2001-12-01

    Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Clients rated components of MA to be significantly more helpful to recovery than MMTP treatment components. Affiliation to five MA members known best by the respondents was significantly greater than affiliation to non-MA members. Length of time in MA was positively associated with MA affiliation. Social affiliation and endorsement of 12-step principles were positively correlated. These findings suggest that MA participation has benefits not available in professionally driven MMTP, and should be further studied.

  4. Collecting substance use data with an anonymous mailed survey.

    PubMed

    Trinkoff, A M; Storr, C L

    1997-10-25

    Because mailed surveys minimize personal contact, they are useful for collecting sensitive data on substance use, as long as the problems of achieving adequate response rates can be conquered. To address these issues, we report on an anonymous mailed survey of substance use with a 78% response rate, including data collection and survey methods. Analysis of sociodemographic effects on responding found certain groups required additional contacts. Substance use estimates were not affected by non-response bias, suggesting that anonymous mailed surveys can be a feasible means of collecting data on substance use.

  5. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  6. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor painting of Fort McHenry bombardment of 1814. Peale Museum, Baltimore. View of southeast bastion and sally port. - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-08-21

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity.

  8. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  9. Anonymous Reviews: Self-serving, Counterproductive, and Unacceptable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    Recently, I became involved in an incident in which a manuscript was rejected on the advise of two anonymous reviewers and an anonymous Associate Editor. This re-activated my long-standing disgust at the entire system of anonymous reviews and pushed me-finally-into doing something about it. A few weeks or months ago, I read a similar protest, somewhere-one much more persuasive than I am likely to write-but my high-mileage brain has misplaced its provenance. Consider this a ``high-five'' to that misplaced author. The system of reviewing is supposed to filter out junk science and provide useful feedback to authors of non-junk science who have submitted work that can be improved. These are honest, commendable endeavors that can be accomplished quite comfortably out in the open. Concealment, on the other hand, permits and invites all manner of dishonorable motives-not least of which is laziness-to creep in. Offhand I can think of four reasons for remaining anonymous in a review, none valid.

  10. Reversible anonymization of DICOM images using automatically generated policies.

    PubMed

    Onken, Michael; Riesmeier, Jörg; Engel, Marcel; Yabanci, Adem; Zabel, Bernhard; Després, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Many real-world applications in the area of medical imaging like case study databases require separation of identifying (IDATA) and non-identifying (MDATA) data, specifically those offering Internet-based data access. These kinds of projects also must provide a role-based access system, controlling, how patient data must be organized and how it can be accessed. On DICOM image level, different image types support different kind of information, intermixing IDATA and MDATA in a single object. To separate them, it is possible to reversibly anonymize DICOM objects by substituting IDATA by a unique anonymous token. In case that later an authenticated user needs full access to an image, this token can be used for re-linking formerly separated IDATA and MDATA, thus resulting in a dynamically generated, exact copy of the original image. The approach described in this paper is based on the automatic generation of anonymization policies from the DICOM standard text, providing specific support for all kinds of DICOM images. The policies are executed by a newly developed framework based on the DICOM toolkit DCMTK and offer a reliable approach to reversible anonymization. The implementation is evaluated in a German BMBF-supported expert network in the area of skeletal dysplasias, SKELNET, but may generally be applicable to related projects, enormously improving quality and integrity of diagnostics in a field focused on images. It performs effectively and efficiently on real-world test images from the project and other kind of DICOM images.

  11. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  12. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  13. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  14. K-Anonymous Multi-party Secret Handshakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai; Yung, Moti

    Anonymity-protection techniques are crucial for various commercial and financial transactions, where participants are worried about their privacy. On the other hand, authentication methods are also crucial for such interactions. Secret handshake is a relatively recent mechanism that facilitates privacy-preserving mutual authentication between communicating peers. In recent years, researchers have proposed a set of secret handshake schemes based on different assumptions about the credentials used: from one-time credentials to the more general PKI-like credentials. In this paper, we concentrate on k-anonymous secret handshake schemes based on PKI-like infrastructures. More specifically, we deal with the k-anonymous m-party (m > 2) secret handshake problem, which is significantly more involved than its two-party counterpart due to the following: When an honest user hand-shakes with m - 1 parties, it must be assured that these parties are distinct; otherwise, under the mask of anonymity a dishonest participant may clone itself in a single handshake session (i.e., assuming multiple personalities).

  15. Gamblers anonymous and cognitive-behavioral therapies for pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    Numerous types of treatments for pathological gambling have been described, but two of the most common are Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. This paper describes some outcome data associated with the two approaches. It also reviews evidence suggesting that a combined intervention may enhance therapy engagement and reduce relapse rates.

  16. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyas, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…

  17. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  18. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  19. Road to Sobriety Is Difficult, but Possible

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby rehabilitation centers) Support groups like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). More information on AA can be found at www.aa.org . Prescription medication ​​​​​​ Share This Your browser does ...

  20. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  1. "I'd Be So Much More Comfortable Posting Anonymously": Identified versus Anonymous Participation in Student Discussion Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.

    2013-01-01

    Academic staff members encourage university students to use online student discussion boards within learning management systems to ask and answer questions, share information and engage in discussion. We explore the impact of anonymity on student posting behaviour. An online survey was completed by 131 second year undergraduate psychology students…

  2. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  3. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  4. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  5. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Javier; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Silva Trujillo, Alejandra Guadalupe; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks. PMID:27809275

  6. ARX - A Comprehensive Tool for Anonymizing Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Prasser, Fabian; Kohlmayer, Florian; Lautenschläger, Ronald; Kuhn, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and data sharing have become core elements of biomedical research. Especially when sensitive data from distributed sources are linked, privacy threats have to be considered. Statistical disclosure control allows the protection of sensitive data by introducing fuzziness. Reduction of data quality, however, needs to be balanced against gains in protection. Therefore, tools are needed which provide a good overview of the anonymization process to those responsible for data sharing. These tools require graphical interfaces and the use of intuitive and replicable methods. In addition, extensive testing, documentation and openness to reviews by the community are important. Existing publicly available software is limited in functionality, and often active support is lacking. We present ARX, an anonymization tool that i) implements a wide variety of privacy methods in a highly efficient manner, ii) provides an intuitive cross-platform graphical interface, iii) offers a programming interface for integration into other software systems, and iv) is well documented and actively supported. PMID:25954407

  7. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-10-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  8. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  9. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogami, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  10. 65 FR 17745 - Program Announcement for the Evaluation of Parents Anonymous®

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-04-04

    ... Parents Anonymous ; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 65 / Tuesday, April 4, 2000 / Notices#0... Announcement for the Evaluation of Parents Anonymous AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile... Parents Anonymous program. The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the implementation and...

  11. Can Anonymous Posters on Medical Forums be Reidentified?

    PubMed Central

    Bobicev, Victoria; El Emam, Khaled; Jafer, Yasser; Dewar, Brian; Jonker, Elizabeth; Matwin, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Background Participants in medical forums often reveal personal health information about themselves in their online postings. To feel comfortable revealing sensitive personal health information, some participants may hide their identity by posting anonymously. They can do this by using fake identities, nicknames, or pseudonyms that cannot readily be traced back to them. However, individual writing styles have unique features and it may be possible to determine the true identity of an anonymous user through author attribution analysis. Although there has been previous work on the authorship attribution problem, there has been a dearth of research on automated authorship attribution on medical forums. The focus of the paper is to demonstrate that character-based author attribution works better than word-based methods in medical forums. Objective The goal was to build a system that accurately attributes authorship of messages posted on medical forums. The Authorship Attributor system uses text analysis techniques to crawl medical forums and automatically correlate messages written by the same authors. Authorship Attributor processes unstructured texts regardless of the document type, context, and content. Methods The messages were labeled by nicknames of the forum participants. We evaluated the system’s performance through its accuracy on 6000 messages gathered from 2 medical forums on an in vitro fertilization (IVF) support website. Results Given 2 lists of candidate authors (30 and 50 candidates, respectively), we obtained an F score accuracy in detecting authors of 75% to 80% on messages containing 100 to 150 words on average, and 97.9% on longer messages containing at least 300 words. Conclusions Authorship can be successfully detected in short free-form messages posted on medical forums. This raises a concern about the meaningfulness of anonymous posting on such medical forums. Authorship attribution tools can be used to warn consumers wishing to post

  12. Utility-preserving transaction data anonymization with low information loss

    PubMed Central

    Loukides, Grigorios; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2012-01-01

    Transaction data record various information about individuals, including their purchases and diagnoses, and are increasingly published to support large-scale and low-cost studies in domains such as marketing and medicine. However, the dissemination of transaction data may lead to privacy breaches, as it allows an attacker to link an individual’s record to their identity. Approaches that anonymize data by eliminating certain values in an individual’s record or by replacing them with more general values have been proposed recently, but they often produce data of limited usefulness. This is because these approaches adopt value transformation strategies that do not guarantee data utility in intended applications and objective measures that may lead to excessive data distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for anonymizing data in a way that satisfies data publishers’ utility requirements and incurs low information loss. To achieve this, we introduce an accurate information loss measure and an effective anonymization algorithm that explores a large part of the problem space. An extensive experimental study, using click-stream and medical data, demonstrates that our approach permits many times more accurate query answering than the state-of-the-art methods, while it is comparable to them in terms of efficiency. PMID:22563145

  13. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  14. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness.

  15. Motivational Enhancement for 12-Step Involvement among Patients Undergoing Alcohol Detoxification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Read, Jennifer P.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Stuart, Gregory L.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Brown, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    Forty-eight patients undergoing inpatient detoxification for alcohol dependence were assigned to either brief advice (BA) to attend Alcoholics Anonymous or a motivational enhancement for 12-step involvement (ME-12) intervention that focused on increasing involvement in 12-step self-help groups. Attendance at 12-step groups did not differ…

  16. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs.

  17. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  18. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengtong; Guo, Dianli

    2014-05-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) constructs an efficient and convenient connection between patients and the medical server. The patients can enjoy medical services through public networks, and hence the protection of patients' privacy is very significant. Very recently, Wu et al. identified Jiang et al.'s authentication scheme had some security drawbacks and proposed an enhanced authentication scheme for TMIS. However, we analyze Wu et al.'s scheme and show that their scheme suffers from server spoofing attack, off-line password guessing attack, impersonation attack. Moreover, Wu et al.'s scheme fails to preserve the claimed patient anonymity and its password change phase is unfriendly and inefficient. Thereby, we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems to eliminate the aforementioned faults. Besides, We demonstrate the completeness of the proposed scheme through the BAN logic. Furthermore, the security of our proposed scheme is proven through Bellare and Rogaways model. Compared with the related existing schemes, our scheme is more secure.

  19. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  20. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  1. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  2. The living anonymous kidney donor: lunatic or saint?

    PubMed

    Henderson, Antonia J Z; Landolt, Monica A; McDonald, Michael F; Barrable, William M; Soos, John G; Gourlay, William; Allison, Colleen J; Landsberg, David N

    2003-02-01

    Studies indicate that 11% to 54% of individuals surveyed would consider donating a kidney, while alive, to a stranger. The idea of 'living anonymous donors' (LADs) as a donor source, however, has not been embraced by the medical community. Reservations focus on the belief that LADs might be psychologically unstable and thus unsuitable donors. Our goal was to inform policy development by exploring the psycho-social make up and motivations of the LAD. Ninety-three unsolicited individuals contacted our center expressing interest in living anonymous donation. Of these, 43 participated in our study, completing two extensive inventories of psychopathology and personality disorder and taking part in the Comprehensive Psycho-Social Interview (CPSI). From the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), and the CPSI, coders assessed psychological health, psycho-social suitability, commitment, and motivations. Twenty-one participants passed the stringent criteria to be considered potential LADs. Content analysis of motivations showed that potential LADs were more likely than non-LADs (those who did not pass the criteria) to have a spiritual belief system and to be altruistic. Non-LADs were more likely than potential LADs to use donation to make a statement against their families. The authors conclude with a preliminary outline of eight policy recommendations.

  3. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  4. Section AA Pre2004 Fire, Section AA 2009, Section AA, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A-A Pre-2004 Fire, Section A-A 2009, Section A-A, South Elevation - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  5. New Frameworks for Detecting and Minimizing Information Leakage in Anonymized Network Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE NEW FRAMEWORKS FOR DETECTING AND MINIMIZING INFORMATION LEAKAGE IN ANONYMIZED NETWORK...FRAMEWORKS FOR DETECTING AND MINIMIZING INFORMATION LEAKAGE IN ANONYMIZED NETWORK DATA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-08-2-0147 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A...risk, high-value data is that of trace anonymization - a process of sanitizing data before release so that information of concern cannot be extracted

  6. Preventing Active Timing Attacks in Low-Latency Anonymous Communication [Extended Abstract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Preventing Active Timing Attacks in Low-Latency Anonymous Communication [Extended Abstract] Joan Feigenbaum1?, Aaron Johnson2??, and Paul Syverson3...itd.nrl.navy.mil Abstract. Low-latency anonymous communication protocols in gen- eral, and the popular onion-routing protocol in particular, are broken...inserting delays and dropping messages. We present a protocol that provides anonymity against an active adver- sary by using a black-box padding scheme

  7. Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in an Anonymous Routing Environment: Client Puzzles and Tor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    by a distributed system like Tor. The protocol must account for Tor’s threat environment and also address any secondary DDoS or anonymity attacks...Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in an Anonymous Routing Environment: Client Puzzles and Tor THESIS Nicholas A. Fraser, Captain, USAF... Anonymous Routing Environment: Client Puzzles and Tor THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate

  8. Using Client Puzzles to Mitigate Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in the Tor Anonymous Routing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    a viable solution for mitigating distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks in an anonymous routing environment. One such environment, Tor...provides anonymity for interactive Internet services. However, Tor relies on the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, making it vulnerable to...the first to explore TLS DDoS attack mitigation in the Tor anonymous routing environment. Using the MPP, the central processing unit (CPU

  9. Watermarking medical images with anonymous patient identification to verify authenticity.

    PubMed

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Quantin, Catherine; Montagner, Julien; Fassa, Maniane; Allaert, François-André; Roux, Christian

    2008-01-01

    When dealing with medical image management, there is a need to ensure information authenticity and dependability. Being able to verify the information belongs to the correct patient and is issued from the right source is a major concern. Verification can help to reduce the risk of errors when identifying documents in daily practice or when sending a patient's Electronic Health Record. At the same time, patient privacy issues may appear during the verification process when the verifier accesses patient data without appropriate authorization. In this paper we discuss the combination of watermarking with different identifiers ranging from DICOM standard UID to an Anonymous European Patient Identifier in order to improve medical image protection in terms of authenticity and maintainability.

  10. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  11. Parameterized Complexity of k-Anonymity: Hardness and Tractability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. A precise formalization that has been recently proposed is the k-anonymity, where the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least k and all rows in a cluster become the same tuple after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is hard even when the stored values are over a binary alphabet or the table consists of a bounded number of columns. In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. First we show that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the value of the solution (and k). Then we exhibit a fixed-parameter algorithm when the problem is parameterized by the number of columns and the number of different values in any column.

