Herzog, W; Friederich, H C; Wild, B; Löwe, B; Zipfel, S
Anorexia nervosa differs distinctly from other psychogenic eating disorders. Well known for the past 300 years, anorexia occurs consistently and is one of the most serious illnesses to be found for a certain age group. Three-quarters of the patients are healed or improve their condition long-term; one-quarter has a chronic course frequently including somatic complications and death. Because of the long healing process as well as the extensive chronification and complication rate, an individual treatment plan should be set up at the beginning of therapy to allow for a long-term structure of the course of therapy. Depending on the severity, phase and co-morbidity, inpatient and ambulant therapies are indicated. Depending on the duration of therapy, adequate weight (BMI > 15 kg/m2), good motivation, and lack of complications, an ambulant therapy is justified. Inpatient treatment is multimodal corresponding to the multifactorial etiology of anorexia nervosa. Weight gain is an important primary goal of therapy and a prerequisite for a conflict oriented, ambulant psychotherapy to be carried on after inpatient treatment. Ambivalent psychotherapy motivation and the necessity of symptom orientation demand technical modification both for inpatient as well as ambulant psychotherapy.
Baker, Jessica H.; Thornton, Laura M.; Strober, Michael; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S.; Klump, Kelly L.; Mitchell, James E.; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Women with eating disorders have a significantly higher prevalence of substance use disorders than the general population. The goal of the current study was to assess the temporal pattern of comorbid anorexia nervosa (AN) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the impact this ordering has on symptomatology and associated features. Women were placed into one of three groups based on the presence or absence of comorbid AUD and the order of AN and AUD onset in those with both disorders: (1) AN Only, (2) AN First, and (3) AUD First. The groups were compared on psychological symptoms and personality characteristics often associated with AN, AUD, or both using general linear models. Twenty-one percent of women (n = 161) with AN reported a history of AUD with 115 reporting AN onset first and 35 reporting AUD onset first. Women with binge-eating and/or purging type AN were significantly more likely to have AUD. In general, differences were found only between women with AN Only and women with AN and AUD regardless of order of emergence. Women with AN and AUD had higher impulsivity scores and higher prevalence of depression and borderline personality disorder than women with AN Only. Women with AN First scored higher on traits commonly associated with AN, whereas women with comorbid AN and AUD displayed elevations in traits more commonly associated with AUD. Results do not indicate a distinct pattern of symptomatology in comorbid AN and AUD based on the temporal sequence of the disorders. PMID:23254222
McFarlane, A C
Two cases of anorexia nervosa in blind patients are reported. They demonstrate that blind children experience many developmental problems which are thought to be important in the etiology of anorexia nervosa. Similarly, blind children are unusually susceptible to misperceive their body size and weight. The apparent absence of a strong association between congenital blindness and anorexia nervosa challenges the presumed aetiological link between disturbed body image and identity diffusion, and anorexia nervosa.
Simpson, K J
Anorexia nervosa is currently considered a disorder confined to Western culture. Its recent identification in non-Western societies and different subcultures within the Western world has provoked a theory that Western cultural ideals of slimness and beauty have infiltrated these societies. The biomedical definition of anorexia nervosa emphasizes fat-phobia in the presentation of anorexia nervosa. However, evidence exists that suggests anorexia nevosa can exist without the Western fear of fatness and that this culturally biased view of anorexia nervosa may obscure health care professionals' understanding of a patient's own cultural reasons for self-starvation, and even hinder their recovery.
... fact sheet (PDF, 832 KB) Related information Binge eating disorder fact sheet Bulimia nervosa fact sheet What is ... when I realized my daughter, Jen, had an eating disorder. Jen has always been a picky eater. But ...
Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.
Reviews literature concerned with investigating psychiatric disturbances and genetic variables hypothesized as predisposing factors in etiology of anorexia nervosa. Gives particular emphasis to research which discusses association between anorexia nervosa and depression. Reviews psychopharmacological evidence and family genetics studies. Offers…
The article reviews the literature on anorexia nervosa, with or without bulimia, and presents a comprehensive picture of this eating disorder, focusing on terminology, historical references, prevalence, prognosis, classification, diagnostic criteria, physical and psychological characteristics, evolution of the disability, etiology, treatment, and…
Anorexia nervosa is a disease affecting primarily young women who have distorted body images. Although their weight is less than 30 percent under ideal body weight, they see themselves as overweight. Anorectics often use diuretic and laxative agents to accomplish their weight loss. Patients with bul...
Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M
We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes.
Sjøgren, Jan Magnus
Biomarkers for anorexia nervosa (AN) which reflect the pathophysiology and relate to the aetiology of the disease, are warranted and could bring us one step closer to targeted treatment of AN. Some leads may be found in the biochemistry which often is found disturbed in AN, although normalization in many aspects is seen at recovery from undernutrition. Recent genome-wide association studies support that genetic factors play a role in the pathophysiology of AN, of which some are independent of BMI-related mechanisms. In this review, an update on blood-based biomarkers of AN is presented.
Fichter, M M
The evidence for the hypothesis that the poet Franz Kafka had suffered from an atypical anorexia nervosa is presented. Kafka was slim and underweight throughout his life and showed an ascetic attitude and abjuration of physical enjoyment and pleasure (fasting, vegetarianism, sexual abstinence, emphasis on physical fitness). The analysis is mainly based on Kafka's own descriptions in his letters, diaries, and literary work. Kafka was achievement oriented, reported many sadomasochistic fantasies, and had an anancastic (obsessive-compulsive) depressive personality. In addition there is evidence for a disturbed psychosexual and gender identity development. Our results concerning Kafka's psychopathology do not question his genius as a poet.
This paper examines how the epidemiological findings of anorexia nervosa lead theorists to speculate a correlation between sociocultural factors and the development of anorexia nervosa. A section on the essential features of anorexia nervosa identifies five primary characteristics of anorexia: (1) severe weight loss; (2) a disturbance of body…
Katzman, D K
Anorexia nervosa commonly occurs during adolescence, a critical period for the acquisition of peak bone mass. Osteopenia is an early and serious complication associated with anorexia nervosa. Whether the osteopenia observed in adolescents with anorexia nervosa is reversible is unknown. The possible mechanisms for the osteopenia observed in adolescents with anorexia nervosa are complex and poorly understood. The purpose of this paper is to review a number of the identified factors that influence the attainment of peak bone mass in anorexia nervosa and to examine the best treatment options for optimizing skeletal mineralization in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.
Westmoreland, Patricia; Krantz, Mori J; Mehler, Philip S
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are serious psychiatric illnesses related to disordered eating and distorted body images. They both have significant medical complications associated with the weight loss and malnutrition of anorexia nervosa, as well as from the purging behaviors that characterize bulimia nervosa. No body system is spared from the adverse sequelae of these illnesses, especially as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa become more severe and chronic. We review the medical complications that are associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as well as the treatment for the complications. We also discuss the epidemiology and psychiatric comorbidities of these eating disorders.
Muuss, Rolf E.
Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…
"Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa The internet-based phenomenon "Pro Ana" refers to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa in a positive way. To understand what the phenomenon "Pro Ana" represents, the websites are used as a starting point of the current analysis. Based on these results, similarities and differences between "Pro Ana" and the eating disorder anorexia nervosa are discussed. Furthermore psychodynamic references for anorexia nervosa are derived and finally their importance for treatment motivation will be considered.
Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Anorexia nervosa (AN), a condition of severe undernutrition, is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in adults and adolescents. Whereas adult women with AN have an uncoupling of bone turnover markers with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation markers, adolescents with AN have decreased bone turnover overall. Possible contributors to low BMD in AN include hypoestrogenism and hypoandrogenism, undernutrition with decreased lean body mass, and hypercortisolemia. IGF-I, a known bone trophic factor, is reduced despite elevated growth hormone (GH) levels, leading to an acquired GH resistant state. Elevated ghrelin and peptide YY levels may also contribute to impaired bone metabolism. Weight recovery is associated with recovery of BMD but this is often partial, and long-term and sustained weight recovery may be necessary before significant improvements are observed. Anti-resorptive therapies have been studied in AN with conflicting results. Oral estrogen does not increase BMD or prevent bone loss in AN. The combination of bone anabolic and anti-resorptive therapy (rhIGF-I with oral estrogen), however, did result in a significant increase in BMD in a study of adult women with AN. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of low BMD in AN, and development of effective therapeutic strategies is critical. This is particularly so for adolescents, who are in the process of accruing peak bone mass, and in whom a failure to attain peak bone mass may occur in AN in addition to loss of established bone.
Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M
Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficient pre- and post-natal nutrition. Postpartum issues including eating disorder symptom relapse, weight loss, breastfeeding, and risk of perinatal depression and anxiety are also discussed. PMID:22003362
Notes that there has been steady increase in reported incidence of male adolescents with anorexia nervosa, from approximately 5% in 1985 to as much as 10% in 1987. Considers role of educators and counselors in early identification of this disorder, noting that young anorectic males have better prognosis for recovery if they receive treatment in…
The gender role is defined; its physiognomy, adopted by women since the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution, and the intricate status that characterizes the present feminine role are described. Finally, a psychosocial approach of anorexia nervosa is made. This disorder is considered as a paradigm of the present ambiguity of the femininity concept likely to become a transactional phenomenon between sexual identities.
Murphy, Beverley; Manning, Yvonne
Nurses may come into contact with patients who have anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The authors discuss the signs and symptoms of these illnesses and outline treatment options for patients with eating disorders.
Pieters, Guido L. M.; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Maas, Yvonne; Hulstijn, Wouter; Vandereycken, Walter; Peuskens, Joseph; Sabbe, Bernard G.
To study action monitoring in anorexia nervosa, behavioral and EEG measures were obtained in underweight anorexia nervosa patients (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=19) while performing a speeded choice-reaction task. Our main measures of interest were questionnaire outcomes, reaction times, error rates, and the error-related negativity ERP…
Levitt, Dana Heller
One form of treatment for anorexia nervosa that continues to be developed is family therapy. In the following article, anorexia nervosa and its prevalence are defined, theories of its development are discussed, and family therapy interventions that have been applied to the treatment of the disorder are outlined. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)
George, G. C. W.
Studies of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa appear to show an increased immunity to certain infections, as well as immunological deficiencies. This is the report of a patient with anorexia nervosa who developed herpes simplex encephalitis, a condition associated with lowered immunological defence mechanisms. PMID:7301681
Thompson, G. Sue
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are currently being studied with great intensity by the medical profession. Anorexia nervosa was first described in the medical literature in 1868, but was considered a rarity until the late 1930's. Bulimia was not identified in the medical literature until 1979. Recent studies suggest that approximately five percent…
Piazza, Eugene; And Others
Describes the State of Mind (SOM) Questionnaire, which measures severity and change of clinical state in anorexia nervosa. A study of 42 anorexia patients and 4 control groups showed a strong correlation between depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and the Anorexia Scale, which comprise the SOM. (JAC)
Lyon, Maureen; Chatoor, Irene; Atkins, Darlene; Silber, Tomas; Mosimann, James; Gray, James
Tested six hypothesized risk factors of a model for anorexia nervosa. Results confirmed three of the risk factors: family history of depression, feelings of ineffectiveness, and poor interceptive awareness. Alcohol and drug abuse also figured prominently in the family history of patients with anorexia nervosa. (RJM)
Barriguete Meléndez, J Armando; Rojo, Luis; Emmelhainz, Marisa
It is presented the current perspectives in the study and treatment of the eating disorders, in specific: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, epidemiology, and the interface among the different medical specialties, nutrition and sciences of the behavior, the diagnostic approaches, instruments and current therapeutic models.
Kaplan, Allan S.; Woodside, D. Blake
Reviews biological factors relevant to the understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Considers the physical presentation of these disorders; the medical complications of starvation, binging, and purging; and the cognitive and behavioral effects of starvation. Reviews neurophysiological and neurochemical aspects of these illnesses and…
Sweeten, Mary K.
The eating disorders called anorexia nervosa and bulimia are examined in terms of their symptomatology, etiology, and treatment, and in terms of how the extension home economist or teacher can help. Resources for additional information or help are listed. (CT)
The article reports the case history of a 15-year-old Australian girl with anorexia nervosa. Information is also given on prevalence, causes, definitions, and treatments including hospitalization, co-therapy, psychotherapy, behavior modification, family therapy, and counseling. (DB)
Patel, Dilip R.; Pratt, Helen D.; Greydanus, Donald E.
Reviews research on the treatment of adolescents with anorexia nervosa, including the general approach, treatment setting, treatment of medical complications, nutritional management, psychopharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, treatment efficacy and outcome studies, comparison studies, and prevention programs. (EV)
Gilbert, Evelyn H.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Discusses anorexia nervosa in terms of symptoms, characteristics of patients, family relationship, and modes of treatment. Suggests that a combination of psychological and medical treatment is more effective than behavior modification. (JAC)
Romeo, Felicia F.
Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)
Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn
In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Walsh, B. Timothy
Objective In this review, based on recent advances in cognitive neuroscience, the author presents a formulation in which the marked persistence of anorexia nervosa can be usefully understood as a well-ingrained maladaptive habit. Method The author reviewed the relevant literature on the development and course of anorexia nervosa and interpreted critical features in light of developments in cognitive neuroscience. Results Anorexia nervosa is a well characterized disorder with remarkable persistence both across history and among affected individuals. Food restriction, the salient behavioral feature of the disorder, often begins innocently but gradually takes on a life of its own. Over time, it becomes highly entrenched and resistant to change through either psychological or pharmacological treatment. Cognitive neuroscience has described two related but distinct processes that underlie the acquisition of new patterns of behavior, namely, action-outcome and stimulus-response learning. It is likely that both processes are engaged in the development of anorexia nervosa and that stimulus-response learning (that is, habit formation) is critical to the persistence of the dieting behavior. Conclusions The formulation of the dieting behavior characteristic of anorexia nervosa as a well-entrenched habit provides a basis for understanding the striking persistence of this disorder. This model helps explain the resistance of anorexia nervosa to interventions that have established efficacy in related disorders and implies that addressing the dieting behavior is critical, especially early in the course of the illness, before it has become ingrained. PMID:23429750
Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.
Gorwood, Philip; Blanchet-Collet, Corinne; Chartrel, Nicolas; Duclos, Jeanne; Dechelotte, Pierre; Hanachi, Mouna; Fetissov, Serguei; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean-Claude; Ramoz, Nicolas; Rovere-Jovene, Carole; Tolle, Virginie; Viltart, Odile; Epelbaum, Jacques
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is classically defined as a condition in which an abnormally low body weight is associated with an intense fear of gaining weight and distorted cognitions regarding weight, shape, and drive for thinness. This article reviews recent evidences from physiology, genetics, epigenetics, and brain imaging which allow to consider AN as an abnormality of reward pathways or an attempt to preserve mental homeostasis. Special emphasis is put on ghrelino-resistance and the importance of orexigenic peptides of the lateral hypothalamus, the gut microbiota and a dysimmune disorder of neuropeptide signaling. Physiological processes, secondary to underlying, and premorbid vulnerability factors—the “pondero-nutritional-feeding basements”- are also discussed. PMID:27445651
Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664
Andreu Martínez, F J; Martínez Mateu, J M
We report on a case of a 23 year-old female diagnosed as having a germ-cell tumour located in the sellar region. The patient referred anorexia, psychic disorders, weight loss of 15 kilograms and secondary amenorrhea during the previous three years. This is the reason why the patient was diagnosed as having anorexia nervosa. Subsequently, the patient presented some endocrine dysfunction. MRI revealed the existence of a lesion located in suprasellar and hypothalamic regions. This case shows that the presence of intracranial tumours next to the hypothalamus must be borne in mind as a rare but real possibility in cases of anorexia nervosa, specially in those non-typical cases.
Brumberg, Joan Jacobs
Reflects on the history of anorexia nervosa among adolescent ("fasting") girls, suggesting that its psychodynamics have changed over time. Focuses on the social and cultural processes by which anorexia nervosa became a disease. Argues for a conception of anorexia nervosa that incorporates culture as well as biomedical and psychological…
Chambry, Jean; Corcos, Maurice; Guilbaud, Olivier; Jeammet, Phillipe
Since its description by Morton in 1694, masculine anorexia nervosa has been the subject of much debate. For many, two questions remain unanswered: does anorexia nervosa, as described in girls, exist in boys? - if so, is it the same disease? We analyzed the data in the literature which demonstrate a lower incidence than in the female population, although estimates are probable low due to underdiagnosis. The behavioral aspects suggest a similarity between masculine and feminine anorexia nervosa although the pure restrictive forms of anorexia are more rare in boys. There are however a few differences. Affected boys, according to Crips and Burns (1990), are heavier than girls at onset of the disorder but present a lower body weight during certain periods of the disease. Excessive physical activity is more frequent as is excessive intellectual involvement (Margo, 1987). The problem of amenorrhea, on/off periods, is not present in the male form. Testosterone and sexual function decline gradually, in parallel with the state of malnutrition (Anersen, 1990). The patient does not have particular difficulty discussing sexual relations but does exhibit a poor level of experience and mental representations. Contact with the opposite sex is rare and the fantastic life is generally very limited. The frequency of homosexual behavior would lie between 25% (Herzog, 1984) and 58% (Schneider and Agras, 1987), which is higher than in the female anorexia population (Herzog, 1984). This observation raises the question concerning the relationship between masculine mental anorexia nervosa and fragile sexual identity.
De Filippo, E; Marra, M; Alfinito, F; Di Guglielmo, M L; Majorano, P; Cerciello, G; De Caprio, C; Contaldo, F; Pasanisi, F
Background/objectives: Anemia, leukopenia and, although less frequently, thrombocytopenia are possible hematological complications of anorexia nervosa considered strictly secondary to chronic malnutrition. This is a retrospective study on the prevalence of these disorders in a large cohort of 318 female patients with AN (20.4±5.6 years, body mass index (BMI) 15.9±1.6 kg/m2), recruited in the Outpatient Unit for Malnutrition secondary to Eating Disorders at the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University Hospital, since February 1991 to December 2012. Subjects/methods: Patients were studied on an outpatient basis after obtaining medical history, clinical examination, routine hematobiochemical and endocrine tests, electrocardiography, psychiatric interview and bioelectrical impedance analysis and, in particular, phase angle determination. All patients with other comorbidities, in particular with mean corpuscular volume <80 fl, were excluded for suspected genetic alteration in the synthesis of hemoglobin. Results: Hematologic data showed that 16.7% of patients had anemia, 7.9% neutropenia and 8.9% thrombocytopenia. These abnormalities were strictly related to the duration of illness (P=0.028), and to protein energy malnutrition, in particular, BMI and phase angle (P<0.001). Conclusions: Our study offers description of the incidence of hematologic defects in a selected and large sample of AN female patients, suggesting that its incidence is related to the degree and duration of protein energy malnutrition. PMID:27436150
The aetiology, assessment and treatment of anorexia nervosa are reviewed in the light of the classical accounts of Morton, Lasègue and Gull. The core symptoms are deliberate weight loss, disturbed body image and amenorrhoea, and complications may include cardiac failure, electrolyte disturbances, hypothermia and osteoporosis. Common clinical findings are described. Disturbed brain serotonin activity is implicated in the aetiology of anorexia nervosa, but there is little support for the use of pharmacological treatments. Psychological theories of aetiology are discussed with reference to Bruch, Crisp, Palazzoli and Minuchin: the common theme is the reaction of the patient and her family to the physical and social changes of puberty. Individual and/or family psychotherapy is seen as central to the treatment of anorexia nervosa, and the relevant clinical research is reviewed. The roles of general practitioners, general psychiatrists and eating disorder specialists are discussed in the light of recent consensus treatment guidelines.
Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Bhat, Mudasir; Singh, Randhir; Mushtaq, Sahil
Anorexia nervosa presenting as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is rare. The causes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome are multiple like alcohol abuse, thyrotoxicosis, haemodialysis, severe malnutrition because of gastric carcinoma and pyloric obstruction, hyperemesis gravidarum, and prolonged parenteral feeding. We report a case of anorexia nervosa, who presented with Wernicke's encephalopathy and progressed to Korsakoff's syndrome. Knowledge, awareness, and early intervention of anorexia nervosa by mental health professionals can prevent development of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Background In spite of the role of some psychosomatic factors as alexithymia, mood intolerance, and somatization in both pathogenesis and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN), few studies have investigated the prevalence of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. The aim of this study was to use the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) to assess psychosomatic syndromes in AN and to evaluate if psychosomatic syndromes could identify subgroups of AN patients. Methods 108 AN inpatients (76 AN restricting subtype, AN-R, and 32 AN binge-purging subtype, AN-BP) were consecutively recruited and psychosomatic syndromes were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DCPR. Participants were asked to complete psychometric tests: Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory–2, and Temperament and Character Inventory. Data were submitted to cluster analysis. Results Illness denial (63%) and alexithymia (54.6%) resulted to be the most common syndromes in our sample. Cluster analysis identified three groups: moderate psychosomatic group (49%), somatization group (26%), and severe psychosomatic group (25%). The first group was mainly represented by AN-R patients reporting often only illness denial and alexithymia as DCPR syndromes. The second group showed more severe eating and depressive symptomatology and frequently DCPR syndromes of the somatization cluster. Thanatophobia DCPR syndrome was also represented in this group. The third group reported longer duration of illness and DCPR syndromes were highly represented; in particular, all patients were found to show the alexithymia DCPR syndrome. Conclusions These results highlight the need of a deep assessment of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. Psychosomatic syndromes correlated differently with both severity of eating symptomatology and duration of illness: therefore, DCPR could be effective to achieve tailored treatments. PMID:23302180
Bingaman, David E.
This document presents a definition and description of anorexia nervosa as a disorder that occurs predominantly in girls and that can affect 1 out of every 250 girls between the ages of 12 and 18 years. The existence of a distorted mental body image among anorexics is discussed and symptoms of the disorder are described, including amenorrhea…
Grigg, Darryl N.; And Others
Used family systems perspective to explore familial transactional patterns related to anorexia nervosa among 22 families with an anorexic child and 22 matched control families. Identified 7 family groups with unique family dynamics differentiating one from another. With no single family pattern characterizing families of anorexics, results…
Hendrick, Susan S.
Provides information on identification and treatment of anorexia nervosa. Recommends that school counselors take responsibility with this problem by (1) informing themselves through reading; (2) initiating an inservice training with a local expert on eating disorders; and (3) begin conducting a short-term "weight problems" group in the…
Skoog, Dagna K.; And Others
Compared pre- and posttreatment Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profiles of female inpatients (N=12) with anorexia nervosa. Results showed change after treatment, and found that pretreatment profiles obtained at a different hospital were remarkably similar, which suggests a common constellation of personality characteristics in…
Jagielska, Gabriela; Tomaszewicz-Libudzic, Elzbieta Celina; Brzozowska, Agata
Pellagra is a potentially fatal, nutritional disease with cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Because of the diversity of pellagra's signs and symptoms, diagnosis is difficult without an appropriate index of suspicion. A case of pellagra in a 14-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa is presented. Signs and symptoms of pellagra were resolved after niacin therapy and dietary treatment.
Fishman, H. Charles
Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…
Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.
Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…
Romeo, Felicia F.
The physical education teacher is in an advantageous position to observe a student who may have anorexia nervosa. Severe weight loss, hyperactivity, body image delusion, and amenorrhea are symptoms of this behavior disorder. Implications for the physical education teacher and athletic coach are offered. (DF)
Lai, Kelly Y. C.
Reports on clinical and psychosocial characteristics of 16 Chinese adolescents from Hong Kong with anorexia nervosa. Over 80% of these patients expressed a fear of fatness. Against the background of increasing Westernization of Hong Kong society, anorexia is taking on a Western pattern, in congruence with the notion that anorexia nervosa is a…
Halperin, E N
Social isolation, competitiveness and self-defeating masochism are the major themes in male and female Anorexia Nervosa. A relationship is seen between Anorexia Nervosa and Perversions, where there is a preconscious reenactment of traumatic situations. This dynamic of competition and masochism is described in two cases of male anorexia and seen as part of many other cases.
Narrative art inquiry is a new qualitative research methodology. It is different from the narrative approaches used by some nurse investigators because the study's findings are presented in the form of creative writing. In this article the author describes narrative art inquiry using material from research that used this approach to study anorexia nervosa. The author believes that narrative art inquiry has a wider application and could be used to study other types of psychological illness and physiological distress.
Casper, Regina C., Ed.
The articles of this special issue report on studies of the outcomes of treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa. These studies leave no doubt about the mortality risk and debilitating nature of chronic anorexia nervosa, but they do suggest that the prognosis, given expert treatment, is favorable for the most part. (SLD)
Russell, Janice; And Others
Explored death-related themes in psychodynamic etiology of anorexia nervosa by comparing anorexic adolescent patients (n=28) to age-matched controls (n=238). Results suggest that death-related themes are of significance in the understanding and management of anorexia nervosa. (Author/ABL)
Discusses rarity of anorexia nervosa among male population with primary reference to differences from female symptomatology. Presents case which implies that anorexia nervosa in the male may be a marker for other more severe pathology. Presents findings which suggest a diagnostic strategy based on familial, behavioral, environmental, educational,…
Trombetti, Andrea; Richert, Laura; Rizzoli, René
It has been estimated that osteoporosis is present in 20 to 50% of women with anorexia nervosa, with an increased fracture risk particularly at non vertebral sites. Thus, bone loss is a major clinical concern in anorexia nervosa patients, justifying systematic evaluation. However, evidence-based therapeutic options are limited.
Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Kravvariti, Vasilliki; Varsou, Eleftheria
The cross-sectional study aimed at examining the sexual function of young adult women suffering from eating disorders. The authors interviewed 53 women (26 with anorexia nervosa and 27 with bulimia nervosa) and 58 female students. Each participant was administered the Female Sexual Function Index, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Comparisons among the 3 groups showed that patients with anorexia nervosa scored lower in each Female Sexual Function Index subscale than did healthy controls. There was no significant difference between bulimia nervosa and healthy controls. Sexual functionality of patients with anorexia nervosa was correlated only with body mass index (r = 0.5, p =.01). Sexual functionality of patients with bulimia nervosa was correlated only with the Beck Depression Inventory (r = -0.4, p =.03) Patients with anorexia nervosa had more disturbed sexual function than did controls. Sexual function can be related to the level of starvation and symptoms of depression.
Cervera, S; Zapata, R; Gual, P; Quintanilla, B
By studying anorexia nervosa with an Integrated Inventory and the quality and the quantity of sleep applying Hauri's scale for the analysis of dream contents, the sleeping habits of 50 anorexic patients who were under treatment have been studied. The results show that sleep in these patients is similar and sometimes better in quantity and quality than those in the control group. Their dreams are characterized by an almost total absence of sexual, aggressive and alimentary contents, and that reality, active participation, unpleasant feelings and sensory-perceptive elements are predominant.
Introducción: Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que explican el desarrollo y la persistencia de la anorexia nerviosa (AN) siguen sin estar claros. Con respecto al funcionamiento neuropsicológico, se han señalado alteraciones en las funciones ejecutivas, especialmente en la flexibilidad cognitiva y en los procesos de toma de decisiones. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar el estado actual de los estudios neuropsicológicos sobre anorexia nerviosa, especialmente los centrados en las funciones ejecutivas. Métodos: Se realizó un proceso de búsqueda con tres relevantes bases de datos electrónicas, así como una búsqueda adicional con las referencias incluidas en los documentos analizados. Finalmente hay que mencionar otras revisiones ya publicadas y una búsqueda manual de otras fuentes. Resultados y discusión: Los datos de comparación de pacientes y controles sanos siguen siendo controvertidos, así como la comparación entre los diferentes trastornos de la alimentación con respecto a la disfunción neuropsicológica. El papel de variables como depresión, ansiedad y obsesividad necesita ser aclarado. Parece que hay alguna base para afirmar que existen algunos puntos en común entre los llamados trastornos de peso extremo (anorexia, obesidad). El vínculo entre la disfunción neuropsicológica en AN y biomarcadores aún no está claro. El papel de los déficits neuropsicológicos en la AN, como factores iniciales o simplemente como meras consecuencias, tampoco está aclarado. La relación entre los trastornos de imagen corporal y la disfunción neuropsicológica debe asimismo aclararse. Los datos sobre las similitudes, en cuanto a la disfunción neuropsicológica, entre AN y otros trastornos mentales pueden ser considerados, hasta la fecha, como una mera aproximación. Lo mismo ocurre con la relación entre el rendimiento neuropsicológico de los pacientes con AN y la personalidad o el género.
Calugi, Simona; El Ghoch, Marwan; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
The study aimed to assess the trajectories of change in body checking over time and the change in eating disorder and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa treated with inpatient enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E). Sixty-six adult patients with anorexia nervosa were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ) scores were recorded at admission (T0), end of treatment (T1), and 6- and 12-month follow-ups (T2 and T3, respectively). The BCQ was also administered at a single time point to an age-matched healthy female comparison participants group (N = 182). In comparison with comparison participants, patients had higher global BCQ scores at T0. However, mean patient scores for global BCQ administered at T1, T2, and T3 were significantly lower than that measured at baseline in the comparison participants group. The change in BCQ was significantly associated to short- and long-term improvements in eating disorder and general psychopathology. The association between change in body checking and the trajectories of change of eating disorder psychopathology supports the potential usefulness of the CBT-E strategy for reducing shape and weight concerns by addressing body checking.
Zucker, Nancy; Wagner, H. Ryan; Merwin, Rhonda; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Keeling, Lori; Hoyle, Rick
Objective The clinical presentation of anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by preoccupation with body experience, intrusive concerns regarding shape, and pathological fears of weight gain. These symptoms are suggestive of unrelenting self-focused attention. No research to date has characterized self-focused attention (SFA) in AN nor examined neurocognitive features that may facilitate an excessive, rigid, or sustained focus on one’s appearance. Method This study examined SFA, body image disturbance, and executive functioning in women with current anorexia nervosa (AN-C; n = 24), a history of AN who were weight-restored at the time of the study weight-restored (WR; n = 19), and healthy controls (n = 24). Results Private and public SFA were highest among WR and lowest among AN-C. Shape concerns were negatively correlated with SFA, especially among AN-C, after controlling for depression and social anxiety symptoms. Discussion Lower levels of SFA among AN-C were unexpected and suggest the acute state of AN may lessen pathological self-focus, negatively reinforcing symptoms. In addition, body image concerns may distract from general SFA. Deficits in executive attention may explain these findings, as each one unit increase in perseverative errors among AN-C participants was associated with an almost one-half unit decrease in public SFA. PMID:24899215
Shear, Matthew; DeFilippis, Ersilia M
It is important to recognise that patients who seek weight loss surgery may have a history of restrictive eating or anorexia nervosa. The following case report describes a woman with a history of anorexia nervosa who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Her eating disorder symptoms subsequently reappeared and were largely resistant to treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a bariatric surgery patient with a prior history of anorexia nervosa. Further research is required to determine how best to select patients for weight loss surgery.
Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte
Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa.
Richards, P. Scott
This paper defines the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and bulimia nervosa, a bulimic subtype of anorexia nervosa. The diagnosis of these disorders is discussed and similarities and differences among the three disorders are reviewed. Etiological factors are considered and current trends in treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and…
Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN.
Oldis, Katherine O.
Presents a bibliography of books on anorexia nervosa that are appropriate for young adults. Includes fiction, autobiographies, informational books, and books on the related topics of bulimia, bulimarexia, and therapy. (EL)
Chng, Chwee Lye
Written for the school and/or community health professional, this article defines anorexia nervosa, discusses its prevalence, causes, symptoms, and treatment, and draws implications about health education's role in its prevention and treatment. (Author/CJ)
... People With Anorexia Nervosa Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available in: PDF (86 KB) Related Resources ... Management Strategies Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...
Frank, Guido K W
Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways.
Zenker, J; Hagenah, U; Rossaint, R
Eating disorders are typical diseases of adolescence and early adulthood. About 1-3% of female juveniles suffer from anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). Today AN is still the psychiatric disease with the highest mortality rate. The peri-operative mortality rate of patients suffering from AN is in the range up to 15%. The beginning of AN is a lingering process and the majority of patients show increasingly restrictive eating habits ending in cachexia. Patients are obsessed by the predominant idea of being obese in spite of having a significant underweight. Patients suffering from bulimia break the strict regimen by eating enormous amounts of high calorie food. Such eating attacks are followed by weight reducing measures, mostly vomiting. Most of the physical changes caused by AN are due to starvation and loss of weight. The most significant medical complications are alterations of the cardiovascular system accompanied by decreasing contractility of the heart, bradycardia, electrocardiographic changes as well as disequilibrium of electrolytic and water balance. Most of these symptoms can be reversed by putting on weight.
Harrington, Brian C; Jimerson, Michelle; Haxton, Christina; Jimerson, David C
Eating disorders are life-threatening conditions that are challenging to address; however, the primary care setting provides an important opportunity for critical medical and psychosocial intervention. The recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., includes updated diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (e.g., elimination of amenorrhea as a diagnostic criterion) and for bulimia nervosa (e.g., criterion for frequency of binge episodes decreased to an average of once per week). In addition to the role of environmental triggers and societal expectations of body size and shape, research has suggested that genes and discrete biochemical signals contribute to the development of eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa occur most often in adolescent females and are often accompanied by depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. For low-weight patients with anorexia nervosa, virtually all physiologic systems are affected, ranging from hypotension and osteopenia to life-threatening arrhythmias, often requiring emergent assessment and hospitalization for metabolic stabilization. In patients with frequent purging or laxative abuse, the presence of electrolyte abnormalities requires prompt intervention. Family-based treatment is helpful for adolescents with anorexia nervosa, whereas short-term psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavior therapy, is effective for most patients with bulimia nervosa. The use of psychotropic medications is limited for anorexia nervosa, whereas treatment studies have shown a benefit of antidepressant medications for patients with bulimia nervosa. Treatment is most effective when it includes a multidisciplinary, teambased approach.
Benveniste, J; Lecouteur, A; Hepworth, J
Previous studies on lay theories of anorexia nervosa have examined the 'accuracy' of lay knowledge, and the identification of factors by family and friends that would encourage early interventions (Huon, Brown, & Morris, 1988, 7, 239-252; Murray, Touyz, & Beumont, 1990, 9, 87-93). In contrast to these approaches, we examine lay theories of anorexia nervosa using a critical psychology perspective. We argue that the use of a discourse analysis methodology enables the examination of the construction of lay theories through dominant concepts and ideas. Ten semi-structured interviews with five women and five men aged between 15 and 25 years were carried out. Participants were asked questions about three main aspects of anorexia nervosa: aetiology, treatment and relationship to gender. Each interview was analysed in terms of the structure, function and variability of discourse. Three discourses: sociocultural, individual and femininity, are discussed in relation to the interview questions. We conclude that, in this study, lay theories of anorexia nervosa were structured through key discourses that maintained a separation between sociocultural aspects of anorexia nervosa and individual psychology. This separation exists in dominant psychomedical conceptualizations of anorexia nervosa, reinforcing the concept that it is a form of psychopathology.
Hamatani, Sayo; Tomotake, Masahito; Takeda, Tomoya; Kameoka, Naomi; Kawabata, Masashi; Kubo, Hiroko; Tada, Yukio; Tomioka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Ohmori, Tetsuro
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of social cognition in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods Eighteen female patients with AN (mean age =35.4±8.6 years) and 18 female healthy controls (HC) (mean age =32.8±9.4 years) participated in the study. Their social cognition was assessed with the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). Results The results showed that total score of the SCSQ and scores of theory of mind and metacognition were significantly lower in AN group than those in HC group. Moreover, significant differences in theory of mind, metacognition, and total score of the SCSQ remained when the effects of depression, anxiety, and starvation were eliminated statistically. Conclusion These results suggest that patients with AN may have difficulty inferring other people’s intention and also monitoring and evaluating their own cognitive activities. Therefore, these features may explain some aspects of the pathology of AN. PMID:27785029
Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Von Holle, Ann; Ulman, T. Frances; Thornton, Laura M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Huber, Thomas; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S.; Mitchell, James E.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective Comorbidity among eating disorders, traumatic events, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported in several studies. The main objectives of this study were to describe the nature of traumatic events experienced and to explore the relation between PTSD and anorexia nervosa (AN) in a sample of women. Methods Eight hundred twenty-four participants from the National Institutes of Health funded Genetics of Anorexia Nervosa Collaborative Study were assessed for eating disorders, PTSD, and personality characteristics. Results From a final sample of 753 women with AN, 13.7% (n=103) met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. The sample mean age was 29.5 years (SD=11.1). In pairwise comparisons across AN subtypes, the odds of having a PTSD diagnosis were significantly lower in individuals with restricting AN (RAN) than individuals with purging AN without binge eating (PAN) (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.30, 0.80). The majority of participants with PTSD reported the first traumatic event before the onset of AN (64.1%, n=66). The most common traumatic events reported by those with a PTSD diagnosis were sexual related traumas during childhood (40.8%) and during adulthood (35.0%). Conclusions AN and PTSD do co-occur and traumatic events tend to occur prior to the onset of AN. Clinically, these results underscore the importance of assessing trauma history and PTSD in individuals with AN and raise the question of whether specific modifications or augmentations to standard treatment for AN should be considered in a subgroup to address PTSD-related psychopathology. PMID:21715295
Talarczyk, M; Rajewski, A
The aim of this work was to measure the self-acceptance level in patients with anorexia nervosa. The obtained results indicate that patients with anorexia nervosa have lower self-acceptance level in comparison with the control group.
The purpose of this literature review is to examine prevalence and incident rates of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In addition, this article will review the psychological and sociological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of an eating disorder. Finally, different treatment approaches will be discussed in…
Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.
In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.
Schorr, Melanie; Miller, Karen K
Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by altered body image, persistent food restriction and low body weight, and is associated with global endocrine dysregulation in both adolescent girls and women. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis includes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with relative oestrogen and androgen deficiency, growth hormone resistance, hypercortisolaemia, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypooxytocinaemia. Serum levels of leptin, an anorexigenic adipokine, are suppressed and levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic gut peptide, are elevated in women with anorexia nervosa; however, levels of peptide YY, an anorexigenic gut peptide, are paradoxically elevated. Although most, but not all, of these endocrine disturbances are adaptive to the low energy state of chronic starvation and reverse with treatment of the eating disorder, many contribute to impaired skeletal integrity, as well as neuropsychiatric comorbidities, in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Although 5-15% of patients with anorexia nervosa are men, only limited data exist regarding the endocrine impact of the disease in adolescent boys and men. Further research is needed to understand the endocrine determinants of bone loss and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in anorexia nervosa in both women and men, as well as to formulate optimal treatment strategies.
Kappel, Viola; van Noort, Betteke; Ritschel, Franziska; Seidel, Maria; Ehrlich, Stefan
Anorexia nervosa is a frequent disorder especially among adolescent girls and young women, with high morbidity, mortality, and relapse rates. To date, no single therapeutic approach has proved to be superior to others (Herpertz et al., 2011). It remains unclear how its etiology and pathology are encoded within cognitive, neural, and endocrinological processes that modulate important mechanisms in appetitive processing and weight regulation. Yet, several trait characteristics have been identified in AN which might reflect predisposing factors. Further, altered levels of neuropeptides and hormones that regulate appetite and feeding behavior have been found during both the acute and the recovered state, pointing to dysfunctional mechanisms in AN that persist even after malnutrition has ceased. Researchers are also hoping that brain imaging techniques will allow for a more detailed investigation of the neural basis of reward and punishment sensitivity that appears to be altered in AN. The integration and extension of recent findings in these areas will hopefully provide a more comprehensive understanding of the disorder and hence enable the development of more effective treatments.
Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Castle, David Jonathan; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Abel, Larry Allen
Background Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has a mortality rate among the highest of any mental illness, though the factors involved in the condition remain unclear. Recently, the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition have become of increasing interest. Saccadic eye movement tasks have proven useful in our understanding of the neurobiology of some other psychiatric illnesses as they utilise known brain regions, but to date have not been examined in AN. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with AN differ from healthy individuals in performance on a range of saccadic eye movements tasks. Methods 24 females with AN and 25 healthy individuals matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence participated in the study. Participants were required to undergo memory-guided and self-paced saccade tasks, and an interleaved prosaccade/antisaccade/no-go saccade task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results AN participants were found to make prosaccades of significantly shorter latency than healthy controls. AN participants also made an increased number of inhibitory errors on the memory-guided saccade task. Groups did not significantly differ in antisaccade, no-go saccade or self-paced saccade performance, or fMRI findings. Discussion The results suggest a potential role of GABA in the superior colliculus in the psychopathology of AN. PMID:27010196
Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Franchetti, Lorena; Carli, Lorenza; Todisco, Patrizia; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni
The study of cognitive processes in anorexia nervosa (AN) is largely unexplored, although recent evidence suggests the presence of impairments in both social cognition and attention processing. Here we investigated AN patients' ability to orient attention in response to social and symbolic visual stimuli. AN patients and matched controls performed a task in which gaze and pointing gestures acted as social directional cues for spatial attention. Arrows were also included as symbolic cue. On each trial, a centrally-placed cue appeared oriented rightwards or leftwards. After either 200 or 700ms, a lateralized neutral target (a letter) requiring a discrimination response appeared in a location either spatially congruent or incongruent with the directional cue. Controls showed a reliable orienting irrespective of both temporal interval and cue type. AN patients showed a reliable orienting at both temporal intervals only in response to pointing gestures. Both gaze and arrow cues failed to orient attention at the short temporal interval, that is when attention is under reflexive control, whereas a reliable orienting emerged at the long temporal interval. These results provide preliminary evidence of altered reflexive orienting of attention in AN patients that does not extend to body-related cues such as pointing gestures.
Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Darcy, Alison; Colborn, Danielle; Gudorf, Caroline; Lock, James
Objective Set shifting difficulties are documented for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, AN typically onsets in adolescents and it is unclear if set-shifting difficulties are a result of chronic AN or present earlier in its course. This study examined whether adolescents with short duration AN demonstrated set shifting difficulties compared to healthy controls (HC). Method Data on set shifting collected from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) and Wisconsin Card Sort Task (WCST) as well as eating psychopathology were collected from 32 adolescent inpatients with AN and compared to those from 22 HCs. Results There were no differences in set-shifting in adolescents with AN compared to HCs on most measures. Conclusion The findings suggest that set-shifting difficulties in AN may be a consequence of AN. Future studies should explore set-shifting difficulties in a larger sample of adolescents with the AN to determine if there is sub-set of adolescents with these difficulties and determine any relationship of set-shifting to the development of a chronic from of AN. PMID:22692985
Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer
The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = −.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866
Godier, Lauren R; Park, Rebecca J
The compulsive nature of weight loss behaviors central to anorexia nervosa (AN), such as relentless self-starvation and over-exercise, has led to the suggestion of parallels between AN and other compulsive disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addictions. There is a huge unmet need for effective treatments in AN, which has high rates of morbidity and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder, yet a grave paucity of effective treatments. Viewing compulsivity as a transdiagnostic concept, seen in various manifestations across disorders, may help delineate the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of AN, and aid treatment development. We explore models of compulsivity that suggest dysfunction in cortico-striatal circuitry underpins compulsive behavior, and consider evidence of aberrancies in this circuitry across disorders. Excessive habit formation is considered as a mechanism by which initially rewarding weight loss behavior in AN may become compulsive over time, and the complex balance between positive and negative reinforcement in this process is considered. The physiological effects of starvation in promoting compulsivity, positive reinforcement, and habit formation are also discussed. Further research in AN may benefit from a focus on processes potentially underlying the development of compulsivity, such as aberrant reward processing and habit formation. We discuss the implications of a transdiagnostic perspective on compulsivity, and how it may contribute to the development of novel treatments for AN.
Cardi, Valentina; Turton, Robert; Schifano, Sylvia; Leppanen, Jenni; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet
Patients with anorexia nervosa experience increased sensitivity to the risk of social rejection. The aims of this study were to assess the interpretation of ambiguous social scenarios depicting the risk of rejection and to examine the relationship between interpretation biases and clinical symptoms. Thirty-five women with anorexia nervosa and 30 healthy eaters completed clinical questionnaires, alongside a sentence completion task. This task required participants to generate completions to ambiguous social scenarios and to endorse their best completion. Responses were rated as being negative, neutral or positive. Patients endorsed more negative interpretations and fewer neutral and positive interpretations compared with healthy eaters. The frequency of endorsed negative interpretations correlated with depression, anxiety and fear of weight gain and body disturbance. A negative interpretation bias towards social stimuli is present in women with anorexia nervosa and correlates with clinical symptoms. Interventions aimed at reducing this bias could improve illness prognosis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Mascolo, Margherita; Geer, Bashir; Feuerstein, Joshua; Mehler, Philip S
Patients with anorexia nervosa often voice a multitude of symptoms in regards to their gastrointestinal tract. These complaints can complicate the treatment of their eating disorder as they distract attention from the important goal of weight restoration. Moreover, the restricting of certain food groups also makes the task of weight restoration substantially more difficult, or may result in binging. Therefore a working knowledge of common gastrointestinal comorbidities, such as celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastroparesis, is useful when treating a patient who has anorexia nervosa.
German-language publications on anorexia nervosa and Simmonds' disease from between 1900 and 1945 are reviewed in order to trace factors inherent in medical thinking which have mostly hindered German-language medicine in understanding anorexia nervosa. It is demonstrated that a) the few German-language physicians who did describe central and possible characteristics of a.n. (weight-phobia, overactivity, bulimia, self-induced vomiting) were enabled to do so by valuing detailed clinical description, also of psychic characteristics, and an interest in the neuroses; b) the concept of anorexia nervosa was better known than previously assumed, though largely misunderstood; c) typical diagnostic misinterpretations led to typical biases in the description of the syndrome; d) in Germany more than in other countries a.n. was confounded with Simmonds' disease; and e) in addition to other factors, one reason for this lay in the 'holistic' ideal of psychosomatic medicine in the 1930s.
Morita, Chihiro; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Hata, Tomokazu; Gondo, Motoharu; Takakura, Shu; Kawai, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Ogata, Kiyohito; Nomoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Sudo, Nobuyuki
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychological illness with devastating physical consequences; however, its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Because numerous reports have indicated the importance of gut microbiota in the regulation of weight gain, it is reasonable to speculate that AN patients might have a microbial imbalance, i.e. dysbiosis, in their gut. In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota of female patients with AN (n = 25), including restrictive (ANR, n = 14) and binge-eating (ANBP, n = 11) subtypes, with those of age-matched healthy female controls (n = 21) using the Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN based on 16S or 23S rRNA-targeted RT-quantitative PCR technology. AN patients had significantly lower amounts of total bacteria and obligate anaerobes including those from the Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, and Bacteroides fragilis group than the age-matched healthy women. Lower numbers of Streptococcus were also found in the AN group than in the control group. In the analysis based on AN subtypes, the counts of the Bacteroides fragilis group in the ANR and ANBP groups and the counts of the Clostridium coccoides group in the ANR group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The detection rate of the Lactobacillus plantarum subgroup was significantly lower in the AN group than in the control group. The AN group had significantly lower acetic and propionic acid concentrations in the feces than the control group. Moreover, the subtype analysis showed that the fecal concentrations of acetic acid were lower in the ANR group than in the control group. Principal component analysis confirmed a clear difference in the bacterial components between the AN patients and healthy women. Collectively, these results clearly indicate the existence of dysbiosis in the gut of AN patients.
Rigotti, N.A.; Neer, R.M.; Jameson, L.
Women with anorexia nervosa have reduced skeletal mass. Both anorexia and osteopenia are less common in men. We describe a 22-year-old man with anorexia nervosa and severe osteopenia involving both cortical and trabecular bone who developed a pelvic fracture and multiple vertebral compression fractures. He was found to have secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that was reversible with weight gain. This case illustrates the need to consider osteopenia as a potential complication of anorexia nervosa in males as well as females.
Although in-depth, long-term group psychotherapy is a beneficial therapeutic experience for adolescent females suffering from anorexia nervosa, these clients are notoriously resistant to treatment and to long-term, open-ended group settings. This dissidence may stem from a motivational deficiency toward changing their eating patterns and…
Lackner, N; Unterrainer, H F; Skliris, D; Wood, G; Dunitz-Scheer, M; Wallner-Liebmann, S J; Scheer, P J Z; Neuper, C
Anorexia nervosa has been related to alterations in brain activity in terms of hyperactive EEG patterns. This case report illustrates the principles and results of a five-week neurofeedback treatment in a 29-year-old woman suffering from anorexia nervosa. A neurofeedback protocol to enhance alpha activity (8 - 12 Hz) was developed and conducted additionally to the standardized treatment for eating disorders in training sessions twice a week. Pre- and post-test measurements included resting state EEG measurements and a psychological test battery. The results show improvements from pre- to post-test in eating disorder psychopathology including psychological wellbeing, emotional competence, and eating behavior traits. In addition, a decrease in theta power (4 - 7 Hz), a well-known trait marker of anorexia nervosa, was measured. However, our data should be interpreted with caution because this is a single case study. Nevertheless, this report documents the practicability and method of neurofeedback as treatment adjunct in eating disorders from the clinical perspective. Although the use of neurofeedback in the treatment of anorexia nervosa is recommended in literature, empirical studies are still lacking. Randomized controlled trials to evaluate short- and long-term effects of neurofeedback are needed.
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst
This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…
Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...
Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…
Watters, Jessica E.; Malouff, John M.
Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five-Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of…
Jensen, V M; Støving, R K; Andersen, P E
A rare case combining pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumoperitoneum, pneumorrhachis, air in retroperitoneum and extensive subcutaneous emphysema simultaneously in a severely anorectic male with BMI 9.2 (22.8 kg) and multiple vomitings is presented. This unusual condition was treated successfully with conservative medical approach in a specialized somatic unit for anorexia nervosa.
Hurst, Kim; Read, Shelly; Wallis, Andrew
Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder that usually occurs in adolescence. The course of the illness can be protracted. Current empirical evidence suggests that the Maudsley Family-Based Treatment (MFBT) is efficacious for adolescents. MFBT empowers parents as a crucial treatment resource to assist in their child's recovery. The…
Thomas Iv, Lewis J; Zweig, Alex P; Tosh, Aneesh K
A 13-year-old Hispanic female presented with symptoms of abdominal pain, amenorrhea, and unintentional weight loss of 11 kg. Preliminary investigation yielded no immediate causes, and an initial differential included inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), celiac disease, as well as viral, bacterial, or parasitic gastrointestinal infection. Evaluation of these potential diagnoses yielded negative results; thus, the team thought that the patient may be suffering from anorexia nervosa. The patient was discharged to outpatient care, and was treated in our adolescent health clinic, where repeat laboratory testing yielded a positive Giardia-antigen test. The patient was placed on metronidazole, rapidly gained weight, and resumed menstruation soon after. The final diagnosis was chronic giardiasis. Chronic giardiasis is a rare and enigmatic disease that presents with many symptoms similar to chronic gastrointestinal disorders (e.g. IBD and celiac disease) and anorexia nervosa. Practitioners involved in the diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa should be aware of this disorder and include it in differential diagnoses of patients presenting with anorexia nervosa symptoms.
Nufrio, Ronald M.
Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder which affects thousands of people every year. Ninety-five percent of all anorexics are females with the peak age of onset between 14 and 18. While anorexics fit into no specific stereotype, high-risk candidates are often perfectionists and model children who exhibit self-doubt, high conformity,…
Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others
Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)
Smart, D E; Beumont, P J; George, G C
Twenty-two female patients with anorexia nervosa were assessed by means of objective personality testing. The EPI, Leyton Obsessional Inventory, Cattell's 16 PF and Raven's Matrices were used for this purpose. The personality profile that emerged was of a highly neurotic and introverted person with moderately severe obsessional features and average intelligence.
Jenkins, M. E.
Adolescent girls (N=21) treated for anorexia nervosa in a hospital operating a strict refeeding program were examined 3 years after treatment. Outcome was considered good for 10 girls, intermediate for 4 girls, and poor for 5 girls. Found lack of separation from parents at follow-up. Discusses relevance of findings to treatment approach and to…
Tabari, Azadeh; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Bredella, Miriam A
Purpose To determine indexes of skeletal integrity by using computed tomographic (CT) trabecular texture analysis of the lumbar spine in patients with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight control subjects and to determine body composition predictors of trabecular texture. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained. The study included 30 women with anorexia nervosa (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 6) and 30 normal-weight age-matched women (control group). All participants underwent low-dose single-section quantitative CT of the L4 vertebral body with use of a calibration phantom. Trabecular texture analysis was performed by using software. Skewness (asymmetry of gray-level pixel distribution), kurtosis (pointiness of pixel distribution), entropy (inhomogeneity of pixel distribution), and mean value of positive pixels (MPP) were assessed. Bone mineral density and abdominal fat and paraspinal muscle areas were quantified with quantitative CT. Women with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight control subjects were compared by using the Student t test. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between trabecular texture and body composition. Results Women with anorexia nervosa had higher skewness and kurtosis, lower MPP (P < .001), and a trend toward lower entropy (P = .07) compared with control subjects. Bone mineral density, abdominal fat area, and paraspinal muscle area were inversely associated with skewness and kurtosis and positively associated with MPP and entropy. Texture parameters, but not bone mineral density, were associated with lowest lifetime weight and duration of amenorrhea in anorexia nervosa. Conclusion Patients with anorexia nervosa had increased skewness and kurtosis and decreased entropy and MPP compared with normal-weight control subjects. These parameters were associated with lowest lifetime weight
Powers, P S
This article presents the essential aspects of assessment of patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. The evaluation of the athlete with a suspected eating disorder is described. The choice of appropriate type and site of treatment is discussed. Throughout the article there is an emphasis on methods that can be useful in assisting the patient to acknowledge his or her illness and participate in treatment. The need to focus simultaneously on psychological and relationship issues and nutritional status is stressed.
Ametller, L.; Castro, J.; Serrano, E.; Martinez, E.; Toro, J.
Objectives: To determine if motivation to change in anorexia nervosa during treatment is a predictor of hospitalisation in adolescent patients. Method: The Anorexia Nervosa Stages of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to a group of 70 anorexia nervosa…
Ertuğrul, İlker; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Karagöz, Tevfik; Kanbur, Nuray
Studies have shown that a prolonged P-wave dispersion is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate P-wave dispersion in adolescents with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis. We evaluated electrocardiographic findings, particularly the P-wave dispersion, at initial assessment in 47 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Comparison of P-wave dispersion between adolescents with anorexia nervosa and controls showed a statistically significant higher P-wave dispersion in patients with anorexia nervosa (72 ± 16.3 msec) when compared to the control group (43.8 ± 9.5 msec). Percent of body weight lost, lower body mass index, and higher weight loss rate in the patients with anorexia nervosa had no effect on P-wave dispersion. Due to the fact that anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate we believe that cardiac pathologies such as atrial fibrillation must also be considered in the medical evaluation.
Selby, Edward A.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Thornton, Laura; Brandt, Harry A.; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Jacoby, Georg E.; Johnson, Craig L.; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S.; Mitchell, James E.; Nutzinger, Detlev O.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Joiner, Thomas E.
One of the primary facets of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is behavioral dysregulation, a wide array of behaviors that are difficult to control and harmful to the individual. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between BPD and a variety of dysregulated behaviors, some of which have received little empirical attention. Using a large sample of individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 41 individuals diagnosed with BPD were compared to the rest of the sample on the presence of dysregulated behaviors using logistic regression analyses. Anorexia nervosa subtypes, age, and other Cluster B personality disorders were used as covariates. Results support an association between BPD and alcohol misuse, hitting someone/breaking things, provoking fights/ arguments, self-injury, overdosing, street drug use, binge-eating, impulsive spending, shoplifting/stealing and risky sexual behaviors. Differences between dichotomous and continuous measures of BPD yielded somewhat different results. PMID:22448667
de Simone, G.; Scalfi, L.; Galderisi, M.; Celentano, A.; Di Biase, G.; Tammaro, P.; Garofalo, M.; Mureddu, G. F.; de Divitiis, O.; Contaldo, F.
OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and 22 constitutionally thin women (21 (4) years) with body mass index < 20. RESULTS--13 patients (62%) had abnormalities of mitral valve motion compared with one normal weight woman and two thin women (p < 0.001) v both control groups). Left ventricular chamber dimension and mass were significantly less in women with anorexia nervosa than in either the women of normal weight or the thin women, even after standardisation for body size or after controlling for blood pressure. There were no substantial changes in left ventricular shape. Midwall shortening as a percentage of the values predicted from end systolic stress was significantly lower in the starving patients than in women of normal weight: when endocardial shortening was used as the index this difference was overestimated. The cardiac index was also significantly reduced in anorexia nervosa because of a low stroke index and heart rate. The total peripheral resistance was significantly higher in starving patients than in both control groups. The left atrial dimension was significantly smaller in anorexia than in the women of normal weight and the thin women, independently of body size. The transmitral flow velocity E/A ratio was significantly higher in anorexia than in both the control groups because of the reduction of peak velocity A. When data from all three groups were pooled the flow velocity E/A ratio was inversely related to left atrial dimension (r = -0.43, p < 0.0001) and cardiac output (r = -0.64, p < 0.0001) independently of body size. CONCLUSIONS--Anorexia nervosa caused
Hasan, Tasneem Fatema; Hasan, Hunaid
The roles of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), opioid peptides, leptin and ghrelin in anorexia nervosa (AN) were discussed in this paper. CRF is the key mediator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and also acts at various other parts of the brain, such as the limbic system and the peripheral nervous system. CRF action is mediated through the CRF1 and CRF2 receptors, with both HPA axis-dependent and HPA axis-independent actions, where the latter shows nil involvement of the autonomic nervous system. CRF1 receptors mediate both the HPA axis-dependent and independent pathways through CRF, while the CRF2 receptors exclusively mediate the HPA axis-independent pathways through urocortin. Opioid peptides are involved in the adaptation and regulation of energy intake and utilization through reward-related behavior. Opioids play a role in the addictive component of AN, as described by the “auto-addiction opioids theory”. Their interactions have demonstrated the psychological aspect of AN and have shown to prevent the functioning of the physiological homeostasis. Important opioids involved are β-lipotropin, β-endorphin and dynorphin, which interact with both µ and κ opioids receptors to regulate reward-mediated behavior and describe the higher incidence of AN seen in females. Moreover, ghrelin is known as the “hunger” hormone and helps stimulate growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like-growth-factor-1(IGF-1), maintaining anabolism and preserving a lean body mass. In AN, high levels of GH due to GH resistance along with low levels of IGF-1 are observed. Leptin plays a role in suppressing appetite through the inhibition of neuropeptide Y gene. Moreover, the CRF, opioid, leptin and ghrelin mechanisms operate collectively at the HPA axis and express the physiological and psychological components of AN. Fear conditioning is an intricate learning process occurring at the level of the hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septum and the dorsal raphe by
Brown, Carrie; Mehler, Philip S
Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Many of the deaths are attributable to medical complications which arise as the malnutrition and weight loss worsens. Every body system may be adversely affected by anorexia nervosa. Yet, remarkably, most of the medical complications of anorexia nervosa are treatable and reversible with optimal medical care, as part of a multidisciplinary team who are often involved in the care of these patients. Herein, we will describe the medical complications of anorexia nervosa and their treatments.
Court, John P M; Kaplan, Allan S
Responses in pre-modern eras to anorexia nervosa (as now understood) varied widely, from religious piety and sanctity through fear and superstition. While noting briefly the limited conceptualizations from pre-modern history this article is primarily focused from the late 19th century, commencing with helpful but tentative formulations of anorexia nervosa for early-modern medicine that were laid out, consistently between themselves, by Lesègue, Gull and Osler. Yet that promising biomedical advent was superseded for more than a half-century by deep, internal divisions and bitter rifts that festered between three medical disciplines: neurology; Freudian psychotherapy; and Kraepelinian biological psychiatry. Mid-20th century developments preceded the 1960-1980s' improved understanding of suffering and movement toward effective remediation introduced by Dr. Hilde Bruch.
Golden, Neville H; Meyer, Wendy
Nutritional rehabilitation of adolescents with anorexia nervosa is both a science and an art. The goals are to promote metabolic recovery; restore a healthy body weight; reverse the medical complications of the disorder and to improve eating behaviors and psychological functioning. Most, but not all of the medical complications are reversible with nutritional rehabilitation. Refeeding patients with anorexia nervosa results in deposition of lean body mass initially, followed by restoration of adipose tissue as treatment goal weight is approached. The major danger of nutritional rehabilitation is the refeeding syndrome, characterized by fluid and electrolyte, cardiac, hematological and neurological complications, the most serious of which is sudden unexpected death. The refeeding syndrome is most likely to occur in those who are severely malnourished. In such patients, this complication can be avoided by slow refeeding with careful monitoring of body weight, heart rate and rhythm and serum electrolytes, especially serum phosphorus. This paper reviews our clinical experience.
Macías-Robles, María Dolores; Perez-Clemente, Ana María; Maciá-Bobes, Carmen; Alvarez-Rueda, María Asunción; Pozo-Nuevo, Sergio
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by the avoidance of food intake, which usually leads to a weight loss. Cardiac co-morbility is common and we can find sometimes a mass loss from the left ventricle, which can be seen by echocardiography. But the commonest complications are rhythm variations, typically bradycardia with a prolonged QT interval in up to a 40% of the cases, which altogether elevates ventricular tachycardia and sudden death risk. We present the case of a male who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and developed asthenia, a long QT interval and also a severe both hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia. We intend to discuss the pathogenic paths as well as prophylactic and therapeutic measures to this potentially-lethal pathology. PMID:19646241
Vandepitte, M; Vandereycken, W
Two girls, 16 and 18 years old, with anorexia nervosa developed generalized convulsion as a result of drinking excessive amounts of water. The neurological symptoms disappeared, but the girls held on to their excessive drinking habits, despite psychoeducation. Although fluid restriction is known to be a major problem for anorexia nervosa patients within the context of extreme fasting, one should realize that these patients can also run the risk of water intoxication following excessive water intake. Therefore all patients should be questioned explicitly about their daily fluid intake. In the case of polydipsia, the patient's blood should be tested and serum electrolytes should be measured. Patients should be given psychoeducation in order to make them more aware of the possible dangers of excessive water intake.
Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri
Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676
Foerde, Karin; Steinglass, Joanna; Shohamy, Daphna; Walsh, B. Timothy
People routinely make poor choices, despite knowledge of negative consequences. We found that individuals with Anorexia Nervosa, who make maladaptive food choices to the point of starvation, engaged the dorsal striatum more than healthy controls when making choices about what to eat, and that activity in fronto-striatal circuits was correlated with their actual food consumption in a meal the next day. PMID:26457555
Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri
Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome.
Gutierrez, E; Vazquez, R
The paper presents the results of heat treatment in three cases of anorexia nervosa (AN), in which marked overactivity and/or strenuous exercising were prominent clinical features. Heat was supplied in three ways: continuous exposure to a warm environment, wearing a thermal waistcoat, and sauna baths in an infrared cabin. The outcomes went far beyond what had been expected, as the disappearance of hyperactivity was followed by progressive recovery.
Crisp, A H
Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be.
Based on a hypothesized disturbance in personal control and efficacy in anorexia nervosa, locus of control score in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa was compared to scores obtained from depressed and conduct-disordered controls and to adolescent female standardization norms. (Author/CL)
Le Grange, Daniel; Binford, Roslyn; Loeb, Katharine L.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe a case series of children and adolescents (mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 2.3; range 9-18) with anorexia nervosa who received manualized family-based treatment for their eating disorder. Method: Forty-five patients with anorexia nervosa were compared pre- and post-treatment on weight and menstrual…
Ponech, Heather; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on anorexia nervosa in female adults and concludes by offering 14 group therapy lesson plans for anorexia nervosa that therapists may use in their practice. There is a remarkable lack of research on the efficacy of treatment designed for individuals diagnosed with anorexia…
Lock, James; Agras, W. Stewart; Bryson, Susan; Kraemer, Helena C.
Objective: Research suggests that family treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa may be effective. This study was designed to determine the optimal length of such family therapy. Method: Eighty-six adolescents (12-18 years of age) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa were allocated at random to either a short-term (10 sessions over 6 months) or…
Watson, Karli K.; Werling, Donna M.; Zucker, Nancy L.; Platt, Michael L.
Dysfunctional social reward and social attention are present in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and social anxiety. Here we show that similar social reward and attention dysfunction are present in anorexia nervosa (AN), a disorder defined by avoidance of food and extreme weight loss. We measured the implicit reward value of social stimuli for female participants with (n = 11) and without (n = 11) AN using an econometric choice task and also tracked gaze patterns during free viewing of images of female faces and bodies. As predicted, the reward value of viewing bodies varied inversely with observed body weight for women with anorexia but not control women, in contrast with their explicit ratings of attractiveness. Surprisingly, women with AN, unlike control women, did not find female faces rewarding and avoided looking at both the face and eyes – independent of observed body weight. These findings suggest comorbid dysfunction in the neural circuits mediating gustatory and social reward in anorexia nervosa. PMID:21887145
Oliveri, B; Gomez Acotto, C; Mautalen, C
A 27-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa since adolescence was referred to our unit for generalized bone pain most severe at the pelvis and an inability to stand. She reported a pelvic fracture diagnosed one year earlier, which had failed to heal. Laboratory tests showed low serum phosphate, normal total serum calcium corrected for serum albumin, and very low urinary calcium excretion. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels were elevated, whereas 25-hydroxy-vitamin D was severely decreased. Multiple vertebral and rib fractures were seen on plain radiographs. Radiographic images consistent with osteomalacia were pseudofractures of the left inferior pubic ramus, a bilateral complete fracture of the superior pubic ramus, and a characteristic pseudofracture (Looser zone) in the lateral margin of the right scapula. Vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia with secondary hyperparathyroidism was strongly suspected at this point, but it was decided not to confirm this diagnosis by bone biopsy with histomorphometry and osteoid labeling because of the emotional instability of the patient. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry disclosed severe demineralization. After two months on calcium and vitamin D supplements, the bone pain had abated and the patient was able to stand. Serum calcium had increased; serum phosphate, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone had returned to normal, and the pseudofractures showed evidence of healing. Osteoporosis is a well-known complication of anorexia nervosa. This case shows that osteomalacia can also occur. Vitamin D status should be assessed in patients with long-standing severe anorexia nervosa.
Crisp, A H
Anorexia nervosa has been viewed here as a defensive biologically regressed posture pivoting around the events of puberty and reflecting primary gain. There is rarely any secondary gain - on the contrary life is miserable though still usually possible. The disorder is rooted in psychobiological mechanisms within the individual and in individual and family psychopathology concerning the meaning of body weight and fatness, evoked by the proband's adolescence and its maturational challenges. There are many identifiable 'risk factors' that can influence the evolution of the condition. Treatment requires a combined behavioural and psychotherapeutic approach involving special medical and nursing and psychotherapeutic skills. PMID:896784
Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel
The authors report on the development of a manual for treating adolescents with anorexia nervosa modeled on a family-based intervention originating at the Maudsley Hospital in London. The manual provides the first detailed account of a clinical approach shown to be consistently efficacious in randomized clinical trials for this disorder. Manualized family therapy appears to be acceptable to therapists, patients, and families. Preliminary outcomes are comparable to what would be expected in clinically supervised sessions. These results suggest that through the use of this manual a valuable treatment approach can now be tested more broadly in controlled and uncontrolled settings. PMID:11696652
Giles, G M
In recent years, there has been a growing trend away from a dogmatic adherence to any one approach in the treatment of eating disorders. This paper adds the new element of practice in relation to cognitive change. The activity-oriented approach outlined here stresses that patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia must maintain responsibility for their own food intake throughout treatment. The key role of the occupational therapist in the treatment team is outlined, and suggestions for assessment and management of this type of patient are given.
Frederich, Robert; Hu, Shousheng; Raymond, Nancy; Pomeroy, Claire
Studies of the role of leptin in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have conflicted in their data and interpretation. Such differences may be a result of the assay methods used or the way results are compared with those from normal controls. To investigate these possibilities, we analyzed serum leptin levels in anorexic, bulimic, obese, and control individuals, thereby spanning the full range of human body weights, using three frequently employed commercial kits. Kits from Linco (St Louis, MO) and DSL (Webster, TX) employ a radioimmunoassay method, and the R&D Systems kit (Minneapolis, MN) uses an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that the three kits provide results that are highly linearly correlated with each other and remarkably linearly related to percent ideal body weight (%IBW) over more than three orders of magnitude (Linco, r = 0.90; R&D, r = 0.87; DSL, r = 0.86). For very low leptin levels, the more sensitive kits from R&D and Linco appeared to give more reliable results. Measurement method does not appear to explain the literature conflicts. We found that patients with anorexia nervosa have serum leptin values that lie above the line extrapolated from the %IBW/leptin curve generated from analysis of all non-anorexic patients. Therefore, in anorexia nervosa, inappropriately high leptin levels for %IBW may contribute to a blunted physiologic response to underweight and consequent resistance to dietary treatment. By contrast, most bulimic patients have leptin levels significantly below those predicted from the same %IBW/leptin curve. The relative leptin deficiency in bulimic subjects may contribute to food-craving behavior. We propose that using the %IBW/ leptin curve can facilitate identification of true pathophysiologic abnormalities in eating-disordered individuals and provide a basis for the design of therapeutic interventions or monitoring of response to treatment.
Frank, Guido K.W.; Collier, Shaleise; Shott, Megan E.; O’Reilly, Randall C.
Background Previous research in patients with anorexia nervosa showed heightened brain response during a taste reward conditioning task and heightened sensitivity to rewarding and punishing stimuli. Here we tested the hypothesis that individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa would also experience greater brain activation during this task as well as higher sensitivity to salient stimuli than controls. Methods Women recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa and healthy control women underwent fMRI during application of a prediction error taste reward learning paradigm. Results Twenty-four women recovered from anorexia nervosa (mean age 30.3 ± 8.1 yr) and 24 control women (mean age 27.4 ± 6.3 yr) took part in this study. The recovered anorexia nervosa group showed greater left posterior insula activation for the prediction error model analysis than the control group (family-wise error– and small volume–corrected p < 0.05). A group × condition analysis found greater posterior insula response in women recovered from anorexia nervosa than controls for unexpected stimulus omission, but not for unexpected receipt. Sensitivity to punishment was elevated in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study, and the sample size was modest. Conclusion Anorexia nervosa after recovery is associated with heightened prediction error–related brain response in the posterior insula as well as greater response to unexpected reward stimulus omission. This finding, together with behaviourally increased sensitivity to punishment, could indicate that individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa are particularly responsive to punishment. The posterior insula processes somatosensory stimuli, including unexpected bodily states, and greater response could indicate altered perception or integration of unexpected or maybe unwanted bodily feelings. Whether those findings develop during the ill state or whether they are biological traits requires
Reville, Marie-Claire; O'Connor, Lorna; Frampton, Ian
Studies published between the beginning of 2013 and May 2015 on the neuropsychological functioning of patients with anorexia nervosa compared with healthy participants framed in the context of the Research Domain Criteria matrix identifies evidence for functional differences in three domains: Negative Valance Systems-negative attentional biases and lack of neural responsivity to hunger; Cognitive Systems-limited congruence between clinical and cognitive performance, poorer non-verbal than verbal performance, altered attentional styles to disorder related stimuli, perceptual processing impairment in discriminating body images, weaknesses in central coherence, set shifting weaknesses at low weight status, decision-making weaknesses, and greater neural resources required for working memory; Systems for Social Processes-patients appear to have a different attentional response to faces, and perception and understanding of self and others. Hence, there is evidence to suggest that patients with anorexia nervosa have a specific neuropsychological performance style across tasks in three domains of functioning. Some current controversies and areas for future development are identified.
Munro, Calum; Randell, Louise; Lawrie, Stephen M
The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here. We suggest eight key factors central to understanding the maintenance and treatment resistance of anorexia nervosa: genetic or experiential predisposing factors; dysfunctional feelings processing and regulation systems; excessive vulnerable feelings; 'feared self' beliefs; starvation as a maladaptive physiological feelings regulation mechanism; maladaptive psychological coping modes; maladaptive social behaviour; and unmet physical and psychological core needs. Each of these factors serves to maintain the disorder. The concept of universal physical and psychological core needs can provide an underpinning integrative framework for working with this distinctly physical and psychological disorder. This framework could be used within any treatment model. We suggest that treatments which help address the profound lack of trust, emotional security and self-acceptance in this patient group will in turn address unmet needs and improve well-being. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Toro, J; Nicolau, R; Cervera, M; Castro, J; Blecua, M J; Zaragoza, M; Toro, A
The objectives of the present study were the following to determine the socio-familial, academic and interpersonal characteristics specific to anorexia nervosa (AN); to study comorbidity in patients with anorexia and morbidity in their parents; and to ascertain whether patients with anorexia nervosa in Spain are similar to those in other countries. The research team revised the clinical records of 185 Spanish adolescents with AN (aged 11-18 years). The results were compared with those obtained from a group of 185 psychiatric patients without AN matched by sex, age, time of consultation and centre. No significant differences were found with regard to broken home, birth order or parent-patient conflict. The parents of patients with anorexia have a higher standard of education and develop more affective disorders. When compared with other patients, the individuals with anorexia nervosa perform much better academically but are more socially withdrawn. Males with anorexia nervosa perform worse academically than females and have more anxiety diagnoses. Patients with anorexia have a high comorbidity for affective and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Sufferers from anorexia nervosa in Spain are clinically analogous to patients with anorexia in other countries. The two characteristics specific to these patients are a high standard of academic performance and an intense degree of social withdrawal, although there are certain factors common to other pathologies relating to adolescence.
Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Volpe, Umberto; Di Maso, Virginia; Monteleone, Palmiero
Published studies suggested an implication of oxytocin in some temperament characteristics of personality. Therefore, we measured oxytocin secretion in 23 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 27 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19 healthy controls and explored the relationships between circulating oxytocin and patients' personality traits. Plasma oxytocin levels were significantly reduced in AN women but not in BN ones. In healthy women, the attachment subscale scores of the reward dependence temperament and the harm avoidance (HA) scores explained 82% of the variability in circulating oxytocin. In BN patients, plasma oxytocin resulted to be negatively correlated with HA, whereas no significant correlations emerged in AN patients. These findings confirm a dysregulation of oxytocin production in AN but not in BN and show, for the first time, a disruption of the associations between hormone levels and patients' temperament traits, which may have a role in certain deranged behaviours of eating disorder patients.
Brown, Carrie; Mehler, Philip S
The coexistence of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and anorexia nervosa results in an increased incidence of known diabetic complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy, presumably because blood glucose is difficult to control within the throes of comorbid anorexia nervosa. In addition, even when a diabetic patient with anorexia nervosa has committed to resolving his or her eating disorder, glucose control is again difficult and fraught with complexity and peril as will be highlighted in the following case report. Prudence dictates that strict glucose control is not indicated for the relatively short period of time that constitutes the early stage of refeeding in a patient with severe anorexia nervosa. Rather, "permissive hyperglycemia" may be the more optimal course to pursue, as a clinical strategy which is considerate of both the criticality of the refeeding treatment plan and of the long-term nature of the diabetic illness.
Seed, Julie A; McCue, Patricia M; Wesnes, Keith A; Dahabra, Sylvia; Young, Allan H
Elevated cortisol and cognitive impairments have been described in anorexia nervosa, but the relationship between these two variables has not been adequately explored. We profiled the pattern and extent of the cognitive impairment in anorexia nervosa and determined how this related to cortisol secretion. Twenty patients with anorexia nervosa and a matched control group completed a computerized cognitive assessment battery. Diurnal cortisol secretion was measured by serial saliva sampling. Patients were significantly impaired on tasks of attention, long-term memory and working memory. Both groups showed the expected diurnal variation in cortisol production, but no evidence was found for patient cortisol hypersecretion. No correlation was found between cortisol secretion and any of the cognitive task measures. These data suggest that at least some of the cognitive impairments seen in anorexia nervosa are attributable to something other than a basal increase in cortisol secretion. The limitations of cortisol as an indicator of HPA axis activity are discussed.
This article reviews the paper by Liebman, Minuchin, and Baker (1974) describing the use of a family meal as part of an integrated treatment approach for anorexia nervosa. The ideas laid out in the paper are described and discussed in terms of the understanding of anorexia nervosa at the time as well as placed in a current clinical and theoretical context. A comment is made on whether or not, in this author's opinion, the paper stands 'the test of time'.
Fogarty, Sarah; Ramjan, Lucie Michelle
Anorexia nervosa is a potentially life-threatening eating disorder where people intentionally refuse to eat sufficient amounts to maintain a healthy body-weight for fear of becoming fat. The intense preoccupation with restriction of food and control of body weight makes this one of the most complex and confusing conditions for practitioners to treat. While no single treatment has been found to be superior to another in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, general practice guidelines are available to guide mainstream treatment, however there are no guidelines for practitioners of complementary therapies. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture show promise as an adjunctive therapy in improving co-morbidities such as depression and anxiety levels among people with anorexia nervosa, by strengthening mind, body and overall well-being. The aim of this guideline is to assist and support acupuncture practitioners to deliver effective and safe adjunctive acupuncture treatments to people with anorexia nervosa, by providing a practice guideline that is underpinned by an ethical and evidence-based framework. The use of complementary therapies and specifically acupuncture in the treatment of anorexia nervosa may provide important adjunctive care to allow a comprehensive treatment approach that potentially improves quality of life, reduces anxiety and instils hope for recovery. It is hoped that acupuncture practitioners treating patients with anorexia nervosa will refer to these guidelines and apply the guidance (as deemed appropriate).
Danner, Unna N.; Hoek, Hans W.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.
Background Mental capacity to consent to treatment in anorexia nervosa is a neglected area in clinical decision-making. Aims To examine clinical and neuropsychological parameters associated with diminished mental capacity in anorexia nervosa. Method An explorative study was conducted in 70 adult female patients with severe anorexia nervosa. Mental capacity to consent to treatment was assessed by experienced psychiatrists. Further measurements included the MacCAT-T (to assess mental capacity status), a range of clinical measures (body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity) and neuropsychological tests assessing decision-making, central coherence and set-shifting capacity. Results Diminished mental capacity occurs in a third of patients with severe anorexia nervosa and is associated with a low BMI, less appreciation of illness and treatment, previous treatment for anorexia nervosa, low social functioning and poor set shifting. Conclusions Assessment of diminished mental capacity in anorexia nervosa requires careful evaluation of not only BMI, but also the degree of appreciation of illness and treatment, history and the tendency to have a rigid thinking style. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703767
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Bohnekamp, Inga; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Miller, Alec L.
The aim of this study was to describe a case series of adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.0) with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) who received dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Twelve outpatients with AN and BN took part in 25 weeks of twice weekly therapy consisting of individual therapy and a skills training group.…
Pászthy, Bea; Törzsök-Sonnevend, Mária
Anorexia nervosa is a serious, chronical state of illness which often starts in childhood or adolescence and has serious consequences on the quality of life. This review focuses on the heterogenity of the disease with emphasis on special diagnostic implications in case of childhood onset. Research findings of the last decade showed that genetic and neurobiological vulnerabilities are at least as potent risk factors as psychological, family constellations and sociocultural preferences. The heritability of eating disorders levels those of diseases predominantly influenced by biological factors. The authors give a summary of the most investigated neurobiologic and neurocognitive factors which could be the fundaments of a biological vulnerablilty. To date, no common risk factor could be identified, but some existing adversities can clearly be related to distinct subgroups with the disorder. The concept of endo- and subphenotypes leads to more specific and more efficient methods of therapy in other somatic and psychiatric diseases.
Najate, Achamrah; Moïse, Coëffier; Agnès, Rimbert; Jocelyne, Charles; Vanessa, Folope; André, Petit; Pierre, Déchelotte; Sébastien, Grigioni
Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and body composition data were collected at referral in 153 patients with AN (28.5 ± 11 years). At least one trace element deficit was observed in almost half of patients; the most frequent was selenium deficit (40% of patients). At least one vitamin deficit was observed in 45.7% of patients, mostly vitamin A and B9. Albumin, transthyretin and CRP were within normal range in most patients. No correlations were found between body composition and micronutrient status. Our study suggests that micronutrient status is often altered in AN patients, which may contribute to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Monitoring of micronutrients and correction of deficits should be included in the routine care of AN patients.
Karasu, Bugra; Gunay, Betul Onal; Erdogan, Gurkan; Kardes, Esra; Gunay, Murat
A 21-year-old girl presented with acute painless vision loss in her right eye. There was no remarkable ocular history and she had a history of anorexia nervosa. At presentation best-corrected visual acuities were counting fingers from 2 meters and 20/20, in the right and left eyes, respectively. Slit lamp examination result was normal. Fundus examination revealed multiple cotton wool spots and intraretinal hemorrhages surrounding the optic disc and macula in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography showed capillary filling defect and leakage from optic disc in the late phase of the angiogram. One week later best-corrected visual acuities remained the same in both eyes with similar fundus appearance. One month after initial presentation visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes with no abnormality in fundus appearance. PMID:27069703
Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer
Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948
Background Few studies have focused on eukaryote community in the human gut. Here, the diversity of microeukaryotes in the gut microbiota of an anorexic patient was investigated using molecular and culture approaches. Case presentation A 21-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted in an intensive care unit for severe malnutrition in anorexia nervosa. One stool specimen was collected from the anorexic patient, culture and polymerase chain reaction-based explorations yielded a restricted diversity of fungi but four microeukaryotes Tetratrichomonas sp., Aspergillus ruber, Penicillium solitum and Cladosporium bruhnei previously undescribed in the human gut. Conclusions Establishing microeukaryote repertoire in gut microbiota contributes to the understanding of its role in human health. PMID:24418238
Anders, D; Harms, D; Kriens, O; Schmidt, H
In a 13-year-old boy the occurence of a sialadenosis of the submaxillary glands was observed in association with anorexia nervosa (a.n.). The non-inflammatory salivary gland enlargement became apparent after the boy had suffered a progressive weight loss of 5 kilograms during a period of three years prior to admission. The psychogenic origin of the disorder could be confirmed by 1. the history of the patient being almost identical compared to the few observations of a.n. in males, 2. the absence of any other organ involvement, and 3. follow up over a period of two years during which time the boy regained normal weight, and the salivary gland enlargement disappeared spontaneously. The diagnosis of sialadenosis was based on histological examination.
Dolhanty, Joanne; Greenberg, Leslie S
An emotion-focused approach to the treatment of eating disorders and to case formulation is described in an individual with anorexia nervosa (AN). The basic theory of emotion-focused therapy (EFT), the steps of case formulation and an outline of the tasks and course of treatment of an individual recently hospitalized on an inpatient unit for eating disorders highlight key aspects of the approach. The transformation in this individual, in terms of gaining access to her internal experience, understanding and tolerating her emotions, and working through her core themes of insecure attachment and worthlessness, is described. Weight and scores on self-report measures at the outset of treatment and at 18 months are provided.
Weaver, Kathryn; Wuest, Judith; Ciliska, Donna
Previous studies of recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN) have concentrated on discrete behavioral responses of individual women. Little is understood about the subjective process of women's recovery in the context of family, community, or society. In this feminist grounded theory study, the authors explored the perceptions of 12 women who considered themselves recovered or recovering from AN. They discovered a substantive theory of self-development that explains, within the current social context, women's journey from the perilous self-soothing of devastating weight loss to the informed self-care of healthy eating and problem-solving practices. The findings provide an urgently needed explanatory framework to inform women, clinicians, and health policy makers in their prevention and recovery efforts.
Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Rimbert, Agnès; Charles, Jocelyne; Folope, Vanessa; Petit, André; Déchelotte, Pierre; Grigioni, Sébastien
Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and body composition data were collected at referral in 153 patients with AN (28.5 ± 11 years). At least one trace element deficit was observed in almost half of patients; the most frequent was selenium deficit (40% of patients). At least one vitamin deficit was observed in 45.7% of patients, mostly vitamin A and B9. Albumin, transthyretin and CRP were within normal range in most patients. No correlations were found between body composition and micronutrient status. Our study suggests that micronutrient status is often altered in AN patients, which may contribute to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Monitoring of micronutrients and correction of deficits should be included in the routine care of AN patients. PMID:28257095
Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Steinglass, Joanna; Primack, Marshall; Clark-Hamilton, Jill; Bongiovi, Mary
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is typically associated with altered thyroid function tests, notably a low total and free T3 , and lower, but within normal range, free T4 and TSH. A 16-year-old girl with a four-year history of AN presented with elevated TSH that fluctuated with changes in weight. TSH was within normal limits (1.7-3.64 mIU/L) following periods of weight loss and elevated with weight gain (5.9-21.66 mIU/L). Antithyroperoxidase antibodies were markedly elevated, suggesting chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Of note, the elevated TSH that would be expected in Hashimoto's thyroiditis was blunted by weight loss associated with AN. Physicians should be aware that AN may contribute to masking thyroid abnormalities in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; Reyes-García, Rocío; Fernández-Fernández, Miguel; Garrido-Astray, María-Concepción; Muñoz-Ruipérez, Carmen
We describe the management of a case of anorexia nervosa (body mass index, -BMI-, 13,6 Kg/m2) in a bank teller. The case was detected through routine occupational health surveillance. After being evaluated by different specialists (general practitioner, psychiatrist and endocrinologist) and being closely monitored (by psychology, nursing, and occupational medicine), the worker regained weight to a near normal BMI (17 Kg/m2) in less than a year and a half. Eating disorders are a common pathology (non-occupationally related), but their high prevalence (5% of the population over a lifetime) and social and job-related impact (affecting more than 20% of cases), make them a necessary focus of attention for health promotion in the workplace. Health prevention, promotion and surveillance may be also reinforced at the workplace.
Winecoff, Amy A.; Ngo, Lawrence; Moskovich, Ashley; Merwin, Rhonda; Zucker, Nancy
The defining features of anorexia nervosa (AN) include disordered eating and disturbance in the experience of their bodies. however, many women with AN also demonstrate higher harm avoidance (HA), lower novelty seeking, and challenges with interpersonal functioning. The current study explored whether HA and novelty seeking could explain variation in disordered eating and social functioning in healthy control women (n = 18), weight-restored women with a history of AN (n = 17), and women currently-ill with AN (AN; n = 17). Our results indicated that clinical participants (AN + weight-restored women) reported poorer social skills than healthy control participants. Moreover, the relationship between eating disorder symptoms and social skill deficits was mediated by HA. Follow-up analyses indicated that only the ‘shyness with strangers’ factor of HA independently mediated this relationship. Collectively, our results suggest a better understanding of shyness in many individuals with eating disorders could inform models of interpersonal functioning in AN. PMID:25959923
Amano, K; Sakamoto, T; Hada, Y; Hasegawa, I; Takahashi, T; Suzuki, J; Takahashi, H
Four cases of anorexia nervosa recently encountered were reported in respect to their cardiovascular manifestations including prolapse of the cardiac valves and other poorly recognized cardiac findings. All four patients, aged 13 to 32 years, were women and had marked emaciation (35 to 44% weight loss of the ideal body weight) with typical hormone abnormalities. Chest radiographs showed a small cardiac shadow, and sinus bradycardia with low voltage was present in their electrocardiograms. One case, 13-year-old, had a mid-systolic click and occasionally a late systolic murmur, and also an abdominal continuous hum. Echocardiography including two-dimensional color flow-mapping disclosed mitral valve prolapse in all, and tricuspid valve prolapse in two. Mild to moderate pericardial effusion was noted in all between the right ventricle and diaphragm, and pericardiocentesis in one case had no effect on the valve movements. No inflammatory changes were observed in the specimen of the pericardium and also of the fluid. An association of mitral valve prolapse and anerexia nervosa was discussed based on the previous studies, but the final conclusion remains unknown.
Himmerich, Hubertus; Schönknecht, Peter; Heitmann, Sabine; Sheldrick, Abigail J
Anorexia nervosa (AN) has serious negative effects on multiple organs and systems of the human body. As patients often do not make their eating disorder the subject of discussion, the physician is forced to rely on the physical examination and laboratory parameters as diagnostic hints. Obvious signs of AN are a body mass index (BMI) below 17.5 kg/m, dry and scaly skin, lanugo, edema, acrocyanosis, petechias, dental problems, and low blood pressure. However, because the often complex laboratory alterations can be difficult for the general psychiatrist to interpret, this article presents some useful guidelines. The plasma of patients with AN often shows alterations in laboratory parameters and appetite regulators, including electrolytes, liver enzymes, leukocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), triiodothyronine (T3), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and cortisol. Medical problems secondary to AN or due to the treatment itself may lead to further laboratory abnormalities. To date, despite these associated laboratory alterations, the diagnosis of anorexia is a clinical one, based on weight and specific psychopathology.
Robinson, Paul H; Kukucska, Roza; Guidetti, Giulia; Leavey, Gerard
Little is known about how patients with long-term eating disorders manage their clinical problems. We carried out a preliminary qualitative study (using Thematic Analysis) of patients with severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SEED-AN) in which we undertook recorded interviews in eight participants whose conditions had lasted 20-40 years. We found 15 principle features in physical, psychological, social, family, occupational and treatment realms. Psychological and social realms were most affected. Severe physical problems were reported. They described feelings of unworthiness, frugality regarding money and obsessive time-keeping. Persisting with negligible social networks, participants described depression and hopelessness, while somehow achieving a sense of pride at their endurance and survival in spite of the eating disorder. They emphasized the importance of professional help in managing their care. The severe and enduring description, often reserved for people with psychotic illness, is appropriately applied to SEED-AN, which has major impacts in all realms.
This paper argues that there is a relationship between understandings of anorexia nervosa (AN) and how the ethical issues associated with involuntary treatment for AN are identified, framed, and addressed. By positioning AN as a construct/discourse (hereinafter "AN: the diagnosis") several ethical issues are revealed. Firstly, "AN: the diagnosis" influences how the autonomy and competence of persons diagnosed with AN are understood by decision-makers in the treatment environment. Secondly, "AN: the diagnosis" impacts on how treatment and treatment efficacy are defined and the ethical justifiability of paternalism. Thirdly, "AN: the diagnosis" can limit the opportunity for persons with AN to construct an identity that casts them as a competent person. "AN: the diagnosis" can thus inherently affirm professional knowledge and values. Postmodern professional ethics can support professionals in managing these issues by highlighting the importance of taking responsibility for professional knowledge, values, and power and embracing moral uncertainty.
Acevedo, Summer F; Valencia, Celeste; Lutter, Michael; McAdams, Carrie J
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone important for social behavior and differences in psychological traits have been associated with variants of the oxytocin receptor gene in healthy people. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) correlated with clinical symptoms in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and healthy comparison (HC) women. Subjects completed clinical assessments and provided DNA for analysis. Subjects were divided into four groups: HC, subjects currently with anorexia nervosa (AN-C), subjects with a history of anorexia nervosa but in long-term weight recovery (AN-WR), and subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). Five SNPs of the oxytocin receptor were examined. Minor allele carriers showed greater severity in most of the psychiatric symptoms. Importantly, the combination of having had anorexia and carrying either of the A alleles for two SNPS in the OXTR gene (rs53576, rs2254298) was associated with increased severity specifically for ED symptoms including cognitions and behaviors associated both with eating and appearance. A review of psychosocial data related to the OXTR polymorphisms examined is included in the discussion. OXTR polymorphisms may be a useful intermediate endophenotype to consider in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa.
Acevedo, Summer F.; Valencia, Celeste; Lutter, Michael; McAdams, Carrie J.
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone important for social behavior, and differences in psychological traits have been associated with variants of the oxytocin receptor gene in healthy people. We examined whether small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) correlated with clinical symptoms in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and healthy comparison (HC) women. Subjects completed clinical assessments and provided DNA for analysis. Subjects were divided into four groups: HC, subjects currently with anorexia nervosa (AN-C), subjects with a history of anorexia nervosa but in long-term weight recovery (AN-WR), and subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). Five SNPs of the oxytocin receptor were examined. Minor allele carriers showed greater severity in most of the psychiatric symptoms. Importantly, the combination of having had anorexia and carrying either of the A alleles for two SNPS in the OXTR gene (rs53576, rs2254298) was associated with increased severity specifically for ED symptoms including cognitions and behaviors associated both with eating and appearance. A review of psychosocial data related to the OXTR polymorphisms examined is included in the discussion. OXTR polymorphisms may be a useful intermediate endophenotype to consider in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. PMID:26106053
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an analogous animal model of anorexia nervosa where food-restricted rats develop excessive running activity when given free access to a running wheel; their body weight sharply decreases, and finally self-starvation and death ensue unless animals are removed from the experimental conditions. The parallel of this animal model with major signs in the human disorder has been the focus of much attention from researchers and clinicians as a platform for translational research. The paper reviews the historical antecedents of ABA, research characterizing its occurrence, and its main limitations and strengths as a model of AN. As a symptomatic model of AN, the ABA model can provide clinicians with innovative and alternative routes for improving the treatment of AN.
The eating disorders literature has focussed on females and little is known of the male experience. The overall image this has generated suggests a young woman in conflict with socio-cultural pressures which associate thinness with beauty. Historical studies have examined anorexia nervosa from an entirely female focus while ignoring how diagnostic categories have shaped approaches to the male body. This paper will track the case of the male with anorexia nervosa through changing theories of causation and treatment approaches, from when the condition first emerged in 1873 to the present. In doing so, we gain a valuable new insight into how anorexia nervosa has been historically gendered and the far-reaching implications this has had for diagnosis and treatment of the male sufferer. Similarities between the sexes helped to establish male anorexia as a distinct category. However, this shifted focus away from important differences, which have yet unexplored implications in the assessment, diagnosis and management of disordered eating. Throughout history, there has been constant pressure to give a precise definition to anorexia nervosa, despite being fraught with medical uncertainties. This has resulted in inevitably harmful generalisations rooted in the dominant epidemiology. This paper reveals that anorexia nervosa is a truly global phenomenon which cannot be adequately constructed through exclusive studies of the female. There is consequently a pressing need to address the dearth of research examining eating disorders in males.
Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by excessively restricted caloric intake and abnormally high levels of physical activity. A challenging illness to treat, due to the lack of understanding of the underlying neurobiology, AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. To address this need, neuroscientists are using an animal model to study how neural circuits may contribute toward vulnerability to AN and may be affected by AN. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a bio-behavioral phenomenon described in rodents that models the key symptoms of anorexia nervosa. When rodents with free access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel experience food restriction, they become hyperactive - running more than animals with free access to food. Here, we describe the procedures by which ABA is induced in adolescent female C57BL/6 mice. On postnatal day 36 (P36), the animal is housed with access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel. After 4 days of acclimation to the running wheel, on P40, all food is removed from the cage. For the next 3 days, food is returned to the cage (allowing animals free food access) for 2 hr daily. After the fourth day of food restriction, free access to food is returned and the running wheel is removed from the cage to allow the animals to recover. Continuous multi-day analysis of running wheel activity shows that mice become hyperactive within 24 hr following the onset of food restriction. The mice run even during the limited time during which they have access to food. Additionally, the circadian pattern of wheel running becomes disrupted by the experience of food restriction. We have been able to correlate neurobiological changes with various aspects of the animals' wheel running behavior to implicate particular brain regions and neurochemical changes with resilience and vulnerability to food-restriction induced hyperactivity.
Anorexia nervosa is a clinically significant illness that may be associated with permanent medical complications involving almost every organ system. The paper raises a question whether some of them are associated with premorbid vulnerability such as subcellular ion channel abnormalities ('channelopathy') that determines the clinical expression of the bodily response to self-imposed malnutrition. Aberrant channels emerge as a tempting, if rather speculative alternative to the notion of cognitively-driven neurotransmitter modulation deficit in anorexia nervosa. The concept of channelopathies is in keeping with some characteristics of anorexia nervosa, such as a genetically-based predisposition to hypophagia, early onset, cardiac abnormalities, an appetite-enhancing efficacy of some antiepileptic drugs, and others. The purpose of this article is to stimulate further basic research of ion channel biophysics in relation to restrictive anorexia. PMID:16144551
Boehm, Ilka; Geisler, Daniel; Tam, Friederike; King, Joseph A.; Ritschel, Franziska; Seidel, Maria; Bernardoni, Fabio; Murr, Julia; Goschke, Thomas; Calhoun, Vince D.; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan
Background We have previously shown increased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the frontoparietal network (FPN) and the default mode network (DMN) in patients with acute anorexia nervosa. Based on these findings we investigated within-network rsFC in patients recovered from anorexia nervosa to examine whether these abnormalities are a state or trait marker of the disease. To extend the understanding of functional connectivity in patients with anorexia nervosa, we also estimated rsFC between large-scale networks. Methods Girls and women recovered from anorexia nervosa and pair-wise, age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. Using independent component analyses (ICA), we isolated the FPN, DMN and salience network. We used standard comparisons as well as a hypothesis-based approach to test the findings of our previous rsFC study in this recovered cohort. Temporal correlations between network time-course pairs were computed to investigate functional network connectivity (FNC). Results Thirty-one patients recovered from anorexia nervosa and 31 controls participated in our study. Standard group comparisons revealed reduced rsFC between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the FPN in the recovered group. Using a hypothesis-based approach we extended the previous finding of increased rsFC between the angular gyrus and the FPN in patients recovered from anorexia nervosa. No group differences in FNC were revealed. Limitations The study design did not allow us to conclude that the difference found in rsFC constitutes a scar effect of the disease. Conclusion This study suggests that some abnormal rsFC patterns found in patients recovered from anorexia nervosa normalize after long-term weight restoration, while distorted rsFC in the FPN, a network that has been associated with cognitive control, may constitute a trait marker of the disorder. PMID:27045551
Takeuchi, Satsuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamada, Shinji; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Inui, Akio; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi
We report a 12-year-old female citrin-deficient patient presenting with severe anorexia and body weight loss, mimicking the restricting type of anorexia nervosa (AN). She showed normal development until age 10 years when she started to play volleyball at school. She then became gradually anorexic, and her growth was stunted. At age 12, she was admitted to hospital because of severe anorexia and thinness. She was first thought to have AN, and drip infusion of glucose solution and high-calorie drinks were given, but her condition deteriorated further. She had a history of neonatal hepatitis and was therefore suspected to have citrin deficiency (CD). Genetic analysis of SLC25A13 revealed that she was compound heterozygous for 851del4 and IVS16ins3kb, and a diagnosis of CD was made. A low-carbohydrate diet with oral intake of arginine and ursodeoxycholic acid was started, and her condition gradually improved. The clinical features in our patient were similar to those of AN, and therefore AN may also be an important clinical sign in adolescent patients with CD.
McFadden, Kristina L.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Shott, Megan E.; Frank, Guido K.W.
Background The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa is poorly understood. Neuronal networks contributing to action selection, self-regulation and interoception could contribute to pathologic eating and body perception in people with anorexia nervosa. We tested the hypothesis that the salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) would show decreased intrinsic activity in women with anorexia nervosa and those who had recovered from the disease compared to controls. The basal ganglia (BGN) and sensorimotor networks (SMN) were also investigated. Methods Between January 2008 and January 2012, women with restricting-type anorexia nervosa, women who recovered from the disease and healthy control women completed functional magnetic resonance imaging during a conditioned stimulus task. Network activity was studied using independent component analysis. Results We studied 20 women with anorexia nervosa, 24 recovered women and 24 controls. Salience network activity in the anterior cingulate cortex was reduced in women with anorexia nervosa (p = 0.030; all results false-discovery rate–corrected) and recovered women (p = 0.039) compared to controls. Default mode network activity in the precuneus was reduced in women with anorexia compared to controls (p = 0.023). Sensorimotor network activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA; p = 0.008), and the left (p = 0.028) and right (p = 0.002) postcentral gyrus was reduced in women with anorexia compared to controls; SMN activity in the SMA (p = 0.019) and the right postcentral gyrus (p = 0.008) was reduced in women with anorexia compared to recovered women. There were no group differences in the BGN. Limitations Differences between patient and control populations (e.g., depression, anxiety, medication) are potential confounds, but were included as covariates. Conclusion Reduced SN activity in women with anorexia nervosa and recovered women could be a trait-related biomarker or illness remnant, altering the drive to approach
Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan
Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, p<0.0037), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (24.2±5.6, p<0.001), recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa (64.2±16.1, p = 0.01) and healthy obese patients (51±3.2, p<0.001) compared to controls (187.7±28.6). Bulimic patients (197.4±42.7) and constitutional thinness patients (264.3±35.8) were similar to controls. Conclusions Low IL-7 is part of the adaptive profile in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa, confirming its difference with constitutional thinness. Healthy obesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669
Elran-Barak, Roni; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Benyamini, Yael; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel
We examined eating disorders in midlife and beyond by comparing frequency of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED) among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals and younger controls. We also compared demographic and eating disorder-related characteristics across diagnoses and age groups. Participants included 2,118 treatment-seeking adults who self-reported their eating-related symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Results showed that percent of patients with BN was significantly lower whereas percent of patients with BED and OSFED was significantly higher among midlife relative to younger patients. Percent of patients with AN did not differ between midlife and younger patients. Additionally, midlife and younger patients with BED and OSFED differed on several demographic (e.g., marital status) and eating disorder-related characteristics (e.g., BMI, compulsive exercising). This study suggests that BN is less common whereas BED and OSFED are more common among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals relative to younger controls. In addition, AN and BN present fairly similarly whereas BED and OSFED present fairly differently among midlife patients relative to younger controls. Attention to these differences and similarities is necessary to understand eating disorders in midlife.
Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Campbell, Zachariah; Polsinelli, Angelina
It is generally agreed that at least some aspects of abnormal eating behaviour is indeed due in part to disordered cognition. The accumulated literature illustrates cognitive impairment in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Yet beyond being inconsistent, these independent studies also do not reveal the magnitude of impairment within and across studies and fail to give due consideration to the magnitude of impairment so as to understand the severity and breadth of impairment and/or differences in cognitive profiles between patients with AN and BN. Hence, the present review on the subject sought to articulate the magnitude of cognitive impairment in patients with AN and BN by quantitatively synthesizing the existing literature using meta-analytic methodology. The results demonstrate modest evidence of cognitive impairment specific to AN and BN that is related to body mass index in AN in terms of its severity, and is differentially impaired between disorders. Together, these results suggest that disturbed cognition is figural in the presentation of eating disorders and may serve to play an integral role in its cause and maintenance. Implications of these findings with respects to future research are discussed.
Marzola, Enrica; Desedime, Nadia; Giovannone, Cristina; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening and difficult to treat mental illness with the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. We aimed to garner preliminary data on the real-world use of olanzapine and aripiprazole as augmentation agents of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult inpatients affected by AN. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of patients who were hospitalized between 2012 and 2014. Patients were evaluated upon admission and discharge. We investigated eating symptomatology, and both general and eating psychopathology using: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale. The charts of 75 patients were included in this study. The sample resulted equally distributed among those receiving SSRIs and either aripiprazole or olanzapine in addition to SSRIs. Notwithstanding a few baseline clinical differences, upon discharge all groups were significantly improved on all measures. Interestingly, aripiprazole showed the greatest effectiveness in reducing eating-related preoccupations and rituals with a large effect size. The body of evidence on medication management in AN is in dismal condition. Augmentation therapy is a well-established approach to a variety of mental disorders and it is often used in every-day clinical practice with patients affected by AN as well. Nevertheless, to date very little data is available on this topic. Results from our sample yielded promising results on the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation in reducing eating-related obsessions and compulsions. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these encouraging findings.
Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.
To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.
Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Thornton, Laura M.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Root, Tammy L.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Magistretti, Pierre; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Goldman, David; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela K.; Klump, Kelly L.; La Via, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Strober, Michael; Rotondo, Alessandro; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake
We performed association studies with 5,151 SNPs that were judged as likely candidate genetic variations conferring susceptibility to anorexia nervosa (AN) based on location under reported linkage peaks, previous results in the literature (182 candidate genes), brain expression, biological plausibility, and estrogen responsivity. We employed a case–control design that tested each SNP individually as well as haplotypes derived from these SNPs in 1,085 case individuals with AN diagnoses and 677 control individuals. We also performed separate association analyses using three increasingly restrictive case definitions for AN: all individuals with any subtype of AN (All AN: n = 1,085); individuals with AN with no binge eating behavior (AN with No Binge Eating: n = 687); and individuals with the restricting subtype of AN (Restricting AN: n = 421). After accounting for multiple comparisons, there were no statistically significant associations for any individual SNP or haplotype block with any definition of illness. These results underscore the importance of large samples to yield appropriate power to detect genotypic differences in individuals with AN and also motivate complementary approaches involving Genome-Wide Association (GWA) studies, Copy Number Variation (CNV) analyses, sequencing-based rare variant discovery assays, and pathway-based analysis in order to make up for deficiencies in traditional candidate gene approaches to AN. PMID:20468064
Lloyd, Samantha; Yiend, Jenny; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tchanturia, Kate
Existing research into perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is limited by a reliance upon self-report measures. This study used novel performance based measures to investigate whether there is behavioural evidence for elevated perfectionism in AN. 153 participants took part in the study--81 with a diagnosis of AN and 72 healthy controls (HCs). Participants completed two performance based tasks assessing perfectionism--a text replication task and a bead sorting task--along with self-report measures of perfectionism. Significant group differences were observed on both tasks. In the text replication task the AN group took significantly longer compared with healthy controls (p = 0.03, d = 0.36) and produced significantly higher quality copies (p = <0.01, d = 0.45). In the bead sorting task, there was a trend towards more participants in the AN group choosing to check their work compared with the HC group (p = 0.07, d = 0.30) and the AN group took significantly longer checking than those in the HC group (p = <0.01, d = 0.45). Only copy quality uniquely predicted scores on self report measures of perfectionism. This study provides empirically tested evidence of elevated performance based perfectionism in AN compared with a healthy control group.
Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Scatturin, Pietro; Carli, Lorenza; Todisco, Patrizia; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni
The capacity to devote attentional resources in response to body-related signals provided by others is still largely unexplored in individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Here, we tested this capacity through a novel paradigm that mimics a social interaction with a real partner. Healthy individuals (Experiment 1) and individuals with AN (Experiment 2) completed a task with another person which consisted in performing, alternatively, rapid aiming movements to lateralised targets. Generally, this task leads to a form of Inhibition of Return (IOR), which consists of longer reaction times when an individual has to respond to a location previously searched by either himself (individual IOR) or by the partner (social IOR) as compared to previously unexplored locations. IOR is considered as an important attentional mechanism that promotes an effective exploration of the environment during social interaction. Here, healthy individuals displayed both individual and social IOR that were both reliable and of the same magnitude. Individuals with AN displayed a non-significant individual IOR but a reliable social IOR that was also significantly stronger than individual IOR. These results suggest the presence of a reduced sensitivity in processing body-related stimuli conveyed by oneself in individuals with AN which is reflected in action-based attentional processes. PMID:26984784
Schultz, C Christoph; Wagner, Gerd; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Berger, Sandy; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Bär, Karl J
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is highly heritable, and the perspective on the etiology of AN has changed from a behavioral to a neurobiological and neurodevelopmental view. However, cortical folding as an important marker for deviations in brain development has yet rarely been explored in AN. Hence, in order to determine potential cortical folding alterations, we investigated fine-grained cortical folding in a cohort of 26 patients with AN, of whom 6 patients were recovered regarding their weight at the time point of MRI measurement. MRI-derived cortical folding was computed and compared between patients and healthy controls at about 150,000 points per hemisphere using a surface-based technique (FreeSurfer). Patients with AN exhibited highly significant increased cortical folding in a right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex region (DLPFC). Furthermore, a statistical trend in the same direction was found in the right visual cortex. We did not find a correlation of local cortical folding and current symptoms of the disease. In conclusion, our analyses provide first evidence that altered DLPFC cortical folding plays a role in the etiology of AN. The absence of correlations with clinical parameters implicates a relatively independence of cortical folding alterations from the current symptomatology and might thus be regarded as a trait characteristic of the disease potentially related to other neurobiological features of AN.
Galimberti, Elisa; Fadda, Emma; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura
Formal genetic studies suggested a substantial genetic influence for anorexia nervosa (AN), but currently results are inconsistent. The use of the neurocognitive endophenotype approach may facilitate our understanding of the AN pathophysiology. We investigated decision-making, set-shifting and planning in AN patients (n=29) and their unaffected relatives (n=29) compared to healthy probands (n=29) and their relatives (n=29). The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Tower of Hanoi (ToH) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were administered. Concordance rates and heritability indices were also calculated in probands/relatives. Impaired performance on the IGT and the WCST were found in both AN probands and their relatives, although planning appeared to be preserved. The IGT heritability index suggested the presence of genetic effects that influence this measure. No evidence for genetic effects was found for the WCST. The results suggest the presence of a shared dysfunctional executive profile in women with AN and their unaffected relatives, characterized by deficient decision-making and set-shifting. Concordance analysis strongly suggests that these impairments aggregate in AN families, supporting the hypothesis that they may constitute biological markers for AN. Decision-making impairment presents a moderate heritability, suggesting that decision-making may be a candidate endophenotype for AN.
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Buzzichelli, Sara; Marzola, Enrica; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo
While evidence continues to accumulate on the relevance of cognitive inflexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN), its clinical correlates remain unclear. We aimed at examining the relationship between set-shifting and clinical variables (i.e., eating psychopathology, depression, and personality) in AN. Ninety-four individuals affected by AN and 59 healthy controls (HC) were recruited. All participants were assessed using: Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The AN group scored worse than HCs on set-shifting. According to their neuropsychological performances, AN patients were split into two groups corresponding to poor (N=30) and intact (N=64) set-shifting subtypes. Interoceptive awareness, impulse regulation, and maturity fears on the EDI-2 and depression on the BDI differed across all groups (HC, intact, and poor set-shifting subtype). Self-directedness on the TCI differed significantly among all groups. Cooperativeness and reward dependence differed instead only between HC and AN poor set-shifting subtype. After controlling for depression, only interoceptive awareness remained significant with reward dependence showing a trend towards statistical significance. These findings suggest that multiple clinical variables may be correlated with set-shifting performances in AN. The factors contributing to impaired cognitive inflexibility could be more complex than heretofore generally considered.
Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna
Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Scatturin, Pietro; Carli, Lorenza; Todisco, Patrizia; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni
The capacity to devote attentional resources in response to body-related signals provided by others is still largely unexplored in individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Here, we tested this capacity through a novel paradigm that mimics a social interaction with a real partner. Healthy individuals (Experiment 1) and individuals with AN (Experiment 2) completed a task with another person which consisted in performing, alternatively, rapid aiming movements to lateralised targets. Generally, this task leads to a form of Inhibition of Return (IOR), which consists of longer reaction times when an individual has to respond to a location previously searched by either himself (individual IOR) or by the partner (social IOR) as compared to previously unexplored locations. IOR is considered as an important attentional mechanism that promotes an effective exploration of the environment during social interaction. Here, healthy individuals displayed both individual and social IOR that were both reliable and of the same magnitude. Individuals with AN displayed a non-significant individual IOR but a reliable social IOR that was also significantly stronger than individual IOR. These results suggest the presence of a reduced sensitivity in processing body-related stimuli conveyed by oneself in individuals with AN which is reflected in action-based attentional processes.
Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi
Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p < 0.001) or BSQ (p < 0.001). Among factors involved, nutritional status and intensity of eating disorders could play a part in impaired self-face recognition.
Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Cheng, Yu; McCabe, Elizabeth B.; Gaskill, Jill A.
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of Emotion Acceptance Behavior Therapy (EABT), an outpatient psychotherapeutic intervention for anorexia nervosa (AN) based on a disorder-specific model of symptom maintenance that emphasizes emotion avoidance. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with evidence-supported strategies to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and encourage resumption of valued activities and relationships outside the eating disorder. Method Twenty-four individuals aged ≥17 years with AN were treated using the EABT manual. EABT was delivered in 33–58 individual sessions provided over 38–53 weeks. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results Thirteen patients (54.2%) completed EABT; 11 (45.8%) dropped out or were withdrawn. EABT was associated with significant improvements in weight, disordered eating symptoms, and emotion avoidance that were maintained over 6-month follow-up. The majority of EABT completers achieved a body mass index >18.5 (n=9/13) or had a normal Eating Disorder Examination Global score (n=10/13) at post-treatment. Discussion Preliminary data suggest that EABT may have utility for a subset of adults with AN. Future research will focus on improving outcomes in EABT non-responders and identifying of mechanisms that drive treatment response. PMID:24407934
Katz, J L; Weiner, H; Kream, J; Zumoff, B
This report describes a 17-year old student who was found to have Cushing's syndrome two years after she had developed anorexia nervosa (AN). The Cushing's syndrome was treated with bilateral resection of enlarged, hyperplastic, non-tumorous adrenal glands. The diagnosis was further confirmed four years later when, two to three years after new symptoms had appeared, an ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma (that is, Cushing's disease) was found on surgery. The possible mechanism for the development of Cushing's disease in a patient with prior anorexia nervosa, a sequence of events reported once previously, is discussed. It is suggested that increased hypothalamic-pituitary corticotroph stimulation in association with the anorexia nervosa, a now well-established endocrine phenomenon, activated an occult, inactive pituitary basophil adenoma in this patient, eventually resulting in autonomous pituitary overproduction of ACTH by the tumor.
Chakraborty, Kaustav; Basu, Debasish
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behavior. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western culture where food is in abundance and female attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries like India. Despite a plethora of management options available to the mental health professionals, no major breakthrough has been achieved in recent years. Nutritional rehabilitation along with some form of re educative psychotherapy remains the mainstay of management of anorexia nervosa. In bulimia nervosa, both fluoxetine and cognitive behavior therapy have been found to be effective. Although the above-mentioned management options have been in use for decades, the active ingredient is still to be ascertained. PMID:20838508
Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H
A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis.
Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Holsen, Laura M.; Santin, McKale; DeSanti, Rebecca; Meenaghan, Erinne; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne
Objective Anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation, is associated with endocrine dysfunction and comorbid anxiety and depression. Animal data suggest that oxytocin may have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. We have reported increased postprandial oxytocin levels in women with active anorexia nervosa (AN), and decreased levels in weight-recovered women with anorexia nervosa (ANWR) compared to healthy controls (HC). A meal may represent a significant source of stress in patients with disordered eating. We therefore investigated the association between post-prandial oxytocin secretion and symptoms of anxiety and depression in anorexia nervosa. Method We performed a cross-sectional study of 35 women (13 AN, 9 ANWR and 13 HC). Serum oxytocin and cortisol and plasma leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120min after a standardized mixed meal. The area under the curve (AUC), and for oxytocin, postprandial nadir and peak levels were determined. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Results In women with anorexia nervosa, oxytocin AUC and post-prandial nadir and peak levels were positively associated with STAI scores. Oxytocin AUC and nadir levels were positively associated with BDI-II scores. After controlling for cortisol AUC, most relationships remained significant. After controlling for leptin AUC, all of the relationships remained significant. Oxytocin secretion explained up to 51% of the variance in STAI trait and 24% of BDI-II scores. Conclusions Abnormal post-prandial oxytocin secretion in women with anorexia nervosa is associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. This may represent an adaptive response of oxytocin secretion to food-related symptoms of anxiety and depression. PMID:23759466
Sheng, Min; Lu, Hanzhang; Liu, Peiying; Thomas, Binu P; McAdams, Carrie J
Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by restricted eating, a pursuit of thinness, and altered perceptions of body shape and size. Neuroimaging in anorexia nervosa has revealed morphological and functional alterations in the brain. A better understanding of physiological changes in anorexia nervosa could provide a brain-specific health marker relevant to treatment and outcomes. In this study, we applied several advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to quantify regional and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 25 healthy women (HC), 23 patients currently with anorexia (AN-C) and 19 patients in long-term weight recovery following anorexia (AN-WR). Specifically, CBF was measured with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) MRI and then verified by a different technique, phase contrast (PC) MRI. Venous T2 values were determined by T2 relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) MRI, and were used to corroborate the CBF results. These novel techniques were implemented on a standard 3T MRI scanner without any exogenous tracers, and the total scan duration was less than 10min. Voxel-wise comparison revealed that the AN-WR group showed lower CBF in bilateral temporal and frontal lobes than the AN-C group. Compared with the HC group, the AN-C group also showed higher CBF in the right temporal lobe. Whole-brain-averaged CBF was significantly decreased in the AN-WR group compared with the AN-C group, consistent with the PC-MRI results. Venous T2 values were lower in the AN-WR group than in the AN-C group, consistent with the CBF results. A review of prior work examining CBF in anorexia nervosa is included in the discussion. This study identifies several differences in the cerebral physiological alterations in anorexia nervosa, and finds specific differences relevant to the current state of the disorder.
Weigel, Angelika; Gumz, Antje; Kästner, Denise; Romer, Georg; Wegscheider, Karl; Löwe, Bernd
The "Health care network anorexia and bulimia nervosa", a subproject of psychenet - the Hamburg network for mental health - aims to decrease the incidence of eating disorders as well as the risk for chronic illness courses. One focal project, therefore, evaluates a school-based prevention manual in a randomized controlled trial. The other one examines the impact of a systemic public health intervention on early treatment initiation in anorexia nervosa. The present article provides an overview about study design and interventions in both focal projects as well as preliminary results.