  12. Participant Anonymity in the Internet Age: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Benjamin; Kitzinger, Jenny; Kitzinger, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative researchers attempting to protect the identities of their research participants now face a multitude of new challenges due to the wealth of information once considered private but now readily accessible online. We will draw on our research with family members of people with severe brain injury to discuss these challenges in relation to three areas: participant engagement with the mass media, the availability of court transcripts online, and participants’ use of social media. We suggest strategies for managing these challenges via disguise, refining informed consent, and discussion with interviewees. In the context of a largely theoretical literature on anonymization, this article offers concrete examples of the dilemmas we faced and will be of illustrative use to other researchers confronting similar challenges. PMID:25866484

  13. Robust anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Na

    2013-04-01

    Patient can obtain sorts of health-care delivery services via Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS). Authentication, security, patient's privacy protection and data confidentiality are important for patient or doctor accessing to Electronic Medical Records (EMR). In 2012, Chen et al. showed that Khan et al.'s dynamic ID-based authentication scheme has some weaknesses and proposed an improved scheme, and they claimed that their scheme is more suitable for TMIS. However, we show that Chen et al.'s scheme also has some weaknesses. In particular, Chen et al.'s scheme does not provide user's privacy protection and perfect forward secrecy, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and impersonation attack once user's smart card is compromised. Further, we propose a secure anonymity authentication scheme to overcome their weaknesses even an adversary can know all information stored in smart card.

  14. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  15. The AAS Workforce Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Norman, D. J.; Evans, N. R.; Ivie, R.

    2014-01-01

    The AAS Demographics Committee, on behalf of the AAS, was tasked with initiating a biennial survey to improve the Society's ability to serve its members and to inform the community about changes in the community's demographics. A survey, based in part on similar surveys for other scientific societies, was developed in the summer of 2012 and was publicly launched in January 2013. The survey randomly targeted 2500 astronomers who are members of the AAS. The survey was closed 4 months later (April 2013). The response rate was excellent - 63% (1583 people) completed the survey. I will summarize the results from this survey, highlighting key results and plans for their broad dissemination.

  16. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of... CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25...-6313); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955)....

  17. Survey Confidentiality vs. Anonymity: Young Men's Self-Reported Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roland S.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2002-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to see if respondents providing identification would be as forthcoming regarding substance use as anonymous respondents. No statistically significant differences were found between 2 groups' self-reported substance use over the previous 12 months. Findings suggest the lack of anonymity does not necessarily impede the same…

  18. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    PubMed

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback.

  19. Oral History Research Ethics: Should Anonymity and Confidentially Issues Be Dealt with on Their Own Merit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Roux, C.

    2015-01-01

    A primary principle of ethical codes in research involving people is that of informed consent which ensures participants' right to privacy, confidentiality and anonymity. A blanket application of the principle of anonymity to Oral History (OH) research could well be counterproductive to the purported aims of OH research. The research comprised a…

  20. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  1. Preference for Anonymous Classroom Participation: Linking Student Characteristics and Reactions to Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alyson; Hill, N. Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Electronic response systems (ERS) are a means to foster class participation by students who are reluctant to participate in class. In this study, we identify individual characteristics that relate to students' preference for anonymous classroom participation, and we also examine the extent to which preference for anonymity is related to their…

  2. Public opinions about alcoholism and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R

    1987-03-01

    Survey respondents' views about alcoholism as an illness, support for treatment, treatment recommendation and stigma surrounding alcoholics are examined. Subjects (N = 482) comprise a random sample of the population of Contra Costa County, California. About 91% of the respondents agree with the notion that alcoholism is an illness, but 40% also agree that alcoholics drink because they want to. More women than men support the idea that to recover alcoholics will have to quit drinking forever. The contrary is true of the idea of controlled drinking. Education and income are negatively associated with items on loss of control and controlled drinking. Respondents who have had their lives deeply affected by an alcoholic and those who report a drinking problem of their own do not differ in their opinions about alcoholism from those who do not have these characteristics. Alcoholics Anonymous is the most common form of treatment recommended by the respondents. In general, results show considerable support for treatment as well as ambivalence regarding the disease concept.

  3. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    PubMed

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity.

  4. Statistical disclosure limitation of health data based on Pk-anonymity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Chida, Koji; Ikarashi, Dai; Hamada, Koki; Ishihara, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The Act for the Protection of Personal Information in Japan considers as personal information any quasi-identifier that may be used to obtain information that identifies individuals through comparisons with datasets. Studies using health records are not widely conducted because of the concern regarding the safety of anonymized health records. To increase the safety of such records, we used the Pk-anonymity method. In this method, attributes are probabilistically randomized and then reconstructions are performed on the basis of statistical information from perturbed data. Hence, it is expected to provide more precise statistics and more reliably preserve privacy than the traditional "k-anonymity" method. We anonymized health records, performed cross tabulation, and assessed the error rate using original data. This study shows that the Pk-anonymity method can be used to perform safety statistical disclosures with low error rates, even in small cases.

  5. Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization of datasets to support the heterogeneous needs of biomedical researchers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huimin; Chen, Elizabeth S

    2011-01-01

    In order to support the increasing need to share electronic health data for research purposes, various methods have been proposed for privacy preservation including k-anonymity. Many k-anonymity models provide the same level of anoymization regardless of practical need, which may decrease the utility of the dataset for a particular research study. In this study, we explore extensions to the k-anonymity algorithm that aim to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of different researchers while preserving privacy as well as utility of the dataset. The proposed algorithm, Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization (AUM), involves analyzing the characteristics of attributes and utilizing them to minimize information loss during the anonymization process. Through comparison with two existing algorithms, Mondrian and Incognito, preliminary results indicate that AUM may preserve more information from original datasets thus providing higher quality results with lower distortion.

  6. AAS 228: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  7. AAS 227: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  8. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2012-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses.

  9. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2011-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses. PMID:22081224

  10. Maxwell and creation: Acceptance, criticism, and his anonymous publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2007-08-01

    Although James Clerk Maxwell's religious views and discussions on atoms having the properties of ``manufactured articles'' have been discussed, some aspects of the responses by his contemporaries to his remarks on creation have been neglected. Various responses quoted here include a book from 1878 by ``Physicus'' (George John Romanes) attributing ``arrogance'' to Maxwell for his inferences. Relevant aspects of the evolution of the perspective of Romanes are noted. A response by B. F. Westcott indicated that Maxwell was the author of a related anonymous publication concerned with what eventually became known as the heat death of the universe. In his teaching to theology students, Westcott, a friend of Maxwell, emphasized Maxwell's reasoning based on the dissipation of energy. There are similarities between Maxwell's perspective on creation and Biblical commentaries by fellow Eranus Club members Westcott and J. B. Lightfoot. Interest in Maxwell's remarks extended into the twentieth century. The principal Baptist chapel attended by Maxwell and his wife when in London in the 1860s is identified and some relevant attributes of the chapel and of its pastor are described.

  11. Automated Gene Ontology annotation for anonymous sequence data.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Steffen; Groth, Detlef; Lehrach, Hans

    2003-07-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) is the most widely accepted attempt to construct a unified and structured vocabulary for the description of genes and their products in any organism. Annotation by GO terms is performed in most of the current genome projects, which besides generality has the advantage of being very convenient for computer based classification methods. However, direct use of GO in small sequencing projects is not easy, especially for species not commonly represented in public databases. We present a software package (GOblet), which performs annotation based on GO terms for anonymous cDNA or protein sequences. It uses the species independent GO structure and vocabulary together with a series of protein databases collected from various sites, to perform a detailed GO annotation by sequence similarity searches. The sensitivity and the reference protein sets can be selected by the user. GOblet runs automatically and is available as a public service on our web server. The paper also addresses the reliability of automated GO annotations by using a reference set of more than 6000 human proteins. The GOblet server is accessible at http://goblet.molgen.mpg.de.

  12. A proposal for an anonymous living organ donation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rittner, Christian K; Besold, Andrea; Wandel, Evelyn

    2003-03-01

    In Germany, living organ donation of paired and usually not regenerating organs is restricted by law to related individuals, as well as persons who 'obviously entertain an especially intimate personal relationship'. When this law was adopted in 1997, the intention of the legislator was to guarantee the free will of the donor and to exclude any trade of organs. Since then the transplantation of cadaveric organs has not increased. Additional organs were donated from living donors. However, for a number of reasons only a limited array of transplantation centers use living organ donation as a supply facing a steadily increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure. Living organ donation raises a variety of medical, ethical and legal questions. Although transplantation is a generally accepted therapeutic approach for impaired organ function, doctors do not promote it actively. Prospective donor-recipient pairs use the information obtained via internet and other sources before they contact the clinician. Doctors are hesitant to operate a healthy individual for allowing her or him to profit from this organ loss only emotionally or in an altruistic sense. Often a complex relationship between donor and recipient, as well as tissue incompatibility (ABO, HLA) may be additional reasons to restrain from carrying out living organ transplantation. To improve the chances for good organ function and better life quality of the patients we here propose a model for anonymous living organ donation with special reference to kidney transplantation.

  13. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  14. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  15. AIB-OR: Improving Onion Routing Circuit Construction Using Anonymous Identity-Based Cryptosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  16. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet.

  17. Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange: New Construction and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    An anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (anonymous PAKE) protocol is designed to provide both password-only authentication and user anonymity against a semi-honest server, who follows the protocol honestly. Very recently, Yang and Zhang [25] have proposed a new anonymous PAKE (NAPAKE) protocol that is claimed efficient compared to the previous constructions. In this paper, we propose a very-efficient anonymous PAKE (called, VEAP) protocol that provides the most efficiency among their kinds in terms of computation and communication costs. The VEAP protocol guarantees semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model under the chosen target CDH problem, and unconditional user anonymity against a semi-honest server. If the pre-computation is allowed, both the user and the server are required to compute only one modular exponentiation, respectively. Surprisingly, this is the same computation cost of the well-known Diffie-Hellman protocol that does not provide authentication at all. In addition, we extend the VEAP protocol in two ways: the first is designed to reduce the communication costs of the VEAP protocol and the second shows that stripping off anonymity parts from the VEAP protocol results in a new PAKE protocol.

  18. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  19. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  20. Seeking Insights About Cycling Mood Disorders via Anonymized Search Logs

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Mood disorders affect a significant portion of the general population. Cycling mood disorders are characterized by intermittent episodes (or events) of the disease. Objective Using anonymized Web search logs, we identify a population of people with significant interest in mood stabilizing drugs (MSD) and seek evidence of mood swings in this population. Methods We extracted queries to the Microsoft Bing search engine made by 20,046 Web searchers over six months, separately explored searcher demographics using data from a large external panel of users, and sought supporting information from people with mood disorders via a survey. We analyzed changes in information needs over time relative to searches on MSD. Results Queries for MSD focused on side effects and their relation to the disease. We found evidence of significant changes in search behavior and interests coinciding with days that MSD queries are made. These include large increases (>100%) in the access of nutrition information, commercial information, and adult materials. A survey of patients diagnosed with mood disorders provided evidence that repeated queries on MSD may come with exacerbations of mood disorder. A classifier predicting the occurrence of such queries one day before they are observed obtains strong performance (AUC=0.78). Conclusions Observed patterns in search behavior align with known behaviors and those highlighted by survey respondents. These observations suggest that searchers showing intensive interest in MSD may be patients who have been prescribed these drugs. Given behavioral dynamics, we surmise that the days on which MSD queries are made may coincide with commencement of mania or depression. Although we do not have data on mood changes and whether users have been diagnosed with bipolar illness, we see evidence of cycling in people who show interest in MSD and further show that we can predict impending shifts in behavior and interest. PMID:24568936

  1. AAS Career Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  2. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  3. HIV test-seeking before and after the restriction of anonymous testing in North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Lee, L W; Hoyo, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the impact on HIV test-seeking of North Carolina's restriction of anonymous testing to 18 of its 100 counties as of September 1, 1991. METHODS: Trends from 4 months prerestriction to the 16-month restriction period in counties retaining vs counties eliminating anonymous testing were compared. RESULTS: HIV testing increased throughout the state, but more rapidly where anonymous testing was retained than elsewhere: 64% vs 44%. These differences held for all sociodemographic subgroups and were most pronounced among adolescents and African Americans and other non-Whites. CONCLUSIONS: The data are consistent with a detrimental effect of elimination of anonymous testing, although confounding from differences in AIDS awareness or in repeat tests is possible. PMID:8876517

  4. The relationship between young adults' beliefs about anonymity and subsequent cyber aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2013-12-01

    Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given.

  5. Security analysis and improvement of an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  6. Anonymous Warrior: The Contributions of Harold L. George to Strategic Air Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    AU/ACSC/0126I/97–03 ANONYMOUS WARRIOR: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF HAROLD L. GEORGE TO STRATEGIC AIR POWER A Research Paper Presented To The Research...Documentation Page Report Date 00031997 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Anonymous Warrior: The contributions of Harold L...Situation and Recommendation for the Conduct of the War.” This revision proposed a general increase in bomber strength to account for the loss of sea

  7. An Enhanced Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Scheme for a Scalable Localization Roaming Service in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Youngseok; Choi, Seokjin; Lee, Youngsook; Park, Namje; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    More security concerns and complicated requirements arise in wireless sensor networks than in wired networks, due to the vulnerability caused by their openness. To address this vulnerability, anonymous authentication is an essential security mechanism for preserving privacy and providing security. Over recent years, various anonymous authentication schemes have been proposed. Most of them reveal both strengths and weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency. Recently, Farash et al. proposed a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme in ubiquitous networks, which remedies the security faults of previous schemes. However, their scheme still suffers from certain weaknesses. In this paper, we prove that Farash et al.’s scheme fails to provide anonymity, authentication, or password replacement. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Considering the limited capability of sensor nodes, we utilize only low-cost functions, such as one-way hash functions and bit-wise exclusive-OR operations. The security and lightness of the proposed scheme mean that it can be applied to roaming service in localized domains of wireless sensor networks, to provide anonymous authentication of sensor nodes. PMID:27739417

  8. A Secure Construction for Threshold Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    At Indocrypt 2005, Viet et al., [21] have proposed an anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocol and its threshold construction both of which are designed for client's password-based authentication and anonymity against a passive server, who does not deviate the protocol. In this paper, we first point out that their threshold construction is completely insecure against off-line dictionary attacks. For the threshold t > 1, we propose a secure threshold anonymous PAKE (for short, TAP) protocol with the number of clients n upper-bounded, such that n\\leq 2 \\sqrt{N-1} -1, where N is a dictionary size of passwords. We rigorously prove that the TAP protocol has semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model by showing the reduction to the computational Diffie-Hellman problem. In addition, the TAP protocol provides unconditional anonymity against a passive server. For the threshold t=1, we propose an efficient anonymous PAKE protocol that significantly improves efficiency in terms of computation costs and communication bandwidth compared to the original (not threshold) anonymous PAKE protocol [21].

  9. An Enhanced Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Scheme for a Scalable Localization Roaming Service in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Chung, Youngseok; Choi, Seokjin; Lee, Youngsook; Park, Namje; Won, Dongho

    2016-10-07

    More security concerns and complicated requirements arise in wireless sensor networks than in wired networks, due to the vulnerability caused by their openness. To address this vulnerability, anonymous authentication is an essential security mechanism for preserving privacy and providing security. Over recent years, various anonymous authentication schemes have been proposed. Most of them reveal both strengths and weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency. Recently, Farash et al. proposed a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme in ubiquitous networks, which remedies the security faults of previous schemes. However, their scheme still suffers from certain weaknesses. In this paper, we prove that Farash et al.'s scheme fails to provide anonymity, authentication, or password replacement. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Considering the limited capability of sensor nodes, we utilize only low-cost functions, such as one-way hash functions and bit-wise exclusive-OR operations. The security and lightness of the proposed scheme mean that it can be applied to roaming service in localized domains of wireless sensor networks, to provide anonymous authentication of sensor nodes.

  10. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  11. The Synergy of Depravity and Loneliness in Alcoholism: A New Conceptualization, an Old Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loos, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The author uses the term "depraved loneliness" to represent the spiritual sickness alluded to in "Alcoholics Anonymous," arguing that combining these terms to form a single paradigm has not been examined. Germinal qualitative research is necessary, and additional study of this proposed condition is encouraged. (Author)

  12. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  13. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  14. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  15. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  16. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  17. Size matters: How population size influences genotype–phenotype association studies in anonymized data

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua C.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Roden, Dan M.; Malin, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Electronic medical records (EMRs) data is increasingly incorporated into genome-phenome association studies. Investigators hope to share data, but there are concerns it may be “re-identified” through the exploitation of various features, such as combinations of standardized clinical codes. Formal anonymization algorithms (e.g., k-anonymization) can prevent such violations, but prior studies suggest that the size of the population available for anonymization may influence the utility of the resulting data. We systematically investigate this issue using a large-scale biorepository and EMR system through which we evaluate the ability of researchers to learn from anonymized data for genome- phenome association studies under various conditions. Methods We use a k-anonymization strategy to simulate a data protection process (on data sets containing clinical codes) for resources of similar size to those found at nine academic medical institutions within the United States. Following the protection process, we replicate an existing genome-phenome association study and compare the discoveries using the protected data and the original data through the correlation (r2) of the p-values of association significance. Results Our investigation shows that anonymizing an entire dataset with respect to the population from which it is derived yields significantly more utility than small study-specific datasets anonymized unto themselves. When evaluated using the correlation of genome-phenome association strengths on anonymized data versus original data, all nine simulated sites, results from largest-scale anonymizations (population ∼ 100;000) retained better utility to those on smaller sizes (population ∼ 6000—75;000). We observed a general trend of increasing r2 for larger data set sizes: r2 = 0.9481 for small-sized datasets, r2 = 0.9493 for moderately-sized datasets, r2 = 0.9934 for large-sized datasets. Conclusions This research implies that regardless of the

  18. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  19. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  20. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  1. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  2. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  3. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  4. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  5. Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lemar, Katey M.; Passa, Ourania; Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia; Müller, Carsten T.; Plummer, Sue; O’Rourke, Brian; Lloyd, David

    2009-01-01

    Both the growth and respiration of Candida albicans are sensitive to extracts of Allium sativum and investigations into the anticandidal activities are now focussing on the purified constituents to determine the targets of inhibition. Of particular interest is allyl alcohol (AA), a metabolic product that accumulates after trituration of garlic cloves. Putative targets for AA were investigated by monitoring changes in intracellular responses after exposure of C. albicans cells to AA or a commercially available garlic extract. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy and other techniques were used. Changes typical of oxidative stress – NADH oxidation and glutathione depletion, and increased reactive oxygen species – were observed microscopically and by flow cytometry. Known targets for AA are alcohol dehydrogenases Adh1 and 2 (in the cytosol) and Adh3 (mitochondrial), although the significant decrease in NAD(P)H after addition of AA is indicative of another mechanism of action. PMID:16207909

  6. Eliminating access to anonymous HIV antibody testing in North Carolina: effects on HIV testing and partner notification.

    PubMed

    Kassler, W J; Meriwether, R A; Klimko, T B; Peterman, T A; Zaidi, A

    1997-03-01

    Anonymous HIV testing may attract persons who might otherwise not be tested but may hinder partner notification. We evaluated the effects on North Carolina's HIV testing and partner notification programs of policy changes that eliminated and later restored anonymous testing in 82 counties. We used an interrupted time-series design to compare counties eliminating with counties retaining anonymous testing. We analyzed HIV testing and partner notification data from before, during, and after elimination of anonymous testing. After elimination of anonymous testing in 82 counties, the mean monthly level of testing (+/- SE) increased by 45%, or 548 (+/- 123) tests per month, while in 18 counties that retained anonymous testing, there was a 63% increase, or 802 (+/- 162) tests per month (p > .05). Among men of all races, testing increased by 16%, or 155 (+/- 35) tests per month, in counties that eliminated anonymous testing; and by 51%, or 305 (+/- 42) tests per month (p < .05), in counties that retained anonymous testing. After elimination of anonymous testing, both county types experienced similar increases in the rate of partners notified. However, partner notification was more successful if the index patient was tested confidentially; 2.7 times as many partners per index patient were notified and counseled. There was no effect on testing or on partner notification rates following restoration of anonymous testing. Substantial community opposition to eliminating anonymous testing was encountered. The policy change appeared to result in a slight decrease in testing among men and a slight increase in partners notified. Programs considering the elimination of anonymous testing should weigh these potential gains and losses, as well as the impact on relationships between the public health and advocacy communities

  7. Database Design to Ensure Anonymous Study of Medical Errors: A Report from the ASIPS collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Wilson D.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Higgins, Gregory S.; Main, Deborah S.; West, David R.; Harris, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Medical error reporting systems are important information sources for designing strategies to improve the safety of health care. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) is a multi-institutional, practice-based research project that collects and analyzes data on primary care medical errors and develops interventions to reduce error. The voluntary ASIPS Patient Safety Reporting System captures anonymous and confidential reports of medical errors. Confidential reports, which are quickly de-identified, provide better detail than do anonymous reports; however, concerns exist about the confidentiality of those reports should the database be subject to legal discovery or other security breaches. Standard database elements, for example, serial ID numbers, date/time stamps, and backups, could enable an outsider to link an ASIPS report to a specific medical error. The authors present the design and implementation of a database and administrative system that reduce this risk, facilitate research, and maintain near anonymity of the events, practices, and clinicians. PMID:12925548

  8. A bilinear pairing based anonymous authentication scheme in wireless body area networks for mHealth.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Lian, Xinxin; Yang, Chao; Ma, Jianfeng; Tian, Youliang; Yang, Yuanyuan

    2016-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have become one of the key components of mobile health (mHealth) which provides 24/7 health monitoring service and greatly improves the quality and efficiency of healthcare. However, users' concern about the security and privacy of their health information has become one of the major obstacles that impede the wide adoption of WBANs. Anonymous and unlinkable authentication is critical to protect the security and privacy of sensitive physiological information in transit from the client to the application provider. We first show that the anonymous authentication scheme of Wang and Zhang based on bilinear pairing is prone to client impersonation attack. Then, we propose an enhanced anonymous authentication scheme to remedy the flaw in Wang and Zhang's scheme. We give the security analysis to demonstrate that the enhanced scheme achieves the desired security features and withstands various known attacks.

  9. Database design to ensure anonymous study of medical errors: a report from the ASIPS Collaborative.

    PubMed

    Pace, Wilson D; Staton, Elizabeth W; Higgins, Gregory S; Main, Deborah S; West, David R; Harris, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    Medical error reporting systems are important information sources for designing strategies to improve the safety of health care. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) is a multi-institutional, practice-based research project that collects and analyzes data on primary care medical errors and develops interventions to reduce error. The voluntary ASIPS Patient Safety Reporting System captures anonymous and confidential reports of medical errors. Confidential reports, which are quickly de-identified, provide better detail than do anonymous reports; however, concerns exist about the confidentiality of those reports should the database be subject to legal discovery or other security breaches. Standard database elements, for example, serial ID numbers, date/time stamps, and backups, could enable an outsider to link an ASIPS report to a specific medical error. The authors present the design and implementation of a database and administrative system that reduce this risk, facilitate research, and maintain near anonymity of the events, practices, and clinicians.

  10. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  11. Anonymizing datasets with demographics and diagnosis codes in the presence of utility constraints.

    PubMed

    Poulis, Giorgos; Loukides, Grigorios; Skiadopoulos, Spiros; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2017-01-01

    Publishing data about patients that contain both demographics and diagnosis codes is essential to perform large-scale, low-cost medical studies. However, preserving the privacy and utility of such data is challenging, because it requires: (i) guarding against identity disclosure (re-identification) attacks based on both demographics and diagnosis codes, (ii) ensuring that the anonymized data remain useful in intended analysis tasks, and (iii) minimizing the information loss, incurred by anonymization, to preserve the utility of general analysis tasks that are difficult to determine before data publishing. Existing anonymization approaches are not suitable for being used in this setting, because they cannot satisfy all three requirements. Therefore, in this work, we propose a new approach to deal with this problem. We enforce the requirement (i) by applying (k,k(m))-anonymity, a privacy principle that prevents re-identification from attackers who know the demographics of a patient and up to m of their diagnosis codes, where k and m are tunable parameters. To capture the requirement (ii), we propose the concept of utility constraint for both demographics and diagnosis codes. Utility constraints limit the amount of generalization and are specified by data owners (e.g., the healthcare institution that performs anonymization). We also capture requirement (iii), by employing well-established information loss measures for demographics and for diagnosis codes. To realize our approach, we develop an algorithm that enforces (k,k(m))-anonymity on a dataset containing both demographics and diagnosis codes, in a way that satisfies the specified utility constraints and with minimal information loss, according to the measures. Our experiments with a large dataset containing more than 200,000 electronic health records show the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm.

  12. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions.

  13. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  14. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  15. Darknet and bitcoin, the obscure and anonymous side of the internet in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Masoni, Marco; Guelfi, Maria Renza; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-11-14

    Illegal activities prosecutable by law in the real life can be committed on the internet alike. In the healthcare domain, we refer mainly to selling of illegal and counterfeit drugs, exchange of pedo-pornographic material and marketing of stolen medical records. These illegal activities are made easier by recent developments of the Internet that medical community must be aware of: darknet and bitcoin. The first allows anonymous surfing and the last anonymous financial transactions. After discussing which healthcare areas are affected by these technological developments of the Internet and the deriving consequences, then the Authors express their opinion on what actions can be taken to protect internet community.

  16. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  17. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  18. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  19. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...

  20. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  1. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  2. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  3. A Case Study on Measuring Statistical Data in the Tor Anonymity Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loesing, Karsten; Murdoch, Steven J.; Dingledine, Roger

    The Tor network is one of the largest deployed anonymity networks, consisting of 1500+ volunteer-run relays and probably hundreds of thousands of clients connecting every day. Its large user-base has made it attractive for researchers to analyze usage of a real deployed anonymity network. The recent growth of the network has also led to performance problems, as well as attempts by some governments to block access to the Tor network. Investigating these performance problems and learning about network blocking is best done by measuring usage data of the Tor network. However, analyzing a live anonymity system must be performed with great care, so that the users' privacy is not put at risk. In this paper we present a case study of measuring two different types of sensitive data in the Tor network: countries of connecting clients, and exiting traffic by port. Based on these examples we derive general guidelines for safely measuring potentially sensitive data, both in the Tor network and in other anonymity networks.

  4. Anonymous Examination Marking at University of Cape Town: The Quest for an "Agonising-Free Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, S.; Jones, B.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the University of Cape Town introduced an anonymous examination policy. This article reports on a study of the impact of the implementation of this policy on student performance. Comparisons of student results pre- and post policy implementation showed no evidence of negative or positive discrimination of students in the examination…

  5. A Variation on the Use of Interactive Anonymous Quizzes in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an interesting variation on the use of interactive anonymous quizzes (IAQs) in the chemistry classroom. In this variation, IAQs are used to introduce new material or topics in a course, as opposed to their traditional use for reviewing previously covered material. Two examples of IAQs used to introduce new topics in a…

  6. Anonymity to Promote Peer Feedback: Pre-Service Teachers' Comments in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Craig D.; Barrett, Andrew F.; Frick, Theodore W.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental case study, we compared five sections of a basic undergraduate technology course. Within an asynchronous web forum, pre-service teachers wrote short critiques of websites designed by their classmates. This peer feedback was provided anonymously by students in two classes (n = 35) whereas providers and recipients of peer…

  7. The ideal of the anonymous analyst and the problem of self-disclosure.

    PubMed

    Renik, O

    1995-07-01

    The principle of analytic anonymity is critically reviewed. A connection between the technical stance of nondisclosure and idealization of the analyst is proposed. Some preliminary suggestions are offered concerning what kinds of information about the analyst are useful to communicate to a patient.

  8. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  9. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  10. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  11. Understanding the Role of Storytelling in the Transformation of Female Cocaine Addicts in Narcotics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Melissa Weida

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the role of storytelling in the transformation of female cocaine addicts in Narcotics Anonymous. For this research the primary investigator utilized a theoretical orientation of transformative learning theory and storytelling. The rationale for employing transformative learning theory is that…

  12. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  13. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  14. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  15. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  16. Counselling couples and donors for oocyte donation: the decision to use either known or anonymous oocytes.

    PubMed

    Baetens, P; Devroey, P; Camus, M; Van Steirteghem, A C; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I

    2000-02-01

    In order to avoid a long waiting period, the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Free University of Brussels suggests that couples in need of donor oocytes search for a donor among family and friends. Recipient couples can choose between two types of donation: known donation, i.e. treatment with the oocytes of the donor recruited by the couple, or anonymous donation, i.e. an exchange of the donor recruited by the couple with a donor recruited by another couple in order to ensure anonymity between donor and recipients. In total, 144 couples were counselled by a psychologist in the decision-making process with regard to the kind of donation to be used. Some 68.8% of the recipient couples preferred known donation. This choice was mainly motivated by reasons related to fears associated with anonymity, such as fear of the unknown origin of genetic material and the trust that couples had in 'their' donor. Almost one-third of the couples opted to use anonymous oocytes. The desire to establish explicit boundaries between the two families involved was the major motivation for this choice. Approximately 44% of the couples were willing to tell the child about the oocyte donation.

  17. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  18. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  19. Maintaining the anonymity of cadavers in medical education: Historic relic or educational and ethical necessity?

    PubMed

    Jones, D Gareth; King, Mike R

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the modern history of anatomical dissection by medical and other health science students, cadavers have been anonymized. This has meant that students have been provided with limited, if any, information on the identities or medical histories of those they are dissecting. While there was little way around this when the bodies were unclaimed, this need not be the case when the bodies have been donated. However, with a few exceptions, no efforts have been made to change this model. Recent attempts to move anatomy teaching in a more humanistic direction, by emphasizing the cadaver as the students' first patient and with the growth of commemoration services following the dissecting process, raise the question of whether cadavers should continue to be anonymized. In laying a basis for discussion of this matter, we outline what appear to be the virtues of anonymity, and the form that alternatives to anonymity might take. The options identified are nonidentification, low information; nonidentification, moderate information; and identification, full information. The virtues and drawbacks of each of these possibilities are assessed by analyzing their value for students, and also for donors and their families. Policy issues raised by alternatives are also considered. This article provides a basis for continued discussion and suggestions for further research in this area. Anat Sci Educ 10: 87-97. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  1. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    PubMed

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case.

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  3. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  4. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  5. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  7. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  8. Drugs and chronic alcohol abuse in drivers.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schneider, Serge; Yegles, Michel; Maul, Armand; Wennig, Robert

    2005-12-20

    Blood specimens from 210 drivers (179 male and 31 female) apprehended in Luxembourg from autumn 2001 to spring 2002 and requested for the determination of their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were tested for medicinal drugs, illicit drugs, and chronic alcohol abuse (by quantification of the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin: CDT). These additional analyses were performed anonymously and with permission of state prosecutor. The 22.8% had consumed medicinal drugs, with benzodiazepines and antidepressants (10.9 and 7.6%, respectively) as main psychoactive classes. Cannabis was the most detected illicit drug (9.5%) but only one in three had THC detectable in their blood. Association of two or more psychoactive substances (poly-drug use) was observed in 27.6% of drivers (90.6% of drug consumers). On the basis of CDT values, 29.5% of drivers investigated were assumed to be chronic alcohol abusers. Statistical analysis revealed that chronic alcohol abuse and medicinal psychoactive drugs were associated with significantly higher BAC. Medicinal psychoactive drugs were clearly associated with poly-drug use, and were furthermore detected at supra-therapeutic levels in 34.9%.