Marzola, Enrica; Desedime, Nadia; Giovannone, Cristina; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening and difficult to treat mental illness with the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. We aimed to garner preliminary data on the real-world use of olanzapine and aripiprazole as augmentation agents of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult inpatients affected by AN. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of patients who were hospitalized between 2012 and 2014. Patients were evaluated upon admission and discharge. We investigated eating symptomatology, and both general and eating psychopathology using: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale. The charts of 75 patients were included in this study. The sample resulted equally distributed among those receiving SSRIs and either aripiprazole or olanzapine in addition to SSRIs. Notwithstanding a few baseline clinical differences, upon discharge all groups were significantly improved on all measures. Interestingly, aripiprazole showed the greatest effectiveness in reducing eating-related preoccupations and rituals with a large effect size. The body of evidence on medication management in AN is in dismal condition. Augmentation therapy is a well-established approach to a variety of mental disorders and it is often used in every-day clinical practice with patients affected by AN as well. Nevertheless, to date very little data is available on this topic. Results from our sample yielded promising results on the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation in reducing eating-related obsessions and compulsions. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these encouraging findings. PMID:25922939
Boraska, Vesna; Franklin, Christopher S; Floyd, James AB; Thornton, Laura M; Huckins, Laura M; Southam, Lorraine; Rayner, N William; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Klump, Kelly L; Treasure, Janet; Lewis, Cathryn M; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tozzi, Federica; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gorwood, Philip; Adan, Roger AH; Kas, Martien JH; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Gratacos, Monica; Rybakowski, Filip; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori, Anu; Van Furth, Eric F; Slof-Op t Landt, Margarita CT; Hudson, James I; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kaplan, Allan S; Karwautz, Andreas; Hakonarson, Hakon; Berrettini, Wade H; Guo, Yiran; Li, Dong; Schork, Nicholas J.; Komaki, Gen; Ando, Tetsuya; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Esko, Tõnu; Fischer, Krista; Männik, Katrin; Metspalu, Andres; Baker, Jessica H; Cone, Roger D; Dackor, Jennifer; DeSocio, Janiece E; Hilliard, Christopher E; O’Toole, Julie K; Pantel, Jacques; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Taico, Chrysecolla; Zerwas, Stephanie; Trace, Sara E; Davis, Oliver SP; Helder, Sietske; Bühren, Katharina; Burghardt, Roland; de Zwaan, Martina; Egberts, Karin; Ehrlich, Stefan; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Imgart, Hartmut; Scherag, André; Scherag, Susann; Zipfel, Stephan; Boni, Claudette; Ramoz, Nicolas; Versini, Audrey; Brandys, Marek K; Danner, Unna N; de Kovel, Carolien; Hendriks, Judith; Koeleman, Bobby PC; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Bruson, Alice; Clementi, Maurizio; Degortes, Daniela; Forzan, Monica; Tenconi, Elena; Docampo, Elisa; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rajewski, Andrzej; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Slopien, Agnieszka; Hauser, Joanna; Karhunen, Leila; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Slagboom, P Eline; Tortorella, Alfonso; Maj, Mario; Dedoussis, George; Dikeos, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Tziouvas, Konstantinos; Tsitsika, Artemis; Papezova, Hana; Slachtova, Lenka; Martaskova, Debora; Kennedy, James L.; Levitan, Robert D.; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Huemer, Julia; Koubek, Doris; Merl, Elisabeth; Wagner, Gudrun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Breen, Gerome; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Herms, Stefan; Rujescu, Dan; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Dina, Christian; Sladek, Rob; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Julia, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rabionet, Raquel; Gaborieau, Valerie; Dick, Danielle M; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth; Andreassen, Ole A; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Astri; Reinvang, Ivar; Steen, Vidar M; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Mattingsdal, Morten; Ntalla, Ioanna; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Gallinger, Steven; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen; Aschauer, Harald; Carlberg, Laura; Schosser, Alexandra; Alfredsson, Lars; Ding, Bo; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Finan, Chris; Kalsi, Gursharan; Roberts, Marion; Logan, Darren W; Peltonen, Leena; Ritchie, Graham RS; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Estivill, Xavier; Hinney, Anke; Sullivan, Patrick F; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Bulik, Cynthia M
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2,907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14,860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery datasets. Seventy-six (72 independent) SNPs were taken forward for in silico (two datasets) or de novo (13 datasets) replication genotyping in 2,677 independent AN cases and 8,629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication datasets comprised 5,551 AN cases and 21,080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1,606 AN restricting; 1,445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01×10−7) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84×10−6) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76×10−6) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05×10−6) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery to replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P= 4×10−6), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but that our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field. PMID:21079607
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric disorder with high rates of morbidity, comorbidity and mortality, which in a subset of patients (21%) takes on a chronic course. Since an evidence based treatment for AN is scarce, it is crucial to investigate new treatment options, preferably focused on influencing the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of AN. The objective of the present paper was to review the evidence for possible neurobiological correlates of AN, and to hypothesize about potential targets for Deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a treatment for chronic, therapy-refractory AN. One avenue for exploring new treatment options based on the neurobiological correlates of AN, is the search for symptomatologic and neurobiologic parallels between AN and other compulsivity- or reward-related disorders. As in other compulsive disorders, the fronto-striatal circuitry, in particular the insula, the ventral striatum (VS) and the prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporal, parietal and anterior cingulate cortices, are likely to be implicated in the neuropathogenesis of AN. In this paper we will review the few available cases in which DBS has been performed in patients with AN (either as primary diagnosis or as comorbid condition). Given the overlap in symptomatology and neurocircuitry between reward-related disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and AN, and the established efficacy of accumbal DBS in OCD, we hypothesize that DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and other areas associated with reward, e.g. the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), might be an effective treatment for patients with chronic, treatment refractory AN, providing not only weight restoration, but also significant and sustained improvement in AN core symptoms and associated comorbidities and complications. Possible targets for DBS in AN are the ACC, the ventral anterior limb of the capsula interna (vALIC) and the VS. We suggest conducting larger efficacy studies that also explore the
Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Rossell, Susan Lee
AIM To examine how self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are related in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS Twenty-four females with AN and 25 healthy controls (HC) participant in the study. Self-reported impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). The scale yields three second-order factors: Attentional, motor and non-planning. Behavioural impulsivity was investigated with the continuous performance test (CPT), a computer-based task of sustained attention in which numbers are flashed briefly on screen and participants are required to click the mouse when the same number appears consecutively. The rate of commission and omission errors can be used a measure of behavioural imulsivity. RESULTS AN participants self-reported increased attentional [AN: 20.67 (3.64), HC: 13.88 (2.91), P = 0.001] and reduced motor impulsivity [AN: 11.55 (2.28), HC: 14.08 (2.78), P = 0.002]. The rate of omission or commission errors on the CPT did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). BIS-11 and CPT measures did not significantly correlate, but attentional impulsivity was related to negative mood states in AN (depression: r = 0.52, P = 0.010, anxiety: r = 0.55, P = 0.006, stress: r = 0.57, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION The discrepancy between self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are discussed in terms of perfectionism in AN. Furthermore, it is suggested that improving negative mood states may resolve this inconsistency in AN. PMID:27679774
Méquinion, Mathieu; Langlet, Fanny; Zgheib, Sara; Dickson, Suzanne; Dehouck, Bénédicte; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile
Increasing clinical and therapeutic interest in the neurobiology of eating disorders reflects their dramatic impact on health. Chronic food restriction resulting in severe weight loss is a major symptom described in restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, and they also suffer from metabolic disturbances, infertility, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Restrictive AN, mostly observed in young women, is the third largest cause of chronic illness in teenagers of industrialized countries. From a neurobiological perspective, AN-linked behaviors can be considered an adaptation that permits the endurance of reduced energy supply, involving central and/or peripheral reprograming. The severe weight loss observed in AN patients is accompanied by significant changes in hormones involved in energy balance, feeding behavior, and bone formation, all of which can be replicated in animals models. Increasing evidence suggests that AN could be an addictive behavior disorder, potentially linking defects in the reward mechanism with suppressed food intake, heightened physical activity, and mood disorder. Surprisingly, the plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone that drives food-motivated behavior, are increased. This increase in plasma ghrelin levels seems paradoxical in light of the restrained eating adopted by AN patients, and may rather result from an adaptation to the disease. The aim of this review is to describe the role played by ghrelin in AN focusing on its central vs. peripheral actions. In AN patients and in rodent AN models, chronic food restriction induces profound alterations in the « ghrelin » signaling that leads to the development of inappropriate behaviors like hyperactivity or addiction to food starvation and therefore a greater depletion in energy reserves. The question of a transient insensitivity to ghrelin and/or a potential metabolic reprograming is discussed in regard of new clinical treatments currently investigated. PMID:23549309
Boraska, V; Franklin, C S; Floyd, J A B; Thornton, L M; Huckins, L M; Southam, L; Rayner, N W; Tachmazidou, I; Klump, K L; Treasure, J; Lewis, C M; Schmidt, U; Tozzi, F; Kiezebrink, K; Hebebrand, J; Gorwood, P; Adan, R A H; Kas, M J H; Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P; Fernández-Aranda, F; Gratacos, M; Rybakowski, F; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Kaprio, J; Keski-Rahkonen, A; Raevuori, A; Van Furth, E F; Slof-Op 't Landt, M C T; Hudson, J I; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Knudsen, G P S; Monteleone, P; Kaplan, A S; Karwautz, A; Hakonarson, H; Berrettini, W H; Guo, Y; Li, D; Schork, N J; Komaki, G; Ando, T; Inoko, H; Esko, T; Fischer, K; Männik, K; Metspalu, A; Baker, J H; Cone, R D; Dackor, J; DeSocio, J E; Hilliard, C E; O'Toole, J K; Pantel, J; Szatkiewicz, J P; Taico, C; Zerwas, S; Trace, S E; Davis, O S P; Helder, S; Bühren, K; Burghardt, R; de Zwaan, M; Egberts, K; Ehrlich, S; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Herzog, W; Imgart, H; Scherag, A; Scherag, S; Zipfel, S; Boni, C; Ramoz, N; Versini, A; Brandys, M K; Danner, U N; de Kovel, C; Hendriks, J; Koeleman, B P C; Ophoff, R A; Strengman, E; van Elburg, A A; Bruson, A; Clementi, M; Degortes, D; Forzan, M; Tenconi, E; Docampo, E; Escaramís, G; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Lissowska, J; Rajewski, A; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Slopien, A; Hauser, J; Karhunen, L; Meulenbelt, I; Slagboom, P E; Tortorella, A; Maj, M; Dedoussis, G; Dikeos, D; Gonidakis, F; Tziouvas, K; Tsitsika, A; Papezova, H; Slachtova, L; Martaskova, D; Kennedy, J L; Levitan, R D; Yilmaz, Z; Huemer, J; Koubek, D; Merl, E; Wagner, G; Lichtenstein, P; Breen, G; Cohen-Woods, S; Farmer, A; McGuffin, P; Cichon, S; Giegling, I; Herms, S; Rujescu, D; Schreiber, S; Wichmann, H-E; Dina, C; Sladek, R; Gambaro, G; Soranzo, N; Julia, A; Marsal, S; Rabionet, R; Gaborieau, V; Dick, D M; Palotie, A; Ripatti, S; Widén, E; Andreassen, O A; Espeseth, T; Lundervold, A; Reinvang, I; Steen, V M; Le Hellard, S; Mattingsdal, M; Ntalla, I; Bencko, V; Foretova, L; Janout, V; Navratilova, M; Gallinger, S; Pinto, D; Scherer, S W; Aschauer, H; Carlberg, L; Schosser, A; Alfredsson, L; Ding, B; Klareskog, L; Padyukov, L; Courtet, P; Guillaume, S; Jaussent, I; Finan, C; Kalsi, G; Roberts, M; Logan, D W; Peltonen, L; Ritchie, G R S; Barrett, J C; Estivill, X; Hinney, A; Sullivan, P F; Collier, D A; Zeggini, E; Bulik, C M
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14 860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery data sets. Seventy-six (72 independent) single nucleotide polymorphisms were taken forward for in silico (two data sets) or de novo (13 data sets) replication genotyping in 2677 independent AN cases and 8629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication data sets comprised 5551 AN cases and 21 080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1606 AN restricting; 1445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01 × 10(-7)) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84 × 10(-6)) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76 × 10(-)(6)) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05 × 10(-)(6)) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery with replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P=4 × 10(-6)), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field.
Phillipou, Andrea; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Abel, Larry Allen; Rossell, Susan Lee
AIM: To utilise a comprehensive cognitive battery to gain a better understanding of cognitive performance in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy control participants matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence, participated in the study. A standard cognitive battery, the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery, was used to investigate performance on seven cognitive domains with the use of 10 different tasks: speed of processing [Brief Assessment Of Cognition In Schizophrenia: Symbol Coding, Category Fluency: Animal Naming (Fluency) and Trail Making Test: Part A], attention/vigilance [Continuous Performance Test - Identical Pairs (CPT-IP)], working memory [Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS®-III): Spatial Span, and Letter-Number Span (LNS)], verbal learning [Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised], visual learning [Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised], reasoning and problem solving [Neuropsychological Assessment Battery: Mazes], and social cognition [Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Managing Emotions]. Statistical analyses involved the use of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. RESULTS: Analyses conducted on the cognitive domain scores revealed no overall significant difference between groups nor any interaction between group and domain score [F(1,45) = 0.73, P = 0.649]. Analyses conducted on each of the specific tasks within the cognitive domains revealed significantly slower reaction times for false alarm responses on the CPT-IP task in AN [F(1,51) = 12.80, P < 0.01, Cohen’s d = 0.982] and a trend towards poorer performance in AN on the backward component of the WMS®-III Spatial Span task [F(1,51) = 5.88, P = 0.02, Cohen’s d = -0.665]. The finding of slower reaction times of false alarm responses is, however, limited due to the small number of false alarm responses for either group. CONCLUSION: The findings are discussed
Boraska, Vesna; Franklin, Christopher S; Floyd, James AB; Thornton, Laura M; Huckins, Laura M; Southam, Lorraine; Rayner, N William; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Klump, Kelly L; Treasure, Janet; Lewis, Cathryn M; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tozzi, Federica; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gorwood, Philip; Adan, Roger AH; Kas, Martien JH; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Gratacos, Monica; Rybakowski, Filip; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori, Anu; Van Furth, Eric F; Landt, Margarita CT Slof-Op t; Hudson, James I; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kaplan, Allan S; Karwautz, Andreas; Hakonarson, Hakon; Berrettini, Wade H; Guo, Yiran; Li, Dong; Schork, Nicholas J.; Komaki, Gen; Ando, Tetsuya; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Esko, Tõnu; Fischer, Krista; Männik, Katrin; Metspalu, Andres; Baker, Jessica H; Cone, Roger D; Dackor, Jennifer; DeSocio, Janiece E; Hilliard, Christopher E; O'Toole, Julie K; Pantel, Jacques; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Taico, Chrysecolla; Zerwas, Stephanie; Trace, Sara E; Davis, Oliver SP; Helder, Sietske; Bühren, Katharina; Burghardt, Roland; de Zwaan, Martina; Egberts, Karin; Ehrlich, Stefan; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Imgart, Hartmut; Scherag, André; Scherag, Susann; Zipfel, Stephan; Boni, Claudette; Ramoz, Nicolas; Versini, Audrey; Brandys, Marek K; Danner, Unna N; de Kovel, Carolien; Hendriks, Judith; Koeleman, Bobby PC; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Bruson, Alice; Clementi, Maurizio; Degortes, Daniela; Forzan, Monica; Tenconi, Elena; Docampo, Elisa; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rajewski, Andrzej; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Slopien, Agnieszka; Hauser, Joanna; Karhunen, Leila; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Slagboom, P Eline; Tortorella, Alfonso; Maj, Mario; Dedoussis, George; Dikeos, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Tziouvas, Konstantinos; Tsitsika, Artemis; Papezova, Hana; Slachtova, Lenka; Martaskova, Debora; Kennedy, James L.; Levitan, Robert D.; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Huemer, Julia; Koubek, Doris; Merl, Elisabeth; Wagner, Gudrun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Breen, Gerome; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Herms, Stefan; Rujescu, Dan; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Dina, Christian; Sladek, Rob; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Julia, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rabionet, Raquel; Gaborieau, Valerie; Dick, Danielle M; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth; Andreassen, Ole A; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Astri; Reinvang, Ivar; Steen, Vidar M; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Mattingsdal, Morten; Ntalla, Ioanna; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Gallinger, Steven; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen; Aschauer, Harald; Carlberg, Laura; Schosser, Alexandra; Alfredsson, Lars; Ding, Bo; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Finan, Chris; Kalsi, Gursharan; Roberts, Marion; Logan, Darren W; Peltonen, Leena; Ritchie, Graham RS; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Estivill, Xavier; Hinney, Anke; Sullivan, Patrick F; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Bulik, Cynthia M
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2,907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14,860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery datasets. Seventy-six (72 independent) SNPs were taken forward for in silico (two datasets) or de novo (13 datasets) replication genotyping in 2,677 independent AN cases and 8,629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication datasets comprised 5,551 AN cases and 21,080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1,606 AN restricting; 1,445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01×10-7) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84×10-6) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76×10-6) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05×10-6) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery to replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P=4×10-6), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but that our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field. PMID:24514567
Travis, Katherine E; Golden, Neville H; Feldman, Heidi M; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.
Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918
Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel
Objective Family functioning impairment is widely reported in the eating disorders literature, yet few studies have examined the role of family functioning in treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This study examined family functioning in two treatments for adolescent AN from multiple family members’ perspectives. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN ages 12–18 from a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to individual adolescent-focused therapy (AFT). Multiple clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline. Family functioning from the perspective of the adolescent and both parents was assessed at baseline and after one year of treatment. Full remission from AN was defined as achieving both weight restoration and normalized eating disorder psychopathology. Results In general, families dealing with AN reported some baseline impairment in family functioning, but average ratings were only slightly elevated compared to published impaired functioning cutoffs. Adolescents’ perspectives on family functioning were the most impaired and were generally associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and greater clinical severity. Regardless of initial level of family functioning, improvements in several family functioning domains were uniquely related to full remission at the end of treatment in both FBT and AFT. However, FBT had a more positive impact on several specific aspects of family functioning compared to AFT. Discussion Families seeking treatment for adolescent AN report some difficulties in family functioning, with adolescents reporting the greatest impairment. While FBT may be effective in improving some specific aspects of family dynamics, remission from AN was associated with improved family dynamics, regardless of treatment type. PMID:24902822
Andony, Louise J; Tay, Elaine; Allen, Karina L; Wade, Tracey D; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen; McIntosh, Virginia VW; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike H; Fairburn, Christopher G; Erceg-Hurn, David M; Fursland, Anthea; Crosby, Ross D; Byrne, Susan M
Objective To develop a psychotherapy rating scale to measure therapist adherence in the Strong Without Anorexia Nervosa (SWAN) study, a multi-center randomized controlled trial comparing three different psychological treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa. The three treatments under investigation were Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT-E), the Maudsley Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults (MANTRA), and Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM). Method The SWAN Psychotherapy Rating Scale (SWAN-PRS) was developed, after consultation with the developers of the treatments, and refined. Using the SWAN-PRS, two independent raters initially rated 48 audiotapes of treatment sessions to yield inter-rater reliability data. One rater proceeded to rate a total of 98 audiotapes from 64 trial participants. Results The SWAN-PRS demonstrated sound psychometric properties, and was considered a reliable measure of therapist adherence. The three treatments were highly distinguishable by independent raters, with therapists demonstrating significantly more behaviors consistent with the actual allocated treatment compared to the other two treatment modalities. There were no significant site differences in therapist adherence observed. Discussion The findings provide support for the internal validity of the SWAN study. The SWAN-PRS was deemed suitable for use in other trials involving CBT-E, MANTRA, or SSCM. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:1170–1175) PMID:26769445
Demarque, Mélissa; Guzman, Gabriela; Morrison, Elodie; Ahovi, Jonathan; Moro, Marie Rose; Blanchet-Collet, Corinne
The increased prevalence of anorexia nervosa reported in non-Western societies inevitably raises the issue of the influence of cultural factors in the genesis and the patterns of this disorder. Anorexia nervosa is not a straightforward Western culture-bound syndrome, although an influence of Western ideals of thinness does exist. The illness seems more related to rapid cultural shifts, either societal or individual, such as those occurring in the migratory process. Migrants and their children have to face the acculturation process and may experience a culture-clash. The pathology can also fulfil a positive acculturative function. This is a case study concerning a second-generation Chinese girl born in France presenting with anorexia nervosa. This case leads us to raise the issue of the choice of diagnostic criteria in relation to cultural background. We will also discuss the impact of the family's migratory history on the construction of identity in adolescence. Finally we will explore the specific features of care provision for anorexia nervosa in a transcultural setting.
Wohl, Michal Lotan; Gur, Eitan
In the last decade there has been a significant increase in the incidence of pregnancy in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa. This change is partly explained by the social processes that constitute a significant factor in the etiology of the disease. Yearning for thinness as representing the values of control and success has become a major cultural desire and this swept into a vortex of the disease many sexually active women at childbearing age, which was rare in anorexic patients in the past. Additionally, because amenorrhea is a common condition in anorexia nervosa, pregnancy during active disease seems to be an impossible oxymoron. While some patients succeed in conceiving spontaneously, fertility clinics provide an alternative solution for those who have difficulties conceiving. It seems that fertility professionals have little knowledge about anorexia nervosa and even when they diagnose it, the dilemma as to whether to refuse to treat these patients is not easy to solve. Pregnancy in anorectic patients during active disease puts the fetus at increased risk for complications during pregnancy and labor. Common complications are spontaneous abortion and growth retardation. One must take into consideration that underweight pregnant women require a professional eating disorders assessment and, if indeed it turns out that anorexia nervosa is active, it is necessary to refer her to an eating disorders clinic for treatment and to define the pregnancy as a pregnancy at-risk.
Werth, James L., Jr.; Wright, Kimberly S.; Archambault, Rita J.; Bardash, Rebekah, J.
Individuals with eating disorders, especially those with anorexia nervosa, have the potential to experience significant harm and even death as a result of behaviors related to their condition. Because of this risk, the authors argue that there is a duty to protect (i.e., an obligation to take some action when a person is engaging or considering…
Duesund, Liv; Jespersen, Ejgil
The Dreyfus skill model has a wide range of applications to various domains, including sport, nursing, engineering, flying, and so forth. In this article, the authors discuss the skill model in connection with two different research projects concerning ski instruction and treating anorexia nervosa. The latter project has been published but not in…
Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.
Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.
Rupa, Megha; Girimaji, Satish; Muthuswamy, Selvi; Jacob, Preeti; Ravi, Malavika
Anorexia nervosa is a rare but sever psychiatric disorder in adolescence, with chronicity and death being the most feared consequence. Emotional Insight into one's problem is considered a key determinant of success in therapy. The following case study of a 14-year-old client, describes the process of therapy as it unfolded across 45 sessions. An…
Lock, James; Couturier, Jennifer; Agras, W. Stewart
Objective: To describe the relative effectiveness of a short versus long course of family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa at long-term follow-up. Method: This study used clinical and structured interviews to assess psychological and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents (ages 12-18 years at baseline) who were previously treated…
Guardia, Dewi; Lafargue, Gilles; Thomas, Pierre; Dodin, Vincent; Cottencin, Olivier; Luyat, Marion
Patients with anorexia nervosa frequently believe they are larger than they really are. The precise nature of this bias is not known: is it a false belief related to the patient's aesthetic and emotional attitudes towards her body? Or could it also reflect abnormal processing of the representation of the body in action? We tested this latter…
Zucker, Nancy L.; Losh, Molly; Bulik, Cynthia M.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Piven, Joseph; Pelphrey, Kevin A.
Death by suicide occurs in a disproportionate percentage of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), with a standardized mortality ratio indicating a 57-fold greater risk of death from suicide relative to an age-matched cohort. Longitudinal studies indicate impaired social functioning increases risk for fatal outcomes, while social impairment…
Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Mainz, Verena; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin
Objective: Converging evidence suggests deficits in theory-of-mind (ToM) processing in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The present study aimed at elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying ToM-deficits in AN. Method: A total of 19 adolescent patients with AN and 21 age-matched controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance…
Hughes, Elizabeth K.
Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…
Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Crosby, Ross D.; Ringham, Rebecca M.; Dapelo, Marcela Marin; Gaskill, Jill A.; Forbush, Kelsie T.
Objective: Elucidation of clinically relevant subtypes has been proposed as a means of advancing treatment research, but classifying anorexia nervosa (AN) patients into restricting and binge-eating/purging types has demonstrated limited predictive validity. This study aimed to evaluate whether an approach to classifying eating disorder patients on…
Le Grange, Daniel
Despite the fact that anorexia nervosa is a debilitating disorder with serious psychological and medical sequelae, few psychological treatments have been studied. Of these, interventions that involve the parents of the adolescent have proved to be most promising. This is especially true for those cases with a short duration of illness (less than 3…
Ma, Joyce L. C.; Lai, Kelly
Although family therapy has become highly acceptable in the West, its applicability and acceptability for Chinese adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) remains unknown. In this article, we report the results of a qualitative study using post-treatment in-depth interviews to understand the subjective perceptions of sufferers of AN…
Lock, James; le Grange, Daniel; Forsberg, Sarah; Hewell, Kristen
Objective: Research suggests that family-based treatment (FBT) is an effective treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). This retrospective case series was designed to examine its usefulness with younger children. Method: Data were abstracted from medical records of 32 children with a mean age of 11.9 years (range 9.0-12.9) meeting…
Rose, Mark; Frampton, Ian J; Lask, Bryan
The vast majority of studies in anorexia nervosa that have investigated the domains of central coherence, organizational strategy, and visuospatial memory have focused on adult samples. In addition, studies investigating visuospatial memory have focused on free recall. No study to date has reported the association between recognition memory and central coherence or organizational strategy in younger people with this disorder, yet the capacity to recognize previously seen visual stimuli may contribute to overall visuospatial ability. Therefore, we investigate these domains in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. There were no significant group differences in immediate, delayed, or recognition memory, central coherence, or organization strategy. When compared with controls, patients with anorexia nervosa scored significantly higher on accuracy and took significantly longer when copying the Rey Complex Figure Task. Caution must be taken when interpreting these findings due to lower-than-expected scores in memory performance in the control group and because of a potential lack of sensitivity in the measures used when assessing this younger population. For neuropsychological functions where no normative data exist, we need a deeper, more thorough knowledge of the developmental trajectory and its assessment in young people in the general population before drawing conclusions in anorexia nervosa.
Rosman, B L; Minuchin, S; Liebman, R
Family lunch sessions have proved a useful diagnostic and therapeutic technique in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. This paper describes the goals of these sessions and the strategies employed in the restructuring of family relationships. Data are presented illustrating changes in eating behavior of eight identified patients.
Levine, Michael P.
This book presents a comprehensive review of anorexia nervosa and bulimia and the roles that schools can have in preventing, identifying, and treating these disorders. Chapter 1 provides an overview of student eating disorders and presents a case study of a high school student with an eating disorder. Chapter 2 discusses the nature of anorexia…
Mustelin, Linda; Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans W; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna
The definition of anorexia nervosa was revised for the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). We examined the impact of these changes on the prevalence and prognosis of anorexia nervosa. In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women (N = 2825) underwent a 2-stage screening for eating disorders at mean age 24. Fifty-five women fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime anorexia nervosa. When we recoded the interviews using DSM-5 criteria, we detected 37 new cases. We contrasted new DSM-5 vs. DSM-IV cases to assess their clinical characteristics and prognosis. We also estimated lifetime prevalences and incidences and tested the association of minimum BMI with prognosis. We observed a 60% increase in the lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa using the new diagnostic boundaries, from 2.2% to 3.6%. The new cases had a later age of onset (18.8 y vs. 16.5, p = 0.002), higher minimum BMI (16.9 vs. 15.5 kg/m(2), p = 0.0004), a shorter duration of illness (one year vs. three years, p = 0.002), and a higher 5-year probability or recovery (81% vs. 67%, p = 0.002). Minimum BMI was not associated with prognosis. It therefore appears that the substantial increase in prevalence of anorexia nervosa is offset by a more benign course of illness in new cases. Increased diagnostic heterogeneity underscores the need for reliable indicators of disease severity. Our findings indicate that BMI may not be an ideal severity marker, but should be complemented by prognostically informative criteria. Future studies should focus on identifying such factors in prospective settings.
Murray, Stuart B; Rieger, Elizabeth; Hildebrandt, Tom; Karlov, Lisa; Russell, Janice; Boon, Evelyn; Dawson, Robert T; Touyz, Stephen W
In the context of the lack of nosological clarity surrounding muscle dysmorphia, this paper aims to compare the symptomatic profile of muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa in males whilst using measures sensitive to indexing male body image concerns. Twenty-one male muscle dysmorphia patients, 24 male anorexia nervosa patients, and 15 male gym-using controls completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder Inventory, the Compulsive Exercise Test, and a measure of appearance-enhancing substance use. Men with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa demonstrated widespread symptomatic similarities spanning the domains of disturbed body image, disordered eating, and exercise behaviour, whilst differences were consistent with the opposing physiques pursued in each condition. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed significant associations between scores on muscle dysmorphia and eating disorder measures. The present findings provide moderate support for the notion that muscle dysmorphia may be nosologically similar to anorexia nervosa.
Prousky, Jonathan E
Pellagra is a nutritional wasting disease attributable to a combined deficiency of tryptophan and niacin (nicotinic acid). It is characterized clinically by four classic symptoms often referred to as the four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. Prior to the development of these symptoms, other nonspecific symptoms insidiously manifest and mostly affect the dermatological, neuropsychiatric, and gastrointestinal systems. A review of the literature reveals several case reports describing pellagra in patients with anorexia nervosa. The most common features of pellagra in patients with anorexia nervosa are cutaneous manifestations such as erythema on sun-exposed areas, glossitis, and stomatitis. Health care providers might consider a trial of 150-500 mg niacin if anorexic patients exhibit these cutaneous findings. Pellagra can be diagnosed if cutaneous symptoms resolve within 24-48 hours after oral niacin administration. To further corroborate a diagnosis of pellagra in anorexic patients, specific 24-hour urine tests for niacin metabolites and 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid could be run prior to treatment with niacin being instituted. Other factors, such as mycotoxins, excessive dietary leucine intake (although not in anorexia), estrogens and progestogens, carcinoid syndrome, and various medications, might also lead to the development of pellagra. Although pellagra appears to be a rare, yet possible secondary complication of anorexia nervosa, it should be considered in the work-up of patients who exhibit cutaneous manifestations subsequent to sunlight exposure.
Esposito, Roberto; Cieri, Filippo; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Tartaro, Armando
Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by intense fear of gaining weight, relentless pursuit of thinness, deep concerns about food and a pervasive disturbance of body image. Functional magnetic resonance imaging tries to shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa. This review aims to evaluate the empirical neuroimaging literature about self-perception in anorexia nervosa. This narrative review summarizes a number of task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in anorexia nervosa about body image and self-perception. The articles listed in references were searched using electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) from 1990 to February 2016 using specific key words. All studies were reviewed with regard to their quality and eligibility for the review. Differences in brain activity were observed using body image perception and body size estimation tasks showing significant modifications in activity of specific brain areas (extrastriate body area, fusiform body area, inferior parietal lobule). Recent studies highlighted the role of emotions and self-perception in anorexia nervosa and their neural substrate involving resting-state networks and particularly frontal and posterior midline cortical structures within default mode network and insula. These findings open new horizons to understand the neural substrate of anorexia nervosa.
McAdams, Carrie J; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P Read
In anorexia nervosa, problems with social relationships contribute to illness, and improvements in social support are associated with recovery. Using the multiround trust game and 3T MRI, we compare neural responses in a social relationship in three groups of women: women with anorexia nervosa, women in long-term weight recovery from anorexia nervosa, and healthy comparison women. Surrogate markers related to social signals in the game were computed each round to assess whether the relationship was improving (benevolence) or deteriorating (malevolence) for each subject. Compared with healthy women, neural responses to benevolence were diminished in the precuneus and right angular gyrus in both currently-ill and weight-recovered subjects with anorexia, but neural responses to malevolence differed in the left fusiform only in currently-ill subjects. Next, using a whole-brain regression, we identified an office assessment, the positive personalizing bias, that was inversely correlated with neural activity in the occipital lobe, the precuneus and posterior cingulate, the bilateral temporoparietal junctions, and dorsal anterior cingulate, during benevolence for all groups of subjects. The positive personalizing bias is a self-report measure that assesses the degree with which a person attributes positive experiences to other people. These data suggest that problems in perceiving kindness may be a consistent trait related to the development of anorexia nervosa, whereas recognizing malevolence may be related to recovery. Future work on social brain function, in both healthy and psychiatric populations, should consider positive personalizing biases as a possible marker of neural differences related to kindness perception.
Geisler, Daniel; Borchardt, Viola; Lord, Anton R.; Boehm, Ilka; Ritschel, Franziska; Zwipp, Johannes; Clas, Sabine; King, Joseph A.; Wolff-Stephan, Silvia; Roessner, Veit; Walter, Martin; Ehrlich, Stefan
Background Previous resting-state functional connectivity studies in patients with anorexia nervosa used independent component analysis or seed-based connectivity analysis to probe specific brain networks. Instead, modelling the entire brain as a complex network allows determination of graph-theoretical metrics, which describe global and local properties of how brain networks are organized and how they interact. Methods To determine differences in network properties between female patients with acute anorexia nervosa and pairwise matched healthy controls, we used resting-state fMRI and computed well-established global and local graph metrics across a range of network densities. Results Our analyses included 35 patients and 35 controls. We found that the global functional network structure in patients with anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in both characteristic path length (longer average routes between nodes) and assortativity (more nodes with a similar connectedness link together). Accordingly, we found locally decreased connectivity strength and increased path length in the posterior insula and thalamus. Limitations The present results may be limited to the methods applied during preprocessing and network construction. Conclusion We demonstrated anorexia nervosa–related changes in the network configuration for, to our knowledge, the first time using resting-state fMRI and graph-theoretical measures. Our findings revealed an altered global brain network architecture accompanied by local degradations indicating wide-scale disturbance in information flow across brain networks in patients with acute anorexia nervosa. Reduced local network efficiency in the thalamus and posterior insula may reflect a mechanism that helps explain the impaired integration of visuospatial and homeostatic signals in patients with this disorder, which is thought to be linked to abnormal representations of body size and hunger. PMID:26252451
Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Mensi, Martina M.; Chiappedi, Matteo; Gatta, Michela
The latest studies and practice guidelines for the treatment of adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa agree in pointing out the key role played by parents in determining the young patients’ therapeutic possibilities and outcomes. Still family functioning has usually been studied using only self-reported instruments. The aim of the present study is therefore to investigate the triadic interactions within the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa using a semi-standardized observational tool based on a recorded play session, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP). Parents and adolescent daughters, consecutively referred to adolescent neuropsychiatric services, participated in the study and underwent the observational procedure (LTP). The 20 families of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (restricting type) were compared with 20 families of patients with internalizing disorders (anxiety and depression). The results showed different interactive patterns in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa: they had greater difficulties in respecting roles during the play, maintaining the joint attention and in sharing positive affect, especially in the three-together phase (third phase). The majority of these families (12) exhibited collusive alliances. The parental subsystem appeared frequently unable to maintain a structuring role, i.e., providing help, support and guidance to the daughters, while the girls in turn often found it hard to show independent ideas and develop personal projects. Parents experienced difficulty in carving out a couple-specific relational space, from which the ill daughter was at least temporarily excluded also when they were asked to continue to interact with each other, letting the daughter be simply present in a third-part position (fourth phase). The study of the triadic interactions in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa may help to shift the attention from the exclusive mother–daughter relation to the
Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Mensi, Martina M; Chiappedi, Matteo; Gatta, Michela
The latest studies and practice guidelines for the treatment of adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa agree in pointing out the key role played by parents in determining the young patients' therapeutic possibilities and outcomes. Still family functioning has usually been studied using only self-reported instruments. The aim of the present study is therefore to investigate the triadic interactions within the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa using a semi-standardized observational tool based on a recorded play session, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP). Parents and adolescent daughters, consecutively referred to adolescent neuropsychiatric services, participated in the study and underwent the observational procedure (LTP). The 20 families of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (restricting type) were compared with 20 families of patients with internalizing disorders (anxiety and depression). The results showed different interactive patterns in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa: they had greater difficulties in respecting roles during the play, maintaining the joint attention and in sharing positive affect, especially in the three-together phase (third phase). The majority of these families (12) exhibited collusive alliances. The parental subsystem appeared frequently unable to maintain a structuring role, i.e., providing help, support and guidance to the daughters, while the girls in turn often found it hard to show independent ideas and develop personal projects. Parents experienced difficulty in carving out a couple-specific relational space, from which the ill daughter was at least temporarily excluded also when they were asked to continue to interact with each other, letting the daughter be simply present in a third-part position (fourth phase). The study of the triadic interactions in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa may help to shift the attention from the exclusive mother-daughter relation to the involvement
Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Caldu, Xavier; Andres-Perpina, Susana; Lazaro, Luisa; Bargallo, Nuria; Falcon, Carles; Plana, Maria Teresa; Junque, Carme
Structural and functional brain abnormalities have been described in anorexia nervosa (AN). The objective of this study was to examine whether there is abnormal regional brain activation during a working memory task not associated with any emotional stimuli in adolescent patients with anorexia and to detect possible changes after weight recovery.…
Hasegawa, Sho; Shibata, Maki; Mochizuki, Makoto; Katsuki, Takashi; Tada, Manami; Hinoshita, Fumihiko
Although patients with anorexia nervosa (anorexia) are known to show tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), the pathophysiology of its progression is not fully understood. We herein report a 31-year-old woman with anorexia who showed acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease. Renal biopsy showed non-uniform chronic TIN; some areas were obsolete lesions and other areas were active lesions. In addition, many calcium-containing crystals were widely deposited in the distal tubules. The results suggest that chronic TIN in the setting of anorexia does not uniformly progress and that not only TIN but also widespread calcification of distal tubules might aggravate the renal function of anorexia patients.