  9. GABA receptors, alcohol dependence and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Tucci, Marianna; Sartore, Daniela; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Di Pietra, Laura; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the connection between alcohol dependence and criminal behavior by an integrated genetic-environmental approach. The research, structured as a case-control study, examined 186 alcohol-dependent males; group 1 (N = 47 convicted subjects) was compared with group 2 (N = 139 no previous criminal records). Genetic results were innovative, highlighting differences in genotype distribution (p = 0.0067) in group 1 for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs 3780428, located in the intronic region of subunit 2 of the GABA B receptor gene (GABBR2). Some environmental factors (e.g., grade repetition) were associated with criminal behavior; others (e.g., attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous) were inversely related to convictions. The concomitant presence of the genetic and environmental factors found to be associated with the condition of alcohol-dependent inmate showed a 4-fold increase in the risk of antisocial behavior. The results need to be replicated on a larger population to develop new preventive and therapeutic proposals.

  10. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  11. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  12. The multivariate concentric square field test reveals different behavioural profiles in male AA and ANA rats with regard to risk taking and environmental reactivity.

    PubMed

    Roman, Erika; Meyerson, Bengt J; Hyytiä, Petri; Nylander, Ingrid

    2007-11-02

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the behavioural profiles in alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, alcohol) and alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, non-alcohol) rats. Twelve adult, alcohol-naïve male AA and ANA rats were tested in the recently established multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The more traditional open field and elevated plus-maze tests were used as reference tests. Six weeks after the initial MCSF test, a repeated testing was used to explore differences in acquired recognition after a previous experience. The results revealed distinct differences between the two lines. The ANA rats were generally more active in the three tests. In the MCSF, parameters of risk taking and shelter seeking indicated differences between the two lines. The ANA rats had higher shelter seeking behaviour and less risk taking behaviour than the AA rats. Repeated exposure to the MCSF caused a general decrease in activity and reduction in the number of visits to the various zones, especially evident in the ANA rats. The ANA rats showed more shelter seeking than the AA rats and also more shelter seeking than in the first trial, supporting an "anxiety-like" profile in these rats. In conclusion, the parameters related to risk taking and shelter seeking revealed obvious differences between AA and ANA rats. The higher risk taking behaviour seen in the AA rats might relate to their innate propensity for high voluntary alcohol intake. The results are discussed in relation to the reported neurobiological differences and in relation to other alcohol-preferring and alcohol-avoiding rat lines.

  13. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  14. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  15. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  16. Gene-based and pathway-based genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    ZUO, Lingjun; ZHANG, Clarence K.; SAYWARD, Frederick G.; CHEUNG, Kei-Hoi; WANG, Kesheng; KRYSTAL, John H.; ZHAO, Hongyu; LUO, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    Background The organization of risk genes within signaling pathways may provide clues about the converging neurobiological effects of risk genes for alcohol dependence. Aim Identify risk genes and risk gene pathways for alcohol dependence. Methods We conducted a pathway-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) of alcohol dependence using a gene-set-rich analytic approach. Approximately one million genetic markers were tested in the discovery sample which included 1409 European-American (EA) alcohol dependent individuals and 1518 EA healthy comparison subjects. An additional 681 African-American (AA) cases and 508 AA healthy subjects served as the replication sample. Results We identified several genome-wide replicable risk genes and risk pathways that were significantly associated with alcohol dependence. After applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the ‘cellextracellular matrix interactions’ pathway (p<2.0E-4 in EAs) and the PXN gene (which encodes paxillin) (p=3.9E-7 in EAs) within this pathway were the most promising risk factors for alcohol dependence. There were also two nominally replicable pathways enriched in alcohol dependence-related genes in both EAs (0.015≤p≤0.035) and AAs (0.025≤p≤0.050): the ‘Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters’ pathway and the ‘other glycan degradation’ pathway. Conclusion These findings provide new evidence highlighting several genes and biological signaling processes that may be related to the risk for alcohol dependence. PMID:26120261

  17. Anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange scheme for Telecare Medical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Dong, Na; Wong, Duncan S

    2014-01-01

    Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS) provide an effective way to enhance the medical process between doctors, nurses and patients. For enhancing the security and privacy of TMIS, it is important while challenging to enhance the TMIS so that a patient and a doctor can perform mutual authentication and session key establishment using a third-party medical server while the privacy of the patient can be ensured. In this paper, we propose an anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange (3PAKE) protocol for TMIS. The protocol is based on the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem. For security, we apply the pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our 3PAKE protocol for TMIS can provide anonymity for patient and doctor while at the same time achieves mutual authentication and session key security. The proposed scheme is secure and efficient, and can be used in TMIS.

  18. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs.

  19. Anonymous Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Scheme for Telecare Medical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Dong, Na; Wong, Duncan S.

    2014-01-01

    Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS) provide an effective way to enhance the medical process between doctors, nurses and patients. For enhancing the security and privacy of TMIS, it is important while challenging to enhance the TMIS so that a patient and a doctor can perform mutual authentication and session key establishment using a third-party medical server while the privacy of the patient can be ensured. In this paper, we propose an anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange (3PAKE) protocol for TMIS. The protocol is based on the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem. For security, we apply the pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our 3PAKE protocol for TMIS can provide anonymity for patient and doctor while at the same time achieves mutual authentication and session key security. The proposed scheme is secure and efficient, and can be used in TMIS. PMID:25047235

  20. An efficient anonymous authentication scheme for wireless body area networks using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-02-01

    With the development of wireless networks and medical sensors, wireless body area networks are playing more and more important role in the field of healthcare service. The data transmitted in WBANs is very sensitive since it will be used in clinical diagnoses or measurements. Therefore, security and privacy of communication in WBANs derive increasing attentions from the academia and industry. In this paper, we propose an identity (ID)-based efficient anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs using elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC). Due to the ID-based concept, there is no certificate is needed in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed scheme not only provides mutual authentication between the client and the application provider but also provides client anonymity. Performance analysis shows that improvements of 50.58% and 3.87% in the client side and the application provider side separately. Then the proposed scheme is more suitable for WBANs.

  1. Stronger transferability but lower variability in transcriptomic- than in anonymous microsatellites: evidence from Hylid frogs.

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Brelsford, Alan; Béziers, Paul; Perrin, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    A simple way to quickly optimize microsatellites in nonmodel organisms is to reuse loci available in closely related taxa; however, this approach can be limited by the stochastic and low cross-amplification success experienced in some groups (e.g. amphibians). An efficient alternative is to develop loci from transcriptome sequences. Transcriptomic microsatellites have been found to vary in their levels of cross-species amplification and variability, but this has to date never been tested in amphibians. Here, we compare the patterns of cross-amplification and levels of polymorphism of 18 published anonymous microsatellites isolated from genomic DNA vs. 17 loci derived from a transcriptome, across nine species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea and Hyla cinerea group). We established a clear negative relationship between divergence time and amplification success, which was much steeper for anonymous than transcriptomic markers, with half-lives (time at which 50% of the markers still amplify) of 1.1 and 37 My, respectively. Transcriptomic markers are significantly less polymorphic than anonymous loci, but remain variable across diverged taxa. We conclude that the exploitation of amphibian transcriptomes for developing microsatellites seems an optimal approach for multispecies surveys (e.g. analyses of hybrid zones, comparative linkage mapping), whereas anonymous microsatellites may be more informative for fine-scale analyses of intraspecific variation. Moreover, our results confirm the pattern that microsatellite cross-amplification is greatly variable among amphibians and should be assessed independently within target lineages. Finally, we provide a bank of microsatellites for Palaearctic tree frogs (so far only available for H. arborea), which will be useful for conservation and evolutionary studies in this radiation.

  2. The Dining Cryptographer Problem-Based Anonymous Quantum Communication via Non-maximally Entanglement State Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ronghua; Su, Qian; Guo, Ying; Huang, Dazu

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate an anonymous quantum communication (AQC) via the non-maximally entanglement state analysis (NESA) based on the dining cryptographer problem (DCP). The security of the present AQC is ensured due to the quantum-mechanical impossibility of local unitary transformations between non-maximally entanglement states, which provides random numbers for the secure AQC. The analysis shows that the DCP-based AQC can be performed without intractability through the NESA in the multi-photon entangled quantum system.

  3. Cryptanalysis of the Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka Anonymous Attribute Authentication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Haeryong

    Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka proposed a perfectly ano-nymous attribute authentication scheme that realizes unidentifiable and untraceable authentication with offline revocation checking. The Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka scheme uses a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly. Thus, the certificate is modified for each authentication and the authentication scheme has the unidentifiable property and the untraceable property. However, in this letter, we show that the Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka scheme is insecure against the impersonation attack.

  4. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  5. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy.

  6. [Analysis of the recent use of an anonymous FTP server in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan].

    PubMed

    Satoh, N

    1996-03-01

    An analysis of the recent use of an Anonymous FTP Server in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan for the distribution of software and documents through Internet was examined. The following points were confirmed. The use of the Anonymous FTP server for receiving files from outside the university rapidly increased after making the Anonymous FTP server public. The average file transfer rate in use from outside the university was less than ten percentage points from that of local use. The time for local use was stabilized, but the time for use outside the university was variable.

  7. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  8. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  9. Gamete donor anonymity and limits on numbers of offspring: the views of three stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Margaret K.; Hertz, Rosanna; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the attitudes of three groups of stakeholders in the world of assisted reproduction gamete donors, parents who use donated gamete, and offspring conceived with donated gametes with respect to the two issues of donor anonymity and limits on the number of offspring a single donor can produce. The data are drawn from on-line surveys which were made available between May 12, 2104 and August 15, 2014 to gamete donors, donor-conceived offspring, and parents who used donated gametes to conceive. A total of 325 donors (176 egg donors; 149 sperm donors) responded to the survey as did 2134 parents and 419 offspring. The data show that offspring are more opposed to donor anonymity than are parents and donors. Among offspring opposition to anonymity grows as they age. On the other hand, parents are most in favor of limits on numbers of offspring produced by a single donor. Parents worry about health and accidental contact between people conceived from the same donor. PMID:27774232

  10. Does the type of anonymity matter? The impact of visualization on information sharing in online groups.

    PubMed

    Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwämmlein, Eva; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Groups who share information in computer-mediated settings often have to deal with the issue of anonymity. Previous research has shown that only people with a prosocial orientation--that is, those whose main interest is to add to the benefit of the group as a whole--are willing to share information in anonymous situations. The willingness to share information by those people with a proself orientation--that is, those who put more emphasis on their personal benefit--can be increased by providing photographs of the other group members. The information-sharing behavior of prosocials, however, suffers from such a deletion of anonymity. In an online experiment, we examined how information-sharing behavior of proselfs may be increased without negatively influencing the information-sharing behavior of prosocials in an online setting. It was shown that even proselfs share information if the group members are visualized in a homogeneous way, while prosocials' information-sharing behavior is not impaired by this visualization. In addition, the results suggest that people's perceived homogeneity of the online group, as well as the importance of the collective goal, are the underlying processes of this effect. These results have important practical implications for the design of online information-sharing settings.

  11. kACTUS 2: Privacy Preserving in Classification Tasks Using k-Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisilevich, Slava; Elovici, Yuval; Shapira, Bracha; Rokach, Lior

    k-anonymity is the method used for masking sensitive data which successfully solves the problem of re-linking of data with an external source and makes it difficult to re-identify the individual. Thus k-anonymity works on a set of quasi-identifiers (public sensitive attributes), whose possible availability and linking is anticipated from external dataset, and demands that the released dataset will contain at least k records for every possible quasi-identifier value. Another aspect of k is its capability of maintaining the truthfulness of the released data (unlike other existing methods). This is achieved by generalization, a primary technique in k-anonymity. Generalization consists of generalizing attribute values and substituting them with semantically consistent but less precise values. When the substituted value doesn’t preserve semantic validity the technique is called suppression which is a private case of generalization. We present a hybrid approach called compensation which is based on suppression and swapping for achieving privacy. Since swapping decreases the truthfulness of attribute values there is a tradeoff between level of swapping (information truthfulness) and suppression (information loss) incorporated in our algorithm.

  12. Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol for Location Privacy in WSN: A Modular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN. PMID:25763649

  13. There is no ``I'' in referee: Why referees should be anonymous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucko, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    From the early days of modern science, it has been recognized that scientific claims must be verified by someone who is not the maker of those claims, and who furthermore has no stake in the matter. In other words, claims need to be evaluated objectively, by the community. The way in which this tends to be done is by peer review conducted by journals. Peer review as currently practiced touches on the themes of trust, where the trust is in institutions and procedures that emerge from expert communities. The practice of peer review is viewed as a citizenly duty of scientists in the scientific community, because all scientists take turns serving either as authors, referees, and editors in the peer review process We lack the resources to have a work evaluated by the entire community, so we substitute with a representative. Yet, in most examples of scientific review, the referee or referees are anonymous. This question is particularly important when the peer review process is brought to bear in order to evaluate matters beyond scientific validity, more ``subjective'' criteria such as relative importance, broadness of interest - criteria that do not appear to have an objective standard of comparison and validation. I will show that the anonymity of referees, far from endangering this trust, actually strengthens it. I will show that this anonymity is crucial in order to maintain any objectivity in scientific peer review, and why authors should not try to unmask the referee. Also at American Physical Society (APS).

  14. Fortified anonymous communication protocol for location privacy in WSN: a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-03-10

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN.

  15. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections.A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems.Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79-1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42-1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82-1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41-1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61-1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.98-2.16). Having higher Center

  16. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  17. Male batterers' alcohol use and gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-03-01

    Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.

  18. Gender, Acculturation, and Other Barriers to Alcohol Treatment Utilization among Latinos in Three National Alcohol Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Mulia, Nina; Ye, Yu; Borges, Guilherme; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    This study, using 3 waves of U.S. National Alcohol Surveys (1995-2005), examines lifetime alcohol treatment utilization and perceived treatment barriers among Latinos. The sample included 4204 Latinos (2178 women, 2024 men); data were weighted. Analyses were linear and logistic regressions. Controlling for survey year, severity, and other covariates, male gender and English language interview predicted higher utilization generally and AA use specifically; English interview was also associated with institutional treatment. (Effects for gender on general utilization were marginal.) Other predictors of utilization included older age, lower education, greater social pressures, greater legal consequences, greater dependence symptoms, and public insurance. Whereas men and women differed little on perceived barriers, analyses showed greater barriers among Spanish (vs. English) interviewees. Latina women's underutilization of alcohol treatment requires further research, but may be partially explained by stigma. Associations between language of interview and treatment utilization imply a need for outreach and culturally sensitive programming. PMID:19004599

  19. Ethical Aspects of Participating in Psychology Experiments: Effects of Anonymity on Evaluation, and Complaints of Distressed Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Bruce K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Distressed research participants were identified and contacted to investigate their experiences. Anxiety due to physical discomfort was the primary complaint. However, the experiments had very mild distress effects on the subjects. Anonymity did not influence responses. (CS)

  20. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  3. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  4. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Final report: Report period, 15 April 1993--15 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    This Report concludes the DOE Human Genome Program project, ``Identification of Genes in Anonymous DNA Sequence.`` The central goals of this project have been (1) understanding the problem of identifying genes in anonymous sequences, and (2) development of tools, primarily the automated identification system gm, for identifying genes. The activities supported under the previous award are summarized here to provide a single complete report on the activities supported as part of the project from its inception to its completion.

  5. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  6. Immune response to acetaldehyde-human serum albumin adduct among healthy subjects related to alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Schilirò, Tiziana; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the main metabolic product in ethanol metabolism, although it can also derive from sources of airborne pollution. As a typical aldehyde, AA is able to react with a variety of molecular targets, including DNA and protein. This property justifies the hypothesis of a immune reaction against this kind of adduct, to be studied by a seroprevalence screening approach. In this study, the correlation between drinking habits and the amount of circulating AA-human serum albumin adduct (AA-HSA) was evaluated in a group of healthy subjects, non alcohol-addicted. Daily ethanol intake (grams) was inferred for each subject using the information collected through a questionnaire, and AA-HSA antibodies (AA-HSA ab) analyses were performed using the Displacement Assay on whole blood samples. The findings showed a correlation between ethanol intake and immune response to molecular adduct. These results underscore the evaluation of AA-HSA ab amount as a suitable molecular marker for alcohol intake that can be applied in future investigations on a large scale for prevention screening.