Grzelak, Teresa; Dutkiewicz, Agata; Paszynska, Elzbieta; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Slopien, Agnieszka; Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Marta
The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic features which contribute to inappropriate eating attitudes in people suffering from anorexia nervosa, based on an analysis of recent data. Factors influencing these attitudes have a genetic, neurobiological, biochemical, affective-motivational, cognitive, and behavioral background. Another important issue addressed in the paper is a description of the mechanism leading to continuous dietary restrictions. The altered activity of neurotransmitters modulating patients' moods after the consumption of food and a disturbed responsiveness to enterohormones enhance affective-motivational and cognitive aspects which, in turn, impede the improvement of eating behaviors. An understanding of the mechanisms behind the factors affecting the maintenance of inappropriate eating attitudes may contribute to greater effectiveness in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
Mahowald, M B
This paper reviews the characteristics of anorexia nervosa described in the DSM-III-R, relates them to normative gender roles and adolescent development, and critiques those roles on feminist grounds. Two apparently contradictory explanations for the irrational pursuit of thinness are considered: a) the anorexic thus attempts to conform to a socially defined feminine ideal; b) the anorexic thus attempts to avoid the appearance and consequences of mature womanhood. I propose that both explanations are applicable, together emplifying the ambiguity that Simone de Beauvoir considers characteristic of female experience. Because both explanations suggest a gender identity disorder, I question the fact that the DSM-III-R fails to indicate this linkage. I argue further that therapeutic considerations require efforts to alter the socialization factors that are implicative in anorexia nervosa.
Saccomani, L; Savoini, M; Naselli, A; Cirrincione, M; Matricardi, A
In a brief review of the literature, the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic criteria of anorexia nervosa in adolescence are considered. An interdisciplinary approach (child neuropsychiatrists, clinical psychologists, auxological pediatricians) was adopted in 52 cases with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (46 females, 6 males; mean age 14). The results of the analysis of somatic disturbances (weight loss, anomalous sexual maturation), psychological aspects (cognitive level, organization of the personality), environmental implications (familial, social and school adjustment; mother-child relationship; pedagogic modalities; social and economic factors) are reported. The data from a follow-up of 29 patients (26 females, 3 males; mean age 19) are reported, and the degree of recovery assessed as follows: 1) clinical recovery at somatic-adjustment level (79% complete, 17% with atypical characteristics); 2) achievement of a harmonic organization of the personality (48%). The paper concludes with some remarks on the treatment, prognosis and prospects for prevention of the condition.
Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel
The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1,526) based on anxiety ratings, we identified 7 distinct daily anxiety trajectories. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Furthermore, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., stable high anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors.
Bernardoni, Fabio; King, Joseph A; Geisler, Daniel; Stein, Elisa; Jaite, Charlotte; Nätsch, Dagmar; Tam, Friederike I; Boehm, Ilka; Seidel, Maria; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan
Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have documented reduced gray matter in acutely ill patients with anorexia nervosa to be at least partially reversible following weight restoration. However, few longitudinal studies exist and the underlying mechanisms of these structural changes are elusive. In particular, the relative speed and completeness of brain structure normalization during realimentation remain unknown. Here we report from a structural neuroimaging study including a sample of adolescent/young adult female patients with acute anorexia nervosa (n=47), long-term recovered patients (n=34), and healthy controls (n=75). The majority of acutely ill patients were scanned longitudinally (n=35): at the beginning of standardized weight restoration therapy and again after partial weight normalization (>10% body mass index increase). High-resolution structural images were processed and analyzed with the longitudinal stream of FreeSurfer software to test for changes in cortical thickness and volumes of select subcortical regions of interest. We found globally reduced cortical thickness in acutely ill patients to increase rapidly (0.06 mm/month) during brief weight restoration therapy (≈3 months). This significant increase was predicted by weight restoration alone and could not be ascribed to potentially mediating factors such as duration of illness, hydration status, or symptom improvements. By comparing cortical thickness in partially weight-restored patients with that measured in healthy controls, we confirmed that cortical thickness had normalized already at follow-up. This pattern of thinning in illness and rapid normalization during weight rehabilitation was largely mirrored in subcortical volumes. Together, our findings indicate that structural brain insults inflicted by starvation in anorexia nervosa may be reversed at a rate much faster than previously thought if interventions are successful before the disorder becomes chronic. This provides
Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile
Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085
Frank, Guido K W
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder and no medication has been approved for its treatment. This case series in youth with severe, recurrent AN supports the hypothesis that dopamine receptor agonists could be helpful in supporting fear extinction during eating disorder focused psychotherapy and therefore support recovery from AN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:529-533).
Rizk, Melissa; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie; Kern, Laurence; Godart, Nathalie
"Hyperactivity" has a wide prevalence range of 31% to 80% in the anorexia nervosa literature that could be partly due to the plethora of definitions provided by researchers in this field. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) To assess the variance across prevalence rates of problematic exercise encountered in patients with anorexia nervosa, in relation to seven different definitions found in the literature. 2) To examine how core eating disorder symptoms and the dimensions of emotional profile are associated with these different definitions and the impact of these definitions on the assessment of patients' quality of life. Exercise was evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, type and compulsion using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 180 women suffering from severe anorexia nervosa. Seven different definitions of problematic exercise were identified in the literature: three entailing a single dimension of problematic exercise (duration, compulsion or intensity) and four combining these different dimensions. Emotional profile scores, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, eating disorder symptomatology, worries and concerns about body shape, self-esteem and quality of life were assessed using several established questionnaires. The prevalence of problematic exercise varied considerably from, 5% to 54%, depending on the number of criteria used for its definition. The type and level of eating disorder symptomatology was found to be associated with several definitions of problematic exercise. Surprisingly, a better self-reported quality of life was found among problematic exercisers compared to non-problematic exercisers in three of the definitions. The different definitions of problematic exercise explain the broad prevalence ranges and the conflicting associations generally reported in the literature between problematic exercise and eating disorder-related psychological parameters. There is an urgent need for a valid consensus on the definition of
Lagos, J M
Family systems theory views anorexia nervosa not only as a product of dysfunctional transactional patterns within a family, but also as a crucial stabilizing element within the family. This paper describes the dysfunctional characteristics of anorexic families as well as the relevance of these characteristics to the anorexic symptoms. Two approaches to the treatment of these families, one developed by Minuchin and the other by Selvini Palazzoli, are described and the compatability of family therapy with individual therapy is briefly discussed.
Rizk, Melissa; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie; Kern, Laurence; Godart, Nathalie
“Hyperactivity” has a wide prevalence range of 31% to 80% in the anorexia nervosa literature that could be partly due to the plethora of definitions provided by researchers in this field. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) To assess the variance across prevalence rates of problematic exercise encountered in patients with anorexia nervosa, in relation to seven different definitions found in the literature. 2) To examine how core eating disorder symptoms and the dimensions of emotional profile are associated with these different definitions and the impact of these definitions on the assessment of patients’ quality of life. Exercise was evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, type and compulsion using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 180 women suffering from severe anorexia nervosa. Seven different definitions of problematic exercise were identified in the literature: three entailing a single dimension of problematic exercise (duration, compulsion or intensity) and four combining these different dimensions. Emotional profile scores, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, eating disorder symptomatology, worries and concerns about body shape, self-esteem and quality of life were assessed using several established questionnaires. The prevalence of problematic exercise varied considerably from, 5% to 54%, depending on the number of criteria used for its definition. The type and level of eating disorder symptomatology was found to be associated with several definitions of problematic exercise. Surprisingly, a better self-reported quality of life was found among problematic exercisers compared to non-problematic exercisers in three of the definitions. The different definitions of problematic exercise explain the broad prevalence ranges and the conflicting associations generally reported in the literature between problematic exercise and eating disorder-related psychological parameters. There is an urgent need for a valid consensus on the definition
Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno
An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to describe nursing interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. The main research question was: 'Which interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour do health-care professionals in a specialist eating disorder centre use during meal times for adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa? The present study was a qualitative, descriptive study that used video recordings made during mealtimes. Thematic data analysis was applied. Four categories of interventions emerged from the data: (i) monitoring and instructing; (ii) encouraging and motivating; (iii) supporting and understanding; and (iv) educating. The data revealed a directive attitude aimed at promoting behavioural change, but always in combination with empathy and understanding. In the first stage of clinical treatment, health-care professionals focus primarily on changing patients' eating behaviour. However, they also address the psychosocial needs that become visible in patients as they struggle to restore normal eating behaviour. The findings of the present study can be used to assist health-care professionals, and improve multidisciplinary guidelines and health-care professionals' training programmes.
Tan, Dr. Jacinta O. A.; Hope, Professor Tony; Stewart, Dr. Anne; Fitzpatrick, Professor Raymond
This paper explores the ethical and conceptual implications of the findings from an empirical study of decision-making capacity in anorexia nervosa. In the study, ten female patients aged 13 to 21 years with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, and eight sets of parents, took part in semi-structured interviews. The purpose of the interviews was to identify aspects of thinking that might be relevant to the issue of competence to refuse treatment. All the patient participants were also tested using the MacCAT-T test of competence. This is a formalised, structured interviewer-administered test of competence, which is a widely accepted clinical tool for determining capacity. The young women also completed five brief self-administered questionnaires to assess their levels of psychopathology. The issues identified from the interviews are described under two headings: difficulties with thought processing, and changes in values. The results suggest that competence to refuse treatment may be compromised in people with anorexia nervosa in ways that are not captured by traditional legal approaches or current standardised tests of competence. PMID:18066393
Tweed-Kent, Ailis M; Fagenholz, Peter J; Alam, Hasan B
Acute gastric dilatation is a rare complication of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype that results from gastrointestinal abnormalities, including decreased gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. Early diagnosis and intervention is critical since delay may result in gastric necrosis, perforation, shock, and death. We report a 26-year-old female with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype, who presented with abdominal pain and nausea after a binge episode. Abdominal radiography and computed tomography showed a grossly dilated stomach measuring 32 cm × 17.9 cm consistent with acute gastric dilatation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with gastrotomy and gastric decompression, and recovered uneventfully. Initially, the patient denied the binge episode, as many patients with eating disorders do, but later revealed an extensive history of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype. This case stresses the importance of obtaining a thorough history of eating disorders and maintaining a high index of suspicion for acute gastric dilatation in young women who present with abdominal pain and distention.
Dellava, Jocilyn E.; Thornton, Laura M.; Hamer, Robert M.; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Katherine; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Jones, Ian; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective Extremely low body mass index (BMI) values are associated with increased risk for death and poor long-term prognosis in individuals with AN. The present study explores childhood personality characteristics that could be associated with the ability to attain an extremely low BMI. Methods Participants were 326 women from the Genetics of Anorexia Nervosa (GAN) Study who completed the Structured Interview for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimic Syndromes and whose mother completed the Child Behavioral Check List and/or Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey. Results Children who were described as having greater fear or anxiety by their mothers attained lower BMIs during AN (p <0.02). Path analysis in the GAN and a validation sample, Price Foundation Anorexia Nervosa Trios Study, confirmed the relation between early childhood anxiety, caloric restriction, qualitative food item restriction, excessive exercise, and low BMI. Path analysis also confirmed a relation between childhood anxiety and caloric restriction, which mediated the relation between childhood anxiety and low BMI in the GAN sample only. Conclusion Fearful or anxious behavior as a child was associated with the attainment of low BMI in AN and childhood anxiety was associated with caloric restriction. Measures of anxiety and factors associated with anxiety-proneness in childhood may index children at risk for restrictive behaviors and extremely low BMIs in AN. PMID:19822312
Erikson, Martin G; Hansson, Berit; Lundblad, Suzanna
Adopting the construct of possible selves, which are conceptions of our selves in future situations, the objective of this study was to investigate how anorexia patients differ from a non-clinical control group in their conceptions of the future on qualitative content, and the four quantitative dimensions positive and negative emotional valence, and beliefs about probability and controllability. The Possible Selves Statements Test was employed. Participants presented 14 possible selves by completing the question "I can see myself …" and rating each possible self on the 4 dimensions. The patients reported a larger number of negative possible selves, with higher negative valence, often seeing future everyday situations as negative, whereas the control group saw similar situations as positive. The anorexia patients also reported negative possible selves with high controllability and high probability in relation to such situations and in some cases rated recovery from anorexia with a negative valence. Clinical implications are discussed.
Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Haas, Verena; Ahnis, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas
While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = -0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = -0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p < 0.01). Depressiveness, anxiety, and perceived stress did not correlate with kisspeptin or any other of the investigated hormones (p > 0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in
Frank, G K W; Shott, M E; Riederer, J; Pryor, T L
Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are severe eating disorders that share many behaviors. Structural and functional brain circuits could provide biological links that those disorders have in common. We recruited 77 young adult women, 26 healthy controls, 26 women with anorexia and 25 women with bulimia nervosa. Probabilistic tractography was used to map white matter connectivity strength across taste and food intake regulating brain circuits. An independent multisample greedy equivalence search algorithm tested effective connectivity between those regions during sucrose tasting. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa had greater structural connectivity in pathways between insula, orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum, but lower connectivity from orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala to the hypothalamus (P<0.05, corrected for comorbidity, medication and multiple comparisons). Functionally, in controls the hypothalamus drove ventral striatal activity, but in anorexia and bulimia nervosa effective connectivity was directed from anterior cingulate via ventral striatum to the hypothalamus. Across all groups, sweetness perception was predicted by connectivity strength in pathways connecting to the middle orbitofrontal cortex. This study provides evidence that white matter structural as well as effective connectivity within the energy-homeostasis and food reward-regulating circuitry is fundamentally different in anorexia and bulimia nervosa compared with that in controls. In eating disorders, anterior cingulate cognitive–emotional top down control could affect food reward and eating drive, override hypothalamic inputs to the ventral striatum and enable prolonged food restriction. PMID:27801897
Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.
Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…
Timko, C Alix; Zucker, Nancy L; Herbert, James D; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M
Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12-18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed.
Introduction It is difficult to treat patients who, in addition to having severe anorexia nervosa, also have severe symptoms of major depressive disorder and a tendency for impulsive acting out behaviour. Our case report considers the feasibility of maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in such complicated cases. Case presentation This is a case report of a woman with anorexia nervosa and co-morbid severe major depressive disorder who was treated with electroconvulsive therapy as a maintenance treatment. The maintenance electroconvulsive therapy was conducted without immediate complications. It had a positive effect on the patient's depressive symptoms and lability and her general wellbeing, although some cognitive deficits were observed. Conclusion The maintenance electroconvulsive therapy seemed to support recovery in a case of refractory anorexia nervosa and a tendency for labile mood. The symptoms of co-occurring major depressive disorder were partly relieved and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy had some positive effect on weight gain. PMID:20062609
Rylander, Melanie; Brinton, John T; Sabel, Allison L; Mehler, Philip S; Gaudiani, Jennifer L
This study examines adult patients with severe, life-threatening anorexia nervosa who were admitted to an inpatient, medical stabilization unit between October 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014. Specifically, the study compares anorexia nervosa, binge purge subtype (AN-BP) and anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (AN-R) on admission measures, hospital course, and outcomes. Of the 232 patients, 46% (N = 108) had AN-BP. Patients with AN-R manifested a higher frequency of underweight-mediated medical complications, including bone marrow dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. Understanding the pathophysiologic differences between severe AN-R and AN-BP is essential to understanding the abnormalities seen on clinical presentation, guiding appropriate clinical treatment, and predicting medical complications during refeeding.
Rance, Nicola; Moller, Naomi P; Clarke, Victoria
Poor success rates and high levels of dropout are common features in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Using semi-structured interviews, this study elicited the views of 12 women who were recovered, or in recovery, for anorexia nervosa and had received treatment. Results derived from a thematic analysis revealed the women's high degree of dissatisfaction with treatment and their perception that the treatment system is overly focused on, and driven by, food and weight. In contrast, what the women really wanted was to be seen and treated as a 'whole person' and to have a 'real' relationship with their therapist.
Pelegrina Cortés, Beatriz; Guillén Sacoto, María Augusta; Palma Milla, Samara; Lisbona Catalán, Arturo; Martín Fuentes, María; Gómez-Candela, Carmen
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that often causes malnutrition and carries high mortality risk. A multidisciplinary and highly experienced team is needed to succeed in nutrition education and avoid the refeeding syndrome. We report the most severe case of malnutrition secondary to anorexia nervosa treated in our unit, a 33-year-old woman with a BMI of 8.8 kg/m2 and high liver aminotranferases who did not experience any complication during the refeeding process despite the extreme gravity of her situation.
Rajewski, A; Talarczyk-Wieckowska, M
A group of 50 patients aged from 12 to 20 with anorexia nervosa was examined: 40 persons with a diagnosis of restricting type and 10 with binge-eating type according to DSM IV. The level of intelligence quotient (IQ) was estimated by using Wechsler Test, selfacceptation by SQ and aspiration by TAT and test of unfinished sentences. In the majority of patients IQ was stated on the average level. Independently of intellectual level all patients presented a high aspiration degree. In their own estimation the emotional motivation sphere was significantly more important in the patients with binge-eating type and intellectual in the patients with restricting type of anorexia nervosa.
Moreno, Silvia; Warren, Cortney S; Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, M Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio
Food cravings are subjective, motivational states thought to induce binge eating among eating disorder patients. This study compared food cravings across eating disorders. Women (N=135) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, restrictive (ANR) or binge-purging (ANBP) types, or bulimia nervosa, non-purging (BNNP) or purging (BNP) types completed measures of food cravings. Discriminant analysis yielded two statistically significant functions. The first function differentiated between all the four group pairs except ANBP and BNNP, with levels of various food-craving dimensions successively increasing for ANR, ANBP, BNNP, and BNP participants. The second function differentiated between ANBP and BNNP participants. Overall, the functions improved classification accuracy above chance level (44% fewer errors). The findings suggest that cravings are more strongly associated with loss of control over eating than with dietary restraint tendencies.
Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Castellini, Giovanni; Volpe, Umberto; Ricca, Valdo; Lelli, Lorenzo; Monteleone, Palmiero; Maj, Mario
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are severe eating disorders whose etiopathogenesis is still unknown. Clinical features suggest that eating disorders may develop as reward-dependent syndromes, since eating less food is perceived as rewarding in anorexia nervosa while consumption of large amounts of food during binge episodes in bulimia nervosa aims at reducing the patient's negative emotional states. Therefore, brain reward mechanisms have been a major focus of research in the attempt to contribute to the comprehension of the pathophysiology of these disorders. Structural brain imaging data provided the evidence that brain reward circuits may be altered in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Similarly, functional brain imaging studies exploring the activation of brain reward circuits by food stimuli as well as by stimuli recognized to be potentially rewarding for eating disordered patients, such as body image cues or stimuli related to food deprivation and physical hyperactivity, showed several dysfunctions in ED patients. Moreover, very recently, it has been demonstrated that some of the biochemical homeostatic modulators of eating behavior are also implicated in the regulation of food-related and non-food-related reward, representing a possible link between the aberrant behaviors of ED subjects and their hypothesized deranged reward processes. In particular, changes in leptin and ghrelin occur in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa and have been suggested to represent not only homeostatic adaptations to an altered energy balance but to contribute also to the acquisition and/or maintenance of persistent starvation, binge eating and physical hyperactivity, which are potentially rewarding for ED patients. On the basis of such findings new pathogenetic models of EDs have been proposed, and these models may provide new theoretical basis for the development of innovative treatment strategies, either psychological and pharmacological, with the aim to
The point of the article is to analyse and reflect on certain symptoms of anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism. Contemplating the disorder in view of the philosophical ideas mentioned earlier, the author analyses such aspects of patients as: functioning on the verge of life and death, the paradoxical struggle to escape from freedom in search of independence, as well as various understandings and descriptions of anorexia in consideration of social constructivism. The author shares thoughts and poses hypotheses, trying to view anorexia in light of selected philosophical and psychological ideas, which in their general assumptions were not concerned with defining nor analysing anorexia nervosa. In view of Karl Jaspers' ideas, the author focuses on the so called 'limit-situations', in the ideas of Erich Fromm she takes notice in "Escape from Freedom" to new relations. Finally in the light of social constructivism the author focuses on the cultural context.
Sernec, Karin; Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan
The aim of the study was to provide further and up to date information on the evaluation of the management of Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa at the Eating Disorders Unit (EDU) of the Ljubljana Psychiatric Clinic, based upon detailed assessment of the eating disorders specific and non specific symptoms of impulsive behaviors, highly correlated with these entities. 34 female patients with anorexia (restrictive or purgative type) and 38 female patients with Bulimia nervosa (purgative or non-purgative type) undergoing hospital treatment at the EDU were evaluated upon admission, as well as upon discharge and three and six months after discharge, using the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Upon discharge a marked decrease in the overall symptoms was noted. The differences in symptoms incidences between the two groups were significantly specific for the individual form of eating disorder, especially upon admission, and were more pronounced in anorexia group. In later measurements, performed during the period of three and six months after discharge, a mild trend of increase in the disorder specific symptoms was detected in both groups, but was not statistically significant. In addition to binging on food, striking, quarreling and spending sprees are characteristics of patients with eating disorders, which in particular apply to the Bulimia nervosa group. Apart from the disorder specific symptoms, impulsive behavior was also reduced during study period, while the difference in its occurrence between the two groups gradually became non-significant. The management of patients with eating disorders at the EDU was successful in both groups, confirmed by an intense reduction of the disorder specific symptoms, impulsive behavior and increased stability recorded three and six months after discharge. The study strongly suggests that the effect of treatment regime for eating disorders can be predicted by careful assessment of the relevant symptoms and impulsive behavioral patterns.
Kuek, Angeline; Utpala, Ranjani; Lee, Huei Yen
INTRODUCTION The prevalence rate of anorexia nervosa is lower in Asia than in the West, although studies have found that it is on the rise in Asia. This study aims to present the clinical profile of patients presenting with anorexia nervosa in Singapore. METHODS The present study used archival data from the Eating Disorder Programme registry of the Department of Psychiatry, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Patient records from 2003 to 2010 were collected and analysed. Presenting characteristics of the patients were also compared with those of another local study conducted eight years earlier. RESULTS From 2003 to 2010, a total of 271 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa by a psychiatrist in our hospital. Of these, 251 (92.6%) were female and 238 (87.8%) were Chinese. Our patients had a lower mean weight (36.83 kg, p < 0.001) and a lower mean body mass index (BMI) (14.43 kg/m2, p < 0.001) than patients from the previous local study. Almost half of all our patients (n = 135, 49.8%) were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric comorbidity and 50 (18.5%) had a history of self-harm. CONCLUSION The presenting characteristics of our study cohort were similar to those of the Western population. However, the lower presenting weight and BMI in our cohort indicates that cases seen today are more severe than those seen eight years ago. Therefore, it is important to put in place prevention programmes to help adolescents cultivate a healthy body image as well as early intervention programmes to improve detection rates and treatment outcomes. PMID:26106239
Crisp, A. H.; Kalucy, R. S.
Anorexia nervosa is best construed as a phobic avoidance response to the psychosocial maturational implications of adolescent weight. Within this state, surrender to the impulse to eat and consequent weight gain is associated with panic, depression and sometimes specific intense fear of loss of control. So long as the avoidance posture can be maintained the experience of such turmoil is largely avoided. Complicated ritualistic behaviour may arise to promote and secure the posture. However, its unrewarding and lonely nature still increasingly leaves the individual liable to the experience of depression. Established treatment procedures often assist recovery from the illness but intractable cases arise and it is amongst these that the majority of deaths occur either from inanition or suicide. The basis for the changes characteristically induced by leucotomy is complex. The procedure often leads to reduced tension and release of appetitive behaviour. This is taken to be due to some direct effect of the cerebral lesion and possibly the intervention may also be construed by some patients as a licence to behave differently. In patients with anorexia nervosa such appetitive release can be expected to promote considerable weight gain. However, the adverse psychological implications of such weight gain for the patient do not appear always to be so immediately or easily relieved. They may still experience panic, shame or depression and new patterns of social avoidance, or vomiting behaviour may develop. Intensive help of a psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative kind is then still required if the patient is to have the best chance of adjusting healthily to her newly found potential for a more normal nutritional status. Four patients who have undergone such treatment are described in this paper. It is concluded that leucotomy has a small but definite place in the treatment of patients with intractable anorexia nervosa. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4806268
Wong, Matthew; Katzman, Debra K.; Akseer, Nadia; Steinegger, Cathleen; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L.; Coyte, Peter C.
Background Admission to hospital is the treatment of choice for anorexia nervosa in adolescent patients who are medically unstable; however, stays are often prolonged and frequently disrupt normal adolescent development, family functioning, school and work productivity. We sought to determine the costs of inpatient treatment in this population from a hospital and caregiver perspective, and to identify determinants of such costs. Methods We used micro-costing methods for this cohort study involving all adolescent patients (age 12–18 yr) admitted for treatment of anorexia nervosa at a tertiary care child and adolescent eating disorder program in Toronto, between Sept. 1, 2011, and Mar. 31, 2013. We used hospital administrative data and Canadian census data to calculate hospital and caregiver costs. Results We included 73 adolescents in our cohort for cost-analysis. We determined a mean total hospital cost in 2013 Canadian dollars of $51 349 (standard deviation [SD] $26 598) and a mean total societal cost of $54 932 (SD $27 864) per admission, based on a mean length of stay of 37.9 days (SD 19.7 d). We found patient body mass index (BMI) to be the only significant negative predictor of hospital cost (p < 0.001). For every unit increase in BMI, we saw a 15.7% decrease in hospital cost. In addition, we found higher BMI (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.05) to be significant negative predictors of caregiver costs. Interpretation The economic burden of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa on hospitals and caregivers is substantial, especially among younger patients and those with lower BMI. Recognizing the symptoms of eating disorders early may preclude the need for admission to hospital altogether or result in admissions at higher BMIs, thereby potentially reducing these costs. PMID:26389097
Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel
Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs.
Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mitchell, James E.
Several existing conceptual models and psychological interventions address or emphasize the role of emotion dysregulation in eating disorders. The current article uses Gratz and Roemer’s (2004) multidimensional model of emotion regulation and dysregulation as a clinically relevant framework to review the extant literature on emotion dysregulation in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Specifically, the dimensions reviewed include: (1) the flexible use of adaptive and situationally appropriate strategies to modulate the duration and/or intensity of emotional responses, (2) the ability to successfully inhibit impulsive behavior and maintain goal-directed behavior in the context of emotional distress, (3) awareness, clarity, and acceptance of emotional states, and (4) the willingness to experience emotional distress in the pursuit of meaningful activities. The current review suggests that both AN and BN are characterized by broad emotion regulation deficits, with difficulties in emotion regulation across the four dimensions found to characterize both AN and BN, although a small number of more specific difficulties may distinguish the two disorders. The review concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of the findings, as well as a summary of limitations of the existing empirical literature and suggestions for future research. PMID:26112760
Heaner, Martica K; Walsh, B Timothy
During the last 25 years, the careful examination of the eating behavior of individuals with eating disorders has provided critical insights into the nature of these disorders. Crucially, studies investigating components of different eating behaviors have documented that Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are characterized by objective disturbances in eating patterns that are significantly different than behaviors exhibited by individuals who do not have these eating disorders. The detailed description of the disturbances in eating behavior has helped to identify diagnostic criteria associated with each disorder, and has led to important hypotheses about the underlying pathophysiology. These advances in understanding have provided, and continue to provide, a foundation for translational research and for the development of novel treatment interventions. This review is based on a presentation given by B. Timothy Walsh, M.D. at the 40th anniversary symposium of the Columbia University Appetite talks outlining the evolution of the discovery of the characteristic eating disturbances seen with each disorder.
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Buzzichelli, Sara; Marzola, Enrica; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo
We investigated whether cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is effective in improving cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN). Twenty AN outpatients were consecutively recruited at the Eating Disorders Center of the Turin University. All participants completed 10 sessions of CRT. Neuropsychological performances improved with CRT. Data showed also a significant improvement of impulse regulation and interoceptive awareness (subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2). CRT was also associated with improvement of reflexive skills and awareness. These preliminary findings are promising, but further work is necessary to find ways of enhancing the effects of this treatment.
Plath, Debbie; Williams, Lauren T; Wood, Cath
A questionnaire and in-depth interviews with 20 allied health clinicians generated data on key aspects of family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa that enhance recovery, processes that engage parents in treatment, and how and why clinicians modify or adapt the manualized Maudsley Family Based Treatment model. Findings indicate that clinicians support key principles in the Maudsley model, but that the approach is not implemented in the full, manualized form. Rather, aspects are integrated with clinicians' own clinical judgements based on assessment of the needs and capacities of families, cultural appropriateness, impact on family dynamics, and gains during early treatment.
Singh, Prateush; Khan, Asim; Scott, Georgia; Jasper, Manuel; Singh, Esha
A Caucasian female previously diagnosed with anorexia nervosa was referred by psychiatric services to the general medical team. She presented with dehydration, vomiting, weakness, a body mass index of 13 kg/m(2) and was treated with intravenous and enteral supplementation. During admission her vomiting worsened and she developed visual hallucinations and confabulation. Neurological examination demonstrated cerebellar signs and bilateral papilloedema on fundoscopy. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large fourth ventricular tumour causing obstructive hydrocephalus. The tumour was excised and histologically confirmed to be a choroid plexus papilloma. Postoperatively her neurological symptoms and negative feelings towards eating resolved.
DiVasta, Amy D.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Gordon, Catherine M.
We report an MR imaging phenomenon that can lead to misinterpretation. The unique appearance of the soft tissues and bone marrow in a 19-year-old severely malnourished woman with anorexia nervosa raised concerns about technical failure or systemic pathology. Due to extreme fat depletion, the T1-weighted images appeared to be fat-suppressed and the fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive images appeared to be non-fat-suppressed (“flip-flopped”). Failure to recognize the influence of a patient’s overall nutritional status on MR images may cause confusion and misdiagnosis. PMID:25129340
Banks, C G
Clinicians working with contemporary women with anorexia nervosa have commented on the ascetic component in anorexia, meaning their self-denial, heightened morality, opposition between body and spirit, asexuality, and denial of bodily death (Mogul, 1980; Palazzoli, 1978; Rampling, 1985; Sabom, 1985; Turner, 1984). While these clinicians have commented on the asceticism in contemporary anorexia nervosa, they have little to say about the role of culture in subjective experiences of this asceticism. As we have seen, Jane and Margaret used notions of asceticism about food and the body that are a part of their religious beliefs to create a personal meaning system through which they expressed their self-starvation. These cases, while supporting clinical studies that point to an ascetic component in modern anorexia, go further to suggest that in some cases, this asceticism may be encoded in religion. Religious anorectics like Jane and Margaret challenge models of anorexia nervosa that understand the condition exclusively in terms of cultural foci on "dieting" and secular ideals of beauty and bodily thinness for women (Bemporad, Hoffman, & Herzog, 1989; Chernin, 1985; Garner et al., 1980; Orbach, 1986; Rost, Newhaus, & Florian, 1982). They also suggest a continuing persistence into the twentieth century of an association between religiosity and self-starvation noted by historians during the early Christian, medieval, and late-Victorian periods in the West (Bell, 1985; Brown, 1988; Brumberg, 1985, 1988; Bynum, 1987). The above discussion points to the new directions in psychological anthropology which challenge a strict and opposing dichotomy between the conscious and unconscious, between culture (seen as "public") and the individual mind (seen as "private" and idiosyncratic). Obeyesekere's concept of "the work of culture," (Obeyesekere, 1990) and Stephen's concept of the "autonomous imagination" are especially useful in understanding how persons like Jane and Margaret use
Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E
Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of restricted eating coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'.
Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna
The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient
Ozawa, Yuichiro; Ichimura, Hideo; Sakai, Mitsuaki
Introduction Several adverse effects on the pulmonary system in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been reported. We present a case of AN who presented with a complicated reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE) after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for spontaneous pneumothorax. Presentation of case A 23-year-old woman with severe anorexia nervosa (weight: 25 kg, body mass index: 8.96 kg/m2) underwent VATS for spontaneous pneumothorax. Five hours after the surgery, she immediately presented acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency. Chest radiography showed an infiltrating shadow in the entire right lung. She was diagnosed with reexpansion pulmonary edema that was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and mechanical ventilation. She recovered and was extubated on postoperative day 4. The chest drain tube was removed on postoperative day 5. Discussion Bullectomy or ligation of bullae for spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with AN has never been reported. In our case, bullae were identified in preoperative CT and we chose ligation of the bullae instead of the bullectomy using automatic suture device because of poor wound healing concerned. Conclusion We present a case of RPE after VATS for spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with AN. Malnutrition owing to AN results in critical complications such as RPE. PMID:27158490
Knoll, Susanne; Föcker, Manuel; Hebebrand, Johannes
The conceptualization of anorexia nervosa (AN) depends on the diagnostic criteria. Most patients with teenage onset AN seem to remit within 3-10 years depending on the definitions of recovery. The mortality of adolescent onset anorexia nervosa (AN) has fortunately decreased over the last two decades. Based on randomized controlled trials, we review different treatments including individual and group psychotherapy, family therapy, psychopharmacology, and hormone therapy. Treatment settings vary over time for any individual patient. Despite high rates of inpatient treatment, the respective evidence for effectiveness is meager. In underage patients with severe AN clinical, ethical and legal aspects need to be dealt with systematically if intermittent compulsory treatment is deemed necessary. The prolonged and frequently chronic course of AN often entails therapeutic discontinuity; the transition into adulthood requires a graded therapeutic concept that considers the severity of the disorder, developmental and chronological age, and parental involvement. Finally, we consider future clinical and research options to improve treatment and outcome of this eating disorder.
Hildebrandt, Tom; Grotzinger, Andrew; Reddan, Marianne; Greif, Rebecca; Levy, Ifat; Goodman, Wayne; Schiller, Daniela
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by chronic food avoidance that is resistant to change. Disgust conditioning offers one potential unexplored mechanism for explaining this behavioral disturbance because of its specific role in facilitating food avoidance in adaptive situations. A food based reversal learning paradigm was used to study response flexibility in 14 adolescent females with restricting subtype anorexia nervosa (AN-R) and 15 healthy control (HC) participants. Expectancy ratings were coded as a behavioral measure of flexibility and electromyography recordings from the levator labii (disgust), zygomaticus major (pleasure), and corrugator (general negative affect) provided psychophysiological measures of emotion. Response inflexibility was higher for participants with AN-R, as evidenced by lower extinction and updated expectancy ratings during reversal. EMG responses to food stimuli were predictive of both extinction and new learning. Among AN-R patients, disgust specific responses to food were associated with impaired extinction, as were elevated pleasure responses to the cued absence of food. Disgust conditioning appears to influence food learning in acutely ill patients with AN-R and may be maintained by counter-regulatory acquisition of a pleasure response to food avoidance and an aversive response to food presence. Developing strategies to target disgust may improve existing interventions for patients with AN.
Horndasch, Stefanie; O’Keefe, Sophie; Lamond, Anneka; Brown, Katie
Background We have previously shown increased anticipatory and consummatory neural responses to rewarding and aversive food stimuli in women recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). Aims To determine whether these differences are trait markers for AN, we examined the neural response in those with a familial history but no personal history of AN. Method Thirty-six volunteers were recruited: 15 who had a sister with anorexia nervosa (family history) and 21 control participants. Using fMRI we examined the neural response during an anticipatory phase (food cues, rewarding and aversive), an effort phase and a consummatory phase (rewarding and aversive tastes). Results Family history (FH) volunteers showed increased activity in the caudate during the anticipation of both reward and aversive food and in the thalamus and amygdala during anticipation of aversive only. FH had decreased activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the pallidum and the superior frontal gyrus during taste consumption. Conclusions Increased neural anticipatory but decreased consummatory responses to food might be a biomarker for AN. Interventions that could normalise these differences may help to prevent disorder onset. Declaration of interest C.M. has acted as a consultant to P1VITAL, Givaudan, GWPharma, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and Channel 4. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703784
Lee, Sing; Ng, King Lam; Kwok, Kathleen P S; Thomas, Jennifer J; Becker, Anne E
Although gastrointestinal and other somatic symptoms are common in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), and a growing cross-national literature indicates that not all anorexic patients exhibit the core diagnostic symptom of fat phobia, the relationship between somatic symptoms and anorexic illness remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate gastrointestinal dysfunction (GD) in Chinese patients with fat phobic (FP) and nonfat phobic (NFP) anorexia nervosa. A total of 113 FP- and 28 NFP-AN outpatients underwent standardized clinical assessment and completed a new 8-item GD scale and other psychopathological measures. A majority (79.4%) of AN patients reported at least some gastrointestinal complaints on the GD scale (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78). FP-AN patients scored significantly higher than NFP-AN patients. The FP-AN with high GD group reported a higher level of specific and general psychopathology than the FP- and NFP-AN with low GD groups. Contrary to expectations, gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in FP-AN than NFP-AN patients. FP-AN with high GD was more severe than FP- and NFP-AN with low GD. The current fat phobic conceptualization of the anorexic illness may overlook its phenomenologic heterogeneity and reify a dichotomy that is inconsistent with patients' varied experience of food restriction.
Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate
Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…
Loeb, Katharine L.; Walsh, B. Timothy; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel; Jones, Jennifer; Marcus, Sue; Weaver, James; Dobrow, Ilyse
Objective: There is a paucity of evidence-based interventions for anorexia nervosa (AN). An innovative family-based treatment (FBT), developed at the Maudsley Hospital and recently put in manual form, has shown great promise for adolescents with AN. Unlike traditional treatment approaches, which promote sustained autonomy around food, FBT…
Robbins, Joy M.; Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth
Current trends for treatment of women with anorexia nervosa often focus on weight gain as the primary therapeutic goal without concurrently addressing psychological concerns. As a result of this singular focus, many women drop out of treatment before recovering. This article offers an alternate treatment model. A synthesized narrative and poetry…
Mostowy, Joanna; Montén, Caroline; Gudjonsdottir, Audur H.; Arnell, Henrik; Browaldh, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Agardh, Daniel
Background and Objectives Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic regions involved in immune-regulatory mechanisms to be associated with celiac disease. Previous GWAS also revealed an over-representation of genes involved in type 2 diabetes and anorexia nervosa associated with celiac disease, suggesting involvement of common metabolic pathways for development of these chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to extend these previous analyses to study the gene expression in the gut from children with active celiac disease. Material and Methods Thirty six target genes involved in type 2 diabetes and four genes associated with anorexia nervosa were investigated for gene expression in small intestinal biopsies from 144 children with celiac disease at median (range) age of 7.4 years (1.6–17.8) and from 154 disease controls at a median (range) age 11.4.years (1.4–18.3). Results A total of eleven of genes were differently expressed in celiac patients compared with disease controls of which CD36, CD38, FOXP1, SELL, PPARA, PPARG, AGT previously associated with type 2 diabetes and AKAP6, NTNG1 with anorexia nervosa remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Conclusion Shared genetic factors involved in celiac disease, type 2 diabetes and anorexia nervosa suggest common underlying molecular pathways for these diseases. PMID:27483138
Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; Dahlén, Jeanette
Qualitative values that address personal and interpersonal dimensions are often overlooked in research that examines mental well-being among young patients with anorexia nervosa. The aim of this review was to identify and describe factors that promote and impede the relationships between nurses and the children, adolescents and young adults who are diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and also to explore and describe how those relationships benefit the patients' processes toward increased health and well-being. A descriptive literature synthesis was conducted following the four steps as described by Evans. The three databases CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed were used to search for qualitative articles. Fourteen articles met the criteria for inclusion and were analysed. Key findings were identified, and categories and themes were formulated and compared across the studies. Four themes are presented in the results: (1) The essentials in a relationship; (2) The person at the centre; (3) The nurses' attitudes; and (4) Knowledge. In addition to the contribution to the knowledge of how anorexia is manifested, our findings demonstrate the necessity for nurses to be person-centred in their relationships with patients and to have attitudes characterised by presence, genuine commitment and motivation. Nurses are more likely to convey a sense of trust and safety when they communicate with openness and honesty. Our review suggests that the motivation for patients to adhere to treatment is likely to increase when nurses approach patients with these characteristics and attitudes. We argue that the findings are relevant for nurses in their everyday practices.
Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B
The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes.
Bode, Katharina; Götz von Olenhusen, Nina Maria; Wunsch, Eva-Maria; Kliem, Sören; Kröger, Christoph
Previous research has shown that anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are expensive illnesses to treat. To reduce their economic burden, adequate interventions need to be established. Our objective was to conduct cost-offset analyses for evidence-based treatment of eating disorders using outcome data from a psychotherapy trial involving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT) for AN and a trial involving CBT for BN. Assuming a currently running, ideal healthcare system using a 12-month, prevalence-based approach and varying the willingness to participate in treatment, we investigated whether the potential financial benefits of AN- and BN-related treatment outweigh the therapy costs at the population level. We elaborated on a formula that allows calculating cost-benefit relationships whereby the calculation of the parameters is based on estimates from data of health institutions within the German healthcare system. Additional intangible benefits were calculated with the aid of Quality-Adjusted Life Years. The annual costs of an untreated eating disorder were 2.38 billion EUR for AN and 617.69 million EUR for BN. Independent of the willingness to participate in treatment, the cost-benefit relationships for the treatment remained constant at 2.51 (CBT) and 2.33 (FPT) for AN and 4.05 (CBT) for BN. This consistency implies that for each EUR invested in the treatment, between 2.33 and 4.05 EUR could be saved each year. Our findings suggest that the implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments for AN and BN may achieve substantial cost savings at the population level.
Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo
Eating disorders have been defined as "characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning". The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years.
Dell’Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo
Eating disorders have been defined as “characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning”. The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. PMID:27462158
Strandjord, Sarah E; Ng, Henry; Rome, Ellen S
Patients with gender dysphoria and patients with eating disorders often experience discontent with their bodies. Several reports have recognized the co-occurrence of these two conditions, typically in adults who identify as transgender females and desire a more feminine physique. This case report, in contrast, describes a 16-year-old patient with a female sex assigned at birth who first presented with features consistent with anorexia nervosa and later revealed underlying gender dysphoria with a drive for a less feminine body shape. We discuss both the path to recognizing gender dysphoria in this patient as well as the impact of treatment on his eating disorder and overall well-being. This case is one of only a few reports describing a female-to-male transgender patient with an eating disorder and is the first to explore the effects of hormone and surgical intervention in an adolescent patient.
Gendall, Kelly A; Joyce, Peter R; Carter, Frances A; McIntosh, Virginia V; Jordan, Jennifer; Bulik, Cynthia M
Amenorrhea is a diagnostic criterion for anorexia nervosa (AN), although menstrual cycles have been found to persist in some women with all the other features of AN. This study sought to determine factors that are associated with amenorrhea in 39 women with current primary spectrum AN. The use of exercise to control weight (odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-9.9; P = .02), low novelty seeking scores (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.58-0.94; P = .02), and low systolic blood pressure (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.84-0.99; P = .046) were predictors of amenorrhea independent of body mass index.
Rienecke, Renee D.; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel
The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083
Takeshita, Jun; Arai, Yasumichi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideko; Shirahase, Jyoichiro
We report the case of a 17-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa (AN) who developed an abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile and acanthocytosis. These abnormalities resolved slowly as her nutritional status improved. We considered 3 possible causes of an abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile in AN: (1) depletion of hepatic substrate for apolipoprotein B synthesis, (2) lack of exogenous fatty acids with exhaustion of endogenous stores of triglycerides in adipose tissue, and (3) preservation of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass. This unusual case provides important clues that enhance our understanding of lipid metabolism under exogenous and endogenous fat deprivation and highlights the pivotal role of LPL as a gatekeeper of the energy source.
Malmendier-Muehlschlegel, Anja; Rosewall, Juliet K; Smith, Jared G; Hugo, Pippa; Lask, Bryan
This study explored the relationship between quality of friendships, motivation to change and peer support among young people receiving inpatient treatment for Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Thirty participants were recruited from three inpatient wards. Questionnaires assessed motivational stage, friendship functions and characteristics of friendships specific to AN. Three friendship functions - Help, Intimacy and Self-Validation - were significantly and positively correlated with greater motivational stage. Describing friends on the ward as supportive of adherence to the treatment program was positively associated with greater motivational stage and higher quality friendships. The association between motivation, friendship quality and peer support in treatment identifies close and supportive friendships among young people with AN as a potential target to improve outcomes.
Postorino, Valentina; Scahill, Lawrence; De Peppo, Lavinia; Fatta, Laura Maria; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Gillespie, Scott; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi
This study aimed to examine the presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a sample of female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) during the acute phase of illness. We also compare the level of autistic traits, social perception skills and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in four groups: AN, ASD, and two gender- and age-matched control groups. Of the 30 AN participants, only three scored above the conventional ADOS-2 threshold for ASD. The AN participants were similar to their controls on autistic trait measures, and to the ASD group on obsessive-compulsive measures, and on theory of mind ability and affect recognition measures. Further longitudinal studies are needed in order to determine the association between these conditions.
Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Labuschagne, Zandre; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel
Objective To examine the cultural variability in Expressed Emotion (EE) among families of white and ethnic minority adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Method One-hundred and eighty-nine AN patients and their parents completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the Structured Clinical Family Interview, from which EE ratings were made. Results No differences were found in the number of white and minority families classified as high EE. White families were higher on warmth (W) and tended to be higher on positive remarks (PR) than minority families. High EE was associated with a longer duration of illness, but was not related to eating disorder pathology. Discussion Few differences were found between white and ethnic minority families on the EE dimensions of CC, hostility (H), or EOI. Differences between families on W and PR, however, may have important treatment implications. PMID:22170027
Carr, Jacquelyn; Kleiman, Susan C.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C.; Carroll, Ian M.
Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by severe dietary restriction or other weight loss behaviors and exhibits the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Therapeutic renourishment in AN is founded primarily on clinical opinion and guidelines, with a weak evidence base. Genetic factors do not fully account for the etiology of AN, and non-genetic factors that contribute to the onset and persistence of this disease warrant investigation. Compelling evidence that the intestinal microbiota regulates adiposity and metabolism, and more recently, anxiety behavior, provides a strong rationale for exploring the role of this complex microbial community in the onset, maintenance of, and recovery from AN. This review explores the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and AN and a potential role for this enteric microbial community as a therapy for this severe illness. PMID:27003627
Bou Khalil, Rami; Souaiby, Lama; Farès, Nassim
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder, mainly affecting women, with a lifetime prevalence of about 1%, that can run a chronic course. While an effective pharmacotherapy is lacking, it is hypothesized that the progesterone and type II glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU486) might be useful, as it is well known that the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is activated in AN. Even if secondary to the eating disorder, an active HPA axis may contribute to maintaining the neuroendocrine, emotional and behavioral effects observed in AN. More specifically, it is suggested that the HPA axis interacts with limbic structures, including the insular and prefrontal cortices, to uphold the changes in interoceptive and emotional awareness seen in AN. As such, it is proposed that mifepristone (RU486) reverses these effects by acting on these limbic regions. In conclusion, the theoretical efficacy of mifepristone (RU486) in improving symptoms of AN should be tested in randomized clinical trials.
El Ghoch, Marwan; Bazzani, Paola; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
This case report describes a 28-year-old non-athlete female patient with anorexia nervosa who was diagnosed with an ischiopubic ramus stress fracture and treated successfully as an inpatient with a cognitive behaviour-based therapy. The patient's clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described, and a brief review of the relevant literature is included. The importance of this case report stems from the rarity of descriptions of this kind of injury in such patients, despite their inherent risk, and the originality of the treatment applied. This, in addition to the usual approach to medical management, exploited specific cognitive and behavioural procedures and strategies to address the patient's excessive compulsive exercising, promoting rest and movement avoidance in order to allow the fracture to heal, while simultaneously addressing the underlying psychopathology. PMID:25301426
Farquharson, R. F.; Hyland, H. H.
A follow-up study, after 20 to 30 years, of 15 patients with anorexia nervosa, formerly treated by the authors, revealed that only one patient failed to recover from the initial illness, and she ultimately became permanently incapacitated. Three patients have had neurotic symptoms periodically during the years following recovery, and one other became very thin in later life, but these four have been able to carry on fairly adequately for the most part. The remaining 10 patients have lived useful, well-adjusted lives, free of symptoms over the years. This study shows that despite the apparently severe emotional disturbances reflected in the marked physical changes that take place in young people suffering from this syndrome, a deep-rooted psychoneurotic or psychotic predisposition does not necessarily exist; the majority of the patients in this series recovered and remained well after relatively simple treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5902703
Gowers, S; Norton, K; Halek, C; Crisp, A H
Ninety subjects with DSM-III-R anorexia nervosa were randomly allocated to four treatment options, one inpatient, two outpatient, and one comprising an assessment interview only. Twenty were thus offered a package of outpatient individual and family psychotherapy. At 2-year follow-up, 12 of the 20 were classed as well, or very nearly well, according to operationally defined criteria. Statistically significant improvements over time were obtained for weight, mean body mass index (BMI), and also for psychological, sexual, and socioeconomic adjustments. Weight and BMI changes were significantly better than for the assessment only group, some of whom had received extensive treatment elsewhere. The style of the outpatient therapy and compliance with it are described in some detail and prognostic indicators for the treated and untreated groups presented. Lower weights at presentation and vomiting were associated with poorer outcome, although age and length of history were not.
Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.
This case series describes the development of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention for older adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Emotion acceptance behavior therapy (EABT) is based on a model that emphasizes the role of anorexic symptoms in facilitating avoidance of emotions. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with psychotherapeutic techniques designed to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and encourage resumption of valued activities and relationships outside the eating disorder. Five AN patients ages 17-43 years were offered a 24-session manualized version of EABT. Four patients completed at least 90% of the therapy sessions, and three showed modest weight gains without return to intensive treatment. Improvements in depressive and anxiety symptoms, emotion avoidance, and quality of life also were observed. These results offer preliminary support for the potential utility of EABT in the treatment of older adolescents and adults with AN. PMID:20721894
Knatz, Stephanie; Wierenga, Christina E; Murray, Stuart B; Hill, Laura; Kaye, Walter H
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe and debilitating disorder with significant medical and psychological sequelae. To date, there are no effective treatments for adults, resulting in high rates of chronicity, morbidity, and mortality. Recent advances in brain imaging research have led to an improved understanding of etiology and specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying symptoms. Despite this, there are no treatments focused on targeting symptoms using this empirically supported mechanistic understanding of the illness. Updated treatment approaches focused on targeting neurobiological mechanisms underlying core AN symptomatology are necessary to improve treatment out-comes for this population. Neurobiologically Enhanced With Family Eating Disorder Trait Response Treatment (NEW FED TR) is a neurobiologically informed treatment targeting key temperament constructs associated with the illness through the delivery of psychoeducation and skills training to patients and nominated carers.
Wildes, Jennifer E; Marcus, Marsha D
This case series describes the development of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention for older adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Emotion acceptance behavior therapy (EABT) is based on a model that emphasizes the role of anorexic symptoms in facilitating avoidance of emotions. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with psychotherapeutic techniques designed to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and encourage resumption of valued activities and relationships outside the eating disorder. Five patients with AN aged 17-43 years were offered a 24-session manualized version of EABT. Four patients completed at least 90% of the therapy sessions, and three showed modest weight gains without return to intensive treatment. Improvements in depressive and anxiety symptoms, emotion avoidance, and quality of life also were observed. These results offer preliminary support for the potential utility of EABT in the treatment of older adolescents and adults with AN.
Baker, Jessica H; Sisk, Cheryl L; Thornton, Laura M; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S; Mitchell, James E; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M; Klump, Kelly L
Animal studies indicate that gonadal hormones at puberty have an effect on the development of masculine and feminine traits. However, it is unknown whether similar processes occur in humans. We examined whether women with anorexia nervosa (AN), who often experience primary amenorrhea, exhibit attenuated feminization in their psychological characteristics in adulthood due to the decrease/absence of gonadal hormones at puberty. Women with AN were compared on a number of psychological characteristics using general linear models on the basis of the presence/absence of primary amenorrhea. Although women with primary amenorrhea exhibited lower anxiety scores than those without primary amenorrhea, in general, results did not provide evidence of attenuated feminization in women with AN with primary amenorrhea. Future research should utilize novel techniques and direct hormone measurement to explore the effects of pubertal gonadal hormones on masculine and feminine traits.
Bentz, Mette; Guldberg, Johanne; Vangkilde, Signe; Pedersen, Tine; Plessen, Kerstin Jessica; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard
Introduction Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. Objective Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults with first-episode AN and young females recovered from AN. Methods We used the Sniffin’ Sticks Odor Threshold Test and Odor Identification Test to assess 43 participants with first-episode AN, 27 recovered participants, and 39 control participants. Participants completed the Importance of Olfaction questionnaire, the Beck Youth Inventory and the Eating Disorder Inventory. We also conducted a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule with participants. Results Both clinical groups showed heightened olfactory sensitivity. After excluding participants with depression, participants with first-episode AN identified more odors than recovered participants. Conclusion Heightened olfactory sensitivity in AN may be independent of clinical status, whereas only individuals with current AN and without depression show more accurate odor identification. PMID:28060877
Mechelhoff, David; van Noort, Betteke Maria; Weschke, Bernhard; Bachmann, Christian J; Wagner, Christiane; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Winter, Sibylle
Since 2007, more than 600 patients have been diagnosed with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, with almost 40 % of those affected being children or adolescents. In early phases of the illness, this life-threatening disease is characterized by psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, obsessions, hallucinations or delusions. Consequently, a high percentage of patients receive psychiatric diagnoses at first, hindering the crucial early diagnosis and treatment of the anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. We report on a 15-year-old girl initially presenting with pathological eating behaviour and significant weight loss resulting in an (atypical) anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnosis. Her early course of illness, diagnostic process, treatment and short-term outcome are described. This case report aims to raise awareness about the association between anorectic behaviour and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary teams in child and adolescent services.
Montecchi, P P; Custureri, V; Polimeni, A; Cordaro, M; Costa, L; Marinucci, S; Montecchi, F
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder (ED) identified using DSM-IV criteria. Eating disorders are occurring increasingly earlier in childhood and can lead to a series of oral manifestations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between stomatognathic lesions and eating disorders in 80 young patients (76 females and 4 males aged 9-18 years) with restricting or binge-eating/purging AN. The results confirm the close correlation between ED and oral lesions, the most common of which were dental erosion, dentinal hypersensitivity, the extrusion of amalgam restorations and xerostomia. The authors conclude by emphasising the importance of involving dentists in the diagnosis and treatment of ED.
Darcy, Alison M.; Katz, Shaina; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Forsberg, Sarah; Utzinger, Linsey; Lock, James
The purpose of this study was to explore how individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in treatment and define recovery. A mixed methods design was used to triangulate the experience of 20 women with a history of AN. Interview data were analysed thematically to explore frequency of emergent themes and current eating disorder psychopathology was assessed using standardized self-report measures. Participants’ mean age was 29.35 (SD = 12.11). Participants’ scores were indicative of persistent psychopathology. Those with more involvement in treatment choice had better motivation to change and normalized eating. Participants’ definition of recovery mapped on well to current research conceptualizations, though a substantial proportion of the group expressed some ambivalence around the concept. Results are interpreted in the context of self-determination theory of motivation and suggest that patients should be involved collaboratively in the formulation of shared goals and concepts of recovery in treatment settings. PMID:20589765
Brandt, Harry; Woodside, Blake; Agras, Stewart; Halmi, Katherine; Johnson, Craig; Kaye, Walter; Wilfley, Denise
Objective To describe obstacles in the implementation of a controlled treatment trial of adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). Method The original aim was to enter 240 participants with AN to one of 4 cells: Behavioral family therapy (BFT) plus fluoxetine; BFT plus placebo; systems family therapy (SFT) plus fluoxetine; SFT plus placebo. Results Recruitment was delayed pending a satisfactory resolution concerning participant safety. After 6 months of recruitment it became clear that the medication was associated with poor recruitment leading to a study redesign resulting in a comparison of two types of family therapy with a projected sample size of 160. One site was unable to recruit and was replaced. Discussion Problems with the delineation of safety procedures, recruitment, re-design of the study, and replacement of a site, were the main elements resulting in a 1-year delay. Suggestions are made for overcoming such problems in future AN trials. PMID:21495052
Jappe, Leah M.; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.
Objective Fluctuations in ovarian hormones during the menstrual cycle and psychosocial stress contribute to eating disorder (ED) behavior. Methods Using ecological momentary assessment techniques, this study examined relationships between stress and binge eating, self-induced vomiting, and dietary restriction based on menstrual cycle status in anorexia nervosa (AN). 109 females with full and subthreshold AN (17–45 years old) recorded ED behavior and stress ratings over two weeks. Using hierarchical linear modeling, individuals with eumenorrhea and those with amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea were compared. Results Following episodes of meal skipping, momentary stress decreased in individuals with normal menstrual cycles and increased in those with irregular menstrual cycles. Discussion Results suggest that changes in stress severity in response to food restriction may differ based on ovarian hormonal status and may be a mechanism by which AN is maintained in individuals without menstrual disturbance. PMID:24222529
Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Zohar, Ada H; Ebstein, Richard P
Definitions of "full recovery" from anorexia nervosa (AN) vary, and rarely include the cognitive criteria of lack of body image distortion and fear of weight gain. We investigated the implications of including or excluding cognitive criteria of AN in the definition of "full recovery". Current symptomatology and personality characteristics associated with AN were assessed and compared in 42 behaviorally but not cognitively recovered women, 32 both behaviorally and cognitively recovered women, and 253 controls. On all measures included, the scores of the behaviorally recovered women were significantly more anorexic-like than those of the women recovered cognitively as well, who were indistinguishable from controls. Criteria for recovery from AN need to be refined and standardized, and cognitive criteria incorporated, to characterize a minority who recover to the extent that their eating attitudes and personality profiles are indistinguishable from those of women with no history of an eating disorder.
Baker, Jessica H.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Thornton, Laura M.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S.; Mitchell, James E.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Klump, Kelly L.
Animal studies indicate gonadal hormones at puberty have an effect on the development of masculine and feminine traits. However, it is unknown whether similar processes occur in humans. We examined whether women with anorexia nervosa (AN), who often experience primary amenorrhea, exhibit attenuated feminization in their psychological characteristics in adulthood due to the decrease/absence of gonadal hormones at puberty. Women with AN were compared on a number of psychological characteristics using General Linear Models based on the presence/absence of primary amenorrhea. Although women with primary amenorrhea exhibited lower anxiety scores than those without primary amenorrhea, in general, results did not provide evidence of attenuated feminization in women with AN with primary amenorrhea. Future research should utilize novel techniques and direct hormone measurement to explore the effects of pubertal gonadal hormones on masculine and feminine traits. PMID:24123541
Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Plotnicov, Katherine; Thornton, Laura; Devlin, Bernie; Fichter, Manfred M.; Treasure, Janet; Kaplan, Allan; Woodside, D. Blake; Johnson, Craig L.; Halmi, Katherine; Brandt, Harry A.; Crawford, Steve; Mitchell, James E.; Strober, Michael; Berrettini, Wade; Jones, Ian
Objective Supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), this 12-site international collaboration seeks to identify genetic variants that affect risk for anorexia nervosa (AN). Method Four hundred families will be ascertained with two or more individuals affected with AN. The assessment battery produces a rich set of phenotypes comprising eating disorder diagnoses and psychological and personality features known to be associated with vulnerability to eating disorders. Results We report attributes of the first 200 families, comprising 200 probands and 232 affected relatives. Conclusion These results provide context for the genotyping of the first 200 families by the Center for Inherited Disease Research. We will analyze our first 200 families for linkage, complete recruitment of roughly 400 families, and then perform final linkage analyses on the complete cohort. DNA, genotypes, and phenotypes will form a national eating disorder repository maintained by NIMH and available to qualified investigators. PMID:18236451
Alhanna, Joseph; Purucker, Michael; Steppert, Claus; Grigull-Daborn, Andrea; Schiffel, Gabriele; Gruber, Heribert; Borgmann, Stefan
Here we present a 27-year-old male patient--with a known prolonged history of anorexia nervosa (AN)--suffering from tuberculosis like infection. At the time he was admitted to clinical treatment, he had developed fever up to 40°C and survived on a body mass index of 11.8. In this case, Mycobacterium chimaera, generally recognized for low pathogenicity, was identified as the causative agent. Remission from lung infection was achieved after antibiotic treatment according to laboratory susceptibility testing while earlier antituberculosis therapies had failed. Because of a large cavity in the upper left lung, surgical excision was necessary to prevent recurrence of lung infection. Moreover, stabilization of the patient general health problem needs to be supported by a lasting psychotherapy.
Van Leer, M; Leistedt, S J; Linkowski, P; Simon, Y
Monitoring parameters for anorexia nervosa include clinical, biological and psychological factors. Many research groups are currently trying to identify parameters more likely to predict the severity or the evolution of the illness. Body composition has been proposed as one of those parameters. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that measures of body composition are more accurate and efficient than the use of body composition index (BMI). We also aim to show that body composition could be used as a prognostic factor in the long-term evolution of patients with anorexia nervosa. It's a retrospective study investigating body composition and BMI in 44 patients treated in a specialized unit for eating disorder. Measures of body composition and BMI were gathered at the time of admission and again 3 months after refeeding onset. Data was correlated to the EDI-2 questionnaire scores. BMI and %FM where found to be increased (P < 0.05) between admission and after 3 months refeeding. The double objective of reaching a BMI value > or = 20 kg/m2 and a %FM value > or = 2% was achieved by 22% of patients. No significant correlation was found between EDI-2 scores and measures of BMI and %FM either on admission or after the 3 months refeeding period. In conclusion, results of our study don't allow concluding for a prognostic superiority of %FM. Nonetheless, BMI currently used as a reference for the monitoring of eating disorders patients seems to lack sensitivity where measures of body composition seem more informative regarding nutritional status. Furthermore, fat mass plays an important role in other clinical manifestations. In addition, measures of body composition should allow more individualised therapeutic support.
Herzog, Musya; Douglas, Christopher R; Kissileff, Harry R; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Halmi, Katherine Ann
A study in which adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) rated their expected food-anxiety in response to images of portions of food (potatoes, rice pizza, and M&Ms) showed that lower energy-dense foods elicited higher expected anxiety per kilocalorie than higher energy-dense foods. However, the area of the portion sizes could be an unmeasured variable driving the anxiety response. To test the hypothesis that area mediates the effects of energy content on expected anxiety, the same images of portions were measured in area (cm(2)), and standardized values of expected anxiety were regressed from standardized values of energy and area of portions. With regression of expected anxiety from portion size in area, M&Ms, which had the highest energy density of the four foods, elicited the highest expected anxiety slope (β = 1.75), which was significantly different from the expected anxiety slopes of the other three foods (β range = 0.67 - 0.96). Area was confirmed as a mediator of energy effects from loss of significance of the slopes when area was added to the regression of expected anxiety from energy x food. When expected anxiety was regressed from food, area, energy and area by energy interaction, area accounted for 5.7 times more variance than energy, and β for area (0.7) was significantly larger (by 0.52, SE = 0.15, t = 3.4, p = 0.0007) than β for energy (0.19). Area could be a learned cue for the energy content of food portions, and thus, for weight gain potential, which triggers anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa.
Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Accurso, Erin C.; Ciao, Anna C.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.
Objective This study examined negative and positive affect in relation to restrictive eating episodes (i.e., meals/snacks perceived as restrictive) and whether restrictive eating was associated with likelihood of subsequent eating disorder behaviors (i.e., additional restrictive eating, binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, weighing, exercising, meal skipping, drinking fluids to curb appetite, body checking). Method Women with anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Results For both restrictive and non-restrictive eating, negative affect significantly increased from pre-behavior to the time of the behavior but remained stable thereafter, while positive affect remained stable from pre-behavior to the time of the behavior but decreased significantly thereafter. Across time, negative affect was significantly lower and positive affect was significantly greater in restrictive than non-restrictive episodes. Engagement in restrictive eating was associated with an increased likelihood of subsequent restrictive eating, laxative use, and body checking, but not other behaviors. Engagement in non-restrictive eating was associated with a decreased likelihood of subsequent restrictive eating, binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, weighing, meal skipping, drinking fluids to curb appetite, and body checking. Discussion Despite similar patterns of affect across eating episodes over time, results suggest affect may be involved in the maintenance of restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa since restrictive episodes were associated with lower negative and greater positive affect across time compared to non-restrictive episodes. Further, while restrictive episodes increased the likelihood of only three subsequent eating disorder behaviors, non-restrictive episodes were protective since they decreased likelihood of all but one behavior. PMID:26310991
Vansteelandt, Kristof; Probst, Michel; Pieters, Guido
Differences in affective variability in eating disorders are examined using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. It is hypothesized that restriction serves to pre-empt the activation of affect whereas bulimic behavior serves to cope with overwhelming affect once activated. Therefore, we expect anorexia nervosa (AN) patients of the restricting type (AN-RT) to have lower mean levels of affect and less affective variability than Bulimia Nervosa (BN) patients. Patients' successive affective states over time are represented as different positions in a two-dimensional space defined by the orthogonal dimensions of valence and activation. Affective variability is measured by the within person variance and the new concepts of pulse and spin. Results of this exploratory study suggest that the diagnostic groups have the same mean levels of affect but affect spins less in patients with AN-RT. Using an EMA protocol and measures like pulse and spin may reveal insights in eating disorders that remain hidden with more traditional assessment methods.
Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Klenner, Katharina; Braks, Karsten; Svaldi, Jennifer
Objective Cognitive theories suggest that body dissatisfaction results from the activation of maladaptive appearance schemata, which guide mental processes such as selective attention to shape and weight-related information. In line with this, the present study hypothesized that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by increased visual attention for the most dissatisfying/ugly body part compared to their most satisfying/beautiful body part, while a more balanced viewing pattern was expected for controls without eating disorders (CG). Method Eye movements were recorded in a group of patients with AN (n = 16), BN (n = 16) and a CG (n = 16) in an ecologically valid setting, i.e., during a 3-min mirror exposure. Results Evidence was found that patients with AN and BN display longer and more frequent gazes towards the most dissatisfying relative to the most satisfying and towards their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body parts, whereas the CG showed a more balanced gaze pattern. Discussion The results converge with theoretical models that emphasize the role of information processing in the maintenance of body dissatisfaction. Given the etiological importance of body dissatisfaction in the development of eating disorders, future studies should focus on the modification of the reported patterns. PMID:26714279
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Accurso, Erin C.; Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A.
Objective The current study examined behavioral, emotional, and situational factors involved in purging among women with anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods Women with AN (n=118) completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol involving daily reports of eating disorder behaviors, mood, and stressful events. Generalized estimating equations examined the likelihood and context of purging following eating episodes involving both overeating and loss of control (binge eating; BE); loss of control only (LOC); overeating only (OE); and neither loss of control nor overeating (non-pathological eating; NE). Results Relative to NE, purging was more likely to occur following BE, LOC, and OE (Wald chi-square=18.05; p<.001). BE was more strongly associated with subsequent purging than LOC but not OE; the latter two did not differ from one another. Negative affect predicted purging following NE (Wald chi-square=7.71; p=.005). Conclusion Binge eating involving large amounts of food was the strongest predictor of purging in AN, which challenges the notion that loss of control is the most salient aspect of experiencing distress in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Parallel to findings from the binge eating literature, negative affect strongly predicted purging following non-pathological eating. Further research should clarify the function and triggers of purging in AN. PMID:25643935
Guarda, Angela S; Schreyer, Colleen C; Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H
The high comorbidity between anorexia nervosa (AN) and anxiety disorders is well recognized. AN is a motivated behavioral disorder in which habit formation is likely to contribute to the persistence of abnormal eating and exercise behaviors. Secondary alterations in brain circuitry underlying the reward value of food and exercise, along with disturbances in neuroendocrine hunger and satiety signaling arising from starvation and excessive exercise, are likely contributors to the maintenance of anorectic behaviors in genetically vulnerable individuals. The potential role of fear conditioning in facilitating onset of AN, or of impaired fear extinction in contributing to the high relapse rates observed following weight restoration, is of interest. Evidence from animal models of anxiety and human laboratory studies indicate that low estrogen impairs fear extinction. Low estradiol levels in AN may therefore play a role in perpetuating fear of food and fat in recently weight restored patients. Translational models including the activity based anorexia (ABA) rodent model of AN, and neuroimaging studies of fear extinction and conditioning, could help clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitry involved in food avoidance behaviors in AN. Moreover, the adaptation of novel treatment interventions with efficacy in anxiety disorders may contribute to the development of new treatments for this impairing disorder.
Heled, Eyal; Hoofien, Dan; Bachar, Eytan; Ebstein, Richard P
Fluency tests allow domain-specific assessment of verbal and non-verbal executive functions (EF) comparison and also enable utilizing of both quantitative and qualitative scoring methods. Thirty-five currently ill anorexia nervosa patients (PANs), 33 weight-restored patients (WRAN) and 47 healthy controls (HCs) were administered the word fluency test and the five-point test. Results show that WRANs tended to perseverate more than HCs in the verbal-fluency test. In addition, PANs produced significantly less correct figures and perseverated more than HCs and WRANs; HCs used more strategy methods than PANs and WRANs. Additionally, a positive correlation was found in the HC group between the total number of words in the verbal phonemic test and the number of designs produced and the number of correct designs. No such correlations were found in both anorexia groups. In conclusion, there is a differentiation between verbal and non-verbal EF in PANs and WRANs, showing a deficiency in the non-verbal domain. These findings may contribute to our understanding of the cognitive nature of the disorder.
McAdams, Carrie J; Krawczyk, Daniel C
Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients exhibit a disparity in their actual physical identity and their cognitive understanding of their physical identity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks have contributed to understanding the neural circuitry involved in processing identity in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that women recovering from AN would show altered neural responses while thinking about their identity compared with healthy control women. We compared brain activation using fMRI in 18 women recovering from anorexia (RAN) and 18 healthy control women (CON) using two identity-appraisal tasks. These neuroimaging tasks were focused on separable components of identity: one consisted of adjectives related to social activities and the other consisted of physical descriptive phrases about one's appearance. Both tasks consisted of reading and responding to statements with three different perspectives: Self, Friend and Reflected. In the comparisons of the RAN and CON subjects, we observed differences in fMRI activation relating to self-knowledge ('I am', 'I look') and perspective-taking ('I believe', 'Friend believes') in the precuneus, two areas of the dorsal anterior cingulate, and the left middle frontal gyrus. These data suggest that further exploration of neural components related to identity may improve our understanding of the pathology of AN.
... away of muscle and loss of body fat Exams and Tests Tests should be done to help ... person has severe depression or thinks about committing suicide Care providers who are usually involved in these ...
The purpose of this literature review is to develop a conceptual framework for counseling anorexic female clients. Literature is reviewed in the areas of the clinical picture for identifying anorexics; assessment tools for developing a therapeutic plan; cognitions and behavior change over time; and combining individual psychotherapy with family…
Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S
Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (ps<.001). Also, both clinical groups shared greater explicit beliefs about the importance of attractiveness (ps<.001). In addition to supporting previous research with regard to comparable body image disturbance, this study also showed that beliefs regarding the importance of appearance (e.g., "one must be attractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders.
Harding, T P; Lachenmeyer, J R
Thirty female anorectics (mean age 26.4) and 30 female college student controls (mean age 25.3) completed a multidimensional locus of control scale, the Structural Family Interaction Scale, The Eating Attitudes Test, and a global clinical assessment measure. Three variables associated with Minuchin, Rosman, and Baker's (1978) family systems theory (overprotection, enmeshment, and rigidity) and one related to Bruch's (1973) theoretical position on anorexia nervosa (locus of control) were contrasted in terms of their relative effectiveness in predicting both the presence or absence and severity of the disorder. The best predictor of both measures in a series of regression and discriminant function analyses was locus of control orientation. The anorectics were significantly more external than the controls. The two groups did not differ on any of the family variables central to Minuchin et al.'s theory. The results support Bruch's contention that underlying anorexia nervosa is a sense of personal ineffectiveness.
Pepin, Genevieve; Stagnitti, Karen
This article builds on the argument of a link between behaviours observed in persons with autism spectrum disorders and persons with anorexia nervosa. In describing these behaviours, a link is made between deficits in social cognition, lack of flexible and creative thinking, theory of mind, and deficits in early pretend play ability. Early pretend play ability is a strong avenue to the development and strengthening of social cognition, problem solving, language, logical sequential thought, and understanding social situations. Currently, there is no literature on the pretend play ability of persons who develop anorexia nervosa. This article argues for research into this area which may potentially contribute to developments in new intervention strategies for these persons.
Fox, John R E; Diab, Pascal
Chronic anorexia nervosa (cAN) is a challenging presentation for the clinician. Motivation to recover is low, and outcomes are often poor. Within this study. six participants, currently in treatment, were interviewed. These interview transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The results highlighted five superordinate themes resulted from the analysis and these referred to the following points: (1) 'making sense of AN', (2) 'experience of treatment/treatment', (3) 'interpersonal relationships', (4) 'battling with anorexia' and (5) 'staff pessimism in the treatment of cAN'. These results highlighted how the self is entwined with anorexia nervosa and thus making it incredibly difficult to perceive a life without cAN.
Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Fewell, Laura; Kass, Andrea E.; Riley, Elizabeth N.; Stark, Lynn; McCallum, Kimberly; Lenze, Eric J.
Objective Exposure therapy in anorexia nervosa has preliminarily been shown to be effective for increasing food intake. d-Cycloserine is a glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist that has been shown to facilitate the benefits of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders by enhancing the emotional learning in the exposures; therefore, we examined d-cycloserine–facilitation of exposure therapy to increase body mass index (BMI) in patients with anorexia nervosa. Method Participants (N = 36) with anorexia nervosa (diagnosed via DSM-IV) were recruited from a partial hospitalization eating disorder clinic between February 2013 and November 2013. Participants were randomly assigned to receive exposure therapy plus d-cycloserine (n = 20) or placebo (n = 16). Participants completed psychoeducation and 4 sessions of exposure therapy, with medication (d-cycloserine vs placebo) given prior to the first 3 exposure sessions. They also completed a 1-month follow-up. Results As hypothesized, participants in the d-cycloserine group showed a significantly greater increase in BMI than those in the placebo group (Wilk Λ = 0.86, F3,32 = 2.20, P = .043, ηp2 = 0.12). d-Cycloserine participants gained 3 pounds relative to 0.5 pounds in the placebo group. Both groups experienced significantly decreased anxiety over the course of therapy (Wilk Λ = 0.80, F3,32 = 3.32, P = .023, ηp2 = 0.20). Conclusions This study preliminarily demonstrates that d-cycloserine facilitates exposure therapy for anorexia nervosa, leading to increased weight gain. A potential mechanism is that participants who receive d-cycloserine may generalize learning from within-session exposures to food intake during other similar meals, resulting in sustained increases in BMI. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and test the putative mechanism that generalized learning from exposure therapy can increase BMI and stabilize a healthy weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT
Dostálová, I; Haluzík, M
Gastrointestinal hormones play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and postprandial satiety. Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid orexigenic peptide produced mainly by the stomach that is involved in both the long-term regulation of body weight and the short-term regulation of postprandial satiety. Impairments in ghrelin secretion may in concert with other factors play an important role in the development of both obesity and anorexia nervosa. Despite an intensive research the critical factors regulating physiological postprandial ghrelin response in healthy individuals and its modification by the presence of obesity and anorexia nervosa are only partially understood. The potential contribution of ghrelin to the differences of diet- vs. surgical-induced weight losses in morbidly obese patients is now also being recognized. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the physiology and pathophysiology of ghrelin and to discuss its potential in the prevention and/or treatment of obesity and anorexia nervosa.
Lao-Kaim, Nick P.; Fonville, Leon; Giampietro, Vincent P.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Simmons, Andrew; Tchanturia, Kate
Objectives People with Anorexia Nervosa exhibit difficulties flexibly adjusting behaviour in response to environmental changes. This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity. Additionally, alterations of instrumental learning, which relies on fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to the observation of inflexible behaviour. The authors sought to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility and learning in Anorexia Nervosa. Method Thirty-two adult females with Anorexia Nervosa and thirty-two age-matched female control participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Event-related analysis permitted the comparison of cognitive shift trials against those requiring maintenance of rule-sets and allowed assessment of trials representing learning. Results Although both groups performed similarly, we found significant interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule whereby blood-oxygenated-level dependent response was higher in Anorexia Nervosa patients during shifting but lower when maintaining rule-sets, as compared to healthy controls. During learning, posterior cingulate cortex activity in healthy controls decreased whilst increasing in the Anorexia Nervosa group, whereas the right precuneus exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions People with Anorexia Nervosa display widespread changes in executive function. Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning. Together, this shows how
Padrão, Maria João; Barbosa, Maria Raquel; Coimbra, Joaquim Luís
For the mainstream Psychology/Psychiatry, anorexia nervosa is considered an eating disorder characterized by the low body weight and by the restrictive eating pattern. The traditional psychiatric treatment consists in the establishment of a meal plan that must be scrupulously followed and, most frequently, in pharmacological treatment. We propose an alternative conceptualization of anorexia nervosa that envisages this disorder as pertaining to the control domain. In this sense, we formulate psychiatric intervention as a “pact with anorexia”, once it follows the very same logic, prohibitions and self-impositions of the disorder. Specifically, we envisage the meal plan as a way of maintaining anorexia, instead of suppressing it. As we could observe in our four year research project, in which we’ve followed several anorectic female patients, those who were more committed to their psychiatric treatment were precisely those who had more difficulty in recovering from anorexia – i.e., from renouncing the control from which the disorder lives. Finally, we suggest some fundamental underpinnings to an effective therapeutic approach, based in our conceptualization and understanding of the disorder. PMID:23283043
Lucas, Stéphanie; Leterme, Damien; Ghali, Olfa; Tolle, Virginie; Zizzari, Philippe; Bellefontaine, Nicole; Legroux-Gérot, Isabelle; Hardouin, Pierre; Broux, Odile; Viltart, Odile; Chauveau, Christophe
Background Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder, with non-negligible rates of mortality and morbidity. Some of the related alterations could participate in a vicious cycle limiting the recovery. Animal models mimicking various physiological alterations related to anorexia nervosa are necessary to provide better strategies of treatment. Aim To explore physiological alterations and recovery in a long-term mouse model mimicking numerous consequences of severe anorexia nervosa. Methods C57Bl/6 female mice were submitted to a separation-based anorexia protocol combining separation and time-restricted feeding for 10 weeks. Thereafter, mice were housed in standard conditions for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, body composition, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, IGF-1, blood levels of GH, reproductive function and glucose tolerance were followed. Gene expression of several markers of lipid and energy metabolism was assayed in adipose tissues. Results Mimicking what is observed in anorexia nervosa patients, and despite a food intake close to that of control mice, separation-based anorexia mice displayed marked alterations in body weight, fat mass, lean mass, bone mass acquisition, reproductive function, GH/IGF-1 axis, and leptinemia. mRNA levels of markers of lipogenesis, lipolysis, and the brown-like adipocyte lineage in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also changed. All these alterations were corrected during the recovery phase, except for the hypoleptinemia that persisted despite the full recovery of fat mass. Conclusion This study strongly supports the separation-based anorexia protocol as a valuable model of long-term negative energy balance state that closely mimics various symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa, including metabolic adaptations. Interestingly, during a recovery phase, mice showed a high capacity to normalize these parameters with the exception of plasma leptin levels. It will be interesting therefore to explore further the central
Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo
Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder.
Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam
The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future.
Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F.; Stengel, Andreas
Objective NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN. Methods We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2). At the same time anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were measured psychometrically. Results No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70). The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3) and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p<0.001). Patients with high anxiety scores displayed 65% higher NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels (p = 0.04). This was reflected by a positive correlation of GAD-7 and NUCB2/nesfatin-1-levels (r = 0.32, p = 0.04). Scores of PSQ-20 (73.3±14.3 vs. 48.6±17.2) and PHQ-9 (18.8±5.0 vs. 10.3±5.1) were higher in the high anxiety group (p<0.001) but did not correlate with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 (p>0.05). EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02), while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05). Conclusions Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN. PMID:26162003
Gutiérrez, E; Churruca, I; Zárate, J; Carrera, O; Portillo, M P; Cerrato, M; Vázquez, R; Echevarría, E
The potential involvement of the melanocortin system in the beneficial effects of heat application in rats submitted to activity-based anorexia (ABA), an analogous model of anorexia nervosa (AN), was studied. Once ABA rats had lost 20% of body weight, half of the animals were exposed to a high ambient temperature (HAT) of 32 degrees C, whereas the rest were maintained at 21 degrees C. Control sedentary rats yoked to ABA animals received the same treatment. ABA rats (21 degrees C) showed increased Melanocortin 4 (MC4) receptor and Agouti gene Related Peptide (AgRP) expression, and decreased pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels (Real Time PCR), with respect to controls. Heat application increased weight gain and food intake, and reduced running rate in ABA rats, when compared with ABA rats at 21 degrees C. However, no changes in body weight and food intake were observed in sedentary rats exposed to heat. Moreover, heat application reduced MC4 receptor, AgRP and POMC expression in ABA rats, but no changes were observed in control rats. These results indicate that hypothalamic MC4 receptor overexpression could occur on the basis of the characteristic hyperactivity, weight loss, and self-starvation of ABA rats, and suggest the involvement of hypothalamic melanocortin neural circuits in behavioural changes shown by AN patients. Changes in AgRP and POMC expression could represent an adaptative response to equilibrate energy balance. Moreover, the fact that HAT reversed hypothalamic MC4 receptor overexpression in ABA rats indicates the involvement of brain melanocortin system in the reported beneficial effects of heat application in AN. A combination of MC4 receptor antagonists and heat application could improve the clinical management of AN.
Misra, Madhusmita; Golden, Neville H.; Katzman, Debra K.
Objective Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a known consequence of anorexia nervosa (AN) and is particularly concerning during adolescence, a critical time for bone accrual. A comprehensive synthesis of available data regarding impaired bone health, its determinants, and associated management strategies in AN is currently lacking. This systematic review aims to synthesize information from key physiologic and prospective studies and trials, and provide a thorough understanding of impaired bone health in AN and its management. Method Search terms included “anorexia nervosa” AND “bone density” for the period 1995–2015, limited to articles in English. Papers were screened manually based on journal impact factor, sample size, age of participants, and inclusion of a control group. When necessary, we included seminal papers published before 1995. Results AN leads to low BMD, impaired bone quality and increased fracture risk. Important determinants are low lean mass, hypogonadism, IGF-1 deficiency, and alterations in other hormones that impact bone health. Weight gain and menses restoration are critical for improving bone outcomes in AN. Physiologic estrogen replacement as the transdermal patch was shown to increase bone accrual in one study in adolescent females with AN; however, residual deficits persist. Bisphosphonates are potentially useful in adults with AN. Discussion To date, evidence suggests that the safest and most effective strategy to improve bone health in AN is normalization of weight with restoration of menses. Pharmacotherapies that show promise include physiologic estradiol replacement (as the transdermal estradiol patch), and in adults, bisphosphonates. Further studies are necessary to determine the best strategies to normalize BMD in AN. PMID:26311400
Hinney, Anke; Volckmar, Anna-Lena
Genetic mechanisms are relevant for both body weight regulation and eating disorders (e.g. anorexia nervosa, AN). Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far identified about 100 chromosomal regions that influence body weight, only a small part of the variance could be explained by molecular genetic factors. For AN GWAS up to now did not reveal genome-wide significant loci. There are first hints for epigenetic mechanisms involved in the described phenotypes. Epigenomics can improve our understanding of the regulation of body weight including hunger (AN) and overnutrition (obesity). Since the prenatal phase is characterized by dramatic epigenetic changes, it can be regarded as vulnerable period for the epigenotype. Adult health and disease depend on prenatal and early postnatal development. Gene expression markers that are imprinted during this phase can be heritable at the cellular level. These markers can be altered by environmental factors. Altered epigenetic profiles had been described for obese individuals. In mice it was shown that an epigenetic modification of an obesity gene locus had been transferred to the next generation. The year to come will show whether the combined analysis of epigenomic and GWAS data will deepen our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms.
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo
Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted.
Amianto, Federico; Northoff, Georg; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo; Tasca, Giorgio A
The debate concerning the pathogenesis and the maintaining factors of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa in particular, is ongoing especially since therapeutic interventions do not result in satisfactory and enduring rates of remission. This paper presents a model for the pathogenesis of eating disorders, based on the hypothesis of a deficiency in the development of the self. We present the theory in light of new evidence concerning the role of attachment insecurity in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. In particular, we define the self in eating disorders in a comprehensive way by taking into account recent evidence from experimental psychology and neurobiology. The paper considers the development of the self in terms of its synchronic (i.e., experienced in the moment) and diachronic (i.e., experienced as continuous over time) aspects. Both synchronic and diachronic aspects of the self are relevant to the expression of eating disorder symptoms. Further, the maturation of the self is interwoven with the development of attachment functioning from infancy to adolescence. This interplay between these developmental processes of the self and of attachment could be crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of eating disorders. The final part of the paper suggests a neurobiological link between the theory of the self in the eating disorders and the spatiotemporal functioning of the brain. Disturbances in spatiotemporal functioning may represent the neurobiological pathway by which deficiencies in the self is related to attachment functions in individuals with eating disorders.
Gianini, Loren M; Klein, Diane A; Call, Christine; Mayer, Laurel; Foltin, Richard W; Walsh, B Timothy; Wang, Yuanjia; Wu, Peng; Attia, Evelyn
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative reinforcing effect of exercise compared to a non-monetary alternative reinforcer (leisure activity), and to money, before and after weight restoration in an inpatient population with anorexia nervosa (AN). Sixty-two inpatients with AN completed a progressive ratio (PR) task to earn exercise, leisure activities, or cash at low weight and after weight restoration. Measures of pathology and motivation to exercise were completed and post-treatment discharge weights were collected. Patients worked harder for exercise at low weight than after weight restoration (df = 46, t = 5.50, p < .001). PR task performance was weakly associated with a measure of commitment to exercise (low weight: r = 0.31, weight restored: r = 0.36, p < .05), but not with other clinical measures or follow-up weights. Contrary to prior suggestions, measurement of the reinforcing value of exercise among individuals with AN via a PR task does not appear valuable in assessing clinical severity or outcome. Other, simpler, self-report measures of commitment to exercise may have greater value in assessing these outcomes.
Keizer, Anouk; van Elburg, Annemarie; Helms, Rossa; Dijkerman, H. Chris
Background Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI) affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body. Methods and Results We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips) before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30) decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29) also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group. Conclusion The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed. PMID:27711234
Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Józefik, Barbara; Namysłowska, Irena; Ulasińska, Romualda
A lot of research indicates the importance of the family context in the occurrence of Eating Disorders. Authors present results of research in families with an adolescent suffering from Anorexia Nervosa according to ICD-10. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among family members. Anorectic girls (n = 37), their sisters (n = 16) and control girls (n = 41) completed the Polish version of The Family Assessment Measure standardised on a Polish sample. The questionnaire was constructed to measure some aspects of the family life such as task accomplishment, role performance, communication including affective expression, affective involvement, control, values and norms. The study revealed some interesting differences between samples. For example, anorectic girls and their sisters generally express dissatisfaction with the relationship with their parents, particularly with fathers, contrary to the control group of girls. Anorectic girls and their sisters more critically assess functioning of the family as a whole than control group girls. Anorectic girls and their sisters express dissatisfaction with their mutual relationship, contrary to the control group.
Rost Geteilte Erstautorenschaft, Silke; Sarrar Geteilte Erstautorenschaft, Lea; Schneider, Nora; Klenk, Vera; Staab, Doris; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Jaite, Charlotte
Fragestellung: Die Körperbildstörung (KBS) gilt als Kernmerkmal der Anorexia nervosa (AN). Jedoch werden Hinweise auf körperbildbezogene Störungen u. a. bei an Mukoviszidose (Cystische Fibrose, CF) erkrankten, oftmals untergewichtigen, Patientinnen gefunden. Die Pilotstudie soll zur Klärung der Spezifität der KBS für AN beitragen. Methodik: Es wurden 22 Patientinnen mit AN, 10 Patientinnen mit CF sowie 23 Kontrollprobandinnen hinsichtlich der perzeptiven und kognitiv-affektiven Komponente der KBS untersucht sowie essstörungsrelevante Psychopathologie erfasst. Ergebnisse: Sämtliche Patientinnen mit AN sowie drei Patientinnen mit CF zeigten im Expertenurteil eine KBS. Patientinnen mit CF nahmen sich signifikant dünner wahr als Kontrollprobandinnen. Während Kontrollprobandinnen eine höhere Körperzufriedenheit als Patientinnen mit CF aufwiesen, ergaben sich diesbezüglich keine Unterschiede zwischen den Patientengruppen. Hinsichtlich essstörungsspezifischer Psychopathologie unterschieden sich die Patientengruppen im Schlankheitsstreben, der Unzufriedenheit mit dem Körper und der Unsicherheit in der Wahrnehmung der Gefühle mit höherer Symptomausprägung bei Patientinnen mit AN. Schlussfolgerungen: Unsere Ergebnisse liefern keine Hinweise auf schwerwiegende Auffälligkeiten im Körperbild bei Patientinnen mit CF. Vielmehr ist eine allgemeine Körperunzufriedenheit zu verzeichnen, die im Zusammenhang mit dem Vorliegen des Untergewichts interpretiert werden kann. Die KBS kann weiterhin als zentrales Diagnosekriterium der AN angesehen werden und sollte im Rahmen therapeutischer Interventionen eine besondere Bedeutung beigemessen werden.
Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna
The drastic reduction in body weight observed in anorexia nervosa (AN) leads to various endocrine changes and consequently to disturbance in thermoregulation mechanisms and body temperature. Thermography allows for a noninvasive diagnosis of the distribution of skin surface temperatures, which is especially important for difficult patients such as women with AN, who are often very sensitive and difficult to treat. The main aim of this study was to measure the mean temperatures (Tmean ) of selected body areas in young women diagnosed with AN and identify those areas where the temperature differences were particularly significant between healthy women and them. Additionally, we determined the relationships between body mass index, body composition (especially subcutaneous and VFM) and the value of mean surface temperature (Tmean ) in AN woman. In the subjects with AN, Tmean of the abdomen, lower back and thighs were significantly higher than in the reference group, while Tmean of the hands were significantly lower. Among other things, analysis showed a significant negative correlation between Tmean of the abdomen, lower back and thighs, and the mass of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The lower Tmean of the hand was directly proportional to the reduced anthropomorphic parameters. The direct evaluation of body surface temperature distribution could provide clinical implications for the treatment of anorexic patients, including the potential use of thermotherapy in stimulating the circulatory system, especially in hypothermia, bradycardia and hypotension.
Restoration of weight and nutritional status are key elements in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). This review aims to describe issues related to the caloric requirements needed to gain and maintain weight for short and long-term recovery for AN inpatients and outpatients. We reviewed the literature in PubMed pertaining to nutritional restoration in AN between 1960–2012. Based on this search, several themes emerged: 1. AN eating behavior; 2. Weight restoration in AN; 3. Role of exercise and metabolism in resistance to weight gain; 3. Medical consequences of weight restoration; 4. Rate of weight gain; 5. Weight maintenance; and 6. Nutrient intake. A fair amount is known about overall caloric requirements for weight restoration and maintenance for AN. For example, starting at 30–40 kilocalories per kilogram per day (kcal/kg/day) with increases up to 70–100 kcal/kg/day can achieve a weight gain of 1–1.5 kg/week for inpatients. However, little is known about the effects of nutritional deficits on weight gain, or how to meet nutrient requirements for restoration of nutritional status. This review seeks to draw attention to the need for the development of a foundation of basic nutritional knowledge about AN so that future treatment can be evidenced-based. PMID:24200367
Herscovici, Cecile Rausch; Kovalskys, Irina; Orellana, Liliana
Although weight restoration is a crucial factor in the recovery of anorexia nervosa (AN), there is scarce evidence regarding which components of treatment promote it. In this paper, the author reports on an effort to utilize research methods in her own practice, with the goal of evaluating if the family meal intervention (FMI) had a positive effect on increasing weight gain or on improving other general outcome measures. Twenty-three AN adolescents aged 12-20 years were randomly assigned to two forms of outpatient family therapy (with [FTFM] and without [FT]) using the FMI, and treated for a 6-month duration. Their outcome was compared at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 6-month posttreatment follow-up (FU). The main outcome measure was weight recovery; secondary outcome measures were the Morgan Russell Global Assessment Schedule (MRHAS), amenorrhea, general psychological symptoms, and eating disorder symptoms. The majority of the patients in both groups improved significantly at EOT, and these changes were sustained through FU. Given its primarily clinical nature, findings of this investigation project preclude any conclusion. Although the FMI did not appear to convey specific benefits in causing weight gain, clinical observation suggests the value of a flexible stance in implementation of the FMI for the severely undernourished patient with greater psychopathology.
Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor
The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is not completely understood, but research suggests that alterations in brain circuits related to cognitive control and emotion are central. The aim of this study was to explore neural responses to an emotional conflict task in women recovered from AN. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to an emotional conflict task in 22 women recovered from AN and 21 age-matched healthy controls. The task involved categorizing affective faces while ignoring affective words. Face and word stimuli were either congruent (non-conflict) or incongruent (conflict). Brain responses to emotional conflict did not differ between groups. However, in response to emotional non-conflict, women recovered from AN relative to healthy controls showed significantly less activation in the bilateral amygdala. Specifically, while emotional non-conflict evoked significant activations of the amygdala in healthy controls, recovered AN women did not show such activations. Similar significant group differences were also observed in the hippocampus and basal ganglia. These results suggest that women recovered from AN are characterized by alterations within emotion-related brain circuits. Recovered women's absence of amygdala and hippocampus activation during non-conflict trials possibly reflects an impaired ability to process emotional significant stimuli.
Mabe, Hiroyo; Yamada, Eiji; Masuda, Masato; Tomoda, Akemi
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by the relentless pursuit to lose weight, mostly through self-starvation, and a distorted body image. AN tends to begin during adolescence among women. However, the underlying neural mechanisms related to AN remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry based on magnetic resonance imaging scans, we investigated whether the presence of AN was associated with discernible changes in brain morphology. Participants were 20 un-medicated, right-handed patients with early-onset AN and 14 healthy control subjects. Group differences in gray matter volume (GMV) were assessed using high-resolution, T1-weighted, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging datasets (3T Trio scanner; Siemens AG) and analyzed after controlling for age and total GMV, which was decreased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (left IFG: FWE corrected, p < 0.05; right IFG: uncorrected, p < 0.05) of patients with AN. The GMV in the bilateral IFG correlated significantly with current age (left IFG: r = -.481, p < .05; right IFG: r = -.601, p < .01) and was limited to the AN group. We speculate that decreased IFG volume might lead to deficits in executive functioning or inhibitory control within neural reward systems. Precocious or unbalanced neurological trimming within this particular region might be an important factor for the pathogenesis of AN onset. PMID:26067825
Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Marciello, Francesca; Pellegrino, Francesca; Castellini, Giovanni; Maj, Mario
Malnutrition and childhood trauma were shown to affect in opposite way the cortisol awakening response (CAR) of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). To assess the influence of binge-purging behaviour on the CAR of AN patients, we measured the CAR of restrictive AN (ANR) or binge-purging AN (ANBP) patients without history of childhood maltreatment. Seventeen ANBP women, 18 ANR women and 42 healthy women collected saliva samples at awakening and after 15, 30 and 60 min, and filled in the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2). ANR and ANBP patients exhibited a CAR significantly higher than healthy women. Moreover, the CAR of ANBP women was even higher than that of ANR women and positively correlated with the bulimia subitem scores of the EDI-2. Present findings show, for the first time, differences in the CAR between ANBP and ANR subtypes, which may suggest a possible connection between the HPA axis functioning and binge-purging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Selby, Edward A; Smith, April R; Bulik, Cynthia M; Olmsted, Marion P; Thornton, Laura; McFarlane, Traci L; Berrettini, Wade H; Brandt, Harry A; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Jacoby, Georg E; Johnson, Craig L; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S; Mitchell, James E; Nutzinger, Detlev O; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Joiner, Thomas E
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is perhaps the most lethal mental disorder, in part due to starvation-related health problems, but especially because of high suicide rates. One potential reason for high suicide rates in AN may be that those affected face pain and provocation on many fronts, which may in turn reduce their fear of pain and thereby increase risk for death by suicide. The purpose of the following studies was to explore whether repetitive exposure to painful and destructive behaviors such as vomiting, laxative use, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) was a mechanism that linked AN-binge-purging (ANBP) subtype, as opposed to AN-restricting subtype (ANR), to extreme suicidal behavior. Study 1 utilized a sample of 787 individuals diagnosed with one or the other subtype of AN, and structural equation modeling results supported provocative behaviors as a mechanism linking ANBP to suicidal behavior. A second, unexpected mechanism emerged linking ANR to suicidal behavior via restricting. Study 2, which used a sample of 249 AN patients, replicated these findings, including the second mechanism linking ANR to suicide attempts. Two potential routes to suicidal behavior in AN appear to have been identified: one route through repetitive experience with provocative behaviors for ANBP, and a second for exposure to pain through the starvation of restricting in ANR.
Andrisani, Alessandra; Sabbadin, Chiara; Minardi, Silvia; Favaro, Angela; Donà, Gabriella; Bordin, Luciana; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio
Persistent amenorrhea is a frequent condition affecting anorexic patients after stable weight recovery. It has been proposed that it could be due to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis linked with persistent hormonal impairments, such as relative hypercortisolemia and hypoleptinemia, and psychological symptoms related to anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal pattern involved in the persistence of amenorrhea after recovery from AN. Eight weight-recovered anorexic patients with amenorrhea were investigated and matched with 10 healthy eumenorrhoic women, comparable for age and BMI. Data showed basal FSH and LH values similar in both groups and a normal pituitaric response to LHRH administration. Morning serum cortisol was normal but significantly higher in patients, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) to cortisol ratio, leptin and vitamin D were significantly lower in patients than controls. Women with previous AN presented insulin resistance and two patients showed an overall picture consistent with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In conclusion, long-lasting amenorrhea after recovery from AN is linked with a persistent hypothalamic dysfunction, although other concomitant causes like PCOS and insulin resistance should be considered. Decreased DHEAS to cortisol ratio is a new finding which could be correlated to the persistent hypogonadism.
Amianto, Federico; Northoff, Georg; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo; Tasca, Giorgio A.
The debate concerning the pathogenesis and the maintaining factors of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa in particular, is ongoing especially since therapeutic interventions do not result in satisfactory and enduring rates of remission. This paper presents a model for the pathogenesis of eating disorders, based on the hypothesis of a deficiency in the development of the self. We present the theory in light of new evidence concerning the role of attachment insecurity in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. In particular, we define the self in eating disorders in a comprehensive way by taking into account recent evidence from experimental psychology and neurobiology. The paper considers the development of the self in terms of its synchronic (i.e., experienced in the moment) and diachronic (i.e., experienced as continuous over time) aspects. Both synchronic and diachronic aspects of the self are relevant to the expression of eating disorder symptoms. Further, the maturation of the self is interwoven with the development of attachment functioning from infancy to adolescence. This interplay between these developmental processes of the self and of attachment could be crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of eating disorders. The final part of the paper suggests a neurobiological link between the theory of the self in the eating disorders and the spatiotemporal functioning of the brain. Disturbances in spatiotemporal functioning may represent the neurobiological pathway by which deficiencies in the self is related to attachment functions in individuals with eating disorders. PMID:27378967
Via, Esther; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Harrison, Ben J.; Davey, Christopher G.; Pujol, Jesús; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Cardoner, Narcís
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) display impaired social interactions, implicated in the development and prognosis of the disorder. Importantly, social behavior is modulated by reward-based processes, and dysfunctional at-brain-level reward responses have been involved in AN neurobiological models. However, no prior evidence exists of whether these neural alterations would be equally present in social contexts. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional social-judgment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 20 restrictive-subtype AN patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Brain activity during acceptance and rejection was investigated and correlated with severity measures (Eating Disorder Inventory -EDI-2) and with personality traits of interest known to modulate social behavior (The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire). Patients showed hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) during social acceptance and hyperactivation of visual areas during social rejection. Ventral striatum activation during rejection was positively correlated in patients with clinical severity scores. During acceptance, activation of the frontal opercula-anterior insula and dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was differentially associated with reward sensitivity between groups. These results suggest an abnormal motivational drive for social stimuli, and involve overlapping social cognition and reward systems leading to a disruption of adaptive responses in the processing of social reward. The specific association of reward-related regions with clinical and psychometric measures suggests the putative involvement of reward structures in the maintenance of pathological behaviors in AN. PMID:26197051
Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H
Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes.
De Young, Kyle P; Lavender, Jason M; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel
This study examined the association between restrictive eating behaviors and binge eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) using data collected in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with DSM-IV full or subthreshold AN reported eating disorder behaviors, including binge eating episodes, going ≥ 8 waking hours without eating, and skipping meals, during 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Time-lagged generalized estimating equations tested the following hypotheses: 1) dietary restriction would predict binge eating while controlling for binge eating the previous day; 2) binge eating would predict restriction the subsequent day while controlling for restriction the previous day. After controlling for relevant covariates, the hypotheses were not supported; however, there appeared to be a cumulative effect of repeatedly going 8 consecutive hours without eating (i.e. fasting) on the risk of binge eating among individuals who recently engaged in binge eating. In addition, skipping meals was associated with a lower risk of same day binge eating. The relationship between binge eating and dietary restriction appears to be complex and may vary by type of restrictive eating behavior. Future research should aim to further clarify the nature of the interaction of binge eating and restrictive eating among individuals with AN in order to effectively eliminate these behaviors in treatment.
Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Garcia, Ana Isabel; Lazaro, Luisa; Andrés-Perpiñá, Susana; Falcón, Carles; Plana, Maria Teresa; Bargallo, Nuria
Various neuroimaging techniques have revealed morphological and functional alterations in anorexia nervosa (AN), although few spectroscopic magnetic resonance studies have examined short-term weight-recovered AN patients. Subjects were 32 female adolescent patients (between 13 and 18 years old) seen consecutively in our department and who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for AN. All of them had received a minimum of six months of treatment and were short-term weight-recovered (for one to three months) with a body mass index ranging from 18 to 23. A group of 20 healthy female volunteer controls of similar age were also included. All subjects were assessed with psychopathological scales and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total choline (Cho) (p=0.007) and creatine (Cr) (p=0.008) levels were significantly higher in AN patients than in controls. AN patients receiving psychopharmacological treatment with SSRIs (N=9) had metabolite levels similar to control subjects, but patients without this treatment did not. The present study shows abnormalities in brain neurometabolites related to Cho compounds and Cr in the prefrontal cortex in short-term weight-recovered adolescent AN patients, principally in patients not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. More studies with larger samples are necessary to test the generalizability of the present results.
Hestad, Knut A; Weider, Siri; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Sand, Trond
Objective To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. Methods Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions. Results There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in μV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051). Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P=0.038) compared to controls. Significant differences were also observed for secondary variables: lower values for relative parietooccipital delta and frontocentral alpha activity among AN patients than among controls. Conclusion We observed slight excess frontal theta and lower relative alpha and delta amplitudes among AN patients than among controls. This pattern is possibly related to a slight frontal lobe dysfunction in AN, or it may reflect increased attention/vigilance or another state-related change in patients with AN compared to healthy controls. PMID:27703359
Czerniak, Efrat; Korostishevsky, Michael; Frisch, Amos; Cohen, Yoram; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Michaelovsky, Elena; Stein, Daniel; Danziger, Yardena; Fennig, Silvana; Apter, Alan; Weizman, Abraham; Gak, Eva
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the main brain neurosteroid, has been implicated in various psychiatric disorders especially those including gender differences. We studied genetic variability in the DHEA-producing enzyme CYP17A1 in relation to anorexia nervosa (AN) susceptibility and AN-related co-morbidities. We performed analysis of 100 Israeli AN family trios accounting for CYP17A1 haplotypes characteristic of populations of European origin and studied genotype-phenotype relationships using correlation analyses and transmission disequilibrium test. Although our analysis revealed no evidence of association between CYP17A1 and AN per se, it revealed an association between specific CYP17A1 haplotypes and AN co-morbidity, specifically anxiety. We found that a common CYP17A1 haplotype (H1) was associated with higher anxiety in AN patients (Clinical Global Impression; CGI-anxiety ≥4). Moreover, H1 homozygotes were at higher risk for expressing high CGI-anxiety levels (OR = 3.7), and H1 was preferentially transmitted to AN patients with high CGI-anxiety levels (P = 0. 037). We suggest that CYP17A1 H1 haplotype may contribute to genetic predisposition to higher CGI-anxiety levels in AN patients and that this predisposition may be mediated by reduced CYP17A1 enzymatic activity and corresponding lower DHEA production.
Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio
Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.
Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B
This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.
Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with high rates of chronicity and relapse risk is a considerable therapeutic challenge in the disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of stages of change and outcome with a focus on the relapse struggle in the maintenance stage in patients with predominantly chronic AN. Further, therapeutic alliance and stages of change associations were explored. Methods As an instrument measuring relapse struggle in the maintenance stage, we applied the short form of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment-Short (URICA-S). We assessed stages of change in 39 patients with a predominantly chronic course of AN in early, middle, and late stages of inpatient psychotherapy. General symptom severity as assessed by the SCL-90-R and weight change were investigated as outcome measures. Results In-line with earlier evidence, contemplation significantly predicted therapeutic alliance. Further, we demonstrated that relapse risk as operationalized by URICA-S maintenance is an important predictor of general psychopathology. BMI change was not predicted by stages of change. Conclusions The URICA-S maintenance scale might be applied to help identify patients at relapse risk. High URICA-S maintenance scores could be considered as one critical aspect of AN patients who might especially benefit from relapse-preventing aftercare programs. PMID:23570454
Godier, Lauren R; Park, Rebecca J
The characteristic relentless self-starvation behavior seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of parallels with addictive behavior. This study used a thematic qualitative analysis to investigate the parallels between compulsive behavior in AN and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Forty individuals currently suffering from AN completed an online questionnaire reflecting on their experience of compulsive behavior in AN. Eight main themes emerged from thematic qualitative analysis; compulsivity as central to AN, impaired control, escalating compulsions, emotional triggers, negative reactions, detrimental continuation of behavior, functional impairment, and role in recovery. These results suggested that individuals with AN view the compulsive nature of their behavior as central to the maintenance of their disorder, and as a significant barrier to recovery. The themes that emerged also showed parallels with the DSM-V criteria for SUDs, mapping onto the four groups of criteria (impaired control, social impairment, risky use of substance, pharmacological criteria). These results emphasize the need for further research to explore the possible parallels in behavioral and neural underpinnings of compulsivity in AN and SUDs, which may inform novel treatment avenues for AN.
Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A.; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N.; Ehrlich, Stefan
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN. PMID:28198813
Foppiani, Luca; Massobrio, Bruno; Cascio, Christian; Antonucci, Giancarlo
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder which typically occurs in young women; however, more and more cases in middle-aged women are being reported. The management of this complex disease requires a team approach, and full recovery occurs only in 50% of patients. Endocrine and metabolic complications are commonly observed, the latter of which may even be life-threatening, and require prompt and proper management. Infections, albeit reported, are not usually a major clinical problem in these patients. We herein report the case of a severely malnourished middle-aged woman with long-standing AN who was hospitalized with marked hypokalaemia (1.5 mEq/L) and rhabdomyolysis; during hospitalization she developed septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which required urgent admission to the intensive care unit. She underwent sedation and tracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation and was managed with combined therapies, which eventually led to a successful outcome. Life-threatening medical complications can occur not only in young women but in middle-aged women with AN as well and require a combined multidisciplinary approach.
Strand, Mattias; Bulik, Cynthia M; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne; Gustafsson, Sanna A
The aim of the present study was to explore patients' experiences of participating in a self-admission program at a specialist eating disorders clinic. Sixteen adult program participants with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa were interviewed at 6 months about their experiences in the self-admission program. A qualitative content analysis approach was applied to identify recurring themes. Four themes were identified: Agency and Flexibility, Functions, Barriers, and Applicability. Participants used self-admission to boost healthy behaviors, to prevent deterioration, to forestall the need for longer periods of hospitalizations, and to get a break from overwhelming demands. Quick access to brief admissions provides a safety net that can increase feelings of security in everyday life, even for patients who do not actually make use of the opportunity to self-admit. It also provided relief to participants' relatives. Furthermore, participants experienced that self-admission may foster agency and motivation. However, the model also requires a certain level of maturity and an encouraging environment to overcome barriers that could otherwise hinder optimal use, such as ambivalence in asking for help. Informants experienced that self-admission could allow them to gain greater insight into their disease process, take greater responsibility for their recovery, and transform their health care from crisis-driven to proactive. By offering a shift in perspective on help-seeking and participation, self-admission may potentially strengthen participants' internal responsibility for their treatment and promote partnership in treatment.
Moskovich, Ashley A; Timko, C Alix; Honeycutt, Lisa K; Zucker, Nancy L; Merwin, Rhonda M
Expressed emotion (EE) has been associated with poor outcomes in anorexia nervosa (AN); however, whether changes in EE predict superior treatment outcomes is unknown. The current study examined whether decreases in EE during an open trial of a novel family-based treatment for AN predicted symptoms at end of treatment. Forty-seven adolescents (12-18 years of age) with AN or sub-threshold AN and their parents (mothers: n = 47, fathers: n = 39) participated in 6 months of family treatment. Measures of AN symptomatology (Eating Disorder Examination completed by adolescent and end of treatment recovery status) and parental EE (Family Questionnaire completed by parents which measures two facets of EE: critical communication [CC] and emotional over-involvement [EOI]) were collected at baseline and end of treatment. Parental EOI, but not CC, significantly decreased during the course of treatment. Change in mothers', but not fathers', EE accounted for additional variance in AN symptomatology at end of treatment above baseline EE and baseline AN symptom levels. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on parent support during treatment may improve outcomes.
Carrot, B; Radon, L; Hubert, T; Vibert, S; Duclos, J; Curt, F; Godart, N
Depression and anxiety are commonly associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) and contribute to difficulties in social integration, a negative factor for outcome in AN. The link between those disorders and AN has been poorly studied. Thus, our objective was to investigate (1) the link between outcome nine years after hospitalisation for AN and the occurrence of lifetime anxious or depressive comorbidities; (2) the prognostic value of these comorbidities on patient outcome; 181 female patients were hospitalised for AN (between 13 and 22 years old), and were re-evaluated for their psychological, dietary, physical and social outcomes, from 6 to 12 years after their hospitalisation. The link between anxious and depressive disorders (premorbid to AN and lifetime) and the outcome assessment criteria were tested through multivariate analyses; 63% of the participants had good or intermediate outcome, 83% had presented at least one anxiety or depression disorder in the course of their lives, half of them before the onset of AN. Premorbid obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), BMI at admission, and premenarchal AN all contribute to poor prognosis. Social phobia and agoraphobia affect the subjects' quality of life and increase eating disorder symptoms. These results encourage a systematic assessment of, and care for, anxiety and depression comorbidities among female adolescent patients with a particular focus on premorbid OCD.
Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N; Ehrlich, Stefan
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN.
Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587
Hambrook, David; Brown, Gary; Tchanturia, Kate
Problematic emotional processing has been implicated in the genesis and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study built on existing research and explored performance-based emotional intelligence (EI) in people with AN. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 32 women diagnosed with AN and 32 female healthy controls (HC). Compared to HC women, the AN group demonstrated significantly lower total EI scores and poorer ability to understand how emotions can progress and change over time. Despite scores within the broadly average range compared to published EI norms, there was a general pattern of poorer performance in the AN sample. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were the strongest predictor of EI, over and above a diagnosis of AN. This study adds to the literature documenting the socioemotional phenotype of AN, suggesting this group of individuals may find it relatively difficult to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions, and to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. Anxiety was highlighted as a putative variable partially explaining why people with AN demonstrated lower EI compared to controls. Implications for further research are discussed, including the need to explore the specificity of EI difficulties in AN using larger samples and additional control groups.
O’Hara, Caitlin B.; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike
This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN. PMID:26808920
Gritti, A; Salerno, F; Pisano, S; Formicola, F; Melis, D; Franzese, A
We report the case of a 12.4-yr-old boy who presented Klinefelter syndrome (KS) mosaicism (46,XY/47,XXY), associated with mental retardation and anorexia nervosa (AN). KS was undiagnosed before hospitalization in a psychiatric unit. The patient was referred to a child psychiatric unit for restrictive eating. The medical history showed long standing feeding difficulties and failure to thrive. The patient was pre-pubertal and other clinical characteristics were: microcephaly, short stature and dysmorphic traits. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a mosaicism, 46,XY and 47,XXY karyotype. The psychiatric assessment demonstrated the presence of AN and low mood. No specific pathophysiological links between the alterations of KS and the development of AN should be hypothesized on the basis of this case report. In pre-pubertal boys with mental disorders, the possibility of KS should be considered, independently of the presence of eating disorders. Nevertheless, the case shows that KS can be first detected during an assessment for eating disorders. Few cases of the association of KS with AN have been previously reported in literature. This is the first description of KS, mosaicism (46,XY/47,XXY), associated with AN and mental retardation. This case report illustrates the need, for clinicians who work with eating disorders, to investigate the possible association between AN and KS, a rare but intriguing one.
Objective Recently there has been emerging clinical and research interest in the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). To our knowledge, few studies have discussed ethical aspects associated with the increased use of neuromodulation in AN, some of which are quite specific to AN, despite the rapid development and dissemination of these new technologies. Method We provide a brief overview of three published rTMS studies for AN and discuss ethical issues involved in the use of neuromodulation for AN. Results In contrast to neurosurgery or DBS, rTMS is a less invasive technique, with less associated risk, and thus has greater potential to become a more widespread augmentation or add-on therapy for AN. New therapeutic procedures are promising, yet they raise ethical questions regarding informed consent and patient selection. Illness-specific issues surrounding authenticity and autonomy are important to consider, ensuring an ethical approach to treatment for patients with AN. Discussion We argue that ethical investigations for neuromodulation techniques are timely and important, and discussions should go beyond the immediate goals of patient safety, consent, and risk and benefit, to consider broader ethical concepts such as authenticity and autonomy. PMID:24690315
Martin Monzon, Beatriz; Hay, Phillipa; Foroughi, Nasim; Touyz, Stephen
AIM: To identify findings concerning white matter (WM) fibre microstructural alterations in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: A systematic electronic search was undertaken in several databases up to April 2015. The search strategy aimed to locate all studies published in English or Spanish that included participants with AN and which investigated WM using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Trials were assessed for quality assessment according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses checklist and a published quality index guideline. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies met the inclusion criteria, four of people in the acute state of the illness, one included both recovered and unwell participants, and one included people who had recovered. Participants were female with ages ranging from 14 to 29 years. All studies but one measured a range of psychopathological features. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were the main DTI correlates reported. Alterations were reported in a range of WM structures of the limbic system, most often of the fornix and cingulum as well as the fronto-occipital fibre tracts, i.e., regions associated with anxiety, body image and cognitive function. Subtle abnormalities also appeared to persist after recovery. CONCLUSION: This diversity likely reflects the symptom complexity of AN. However, there were few studies, they applied different methodologies, and all were cross-sectional. PMID:27014606
Wentz, Elisabet; Gillberg, I Carina; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria
The aim of this study was to study long-term outcome of physical health and self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in anorexia nervosa (AN). Fifty-one adolescent-onset AN cases, originally recruited after community screening, and 51 matched controls (COMP) were interviewed regarding somatic problems and SIB and physically examined 18 years after AN onset, at mean age 32 years. Six individuals had an eating disorder (ED). No one had died. The AN group weighed less than the COMP group. The frequency of somatic problems did not differ between groups. Dental enamel lesions and shorter than expected stature occurred only in the AN group. Dysdiadochokinesis was overrepresented in the AN group and age of AN onset was lower among those with the neurological deficit. Severe SIB occurred only in the AN group, predominantly during adolescence. To conclude, somatic problems were common in both groups. Most individuals in the AN group had recovered from their ED, but weight revealed a persistent restricted eating behaviour.
Hildebrandt, Tom; Bacow, Terri; Markella, Mariana; Loeb, Katharine L
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by its similarity to anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Family-based treatment (FBT) has shown promising initial results for treatment of AN in adolescents, yet the precise mechanisms of action are unknown. We present a theoretical argument and model, suggesting that FBT may work via exposure (and habituation) to food and its consumption. First, we review the evidence for pathological anxiety in AN, and suggest a framework for identifying specific anxious triggers, emotions (fear and worry) and avoidance strategies. Second, we briefly review evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and specifically exposure in its various forms is most effective for treating anxiety disorders in youth. Third, we consider distinct approaches to exposure therapy based on the pattern of triggers, anxious emotions and avoidance. We conclude that the interventions utilized in FBT share clear similarities to exposure with response prevention, a type of exposure therapy commonly used with OCD, and may work via facilitating habituation to food and eating in one's natural environment. We also highlight how parents facilitate this process in between sessions by effectively coaching their children and facilitating naturalistic exposure to food and related triggers. Options for future research are considered.