  7. Investigation of the Association Between Alcohol Outlet Density and Alcohol-Related Hospital Admission Rates in England: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, John; Green, Mark; Strong, Mark; Pearson, Tim; Meier, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Availability of alcohol is a major policy issue for governments, and one of the availability factors is the density of alcohol outlets within geographic areas. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions for alcohol-related conditions in a national (English) small area level ecological study. Methods This project will employ ecological correlation and cross-sectional time series study designs to examine spatial and temporal relationships between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions. Census units to be used in the analysis will include all Lower and Middle Super-Output Areas (LSOAs and MSOAs) in England (53 million total population; 32,482 LSOAs and 6781 MSOAs). LSOAs (approximately 1500 people per LSOA) will support investigation at a fine spatial resolution. Spatio-temporal associations will be investigated using MSOAs (approximately 7500 people per MSOA). The project will use comprehensive coverage data on alcohol outlets in England (from 2003, 2007, 2010, and 2013) from a commercial source, which has estimated that the database includes 98% of all alcohol outlets in England. Alcohol outlets may be classified into two broad groups: on-trade outlets, comprising outlets from which alcohol can be purchased and consumed on the premises (eg, pubs); and off-trade outlets, in which alcohol can be purchased but not consumed on the premises (eg, off-licenses). In the 2010 dataset, there are 132,989 on-trade and 51,975 off-trade outlets. The longitudinal data series will allow us to examine associations between changes in outlet density and changes in hospital admission rates. The project will use anonymized data on alcohol-related hospital admissions in England from 2003 to 2013 and investigate associations with acute (eg, admissions for injuries) and chronic (eg, admissions for alcoholic liver disease) harms. The investigation will include the examination of conditions that

  8. The national alcohol helpline in Sweden: an evaluation of its first year

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Telephone helplines are easily available and can offer anonymity. Alcohol helplines may be a potential gateway to a more advanced support protocol, and they may function as a primary support option for some. However, although telephone helplines (quitlines) make up an established evidence-based support arena for smoking cessation, few studies have described such telephone-based alcohol counseling. Methods This study describes the basic characteristics of callers (n = 480) to the Swedish Alcohol Helpline during its first year of operation, and assesses aspects of change in alcohol behavior in a selected cohort of clients (n = 40) willing to abstain from anonymity and enter a proactive support protocol. Results During the study period, 50% of callers called for consultation regarding their own alcohol use (clients), a third called about relatives with alcohol problems, and the others called for information. The clients’ average age was 49 years, and half were females. The clients’ average AUDIT score at baseline was 21 (std. dev. =7.2). Approximately a quarter had scores indicating hazardous alcohol use at baseline, while the others had higher scores. In a follow-up pilot study, the average AUDIT score had decreased from 21 to 14. While clients reporting more severe alcohol use showed a significant decrease at follow-up, hazardous users exhibited no change during the study period. Conclusion The study indicates that telephone helplines addressing the general public can be a primary-care option to reduce risky alcohol use. A randomized controlled study is needed to control for the effect of spontaneous recovery. PMID:25015403

  9. Blinded Anonymization: a method for evaluating cancer prevention programs under restrictive data protection regulations.

    PubMed

    Bartholomäus, Sebastian; Hense, Hans Werner; Heidinger, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating cancer prevention programs requires collecting and linking data on a case specific level from multiple sources of the healthcare system. Therefore, one has to comply with data protection regulations which are restrictive in Germany and will likely become stricter in Europe in general. To facilitate the mortality evaluation of the German mammography screening program, with more than 10 Million eligible women, we developed a method that does not require written individual consent and is compliant to existing privacy regulations. Our setup is composed of different data owners, a data collection center (DCC) and an evaluation center (EC). Each data owner uses a dedicated software that preprocesses plain-text personal identifiers (IDAT) and plaintext evaluation data (EDAT) in such a way that only irreversibly encrypted record assignment numbers (RAN) and pre-aggregated, reversibly encrypted EDAT are transmitted to the DCC. The DCC uses the RANs to perform a probabilistic record linkage which is based on an established and evaluated algorithm. For potentially identifying attributes within the EDAT ('quasi-identifiers'), we developed a novel process, named 'blinded anonymization'. It allows selecting a specific generalization from the pre-processed and encrypted attribute aggregations, to create a new data set with assured k-anonymity, without using any plain-text information. The anonymized data is transferred to the EC where the EDAT is decrypted and used for evaluation. Our concept was approved by German data protection authorities. We implemented a prototype and tested it with more than 1.5 Million simulated records, containing realistically distributed IDAT. The core processes worked well with regard to performance parameters. We created different generalizations and calculated the respective suppression rates. We discuss modalities, implications and limitations for large data sets in the cancer registry domain, as well as approaches for further

  10. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  11. Anonymous One-Time Broadcast Using Non-interactive Dining Cryptographer Nets with Applications to Voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Graaf, Jeroen

    All voting protocols proposed so far, with the exception of a few, have the property that the privacy of the ballot is only computational. In this paper we outline a new and conceptually simple approach allowing us to construct a protocol in which the privacy of the ballot is unconditional. Our basic idea is to modify the protocol of Fujioka, Okamoto and Ohta[1], which uses blind signatures so that the voter can obtain a valid ballot. However, instead of using a MIX net, we use a new broadcast protocol for anonymously publishing the vote, a Non-Interactive variation of the Dining Cryptographer Net.

  12. The elimination of anonymous HIV testing: a case study in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Williams, Delbert E; Foust, Evelyn

    2002-11-01

    In May 1997, anonymous human immunodeficiency virus testing in publicly funded clinics was eliminated throughout North Carolina. There were concerns that this decision would disenfranchise testers with certain behavioral profiles. North Carolina's counseling and testing system was used to evaluate the effect of this policy change. A 10.3 percent decline in overall testing and a 21.7 percent decline among men who had sex with other men were identified in the year following the policy change. However, between 13 and 24 months after the policy change, the number of tests administered returned to near pre-policy levels. Understanding North Carolina's experience can assist others considering similar policy changes.

  13. DARPP-32 and Akt regulation in ethanol-preferring AA and ethanol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Saara; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Panula, Pertti

    2011-09-26

    Ethanol and other addictive drugs affect many intracellular phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. These cascades are thought to be highly important in the regulation of neuronal activity. The present experiments characterized the regulation of three key signaling molecules, DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein, 32kDa), Akt kinase and ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2) in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, alcohol) and ethanol-avoiding ANA (Alko, non-alcohol) rat lines. Radioactive in situ hybridization was used in drug naïve animals and Western blotting after acute ethanol administration in striatum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The mRNA levels of DARPP-32 in striatal areas were higher in ANA rats than in AA rats. There was no difference in the striatal enriched phosphatase (STEP61), the downstream target of DARPP-32 expression between the rat lines. Ethanol (1.5g/kg) increased phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at threonine 34 in both AA and in ANA rats indicating that acute ethanol activates DARPP-32 similarly in these rat lines. The expression of Akt kinase was higher in the CA1 of hippocampus in ANA than in AA rats and acute ethanol activated Akt in hippocampus in ANA but not in AA rats. No significant alterations in the regulation of ERK1/2 were found in either rat line. Our findings suggest that DARPP-32 and Akt are regulated by ethanol and differences in the regulation of these molecules might contribute to the dramatically different ethanol drinking patterns seen in AA and ANA rats.

  14. Neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure: assessment of voluntary maternal participation in an open meconium screening program.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-05-01

    Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are validated biomarkers of fetal alcohol exposure. Meconium FAEE testing can potentially be used as a screen by health-care professionals to identify neonates at-risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, thereby permitting diagnostic follow-up of these children and early intervention in those who develop disabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess whether women would willingly partake in a screening program of this nature. This was determined by launching a pilot screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure in a high-risk obstetric unit previously shown to have a high prevalence of FAEE-positive meconium via anonymous meconium testing. The program involved voluntary testing of meconium for FAEEs and long-term developmental follow-up of positive cases through an existing public health program. The participation rate in the screening program was significantly lower than when testing was conducted anonymously (78% vs. 95%, respectively; p < 0.05), and the positivity rate was 3% in contrast to 30% observed under anonymous conditions (p < 0.001). These low rates suggest that the majority of mothers who consumed alcohol in pregnancy refused to participate. We conclude that despite the potential benefits of such screening programs, maternal unwillingness to consent, likely due to fear, embarrassment, and guilt, may limit the effectiveness of meconium testing for population-based open screening, highlighting the need for public education and social marketing efforts for such programs to be of benefit.

  15. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...

  17. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  18. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  19. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  20. Application of EU tissue and cell directive screening protocols to anonymous oocyte donors in western Ukraine: data from an Irish IVF programme.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A P H; Omar, A B; Collins, G S; Murray, G U; Walsh, D J; Salma, U; Sills, E Scott

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous oocyte donation in the EU proceeds only after rigorous screening designed to ensure gamete safety. If anonymous donor gametes originating from outside EU territory are used by EU patients, donor testing must conform to the same standards as if gamete procurement had occurred in the EU. In Ireland, IVF recipients can be matched to anonymous donors in the Ukraine (a non-EU country). This investigation describes the evolution of anonymous oocyte donor screening methods during this period and associated results. Data were reviewed for all participants in an anonymous donor oocyte IVF programme from 2006 to 2009, when testing consistent with contemporary EU screening requirements was performed on all Ukrainian oocyte donors. HIV and hepatitis tests were aggregated from 314 anonymous oocyte donors and 265 recipients. The results included 5,524 Ukrainian women who were interviewed and 314 of these entered the programme (5.7% accession rate). Mean age of anonymous oocyte donors was 27.9 years; all had achieved at least one delivery. No case of hepatitis or HIV was detected at initial screening or at oocyte procurement. This is the first study of HIV and hepatitis incidence specifically among Ukrainian oocyte donors. We find anonymous oocyte donors to be a low-risk group, despite a high background HIV rate. Following full disclosure of the donation process, most Ukrainian women wishing to volunteer as anonymous oocyte donors do not participate. Current EU screening requirements appear adequate to maintain patient safety in the context of anonymous donor oocyte IVF.

  1. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  2. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems. Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79–1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42–1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82–1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03–1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00–1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41–1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61–1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1

  3. SN 2012aa: A transient between Type Ibc core-collapse and superluminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, R.; Sollerman, J.; Silverman, J. M.; Pastorello, A.; Fransson, C.; Drake, A.; Taddia, F.; Fremling, C.; Kankare, E.; Kumar, B.; Cappellaro, E.; Bose, S.; Benetti, S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Valenti, S.; Nyholm, A.; Ergon, M.; Sutaria, F.; Kumar, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Nicholl, M.; Garcia-Álvarez, D.; Tomasella, L.; Karamehmetoglu, E.; Migotto, K.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Research on supernovae (SNe) over the past decade has confirmed that there is a distinct class of events which are much more luminous (by 2 mag) than canonical core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). These events with visual peak magnitudes ≲-21 are called superluminous SNe (SLSNe). The mechanism that powers the light curves of SLSNe is still not well understood. The proposed scenarios are circumstellar interaction, the emergence of a magnetar after core collapse, or disruption of a massive star through pair production. Aims: There are a few intermediate events which have luminosities between these two classes. They are important for constraining the nature of the progenitors of these two different populations and their environments and powering mechanisms. Here we study one such object, SN 2012aa. Methods: We observed and analysed the evolution of the luminous Type Ic SN 2012aa. The event was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search in an anonymous galaxy (z ≈ 0.08). The optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations were conducted over a time span of about 120 days. Results: With an absolute V-band peak of - 20 mag, the SN is an intermediate-luminosity transient between regular SNe Ibc and SLSNe. SN 2012aa also exhibits an unusual secondary bump after the maximum in its light curve. For SN 2012aa, we interpret this as a manifestation of SN-shock interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM). If we assume a 56Ni-powered ejecta, the quasi-bolometric light curve requires roughly 1.3 M⊙ of 56Ni and an ejected mass of 14M⊙. This also implies a high kinetic energy of the explosion, 5.4 × 1051 erg. On the other hand, the unusually broad light curve along with the secondary peak indicate the possibility of interaction with CSM. The third alternative is the presence of a central engine releasing spin energy that eventually powers the light curve over a long time. The host of SN 2012aa is a star-forming Sa/Sb/Sbc galaxy. Conclusions

  4. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  5. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1) alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2) alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3) Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4) alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1) multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2) spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics, geographical information science

  6. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  7. A.A., constructivism, and reflecting teams.

    PubMed

    Nevels, B

    1997-12-01

    Numerous studies and clinical anecdotes reveal a relationship between attendance at A.A. meetings and/or degree of involvement in A.A. and maintenance of sobriety. Hypotheses as to how A.A. and/or the A.A. meeting is helpful to its members have ranged from a focus on factors common to all therapy groups, to aspects of A.A. "treatment" which are behavioral in nature. Presented here is another way of understanding A.A.'s effectiveness within the frame of more recent, constructivistic approaches to family therapy. In particular, the A.A. topic meeting is compared to the reflecting team concept of Tom Anderson.

  8. Beer consumers' perceptions of the health aspects of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wright, C A; Bruhn, C M; Heymann, H; Bamforth, C W

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions about alcohol are shaped by numerous factors. This environment includes advertisements, public service announcements, product labels, various health claims, and warnings about the dangers of alcohol consumption. This study used focus groups and questionnaires to examine consumers' perceptions of alcoholic beverages based on their nutritional value and health benefits. The overall purpose of this study was to examine beer consumers' perceptions of the health attributes and content of alcoholic beverages. Volunteers were surveyed at large commercial breweries in California, Missouri, and New Hampshire. The anonymous, written survey was presented in a self-explanatory format and was completed in 5 to 10 min. The content and style of the survey were derived from focus groups conducted in California. The data are separated by location, gender, and over or under the age of 30. Parametric data on beverage rating were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while the nonparametric data from True/False or Yes/No questions were analyzed using chi-square. Although statistically significant variances did exist between survey location, gender, and age, general trends emerged in areas of inquiry. The findings indicate that a great opportunity exists to inform consumers about the health benefits derived from the moderate consumption of all alcoholic beverages.

  9. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  10. Moves on the Street: Classifying Crime Hotspots Using Aggregated Anonymized Data on People Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month.

  11. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    PubMed

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  12. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P.; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  13. Security improvement on an anonymous key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, Tseng et al. proposed a password sharing and chaotic map based key agreement protocol (Tseng et al.'s protocol). They claimed that the protocol provided mutual authentication between a server and a user, and allowed the user to anonymously interact with the server to establish a shared session key. However, in 2011, Niu et al. have proved that Tseng et al.'s protocol cannot guarantee user anonymity and protocol security when there is an internal adversary who is a legitimate user. Also it cannot provide perfect forward secrecy. Then Niu et al. introduced a trust third party (TTP) into their protocol designing (Niu et al.'s protocol). But according to our research, Niu et al.'s protocol is found to have several unsatisfactory drawbacks. Based on reconsidering Tseng et al.'s protocol without introducing TTP, we give some improvements to meet the original security and performance requirements. Meanwhile our proposed protocol overcomes the security flaws of Tseng et al.'s protocol.

  14. Would 'all-inclusive' compensation attract more gamete donors to balance their loss of anonymity?

    PubMed

    Craft, Ian; Thornhill, Alan

    2005-03-01

    The UK Government has determined that children born from egg donation have the same right to know their biological parent as adopted children on reaching the age of 18. There is concern as to the effect of loss of anonymity on egg donor recruitment, since a wait of 1 or 2 years is not unusual even under present circumstances. Some fertility programmes have introduced egg-sharing (involving 'subfertile donors') to circumvent the delays. However, with this method both the donor and the recipient may have reduced overall success. The shortage of sperm donors has led the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to consider increasing the allowable expenses payment and a consultation exercise is underway to review payments and other issues for sperm, egg and embryo donors. Fundamental new initiatives regarding gamete donation need to be implemented to avoid further restrictions on an already unsatisfactory service. An 'all-inclusive' financial allowance is proposed for donors to promote donor recruitment and shorten the waiting time to treatment predicted to increase with the loss of anonymity.

  15. A user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zuowen

    2014-03-01

    The telecare medicine information system enables the patients gain health monitoring at home and access medical services over internet or mobile networks. In recent years, the schemes based on cryptography have been proposed to address the security and privacy issues in the telecare medicine information systems. However, many schemes are insecure or they have low efficiency. Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems. In this paper, we show that their scheme is vulnerable to the reflection attacks. Furthermore, it fails to provide three-factor security and the user anonymity. We propose a new three-factor authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme provides mutual authentication, server not knowing password and freedom of password, biometric update and three-factor security. Moreover, the new scheme provides the user anonymity. As compared with the previous three-factor authentication schemes, the proposed scheme is more secure and practical.

  16. Privacy preserving data publishing of categorical data through k-anonymity and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Aristodimou, Aristos; Antoniades, Athos; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2016-03-01

    In healthcare, there is a vast amount of patients' data, which can lead to important discoveries if combined. Due to legal and ethical issues, such data cannot be shared and hence such information is underused. A new area of research has emerged, called privacy preserving data publishing (PPDP), which aims in sharing data in a way that privacy is preserved while the information lost is kept at a minimum. In this Letter, a new anonymisation algorithm for PPDP is proposed, which is based on k-anonymity through pattern-based multidimensional suppression (kPB-MS). The algorithm uses feature selection for reducing the data dimensionality and then combines attribute and record suppression for obtaining k-anonymity. Five datasets from different areas of life sciences [RETINOPATHY, Single Proton Emission Computed Tomography imaging, gene sequencing and drug discovery (two datasets)], were anonymised with kPB-MS. The produced anonymised datasets were evaluated using four different classifiers and in 74% of the test cases, they produced similar or better accuracies than using the full datasets.

  17. A robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengtong

    2013-12-01

    User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In a recent paper, Das et al. proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. This scheme uses three factors, e.g. biometrics, password, and smart card, to protect the security. It protects user privacy and is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das et al.'s scheme, and show that the scheme is in fact insecure against the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks. Then, we also propose a robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. Compared with the existing schemes, our protocol uses a different user authentication mechanism to resist replay attack. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security than previous protocols. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme through the BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic.

  18. Metatranscriptomic analysis of the response of river biofilms to pharmaceutical products, using anonymous DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Lawrence, John R; Waiser, Marley J; Korber, Darren R; Greer, Charles W

    2010-08-01

    Pharmaceutical products are released at low concentrations into aquatic environments following domestic wastewater treatment. Such low concentrations have been shown to induce transcriptional responses in microorganisms, which could have consequences on aquatic ecosystem dynamics. In order to test if these transcriptional responses could also be observed in complex river microbial communities, biofilm reactors were inoculated with water from two rivers of differing trophic statuses and subsequently treated with environmentally relevant doses (ng/liter to microg/liter range) of four pharmaceuticals (erythromycin [ER], gemfibrozil [GM], sulfamethazine [SN], and sulfamethoxazole [SL]). To monitor functional gene expression, we constructed a 9,600-feature anonymous DNA microarray platform onto which cDNA from the biofilms was hybridized. Pharmaceutical treatments induced both positive and negative transcriptional responses from biofilm microorganisms. For instance, ER induced the transcription of several stress, transcription, and replication genes, while GM, a lipid regulator, induced transcriptional responses from several genes involved in lipid metabolism. SN caused shifts in genes involved in energy production and conversion, and SL induced responses from a range of cell membrane and outer envelope genes, which in turn could affect biofilm formation. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time that low concentrations of small molecules can induce transcriptional changes in a complex microbial community. The relevance of these results also demonstrates the usefulness of anonymous DNA microarrays for large-scale metatranscriptomic studies of communities from differing aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Stephen P; Lynam, Donald R

    2003-08-01

    The present study explores the relation among 4 personality traits associated with impulsive behavior and alcohol abuse. Personality traits were measured using the 4 subscales of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS; S. P. Whiteside & D. R. Lynam, 2001). The UPPS and measures of psychopathology were administered to clinical samples of alcohol abusers high in antisocial personality traits (AAPD), alcohol abusers low in antisocial personality traits (AA), and a control group (total N = 60). Separate analyses of variance indicated that AAPDs had significant elevations on all 4 UPPS scales, whereas the AAs and controls differed only on the Urgency subscale. However, when controlling for psychopathology, group differences on the UPPS scales disappeared. The results suggest that personality traits related to impulsive behavior are not directly related to alcohol abuse but rather are associated with the elevated levels of psychopathology found in a subtype of alcohol abusers.

  20. Anonymity versus privacy in the dictator game: revealing donor decisions to recipients does not substantially impact donor behavior.

    PubMed

    Winking, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Anonymity is often offered in economic experiments in order to eliminate observer effects and induce behavior that would be exhibited under private circumstances. However, anonymity differs from privacy in that interactants are only unaware of each others' identities, while having full knowledge of each others' actions. Such situations are rare outside the laboratory and anonymity might not meet the requirements of some participants to psychologically engage as if their actions were private. In order to explore the impact of a lack of privacy on prosocial behaviors, I expand on a study reported in Dana et al. (2006) in which recipients were left unaware of the Dictator Game and given donations as "bonuses" to their show-up fees for other tasks. In the current study, I explore whether differences between a private Dictator Game (sensu Dana et al. (2006)) and a standard anonymous one are due to a desire by dictators to avoid shame or to pursue prestige. Participants of a Dictator Game were randomly assigned to one of four categories-one in which the recipient knew of (1) any donation by an anonymous donor (including zero donations), (2) nothing at all, (3) only zero donations, and (4) and only non-zero donations. The results suggest that a lack of privacy increases the shame that selfish-acting participants experience, but that removing such a cost has only minimal effects on actual behavior.

  1. Atmospheric Vinyl Alcohol to Acetaldehyde Tautomerization Revisited.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Jozef; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Müller, Jean-François

    2015-10-15

    The atmospheric oxidation of vinyl alcohol (VA) produced by photoisomerization of acetaldehyde (AA) is thought to be a source of formic acid (FA). Nevertheless, a recent theoretical study predicted a high rate coefficient k1(298 K) of ≈10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the FA-catalyzed tautomerization reaction 1 of VA back into AA, which suggests that FA buffers its own production from VA. However, the unusually high frequency factor implied by that study prompted us to reinvestigate reaction 1 . On the basis of a high-level ab initio potential energy profile, we first established that transition state theory is applicable, and derived a k1(298 K) of only ≈2 × 10(-20) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), concluding that the reaction is negligible. Instead, we propose and rationalize another important VA sink: its uptake by aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets followed by fast liquid-phase tautomerization to AA; global modeling puts the average lifetime by this sink at a few hours, similar to oxidation by OH.

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  3. The Ring of Gyges: Anonymity and Technological Advance’s Effect on the Deterrence of Non-State Actors in 2035

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    aggressively and violently when they achieve a deindividuated state further, the analysis found when accountability was reduced through anonymity ...NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE RING OF GYGES: ANONYMITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE‘S EFFECT ON THE DETERRENCE OF NON-STATE ACTORS IN...00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Ring of Gyges: Anonymity and Technological Advance’s Effect on the Deterrence of Non-State Actors in 2035 5a

  4. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  5. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  6. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  7. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  8. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  9. Anonymous HIV workplace surveys as an advocacy tool for affordable private health insurance in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background With an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 15%, Namibia is in need of innovative health financing strategies that can alleviate the burden on the public sector. Affordable and private health insurances were recently developed in Namibia, and they include coverage for HIV/AIDS. This article reports on the efficacy of HIV workplace surveys as a tool to increase uptake of these insurances by employees in the Namibian formal business sector. In addition, the burden of HIV among this population was examined by sector. Methods Cross-sectional anonymous HIV prevalence surveys were conducted in 24 private companies in Namibia between November 2006 and December 2007. Non-invasive oral fluid-based HIV antibody rapid tests were used. Anonymous test results were provided to the companies in a confidential report and through presentations to their management, during which the advantages of affordable private health insurance and the available insurance products were discussed. Impact assessment was conducted in October 2008, when new health insurance uptake by these companies was evaluated. Results Of 8500 targeted employees, 6521 were screened for HIV; mean participation rate was 78.6%. Overall 15.0% (95% CI 14.2-15.9%) of employees tested HIV positive (range 3.0-23.9% across companies). The mining sector had the highest percentage of HIV-positive employees (21.0%); the information technology (IT) sector had the lowest percentage (4.0%). Out of 6205 previously uninsured employees, 61% had enrolled in private health insurance by October 2008. The majority of these new insurances (78%) covered HIV/AIDS only. Conclusion The proportion of HIV-positive formal sector employees in Namibia is in line with national prevalence estimates and varies widely by employment sector. Following the surveys, there was a considerable increase in private health insurance uptake. This suggests that anonymous HIV workplace surveys can serve as a tool to motivate private companies to provide

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  11. Melanocortin and Opioid Peptide Interactions in the Modulation of Binge Alcohol Drinking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    receptor ligands on ethanol intake and opioid levels in alcohol-preferring AA rats. Brain Res Bull 59:97– 104. Pritchard LE, Turnbull AV, White A... trouts ol < Tf’gether these data suggest that. in anrmals prone to drinking excess amounts of< ar ticipatory behaviors related to ethanol-seeking

  12. Decreased measures of experimental anxiety in rats bred for high alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Möller, C; Wiklund, L; Thorsell, A; Hyytiä, P; Heilig, M

    1997-06-01

    A prevalent notion holds that acute anti-anxiety actions of ethanol are important for the reinforcing properties of this drug, and might predispose individuals with pre-existing anxiety disorders for developing ethanol dependence. This notion remains controversial, and human studies have yielded conflicting results. Ethanol dependence is likely a heterogenous disorder, and the discrepancies might be explained by a different relationship between anxiety and alcohol reinforcement in different subtypes of alcoholism. Recent results in experimental animals suggest that antianxiety actions of ethanol are important reinforcers of voluntary ethanol consumption in heterogeneous rats. Here, we examined whether the relationship is different in the AA line of rats bred for high voluntary ethanol intake. Behavior was studied in two established animal models of anxiety, a punished drinking conflict test, and the elevated plus maze. In the conflict test, the AA line displayed a markedly disinhibited behavior over a range of shock intensities, compared both with their counterpart, the ANA line, and with regular Wistar rats. On the plus maze, both AA and Wistar rats showed lower measures of experimental anxiety than ANA subjects. The phenotype of the animals was confirmed using a two-bottle free choice alcohol drinking procedure. The disinhibited behavior and spontaneous ethanol preference of the AA line differs from what has been found in heterogeneous rats, and displays similarities to genetically transmitted type II alcoholism according to the nomenclature of Cloninger.

  13. Orbit of 1976 AA. [asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, B. G.; Williams, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    The orbit of Asteroid 1976 AA is described, with attention given to calculations of its period and its distance from earth, both of which could be accurately and quickly determined by measuring the minor planet's position over wide ranges of hour angle on one to three nights. The geometry of the asteroid's orbit is compared to that of earth's orbit, and the periodicity of the minor planet's approaches to earth is projected. The motion of 1976 AA over an interval of seven centuries into both past and future is also studied; the possibility of its libration with respect to earth or to Venus is examined. Some data on closest approaches of the asteroid to Mars and Venus, as well as to earth, are given.

  14. Role of a Genetic Polymorphism in the Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor 1 Gene in Alcohol Drinking and Seeking Behaviors of Marchigian Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O.; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, Jose M.; Domi, Esi; Björk, Karl; Ubaldi, Massimo; Heilig, Markus; Roberto, Marisa; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats exhibit innate preference for alcohol, are highly sensitive to stress and stress-induced alcohol seeking. Genetic analysis showed that over-expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system of msP rats is correlated with the presence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in the promoter region (position −1836 and −2097) of the CRF1 receptor (CRF1-R) gene. Here we examined whether these point mutations were associated to the innate alcohol preference, stress-induced drinking, and seeking. We have recently re-derived the msP rats to obtain two distinct lines carrying the wild type (GG) and the point mutations (AA), respectively. The phenotypic characteristics of these two lines were compared with those of unselected Wistar rats. Both AA and GG rats showed similar patterns of voluntary alcohol intake and preference. Similarly, the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.0, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg) elicited increased operant alcohol self-administration under fixed and progressive ratio reinforcement schedules in all three lines. Following extinction, yohimbine (0.0, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg) significantly reinstated alcohol seeking in the three groups. However, at the highest dose this effect was no longer evident in AA rats. Treatment with the CRF1-R antagonist antalarmin (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced alcohol-reinforced lever pressing in the AA line (10 and 20 mg/kg) while a weaker or no effect was observed in the Wistar and the GG group, respectively. Finally, antalarmin significantly reduced yohimbine-induced increase in alcohol drinking in all three groups. In conclusion, these specific SNPs in the CRF1-R gene do not seem to play a primary role in the expression of the msP excessive drinking phenotype or stress-induced drinking but may be associated with a decreased threshold for stress-induced alcohol seeking and an increased sensitivity to the effects

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  16. Modulation of nucleus accumbens connectivity by alcohol drinking and naltrexone in alcohol-preferring rats: A manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2016-03-01

    The nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone is now used for the treatment of alcoholism, yet naltrexone's central mechanism of action remains poorly understood. One line of evidence suggests that opioid antagonists regulate alcohol drinking through interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine system. Hence, our goal here was to examine the role of the nucleus accumbens connectivity in alcohol reinforcement and naltrexone's actions using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Following long-term free-choice drinking of alcohol and water, AA (Alko Alcohol) rats received injections of MnCl2 into the nucleus accumbens for activity-dependent tracing of accumbal connections. Immediately after the accumbal injections, rats were imaged using MEMRI, and then allowed to drink either alcohol or water for the next 24h. Naltrexone was administered prior to the active dark period, and the second MEMRI was performed 24h after the first scan. Comparison of signal intensity at 1 and 24h after accumbal MnCl2 injections revealed an ipsilateral continuum through the ventral pallidum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, globus pallidus, and lateral hypothalamus to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Activation was also seen in the rostral part of the insular cortex and regions of the prefrontal cortex. Alcohol drinking resulted in enhanced activation of these connections, whereas naltrexone suppressed alcohol-induced activity. These data support the involvement of the accumbal connections in alcohol reinforcement and mediation of naltrexone's suppressive effects on alcohol drinking through their deactivation.

  17. [Through her anonymous works, Madame Thiroux d'Arconville, a woman writer and an enlightened chemist].

    PubMed

    Bardez, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    Self-taught and polygraph, philanthropist and moralist, Madame Thiroux d'Arconville (1720-1805) published thirty works or so, all of them anonymously. She devoted herself to science, in particular to chemistry, for about ten years. She translated two books from English, improving them with a number of useful notes: Robert Dossie's The Elaboratory laid open and Peter Shaw's Chemical lectures. In the latter book, she added a long preliminary discourse which amounts to a history of applied chemistry to arts. She also carried out the more than 300 experiments on the preservation of meat from putrefaction with the aim to obtain a theory on matter transformation, which was a subject of debate among physiologists and philosophers of her time. Her results were published in 1766 in the Essai pour servir à l'histoire de la putréfaction. From the analysis of her texts, both her large culture and her scientific qualities and ambition can be emphasized.

  18. Finding erotic oases: locating the sites of men's same-sex anonymous sexual encounters.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Because anonymous sexual relations between two men are widely considered deviant many men seeking such activities look to erotic oases-natural environments appropriated for covert, often furtive sexual purposes. Previous research on erotic oases has focused on characteristics of involved men and processes of locating, negotiating with, and consummating sexual relations with others. This study draws on one major Web site listing of "cruising places" in the United States to identify common locations for erotic oases. Results show that the most common locations identified as erotic oases by users are public parks, adult bookstores, health clubs, and college campuses. Locations most likely to be listed as believed to be under law enforcement surveillance are outdoor, high traffic locations. Based on these results existing research has only begun to examine the most common locations for this highly stigmatized, deviant behavior and subculture.

  19. Improvement of a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Wenhao; Wang, Shengbao; Han, Lidong; Hu, Bin; Wu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Patient's privacy-preserving, security and mutual authentication between patient and the medical server are the important mechanism in connected health care applications, such as telecare medical information systems and personally controlled health records systems. In 2013, Wen showed that Das et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme using biometrics, password and smart card to overcome these weaknesses. However, we show that Wen's scheme is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks, does not provide user's anonymity and perfect forward secrecy. Further, we propose an improved scheme to fix these weaknesses, and use the applied pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove the security and authentication.

  20. GOblet: a platform for Gene Ontology annotation of anonymous sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Detlef; Lehrach, Hans; Hennig, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    GOblet is a comprehensive web server application providing the annotation of anonymous sequence data with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. It uses a variety of different protein databases (human, murines, invertebrates, plants, sp-trembl) and their respective GO mappings. The user selects the appropriate database and alignment threshold and thereafter submits single or multiple nucleotide or protein sequences. Results are shown in different ways, e.g. as survey statistics for the main GO categories for all sequences or as detailed results for each single sequence that has been submitted. In its newest version, GOblet allows the batch submission of sequences and provides an improved display of results with the aid of Java applets. All output data, together with the Java applet, are packed to a downloadable archive for local installation and analysis. GOblet can be accessed freely at http://goblet.molgen.mpg.de. PMID:15215401

  1. Effects of Cultural Orientation on Attitude Toward Anonymity in E-Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yingqin; Liu, Na; Lim, John

    The important role of attitude in the acceptance and diffusion of technology has been widely acknowledged. Greater research efforts have been called for examining the relationships between cultural variables and attitude toward technology. In this regard, this study investigates the impact of cultural orientation (focusing on an individual's degree of collectivism) on attitude toward e-collaboration technology. A theoretical model is proposed and subsequently tested using a questionnaire survey involving 236 data points. Self-reliance, competitive success, and group work orientation are found as significant indicators reflecting an individual's degree of collectivism, which in turn influences willingness to participate, evaluation of collaborative effort, and preference for anonymity feature. Subsequently, the three variables are found to affect perceptions about decision quality, enjoyment, uncertainty, and pressure in e-collaboration.

  2. Stored human tissue: an ethical perspective on the fate of anonymous, archival material.

    PubMed

    Jones, D G; Gear, R; Galvin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The furore over the retention of organs at postmortem examination, without adequate consent, has led to a reassessment of the justification for, and circumstances surrounding, the retention of any human material after postmortem examinations and operations. This brings into focus the large amount of human material stored in various archives and museums, much of which is not identifiable and was accumulated many years ago, under unknown circumstances. Such anonymous archival material could be disposed of, used for teaching, used for research, or remain in storage. We argue that there are no ethical grounds for disposing of the material, or for storing it in the absence of a teaching or research rationale. Nevertheless, with stringent safeguards, it can be used even in the absence of consent in research and teaching. Regulations are required to control the storage of all such human material, along the lines of regulations governing anatomy body bequests.

  3. The ovarian endometrioma: why is it so poorly managed? Indicators from an anonymous survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, K D; Fan, A; Sutton, C J G

    2002-04-01

    As a tertiary referral centre for women with severe endometriosis we see a large number of patients who have endometriotic cysts, and many of these patients have been operated on by gynaecologists elsewhere in the UK. We have been surprised by the variety of approaches to their management. In order to establish the current clinical practices of endometrioma management amongst gynaecologists in the UK, we have carried out an anonymous survey. There appears to be an equal preference for open versus endoscopic surgery, even though there is considerable evidence suggesting that endoscopic surgery is superior. However, the management of endometriomas varies significantly between the two groups. In this article, we have presented the results of our survey and used them as the basis for a debate on the management of endometriomas.

  4. LOPP: A Location Privacy Protected Anonymous Routing Protocol for Disruption Tolerant Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Pan; Towsley, Don; Pu, Juhua; Xiong, Zhang

    In this paper, we propose an anonymous routing protocol, LOPP, to protect the originator's location privacy in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). The goals of our study are to minimize the originator's probability of being localized (Pl) and maximize the destination's probability of receiving the message (Pr). The idea of LOPP is to divide a sensitive message into k segments and send each of them to n different neighbors. Although message fragmentation could reduce the destination's probability to receive a complete message, LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl. We validate LOPP on a real-world human mobility dataset. The simulation results show that LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl by over 54% with only 5.7% decrease in destination's Pr. We address the physical localization issue of DTN, which was not studied in the literature.

  5. The association between low alcohol use and traffic risk behaviors among Brazilian college students.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Malbergier, André; do Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Yang, Jasmine J; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2012-11-01

    Although there are a large number of studies focused on binge drinking and traffic risk behaviors (TRB), little is known regarding low levels of alcohol consumption and its association to TRB. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association of low to moderate alcohol intake pattern and TRB in college students in Brazil. 7037 students from a National representative sample were selected under rigorous inclusion criteria. All study participants voluntarily fulfilled a structured, anonymous, and self-questionnaire regarding alcohol and drug use, social-demographic data, and TRB. Alcohol was assessed according to the average number of alcoholic units consumed on standard occasions over the past 12 months. The associations between alcohol intake and TRB were summarized with odds ratio and their confidence interval obtained from logistic regression. Compared with abstainers students who consumed only one alcohol unit had the risk of being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver increased by almost four times, students who reported using five or more units were increased by almost five times the risk of being involved in a car crash. Compared with students who consumed one alcohol unit, the risk of driving under the influence of alcohol increased four times in students using three alcohol units. Age group, use of illicit drugs, employment status, gender, and marital status significantly influenced occurrence of TRB among college students. Our study highlights the potential detrimental effects of low and moderate pattern of alcohol consumption and its relation to riding with an intoxicated driver and other TRB. These data suggest that targeted interventions should be implemented in order to prevent negative consequences due to alcohol use in this population.

  6. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  7. Hepatitis C virus among genitourinary clinic attenders in Scotland: unlinked anonymous testing.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D; Cameron, S; Sharp, G; Burns, S; Scott, G; Molyneaux, P; Scoular, A; Downie, A; Taylor, A

    2001-01-01

    Our objective is to gauge the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies among a population at risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and, thus, the efficiency with which the virus is transmitted sexually. The investigators undertook an unlinked anonymous HCV antibody testing study of residual syphilis serology specimens taken from attenders of genitourinary clinics in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen during 1996/97. The results were linked to non-identifying risk information. Anti-HCV prevalences among non-injecting heterosexual men and women, and non-injecting homosexual/bisexual males ranged between 0 and 1.2%; the only exception to this was a 7.7% (4/52) prevalence among homosexual/bisexual males in Aberdeen. The overall anti-HCV prevalence for homosexual/bisexual males was 0.6% (4/668), for heterosexual males 0.8% (32/4135), for heterosexual females 0.3% (10/3035) and for injecting drug users 49% (72/148). Only 3 (all female) of the 46 non-injectors who were antibody positive were non-UK nationals or had lived abroad. HCV antibody positive injectors were less likely to have an acute STI and more likely to know their HCV status than non-injectors; no differences in these parameters were found between positive and negative non-injectors on anonymous HCV antibody testing. Our findings are in keeping with the prevailing view that HCV can be acquired through sexual intercourse but, for most people, the probability of this occurring is extremely low. Interventions to prevent the spread of HCV should be targeted mainly at injecting drug user (IDU) populations.

  8. Erythropoietin concentrations and isoforms in urine of anonymous Olympic athletes during the Nagano Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Wide, L

    2002-12-01

    The ordinary doping control urine samples of 36 anonymous participants (cross-country skiers, biathlon athletes, and curling athletes) of the 1998 Nagano Olympic Games were analyzed for erythropoietin and erythropoietin isoforms. The urine erythropoietin concentration (IU/l) was determined with a competitive radioimmunoassay method and the isoforms were studied by electrophoresis and given as milli albumin mobility units (mAMU). Erythropoietin was detectable in 23 out of 36 specimens (64%). The biathlon and curling athletes had similar urine concentration of erythropoietin. The group of 16 cross-country skiers had significantly (P < 0.05) increased urine concentration of erythropoietin as compared to curling athletes and four of them had urine erythropoietin concentrations between 3.6 and 5.1 IU/l. The electrophoretic mobility of erythropoietin was determined in all eight samples with urine concentration of erythropoietin of more than 2 (range 2.1-5.1) IU/l. No single urine specimen with a median erythropoietin electrophoretic mobility below the cut-off level of 670 mAMU (indicative of doping with recombinant erythropoietin) was registered. Erythropoietin in urine was detected in 71% and the isoforms of Epo characterized in 29% of the anonymous Olympic endurance athletes. The urine concentration of erythropoietin in the biathlon and curling athletes were similar to those of non-athletes. The group of cross-country skiers had higher levels of erythropoietin in urine. These higher levels of urine erythropoietin in cross-country skiers are partly due to more concentrated urine specimens.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  10. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  11. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  12. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  13. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  14. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  15. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  16. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  17. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  18. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  19. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  20. Characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder-alcohol abuse comorbidity in women.

    PubMed

    Ouimette, P C; Wolfe, J; Chrestman, K R

    1996-01-01

    Trauma characteristics and symptoms were examined in 12 women diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse (AA), 13 women with PTSD only, and 22 controls. Participants served during the Vietnam era. Women completed diagnostic interviews and a questionnaire battery. Results showed that PTSD-AA women reported more childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization during wartime service than the other two groups. Groups did not differ on other childhood trauma variables, nor on adult physical assault and traditional wartime stressor exposure. PTSD-AA women reported more PTSD, dissociation, and borderline personality traits than the other two groups. These results suggest that trauma type, specifically sexual victimization across the life span, is an important factor in dual diagnosis in women, and that women with PTSD-AA have a particularly severe level of symptoms relative to women with only PTSD and controls.

  1. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  2. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  3. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  4. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  5. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  6. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  7. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  8. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  9. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2016-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  10. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  11. Brain activation induced by voluntary alcohol and saccharin drinking in rats assessed with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Hermann, Derik; Brown, Matthew; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of alcohol reward has been studied extensively, but global alterations of neural activity in reward circuits during chronic alcohol use remain poorly described. Here, we measured brain activity changes produced by long-term voluntary alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) rats using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MEMRI is based on the ability of paramagnetic manganese ions to accumulate in excitable neurons and thereby enhance the T1-weighted signal in activated brain areas. Following 6 weeks of voluntary alcohol drinking, AA rats were allowed to drink alcohol for an additional week, during which they were administered manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps before MEMRI. A second group with an identical alcohol drinking history received MnCl2 during the abstinence week following alcohol drinking. For comparing alcohol with a natural reinforcer, MEMRI was also performed in saccharin-drinking rats. A water-drinking group receiving MnCl2 served as a control. We found that alcohol drinking increased brain activity extensively in cortical and subcortical areas, including the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and their afferents. Remarkably similar activation maps were seen after saccharin ingestion. Particularly in the prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus, activation persisted into early abstinence. These data show that voluntary alcohol recruits an extensive network that includes the ascending dopamine systems and their afferent connections, and that this network is largely shared with saccharin reward. The regions displaying persistent alterations after alcohol drinking could participate in brain networks underlying alcohol seeking and relapse.

  12. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users’ privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  13. Blog Fingerprinting: Identifying Anonymous Posts Written by an Author of Interest Using Word and Character Frequency Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Internet blogs are an easily accessible means of global communications . Monitoring blogs for criminal and terrorist...activity is a serious challenge, due to blogs’ anonymous nature and the sheer volume of data. The intelligence community is often faced with more...Support Vector Machine, Internet Communication 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. An Anonymous Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship Directors regarding Breaches of Contracts and a Proposal for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, James L.; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. Results: It is fairly common for applicants to sign…

  15. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  16. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  17. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Chen, Zewei; Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified.

  18. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    will be a huge first step.Gender in Astronomy Conferences: Jim Davenport (WWU), Ben Nelson (Northwestern), Mehmet Alpsalan (NASA Ames), and Erin Maier (University of Iowa) analyzed data collected during the conference on the gender breakdown of who asks questions after oral presentations. Now in its third year, one new finding from the study is that women dont ask questions as much as men do, but they tend to ask questions more when the speaker is a woman or the first question-asker is a woman.More from #hackaas at #aas227: Gender of speaker vs. 1st to ask a question for all 3 years of Gender in Astro survey pic.twitter.com/l74D3rSUOD Erin Maier (@fallelujah) January 9, 2016The Early Reference Project: Many pre-1950 publications lack up-to-date citation information because the text is digitally archived as an image. Brendan Wells (UC Santa Cruz) worked with representatives from ADS and Zooniverse to set up a crowd-sourced platform to identify references in these old papers.Glassdome: Ellie Schwab (CUNY) and colleagues Paige Godfrey, Munazza Alam, and Cam Buzzard began work on a website modeled after glassdoor for safely sharing experiences throughout their astronomy careers. Glassdome will feature career path stories, department reviews, and salaries, all optionally anonymous. The site is hosted by ScienceBetter and is under development.Observing Run Sharing: Sometimes near the end of a long night at the telescope you have observed everything you need but still have time left. Short of choosing randomly or hoping a colleague is online in the middle of the night, there is currently no good solution. To address this, Brooke Simmons (UC San Diego) designed a web app that would allow astronomers to submit their favorite night sky targets. The project is still a work in progress.ArXiv Podcast: Ruth Angus (Oxford) started a podcast featuring astronomers summarizing their new papers submitted to astro-ph in one minute. Its like audio astrobites! If youve recently published a

  19. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  20. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  1. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. Interface Formation During Fusion™ Casting of AA3003/AA4045 Aluminum Alloy Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ciano, Massimo; Caron, E. J. F. R.; Weckman, D. C.; Wells, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fusion™ casting is a unique Direct Chill continuous casting process whereby two different alloys can be cast simultaneously, producing a laminated ingot for rolling into clad sheet metal such as AA3003/AA4045 brazing sheet. Better understanding of the wetting and interface formation process during Fusion™ casting is required to further improve process yields and also explore use of other alloy systems for new applications. In this research, AA3003-core/AA4045-clad ingots were cast using a well-instrumented lab-scale Fusion™ casting system. As-cast Fusion™ interfaces were examined metallurgically and by mechanical testing. Computational fluid dynamic analyses of the FusionTM casts were also performed. It was shown that the liquid AA4045-clad alloy was able to successfully wet and create an oxide-free, metallurgical, and mechanically sound interface with the lightly oxidized AA3003-core shell material. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that the bond formation process at the alloys interface during casting is a result of discrete penetration of AA4045 liquid at defects in the preexisting AA3003 oxide, dissolution of underlying AA3003 by liquid AA4045, and subsequent bridging between penetration sites. Spot exudation on the AA3003 chill cast surface due to remelting and inverse segregation may also improve the wetting and bonding process.

  4. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  5. Traditional and western healing practices for alcoholism in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1998-11-01

    The American Indian and Alaska Native population is a culturally diverse population with a current census of 1,959,000. Prior to White contact, there was historically little use of alcoholic beverages except for American Indians in the Southwest. After White contact, use and misuse of alcohol escalated rapidly; however, the prevalence, patterns, and problems of drinking alcoholic beverages vary enormously even in tribes closely linked geographically. American Indians and Alaska Natives have preserved and revitalized a number of traditional healing practices and applied these to the treatment of alcohol-related problems. These healing practices include the following: nativistic movements, sacred dances, sweat lodges, talking circle, four circles, and cultural enhancement programs. Additionally, Western treatment approaches have been applied in the treatment of problems related to alcohol, such as medication for detoxification, disulfiram (Antabuse), Alcoholics Anonymous, and behavioral interventions. Several investigators have completed a small number of naturalistic follow-up studies, but no one has undertaken a randomized controlled trial looking at specific methods of alcohol treatment in American Indians or Alaska Natives. American Indian and Alaska Native communities have adapted and integrated both Traditional and Western approaches to fit their own unique sociocultural needs.

  6. Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk taking behaviour in travellers to Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, <26 years old, and travelling alone or with friends. Travellers who admitted inebriation and fell ill while in Cusco were more likely to seek medical attention, change itinerary, and report decreased satisfaction with the trip experience. In the multivariate analysis, inebriation was independently associated with reporting higher numbers of unsafe food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided.

  7. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  8. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  9. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  10. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  11. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  12. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  13. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data.

  14. Randomized testing of alternative survey formats using anonymous volunteers on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bell, D S; Mangione, C M; Kahn, C E

    2001-01-01

    Consenting visitors to a health survey Web site were randomly assigned to a "matrix" presentation or an "expanded" presentation of survey response options. Among 4,208 visitors to the site over 3 months, 1,615 (38 percent) participated by giving consent and completing the survey. During a pre-trial period, when consent was not required, 914 of 1,667 visitors (55 percent) participated (odds ratio 1.9, P<0.0001). Mean response times were 5.07 minutes for the matrix format and 5.22 minutes for the expanded format (P=0.16). Neither health status scores nor alpha reliability coefficients were substantially influenced by the survey format, but health status scores varied with age and gender as expected from U.S. population norms. In conclusion, presenting response options in a matrix format may not substantially speed survey completion. This study demonstrates a method for rapidly evaluating interface design alternatives using anonymous Web volunteers who have provided informed consent.

  15. Defective sorting of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) inhibits Plasmodium infectivity.

    PubMed

    Bhanot, Purnima; Frevert, Ute; Nussenzweig, Victor; Persson, Cathrine

    2003-02-01

    Thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that plays an essential role in gliding motility and cell invasion by Plasmodium sporozoites. It is stored in micronemes-secretory organelles located primarily in the apical end of the parasites and is also found on the parasite surface. The mechanisms that target TRAP and other sporozoite proteins to micronemes and subsequently to the parasite surface are not known. Here we report that the micronemal and surface localization of TRAP requires a tyrosine-based motif located in its cytoplasmic tail. This motif is analogous to the YXXphi motif (Y: tyrosine, X: any amino acid; phi: hydrophobic amino acid) that targets eukaryotic proteins to certain sub-cellular compartments and to the plasma membrane. Abrogating the Y motif substantially reduces micronemal and cell surface localization of TRAP. The infectivity of mutant parasites is substantially inhibited. However, there is no significant difference in the amounts of TRAP secreted into the culture medium by wild type and mutant parasites, suggesting that TRAP destined for secretion bypasses micronemal localization.

  16. Beneath the rhetoric: the role of rights in the practice of non-anonymous gamete donation.

    PubMed

    Frith, L

    2001-10-01

    The use of rights based arguments to justify claims that donor offspring should have access to information identifying their gamete donor has become increasingly widespread. In this paper, I do not intend to revisit the debate about the validity of such rights. Rather, the purpose is to examine the way such alleged rights have been implemented by those legislatures that have allowed access to identifying information. I will argue that serious inconsistencies exist between the claim that donor offspring have a right to know the identity of their gamete donor and the way such a right is currently met in practice. I hope to show that in systems where non-anonymous donation is practised, an understanding of the proclaimed right of donor offspring to know their genetic identity is one composed of two different rights--the right to know the circumstances of their conception and the right to information identifying the gamete donor--can provide important insights into this important area of public policy.

  17. [Occurrence of scrapie in Switzerland: an anonymous cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, L; Heim, D; Zurbriggen, A; Doherr, M G

    2001-11-01

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, which leads to neurological signs and ends with the death of the infected animal. In Switzerland only a few cases were reported since 1982. In 1999, a questionnaire survey was conducted to increase information about neurological diseases in sheep and goat breeding farms. The aim was to estimate the frequency of neurological disorders including Scrapie and to increase the disease awareness of sheep and goat breeders. The main goal of the study was to increase the reporting of suspect cases of Scrapie and its differential diagnoses. Out of a database of all registered farms with at least five breeding sheep or breeding goats a random sample of 4711 was drawn to which anonymous questionnaires were sent. The return rate was 36%. In a parallel study, 150 voluntarily participants were interviewed using the same questionnaire. The results of both parts of the survey coincided. For the years 1997 and 1998, on average 1.0% of the breeding sheep and breeding goats showed neurological signs. 7.7% of the breeders indicated to have observed animals with neurological symptoms in their flock. At the population level, a total of 1954-2336 animals with neurological signs are observed in 691-929 flocks. The minority is reported to the veterinary authorities.

  18. Sites of interaction between aldolase and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein in plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, Carlos A; Coppens, Isabelle; Hol, Wim G J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2003-12-01

    Gliding motility and host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites are empowered by an acto-myosin motor located underneath the parasite plasma membrane. The motor is connected to host cell receptors through trans-membrane invasins belonging to the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family. A recent study indicates that aldolase bridges the cytoplasmic tail of MIC2, the homologous TRAP protein in Toxoplasma, and actin. Here, we confirm these unexpected findings in Plasmodium sporozoites and identify conserved features of the TRAP family cytoplasmic tail required to bind aldolase: a subterminal tryptophan residue and two noncontiguous stretches of negatively charged amino acids. The aldolase substrate and other compounds that bind to the active site inhibit its interaction with TRAP and with F-actin, suggesting that the function of the motor is metabolically regulated. Ultrastructural studies in salivary gland sporozoites localize aldolase to the periphery of the secretory micronemes containing TRAP. Thus, the interaction between aldolase and the TRAP tail takes place during or preceding the biogenesis of the micronemes. The release of their contents in the anterior pole of the parasite upon contact with the target cells should bring simultaneously aldolase, TRAP and perhaps F-actin to the proper subcellular location where the motor is engaged.

  19. Patterns and correlates of Gamblers Anonymous attendance in pathological gamblers seeking professional treatment.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M

    2003-08-01

    Although Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a popular intervention for gamblers, many attendees later present for professional treatment. This study evaluated gambling and psychosocial problems in individuals seeking professional treatment for gambling and compared those with and without a history of GA attendance. At intake to treatment, 342 pathological gamblers completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Fifty-four percent attended GA previously. Compared to non-GA attendees, GA attendees were older, had higher incomes, and were less likely to be single. They had higher SOGS scores, more years of gambling problems, and larger debts. GA attendees also had more serious family conflicts and less serious drug problems. Individuals with a history of GA attendance were more likely to be abstinent from gambling 2 months after treatment initiation. Logistic regression revealed that the number of professional sessions and GA meetings attended during treatment was independently associated with short-term abstinence. These data suggest that individuals entering professional treatment for gambling with a history of GA attendance differ from those who do not, and these differences may impact treatment recommendations and outcomes.

  20. Genetic structure of wild emmer wheat populations as reflected by transcribed versus anonymous SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Abbo, Shahal; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2008-03-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have become a major tool in population genetic analyses. The anonymous genomic SSRs (gSSRs) have been recently supplemented with expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSRs (eSSRs), which represent the transcribed regions of the genome. In the present study, we used 8 populations of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides) to compare the usefulness of the two types of SSR markers in assessing allelic diversity and population structure. gSSRs revealed significantly higher diversity than eSSRs in terms of average number of alleles (14.92 vs. 7.4, respectively), polymorphic information content (0.87 vs. 0.68, respectively), and gene diversity (He; 0.55 vs. 0.38, respectively). Despite the overall differences in the level of diversity, Mantel tests for correlations between eSSR and gSSR pairwise genetic distances were found to be significant for each population as well as for all accessions jointly (RM=0.54, p=0.01). Various genetic structure analyses (AMOVA, PCoA, STRUCTURE, unrooted UPGMA tree) revealed a better capacity of eSSRs to distinguish between populations, while gSSRs showed a higher proportion of intrapopulation (among accessions) diversity. We conclude that eSSR and gSSR markers should be employed in conjunction to obtain a high inter- and intra-specific (or inter- and intra-varietal) distinctness.

  1. A more secure anonymous user authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengtong

    2014-05-01

    Secure and efficient user mutual authentication is an essential task for integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system. Recently, several authentication schemes have been proposed to meet this requirement. In a recent paper, Lee et al. proposed an efficient and secure password-based authentication scheme used smart cards for the integrated EPR information system. This scheme is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks. Especially, they claimed that their scheme could resist lost smart card attack. However, we reanalyze the security of Lee et al.'s scheme, and show that it fails to protect off-line password guessing attack if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. This also renders that their scheme is insecure against user impersonation attacks. Then, we propose a new user authentication scheme for integrated EPR information systems based on the quadratic residues. The new scheme not only resists a range of network attacks but also provides user anonymity. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security.

  2. An Anonymous User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme without Pairings for Multiserver Architecture Using SCPKs

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiaoyan; Li, Wenmin; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With advancement of computer community and widespread dissemination of network applications, users generally need multiple servers to provide different services. Accordingly, the multiserver architecture has been prevalent, and designing a secure and efficient remote user authentication under multiserver architecture becomes a nontrivial challenge. In last decade, various remote user authentication protocols have been put forward to correspond to the multi-server scenario requirements. However, these schemes suffered from certain security problems or their cost consumption exceeded users' own constrained ability. In this paper, we present an anonymous remote user authentication with key agreement scheme for multi-server architecture employing self-certified public keys without pairings. The proposed scheme can not only retain previous schemes' advantages but also achieve user privacy concern. Moreover, our proposal can gain higher efficiency by removing the pairings operation compared with the related schemes. Through analysis and comparison with the related schemes, we can say that our proposal is in accordance with the scenario requirements and feasible to the multi-server architecture. PMID:23844397

  3. Intuitive presentation of clinical forensic data using anonymous and person-specific 3D reference manikins.

    PubMed

    Urschler, Martin; Höller, Johannes; Bornik, Alexander; Paul, Tobias; Giretzlehner, Michael; Bischof, Horst; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of CT/MR devices in forensic analysis motivates the need to present forensic findings from different sources in an intuitive reference visualization, with the aim of combining 3D volumetric images along with digital photographs of external findings into a 3D computer graphics model. This model allows a comprehensive presentation of forensic findings in court and enables comparative evaluation studies correlating data sources. The goal of this work was to investigate different methods to generate anonymous and patient-specific 3D models which may be used as reference visualizations. The issue of registering 3D volumetric as well as 2D photographic data to such 3D models is addressed to provide an intuitive context for injury documentation from arbitrary modalities. We present an image processing and visualization work-flow, discuss the major parts of this work-flow, compare the different investigated reference models, and show a number of cases studies that underline the suitability of the proposed work-flow for presenting forensically relevant information in 3D visualizations.

  4. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  5. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  6. GABBR1 and SLC6A1, two genes involved in modulation of GABA synaptic transmission influence risk for alcoholism; results from three ethnically diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Shen, Pei-Hong; Gorodetsky, Elena; Marietta, Cheryl A.; Roy, Alex; Goldman, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal and human studies indicate that GABBR1, encoding the GABAB1 receptor subunit, and SLC6A1, encoding the neuronal GABA transporter GAT1, play a role in addiction by modulating synaptic GABA. Therefore variants in these genes might predict risk/resilience for alcoholism. Methods This study included three populations that differed by ethnicity and alcoholism phenotype: African American (AA) men: 401 treatment-seeking inpatients with single/comorbid diagnoses of alcohol and drug dependence, 193 controls; Finnish Caucasian men: 159 incarcerated alcoholics, half with comorbid ASPD, 181 controls; a community sample of Plains Indian (PI) men and women: 239 alcoholics, 178 controls. Seven GABBR1 tag SNPs were genotyped in the AA and Finnish samples; rs29220 was genotyped in the PI for replication. Also, a uniquely African, functional SLC6A1 insertion promoter polymorphism (IND) was genotyped in the AAs. Results We found a significant and congruent association between GABBR1 rs29220 and alcoholism in all three populations. The major genotype (heterozygotes in AAs, Finns) and the major allele in PIs were significantly more common in alcoholics. Moreover, SLC6A1 IND was more abundant in controls, i.e. the major genotype predicted alcoholism. An analysis of combined GABBR1 rs29220 and SLC6A1 IND genotypes showed that rs29220 heterozygotes, irrespective of their IND status, had an increased risk for alcoholism whereas carriers of the IND allele and either rs29220 homozygote were more resilient. Conclusions Our results show that with both GABBR1 and SLC6A1, the minor genotypes/alleles were protective against risk for alcoholism. Finally, GABBR1 rs29220 might predict treatment response/adverse effects for baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist. PMID:26727527

  7. PVA/AA photopolymers and PA-LCoS devices combined for holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Andrés.; Martínez, Francisco J.; Fernández, Roberto; Gallego, Sergi; Álvarez, Mariela L.; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a polyvinil alcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) photopolymer compound in a holographic memory testing platform to provide experimental results for storage and retrieval of information. We also investigate different codification schemes for the data pages addressed onto the parallel-addressed liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) device, used as the data pager, such as binary intensity modulation (BIM), and hybrid-ternary modulation (HTM), and we will see that an actual approximation for HTM can be obtained with a PA-LCoS device. We will also evaluate the effect of the time fluctuations in the PA-LCoS microdisplays onto the BIM and HTM regimes. Good results in terms of signal-tonoise ratio and bit-error ratio are provided with the experimental system and using the PVA/AA photopolymer produced in our lab, thus showing its potential and interest for future research focused on this material with highly tunable properties.

  8. The 10 Year Course of AA Participation and Long-Term Outcomes: A Follow-up Study of Outpatient Subjects in Project MATCH

    PubMed Central

    White, William L.; Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Carter, Rebecca R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the 10-year course and impact of AA-related helping (AAH), step-work, and meeting attendance on long-term outcomes. Data were derived from 226 treatment-seeking alcoholics recruited from an outpatient site in Project MATCH and followed for 10 years post-treatment. Alcohol consumption, AA participation, and other-oriented behavior were assessed at baseline, end of the 3-month treatment period, and one year, three years, and 10 years post-treatment. Controlling for explanatory baseline and time-varying variables, results showed significant direct effects of AAH and meeting attendance on reduced alcohol outcomes and a direct effect of AAH on improved other-oriented interest. PMID:23327504

  9. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  10. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  11. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  13. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  14. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  15. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  16. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. Objective We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Design, Settings and Participants Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health’s 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11–20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Main Outcome Measures Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Results Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. Conclusions and Relevance TBI remains a

  17. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  18. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  19. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally.

  20. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.