Germain, Natacha; Galusca, Bogdan; Grouselle, Dominique; Frere, Delphine; Tolle, Virginie; Zizzari, Philippe; Lang, François; Epelbaum, Jacques; Estour, Bruno
Constitutional thinness (CT) and anorexia nervosa (AN) are two categories of severely underweight subjects. Some appetite-regulating hormones display opposite levels in AN and CT. While levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, fit with the normal food intake in CT, the lack of efficacy of increased ghrelin levels in AN is not clear. Obestatin is a recently described peptide derived from the preproghrelin gene, reported to inhibit appetite in contrast to ghrelin. The aim of this study was to determine whether the circadian profile of obestatin, total and acylated ghrelin levels is different in CT subjects when compared with AN patients. Six-points circadian profiles of plasma obestatin, acylated ghrelin, total ghrelin and other hormonal and nutritional parameters were evaluated in four groups of young women: 10 CT, 15 restricting-type AN, 7 restored from AN and 9 control subjects. Obestatin circadian levels were significantly higher in AN (p<0.0001) while no difference was found between CT and control subjects. Acylated and total ghrelin were found increased in AN. Acylated ghrelin/obestatin and total ghrelin/obestatin were found decreased in AN compared to CT or C subjects (p<0.05). The percentage of acylated ghrelin was found decreased in CT group (p<0.05). The decreased ghrelin/obestatin ratio found in AN might participate in the restraint in nutriment intake of these patients. In contrast, in CT a lower percentage of acylated over total ghrelin might be considered in the aetiology of this condition.
Selby, Edward A.; Smith, April R.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Olmsted, Marion P.; Thornton, Laura; McFarlane, Traci L.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Brandt, Harry A.; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Jacoby, Georg E.; Johnson, Craig L.; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S.; Mitchell, James E.; Nutzinger, Detlev O.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Joiner, Thomas E.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is perhaps the most lethal mental disorder, in part due to starvation-related health problems, but especially because of high suicide rates. One potential reason for high suicide rates in AN may be that those affected face pain and provocation on many fronts, which may in turn reduce their fear of pain and thereby increase risk for death by suicide. The purpose of the following studies was to explore whether repetitive exposure to painful and destructive behaviors such as vomiting, laxative use, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) was a mechanism that linked AN-binge-purging (ANBP) subtype, as opposed to AN-restricting subtype (ANR), to extreme suicidal behavior. Study 1 utilized a sample of 787 individuals diagnosed with one or the other subtype of AN, and structural equation modeling results supported provocative behaviors as a mechanism linking ANBP to suicidal behavior. A second, unexpected mechanism emerged linking ANR to suicidal behavior via restricting. Study 2, which used a sample of 249 AN patients, replicated these findings, including the second mechanism linking ANR to suicide attempts. Two potential routes to suicidal behavior in AN appear to have been identified: one route through repetitive experience with provocative behaviors for ANBP, and a second for exposure to pain through the starvation of restricting in ANR. PMID:20398895
Collin, Paula; Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Howard, Ruth; Grierson, David; Yellowlees, Alex
Self-esteem improvement is one of the main targets of inpatient eating disorder programmes. The present study sought to examine multi-dimensional self-esteem and magnitude of change in eating psychopathology among adults participating in a specialist inpatient treatment programme for anorexia nervosa. A standardised assessment battery, including multi-dimensional measures of eating psychopathology and self-esteem, was completed pre- and post-treatment for 60 participants (all white Scottish female, mean age=25.63 years). Statistical analyses indicated that self-esteem improved with eating psychopathology and weight over the course of treatment, but that improvements were domain-specific and small in size. Global self-esteem was not predictive of treatment outcome. Dimensions of self-esteem at baseline (Lovability and Moral Self-approval), however, were predictive of magnitude of change in dimensions of eating psychopathology (Shape and Weight Concern). Magnitude of change in Self-Control and Lovability dimensions were predictive of magnitude of change in eating psychopathology (Global, Dietary Restraint, and Shape Concern). The results of this study demonstrate that the relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder is far from straightforward, and suggest that future research and interventions should focus less exclusively on self-esteem as a uni-dimensional psychological construct.
Foppiani, Luca; Massobrio, Bruno; Cascio, Christian; Antonucci, Giancarlo
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder which typically occurs in young women; however, more and more cases in middle-aged women are being reported. The management of this complex disease requires a team approach, and full recovery occurs only in 50% of patients. Endocrine and metabolic complications are commonly observed, the latter of which may even be life-threatening, and require prompt and proper management. Infections, albeit reported, are not usually a major clinical problem in these patients. We herein report the case of a severely malnourished middle-aged woman with long-standing AN who was hospitalized with marked hypokalaemia (1.5 mEq/L) and rhabdomyolysis; during hospitalization she developed septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which required urgent admission to the intensive care unit. She underwent sedation and tracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation and was managed with combined therapies, which eventually led to a successful outcome. Life-threatening medical complications can occur not only in young women but in middle-aged women with AN as well and require a combined multidisciplinary approach. PMID:28154278
Scaife, Jessica Clare; Godier, Lauren Rose; Filippini, Nicola; Harmer, Catherine J.; Park, Rebecca J.
Functional connectivity studies based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have shown alterations in brain networks associated with self-referential processing, cognitive control, and somatosensory processing in anorexia nervosa (AN). This study aimed to further investigate the functional connectivity of resting-state networks (RSNs) in homogenous subsamples of individuals with restrictive AN (current and recovered) and the relationship this has with core eating disorder psychopathology. rs-fMRI scans were obtained from 12 female individuals with restrictive AN, 14 females recovered from restrictive AN, and 16 female healthy controls. Independent components analysis revealed a set of functionally relevant RSNs, previously reported in the literature. Dual regression analysis showed decreased temporal coherence within the lateral visual and auditory RSNs in individuals with current AN and those recovered from AN compared to healthy individuals. This decreased connectivity was also found in regions associated with somatosensory processing, and is consistent with reduced interoceptive awareness and body image perception, characteristic of AN. Widespread gray matter (GM) reductions were also found in both the AN groups, and differences in functional connectivity were no longer significant when GM maps were added as a covariate in the dual regression analysis. This raises the possibility that deficits in somatosensory and interoceptive processing observed in AN may be in part underpinned or exacerbated by GM reductions.
Maïmoun, L; Guillaume, S; Lefebvre, P; Philibert, P; Bertet, H; Picot, M-C; Courtet, P; Mariano-Goulart, D; Renard, E; Sultan, C
Recent experimental data suggest that circulating serotonin interacts with bone metabolism, although this is less clear in humans. This study investigated whether serum serotonin interferes with bone metabolism in young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), a clinical model of energy deprivation. Serum serotonin, markers of bone turnover [osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), type I-C telopeptide breakdown products (CTX)], leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein (IGFBP-3) were assessed. Whole body, spine, hip, and radius areal bone mineral density BMD (aBMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 21 patients with AN and 19 age-matched controls. Serum serotonin, leptin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, OC, PINP, and aBMD at all sites, radius excepted, were significantly reduced in AN whereas CTX and sOB-R were increased compared with controls. Serum serotonin levels were positively correlated with weight, body mass index, whole body fat mass, leptin, and IGF-1, and negatively with CTX for the entire population. Low serum serotonin levels are observed in patients with AN. Although no direct link between low serum serotonin levels and bone mass was identified in these patients, the negative relationship between serotonin and markers of bone resorption found in all population nevertheless suggests the implication of serotonin in bone metabolism. Impact of low serum serotonin on bone in AN warrants further studies.
Pezard, Laurent; Doba, Karyn; Lesne, Annick; Nandrino, Jean-Louis
Emotional interactions have been considered dynamical processes involved in the affective life of humans and their disturbances may induce mental disorders. Most studies of emotional interactions have focused on dyadic behaviors or self-reports of emotional states but neglected the dynamical processes involved in family therapy. The main objective of this study is to quantify the dynamics of emotional expressions and their changes using the family therapy of patients with anorexia nervosa as an example. Nonlinear methods characterize the variability of the dynamics at the level of the whole therapeutic system and reciprocal influence between the participants during family therapy. Results show that the variability of the dynamics is higher at the end of the therapy than at the beginning. The reciprocal influences between therapist and each member of the family and between mother and patient decrease with the course of family therapy. Our results support the development of new interpersonal strategies of emotion regulation during family therapy. The quantification of emotional dynamics can help understanding the emotional processes underlying psychopathology and evaluating quantitatively the changes achieved by the therapeutic intervention.
Urgesi, Cosimo; Fornasari, Livia; Canalaz, Francesca; Perini, Laura; Cremaschi, Silvana; Faleschini, Laura; Thyrion, Erica Zappoli; Zuliani, Martina; Balestrieri, Matteo; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from severe disturbances of body perception. It is unclear, however, whether such disturbances are linked to specific alterations in the processing of body configurations with respect to the local processing of body part details. Here, we compared a consecutive sample of 12 AN patients with a group of 12 age-, gender- and education-matched controls using an inversion effect paradigm requiring the visual discrimination of upright and inverted pictures of whole bodies, faces and objects. The AN patients presented selective deficits in the discrimination of upright body stimuli, which requires configural processing. Conversely, patients and controls showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of inverted bodies, which involves only detail-based processing, and in the discrimination of both upright and inverted faces and objects. Importantly, the body inversion effect negatively correlated with the persistence scores at the Temperament and Character Inventory, which evaluates increased tendency to convert a signal of punishment into a signal of reinforcement. These results suggest that the deficits of configural processing in AN patients may be associated with their obsessive worries about body appearance and to the excessive attention to details that characterizes their general perceptual style.
Spitoni, Grazia Fernanda; Serino, Andrea; Cotugno, Armando; Mancini, Francesco; Antonucci, Gabriella; Pizzamiglio, Luigi
A core symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe alteration of body representations. Evidence from somatoperception studies point to a generic disturbances of somatosensory components of body representations. Here we have investigated whether AN patients (N=18) and controls differed in the perception of tactile stimuli differently oriented along the body axes. We tested the hypothesis that patients perceive and represent their body selectively larger in only one dimension. To this aim we used elementary tactile measures for tactile acuity (Von Frey's test and two-point discrimination thresholds - 2PD) and tactile discrimination measures. The rationale is based on the assumption that AN patients have a wider body representation, and that tactile body representation tasks (Tactile Distance task) oriented across the bodies (horizontally) are influenced by distorted body representations compared with tactile stimuli oriented along the bodies (vertically) which should not be influenced by body representations. Results showed that patients judged horizontal tactile stimuli significantly wider than the same stimuli oriented vertically.These results suggest that human brain perceives things differently based on body representations and that the beliefs concerning body size influence the specific somatosensory process of tactile experience.
Scaife, Jessica C.; Park, Rebecca J.
Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB) towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli. PMID:27525258
Marzola, Enrica; Nasser, Jennifer A; Hashim, Sami A; Shih, Pei-An Betty; Kaye, Walter H
Restoration of weight and nutritional status are key elements in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). This review aims to describe issues related to the caloric requirements needed to gain and maintain weight for short and long-term recovery for AN inpatients and outpatients.We reviewed the literature in PubMed pertaining to nutritional restoration in AN between 1960-2012. Based on this search, several themes emerged: 1. AN eating behavior; 2. Weight restoration in AN; 3. Role of exercise and metabolism in resistance to weight gain; 3. Medical consequences of weight restoration; 4. Rate of weight gain; 5. Weight maintenance; and 6. Nutrient intake.A fair amount is known about overall caloric requirements for weight restoration and maintenance for AN. For example, starting at 30-40 kilocalories per kilogram per day (kcal/kg/day) with increases up to 70-100 kcal/kg/day can achieve a weight gain of 1-1.5 kg/week for inpatients. However, little is known about the effects of nutritional deficits on weight gain, or how to meet nutrient requirements for restoration of nutritional status.This review seeks to draw attention to the need for the development of a foundation of basic nutritional knowledge about AN so that future treatment can be evidenced-based.
Wierenga, Christina E.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A. James; Irvine, Zoe; Torres, Laura; Bailer, Ursula F.; Simmons, Alan; Fudge, Julie L.; McClure, Samuel M.; Ely, Alice; Kaye, Walter H.
Background Hunger enhances sensitivity to reward, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not motivated to eat when starved. This study examined whether diminished response to reward could underlie food restriction in AN by investigating brain response to rewards during hunger and satiated states. Methods Using a delay discounting monetary decision task known to discriminate brain regions contributing to processing of immediate rewards and cognitive control important for decision making regarding future rewards, we compared 23 adults remitted from AN (to reduce the confounding effects of starvation [RAN]) to 17 healthy women (CW). Monetary rewards were used because the rewarding value of food may be confounded by anxiety in AN. Results Interactions of group (RAN, CW) × visit (hunger, satiety) revealed that, for CW, hunger significantly increased activation in reward salience circuitry (ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, anterior cingulate cortex) during processing of immediate reward, whereas satiety increased activation in cognitive control circuitry (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula) during decision-making. In contrast, brain response in reward and cognitive neurocircuitry did not differ during hunger and satiety in RAN. A main effect of group revealed elevated response in the middle frontal gyrus for RAN. Conclusions RAN failed to increase activation of reward valuation circuitry when hungry and showed elevated response in cognitive control circuitry independent of metabolic state. Decreased sensitivity to hunger’s motivational drive may explain AN individuals’ ability to restrict food when emaciated. Moreover, difficulties in valuating emotional salience may contribute to inabilities to appreciate the risks inherent in this deadly disorder. PMID:25481622
Calderoni, Sara; Fantozzi, Pamela; Balboni, Giulia; Pagni, Veronica; Franzoni, Emilio; Apicella, Fabio; Narzisi, Antonio; Maestro, Sandra; Muratori, Filippo
Background Although previous studies indicated a positive association between restrictive anorexia-nervosa (AN-R) and autistic traits, the potential interference of psychiatric internalizing comorbidity on this association is not yet fully investigated. Materials and methods The aim of this study was to explore autistic traits and internalizing psychopathology in adolescents (age range: 11.7–17.2 years) with AN-R. Twenty-five patients referred to two tertiary-care hospitals were compared to a large control group (N=170) with no differences in age and sex. AN-R patients and controls filled out instruments assessing autistic traits (autism spectrum quotient [AQ]), psychopathology (youth self-report [YSR] 11–18), and eating patterns (eating attitude test [EAT]). In order to disentangle the possible mediating role of internalizing symptoms on autistic traits, two separate control groups (called True and False healthy control, both composed of 25 eating-problem-free participants) were derived from the whole control group on the basis of the presence or absence of internalizing problems in the YSR. Results AN-R patients scored significantly higher on AQ compared to the whole control group and to controls without internalizing problems (True HC), but these differences disappeared when only controls with internalizing problems (False HC) were considered. Conclusion Autistic traits in AN-R individuals may have been overestimated and may partly be due to comorbid internalizing symptoms in investigated patients. PMID:25609969
DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Gordon, Catherine M.
Rates of vertebral fracture (VF) for young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not well understood. We sought to determine the rates of asymptomatic VF in patients suffering from AN, hypothesizing that VF rates would be higher in subjects with low BMD Z-scores. We recruited young women with AN (n=80) for participation in a longitudinal trial. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images of the lateral thoracic and lumbar spine were obtained for vertebral fracture assessment at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months. Thirteen subjects (16%) had a low spinal BMD at baseline (BMD Z-score ≤ –2 SD). Using the Genant semiquantitative technique, 2/80 subjects at baseline (2.5%) had evidence of a single, Genant grade 1 deformity. One subject had a Genant Grade 2 deformity. Over the 18-month trial, 10 incident vertebral fractures occurred in 9 subjects (12.5%). Using quantitative techniques, only two subjects had a >15% loss in vertebral height. Neither anthropometric data nor markers of disease severity were associated with fracture. In conclusion, ill young women with AN were at low risk for asymptomatic VF in our cohort. Vertebral fractures were not predicted by duration of illness, severity of malnutrition, or traditional measures of aBMD at the lumbar spine. PMID:23562364
Doba, Karyn; Pezard, Laurent; Berna, Guillaume; Vignau, Jean; Nandrino, Jean-Louis
Objective Although patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) present positive responses to family therapy, the key features of therapeutic changes still require identification. This study explores the role of conflictual communication and affiliative nonverbal behaviour in therapeutic change in brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) for AN patients. Methods Ten female AN patients and their parents were included in the sample and took part in a 6-month follow-up of BSFT. The durations of conflictual communication and of affiliative nonverbal behaviour estimated by eye contact were compared between the first and the last sessions of family-based treatment using nonparametric statistical tests. Results An increase of the Body Mass Index associated with an increase in the conflictual communication expressed during BSFT sessions were observed. Moreover, affiliative nonverbal behaviour expressed by the father and the patient decrease, after a BSFT follow-up, in conflictual situations only. By contrast, no significant difference was observed in affiliative nonverbal behaviour expressed by the mother. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that the impact of the BSFT differs between members of a family: the AN patient and the father have established a new form of emotional functioning with a decrease in emotional involvement. The study of the combination between verbal and nonverbal communication can represent an important step in the understanding of the mechanisms of therapeutic change. PMID:23936421
O'Hara, Caitlin B; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike
This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN.
Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M
Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN.
Jänsch, Claire; Harmer, Catherine; Cooper, Myra J
Emotional processing was investigated in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in healthy volunteers (HVs) using self report questionnaires and information processing tasks. Compared to the HVs, patients with AN had lower levels of self reported emotional awareness and expression. They also responded more slowly to, correctly identified fewer emotions and misclassified more emotions in a facial recognition task, and responded more slowly to, and recalled fewer, self-referent emotion words. There were no key differences between the two groups on non-emotional control tasks, suggesting that their deficits are specific to emotional information and not a general feature of the illness. Analysis indicated that some, but not all, of the differences found remained when depressive symptoms were taken into account. Exploratory analysis of sub-groups (medicated vs. unmedicated patients) indicated that those who were on medication may perform very differently from those who were not on medication, including when level of depression is controlled, although it is important to emphasise that these findings are preliminary. The implications of a deficit in emotional processing in those with AN, including discussion of the specific differences found between medicated and unmedicated, are discussed in relation to previous findings in the area. A number of implications for future research, theory and therapy with those with AN are discussed.
Haynos, Ann F.; Roberto, Christina A.; Martinez, Margaret A.; Attia, Evelyn; Fruzzetti, Alan E.
Objective This study examined: 1) changes in emotion regulation difficulties in underweight inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) following weight restoration, 2) differences in emotion regulation between AN subtypes at acute and weight-restored stages of illness. Methods Repeated measure analyses of variance examined changes in scores on the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer, 2004) and other clinical variables in a group of inpatients with AN from hospital admission (N=65) to weight-restoration (N=51). Correlations between BMI and DERS scores at both time points were examined. Emotion regulation difficulties were compared between individuals with AN, restricting type (AN-R) and AN, binge/purge type (AN-BP) at both time points using multivariate analysis of covariance. Results All clinical variables, except for the DERS, significantly improved with weight restoration (p<.001). There were no associations between BMI and DERS prior to or after weight restoration and AN subtypes did not significantly differ in emotion regulation difficulties. Discussion Unlike other clinical variables, emotion regulation difficulties in AN did not improve with weight restoration. In addition, both subtypes of AN appear to have similar difficulties with emotion regulation. Treatment of AN might be enhanced by focusing on improving emotion regulation abilities. PMID:24590507
Schebendach, Janet E.; Klein, Diane A.; Mayer, Laurel E.S.; Devlin, Michael J.; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy
Objective Avoidance of dietary fat is a highly characteristic eating behavior of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). To date, no study has determined whether these individuals are better able to perceive the fat content of foods than individuals without AN. The goal of this study was to compare blinded taste ratings of fat free, low fat, and regular cream cheese in patients with AN and in normal controls (NC). Methods AN (n=25) and control (NC; n=25) participants were presented with a series of nine cream cheese samples of three differing fat contents and asked to taste and rate each sample from very low to very high fat. Results Repeated measures ANOVA found no significant main effect of fat content and no interaction between fat content and diagnosis; however, a significant three-way interaction between fat content, diagnosis, and trial was observed. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant fat content by trial interaction within the AN group, suggesting a significant trial effect for the fat free samples only with improving ability to detect fat-free samples over repeated trials. Conclusions The current study suggests that individuals with AN do not have a markedly greater ability to taste fat than NC, and that; therefore, fat avoidance is likely primarily based on cognitive factors. PMID:24282163
Racine, Sarah E.; Wildes, Jennifer E.
Objective Theoretical models of emotion regulation difficulties in anorexia nervosa (AN) specify a role for factors that predispose to or precipitate emotion dysregulation. The current study considered whether childhood abuse (i.e., emotional, sexual, physical) might be related to emotion regulation difficulties and eating disorder symptom severity in patients with AN. Childhood abuse was hypothesized to relate to AN symptoms indirectly via emotion dysregulation. Method Participants were 188 patients with AN presenting to an intensive treatment facility. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Eating Disorder Examination were used to assess childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, and AN symptom severity, respectively. Results Of the three forms of childhood abuse, reports of emotional abuse were most strongly related to emotion regulation difficulties and AN symptom severity. Mediation analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation significantly explained the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and AN symptomatology, and mediation effects did not differ by AN subtype (i.e., restricting versus binge-eating/purging). Discussion Findings provide initial support for a model in which childhood emotional abuse precipitates emotion dysregulation and the development of AN. Future studies with longitudinal designs and control groups are necessary to examine the direction and specificity of these cross-sectional associations. PMID:25358997
Haynos, Ann F.; Snipes, Cassandra; Guarda, Angela; Mayer, Laurel E.; Attia, Evelyn
Objective Sparse research informs how caloric prescriptions should be advanced during nutritional rehabilitation of inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study compared the impact of a standardized caloric increase approach, in which increases occurred on a predetermined schedule, to an individualized approach, in which increases occurred only following insufficient weight gain, on rate, pattern, and cumulative amount of weight gain and other weight restoration outcomes. Method This study followed a natural experiment design comparing AN inpatients consecutively admitted before (n = 35) and after (n = 35) an institutional change from individualized to standardized caloric prescriptions. Authors examined the impact of prescription plan on weekly weight gain in the first treatment month using multilevel modeling. Within a subsample remaining inpatient through weight restoration (n = 40), multiple regressions examined the impact of caloric prescription plan on time to weight restoration, length of hospitalization, maximum caloric prescription, discharge BMI, and incidence of activity restriction and edema. Results There were significant interactions between prescription plan and quadratic time on average weekly weight gain (p = .03) and linear time on cumulative weekly weight gain (p < .001). Under the standardized plan, patients gained in an accelerated curvilinear pattern (p = .04) and, therefore, gained cumulatively greater amounts of weight over time (p < .001). Additionally, 30% fewer patients required activity restriction under the standardized plan. Discussion Standardized caloric prescriptions may confer advantage by facilitating accelerated early weight gain and lower incidence of bed rest without increasing the incidence of refeeding syndrome. PMID:26769581
Cardi, Valentina; Lounes, Naima; Kan, Carol; Treasure, Janet
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a "supported eating" intervention using mobile technology in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Twenty Inpatients and 18 Outpatients with AN underwent a test meal on two occasions, whilst listening to either a short video-clip ('vodcast'), or music delivered on an MP4 player. Self-report and behavioural measures were collected before and after each test meal. Differences were found between the inpatient and outpatient settings. Inpatients drank more of the test meal and had increased levels of vigilance to food after the test meal, in both conditions. When the support conditions (Vodcast vs. Music) were compared, inpatients seemed to benefit more from listening to music (reduced distress and more smoothie drunk), whereas outpatients benefitted more from using the vodcast (reduced distress, more smoothie drunk, and reduced vigilance to food). The context in which the intervention was delivered had an impact on self-report and behavioural measures collected during the test meal. This suggests that the form of meal support in AN needs to match the context.
Cipolletta, Sabrina; Malighetti, Clelia; Serino, Silvia; Riva, Giuseppe; Winter, David
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe body image disturbances. Recent studies from spatial cognition showed a connection between the experience of body and of space. The objectives of this study were to explore the meanings that characterize AN experience and to deepen the examination of spatiality in relational terms, through the study of how the patient construes herself and her interpersonal world. More specifically this study aimed (1) to verify whether spatial variables and aspects of construing differentiate patients with AN and healthy controls (HCs) and are related to severity of anorexic symptomatology; (2) to explore correlations between impairments in spatial abilities and interpersonal construing. A sample of 12 AN patients and 12 HCs participated in the study. The Eating Disorder Inventory, a virtual reality-based procedure, traditional measures of spatial abilities, and repertory grids were administered. The AN group compared to HCs showed significant impairments in spatial abilities, more unidimensional construing, and more extreme construing of the present self and of the self as seen by others. All these dimensions correlated with the severity of symptomatology. Extreme ways of construing characterized individuals with AN and might represent the interpersonal aspect of impairment in spatial reference frames.
Tokley, Melanie; Kemps, Eva
The present study investigated preoccupation with detail as a potential mechanism underlying poor abstraction in anorexia nervosa (AN). Abstract thinking performance of 24 women with AN (16-31 years) was compared against that of 24 healthy controls matched for age, education and socio-economic status, using the Object Assembly subtest of the WAIS III. Participants also completed measures of two indices of preoccupation with detail: field dependence-independence (Group Embedded Figures Test) and obsessionality (Leyton Obsessional Inventory). Perfectionism (Perfectionism subscale of the EDI-II) and mental rigidity (Trail Making Test), sub-components of obsessionality, were also measured. Women with AN showed a significant deficit in abstract thinking performance, which could not be explained by a more general intellectual deficit or diminished information processing speed. The AN sample also showed a greater preoccupation with detail relative to the control group. Controlling for preoccupation with detail reduced the group difference in abstract thinking to non-significance. However, only field dependence-independence contributed significantly to the relationship between group membership and abstract thinking performance. Thus, poor abstract thinking in AN appears to be at least partly attributable to a field-independent cognitive style, characterised by a bias towards focusing on detail at the expense of considering the gestalt.
Park, Rebecca J; Godier, Lauren R; Cowdrey, Felicity A
Dysfunctional reward from the pursuit of thinness presents a major challenge to recovery from Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We explore the neuroscientific basis of aberrant reward in AN, with the aim of generating novel hypotheses for translational investigation, and elucidate disease mechanisms to inform the development of targeted interventions. Relevant neuroimaging and behavioural studies are reviewed. These suggest that altered eating in AN may be a consequence of aberrant reward processing combined with exaggerated cognitive control. We consider evidence that such aberrant reward processing is reflected in the compulsive behaviours characterising AN, with substantial overlap in the neural circuits implicated in reward processing and compulsivity. Drawing on contemporary neuroscientific theories of substance dependence, processes underpinning the shift from the initially rewarding pursuit of thinness to extreme and compulsive weight control behaviours are discussed. It is suggested that in AN, weight loss behaviour begins as overtly rewarding, goal-directed and positively reinforced, but over time becomes habitual and increasingly negatively reinforced. Excessive habit formation is suggested as one underlying mechanism perpetuating compulsive behaviour. Ongoing research into the behavioural and neural basis of aberrant reward in AN is required to further elucidate mechanisms. We discuss clinical and transdiagnostic implications, and propose that future treatment innovation may benefit from the development of novel interventions targeting aberrant reward processing in AN.
Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Torres, Laura; Wagner, Angela; Kaye, Walter H.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine
Objective A recent study of ill individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) reported microstructural alterations in white matter integrity including lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity. The present study was designed to determine whether such alterations exist in longterm recovered AN individuals and to examine potential associations with underlying AN traits. Method Twelve adult women recovered from restricting-type AN and 10 control women were studied using diffusion tensor imaging. Results Overall, there was no significant fractional anisotropy alteration in recovered AN, in contrast to a prior study reporting lower fractional anisotropy in ill AN. Further, recovered AN showed lower mean diffusivity in frontal, parietal and cingulum white matter relative to control women, contrary to elevated mean diffusivity previously reported in ill AN. Lower longitudinal diffusivity in recovered AN was associated with higher harm avoidance. However, more severe illness history was associated with worse white matter integrity after recovery in the same direction as reported in prior work. Discussion Our findings suggest that fractional anisotropy in recovered AN is not different from controls, however, a novel pattern of lower mean diffusivity was evidenced in recovered AN, and this alteration was associated with harm avoidance. Notably, severity of illness history may have long-term consequences, emphasizing the importance of aggressive treatment. PMID:23818167
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Pierò, Andrea; Gramaglia, Carla; Gandione, Marina; Fassino, Secondo
The "atypical" subgroup of women with anorexia nervosa not characterized by drive for thinness (DT) was studied. The study group comprised 151 anorectic patients (restrictor anorectics [AN-R], n=74; binge-purging anorectics [AN-BP], n=77). Subjects completed the following self-administered questionnaires: Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were subdivided into three groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and DT score: AN-I with a BMI<15 and DT<7 (n=24); AN-II with a BMI>15 and DT<7 (n=34); and AN-III with a BMI<17.5 and DT>7 (n=93). Patients belonging to the AN-III group had a more severe disorder and form of psychopathology based on their scores on several scales. No association emerged between personality disorders and any single subgroup. Three hypotheses emerge: (1) some patients (about 38%) deny DT and provide negative answers on the questionnaires; (2) patients without DT (even when malnourished) seem to show less severe psychopathologic and personality traits; and (3) patients without DT answer questions honestly, but they have developed a character structure that enables them to feel negative and ego-dystonic emotions regarding their condition. Implications for treatment are discussed.
Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio
Aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and the treatment outcome of underweight patients with eating disorder (ED) not otherwise specified without amenorrhea (EDNOS-WA), compared with classical anorexia nervosa (AN) cases. Seventy-three consecutive female patients (57 AN, and 16 EDNOS-WA) were evaluated before and after a 20-week cognitive behaviour inpatient treatment (CBT-I). Assessment included anthropometry, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). At logistic regression analysis, amenorrhea was only predicted by baseline BMI and intense exercise, not by psychopathological variables. Response to CBT-I was good and similar between groups, without differences in the dropout rate or time-to-dropout. Our data lend support to the hypothesis that the criterion "amenorrhea" is of no clinical utility in the diagnosis and treatment of AN and could be removed in the forthcoming DSM-V proposal.
Frank, Guido K.W.; Shott, Megan E.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Yang, Tony T.
Objective The neurobiological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa (AN) are poorly understood. In this study we tested whether brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in adolescents with AN would show alterations comparable to adults. Method We used magnetic resonance imaging to study GM and WM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging to assess fractional anisotropy for WM integrity in 19 adolescents with AN and 22 controls. Results Individuals with AN showed greater left orbitofrontal, right insular, and bilateral temporal cortex GM, as well as temporal lobe WM volumes compared to controls. WM integrity in adolescents with AN was lower (lower fractional anisotropy) in fornix, posterior frontal, and parietal areas, but higher in anterior frontal, orbitofrontal, and temporal lobes. In individuals with AN, orbitofrontal GM volume correlated negatively with sweet taste pleasantness. An additional comparison of this study cohort with adult individuals with AN and healthy controls supported greater orbitofrontal cortex and insula volumes in AN across age groups. Conclusions This study indicates larger orbitofrontal and insular GM volumes, as well as lower fornix WM integrity in adolescents with AN, similar to adults. The pattern of larger anteroventral GM and WM volume as well as WM integrity, but lower WM integrity in posterior frontal and parietal regions may indicate that developmental factors such as GM pruning and WM growth could contribute to brain alterations in AN. The negative correlation between taste pleasantness and orbitofrontal cortex volume in individuals with AN could contribute to food avoidance in this disorder. PMID:24074473
Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Evans, Siobahn; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P. Read; Krawczyk, Daniel C.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness characterized by problems with self-perception. Whole-brain neural activations in healthy women, women with AN and women in long-term weight recovery following AN were compared using two functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks probing different aspects of self-perception. The Social Identity-V2 task involved consideration about oneself and others using socially descriptive adjectives. Both the ill and weight-recovered women with AN engaged medial prefrontal cortex less than healthy women for self-relevant cognitions, a potential biological trait difference. Weight-recovered women also activated the inferior frontal gyri and dorsal anterior cingulate more for direct self-evaluations than for reflected self-evaluations, unlike both other groups, suggesting that recovery may include compensatory neural changes related to social perspectives. The Faces task compared viewing oneself to a stranger. Participants with AN showed elevated activity in the bilateral fusiform gyri for self-images, unlike the weight-recovered and healthy women, suggesting cognitive distortions about physical appearance are a state rather than trait problem in this disease. Because both ill and recovered women showed neural differences related to social self-perception, but only recovered women differed when considering social perspectives, these neurocognitive targets may be particularly important for treatment. PMID:27354739
Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Holsen, Laura M.; DeSanti, Rebecca; Santin, McKale; Meenaghan, Erinne; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne
Objective Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated hypercortisolemia has been demonstrated in anorexia nervosa (anorexia), a psychiatric disorder characterized by food restriction despite low body weight. While CRH is anorexigenic, downstream cortisol stimulates hunger. Using a food-related fMRI paradigm, we have demonstrated hypoactivation of brain regions involved in food motivation in women with anorexia, even after weight-recovery. The relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and appetite, and the association with food motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation is unknown in anorexia. We investigated the relationship between HPA activity, appetite and food motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation in anorexia. Design Cross-sectional study of 36 women [13 anorexia (AN), 10 weight-recovered AN (ANWR), 13 healthy controls (HC)]. Methods Peripheral cortisol and ACTH levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120min after a standardized mixed meal. The Visual Analogue Scale was used to assess homeostatic and hedonic appetite. fMRI was performed during visual processing of food and non-food stimuli to measure brain activation pre- and post-meal. Results In each group, serum cortisol levels decreased following the meal. Mean fasting, 120min post-meal, and nadir cortisol levels were high in AN vs. HC. Mean postprandial ACTH levels were high in ANWR compared to HC and AN. Cortisol levels were associated with lower fasting homeostatic and hedonic appetite, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms. Cortisol levels were also associated with between-group variance in activation in food-motivation brain regions (e.g., hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, OFC and insula). Conclusions HPA activation may contribute to the maintenance of anorexia by suppression of appetitive drive. PMID:23946275
Should the national idiosyncrasies in the medical history of anorexia nervosa be attributed to differences in its prevalence or to differences in medical thinking? French, German, and Italian literature prior to World War I demonstrates that three approaches within traditions of psychiatric or medical thinking suffice to explain the national differences in reports of anorexia nervosa: minute clinical description, attentiveness to psychological facts, and attentiveness to nutrition. Furthermore, additional contributing factors are considered: general interest in neuroses, the institutional context, and the political context. As a result, historical epidemiological inferences are not warranted on the basis of the number of publications alone.
Allison, Elizabeth; Dawson, Nicola; Phillips, Jane; Lynch, Catherine; Coleman, Jacinta
Assessing and managing children who are underweight is an integral part of paediatric practice. Young people with anorexia nervosa (AN) are mainly cared for in the community by specialist eating disorder services. However, increasing numbers require admission to paediatric wards with medical instability due to the complications of starvation. Despite recommendations published in the junior MARSIPAN report in 2012, many paediatricians still feel poorly equipped to care for these high-risk patients. This article aims to provide a safe and structured approach to the assessment and management of children and adolescents with medically unstable AN.
Fassino, S; Abbate-Daga, G; Leombruni, P; Amianto, F; Rovera, G; Rovera, G G
This study compares personality traits of men and women with anorexia nervosa and matched controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory was used to assess personality traits of 15 male and 50 female anorectics and 28 male and 58 female controls matched for age and education. Male anorectic patients displayed overall lower reward dependence and cooperativeness. Male and female anorectics displayed higher persistence and lower self-directedness than controls. Anorectic men had lower harm avoidance than anorectic women. Discriminating analysis revealed the anorectic male group as the most clearly defined. Anorectic men shared more traits with anorectic women than with male controls. Temperament and character of anorectic men reflect features partly similar to those of women with anorexia. Personal history and discriminating analysis led to interesting inferences about the gender identity of anorectic men. These results should be helpful in directing pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic approaches that consider the specific personality traits of these patients.
Khalsa, Sahib S.; Craske, Michelle G.; Li, Wei; Vangala, Sitaram; Strober, Michael; Feusner, Jamie D.
Objective Impaired interoceptive awareness (IA), the subjective perception of internal body sensations, has been proposed as a vulnerability or maintaining factor in anorexia nervosa (AN). We examined whether IA of heartbeat and breathing sensations was impaired in AN across a range of arousal levels, and whether it was influenced by meal anticipation and consumption. Method IA was assessed using randomized, double-blinded, bolus intravenous infusions of isoproterenol, a peripheral beta-adrenergic sympathetic agonist, and saline. Fifteen women with AN and 15 age-, and sex- matched healthy comparisons were evaluated before and after consumption of a 1000 Calorie meal. During each infusion participants rated their moment-to-moment intensity of heartbeat and breathing sensations with a dial. To measure IA we evaluated interoceptive detection thresholds, retrospective ratings of palpitation and dyspnea intensity, and interoceptive accuracy via correlations between subjective dial ratings and observed heart rate responses. Results Contrary to prediction the AN group was more likely to report detection of interoceptive sensations across all conditions, an effect driven by false discriminations at low arousal levels. Concordant with prediction, meal anticipation was associated with intensified interoceptive sensations, particularly dyspnea. There were no differences in interoceptive accuracy. Discussion This represents the first demonstration of interoceptive prediction errors in AN. Although IA is unimpaired at high arousal levels in AN, prediction signals are abnormal at low arousal levels, especially during meal anticipation. Altered interoceptive prediction signaling during meal anticipation could contribute to phenotypes of high anxiety in AN or alternatively, might be explained by enhanced meal associated anxiety. PMID:25712775
Shih, Pei-an Betty; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; German, J. Bruce; Van Zeeland, Ashley; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Bergen, Andrew W.; Magistretti, Pierre; Berrettini, Wade; Halmi, Katherine Ann; Schork, Nicholas; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kaye, Walter
Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict eating and become emaciated. AN tend to have an aversion to foods rich in fat. Because Epoxide Hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) was identified as a novel AN susceptibility gene, and because its protein product, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), converts bioactive epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to the corresponding diols, lipidomic and metabolomic targets of EPHX2 were assessed to evaluate the biological functions of EPHX2 and their role in AN. Epoxide substrates of sEH and associated oxylipins were measured in ill AN, recovered AN, and gender- and race-matched controls. PUFA and oxylipin markers were tested as potential biomarkers for AN. Oxylipin ratios were calculated as proxy markers of in vivo sEH activity. Several free- and total PUFAs were associated with AN diagnosis and with AN recovery. AN displayed elevated n-3 PUFAs and may differ from controls in PUFA elongation and desaturation processes. Cytochrome P450 pathway oxylipins from arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid PUFAs are associated with AN diagnosis. The diol:epoxide ratios suggest the sEH activity is higher in AN compared to controls. Multivariate analysis illustrates normalization of lipidomic profiles in recovered ANs. EPHX2 influences AN risk through in vivo interaction with dietary PUFAs. PUFA composition and concentrations as well as sEH activity may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AN. Our data support the involvement of EPHX2-associated lipidomic and oxylipin dysregulations in AN, and reveal their potential as biomarkers to assess responsiveness to future intervention or treatment. PMID:25824304
Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen
Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488
Introduction Data on the epidemiology and management of anorexia nervosa (AN) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality of AN in French ICUs. Methods We randomly selected 30 ICUs throughout France. Thereafter, we retrospectively analyzed all patients with AN admitted to any of these 30 ICUs between May 2006 and May 2008. We considered demographic data, diagnosis at admission and complications occurring during the stay, focusing on refeeding syndrome and management of refeeding. Results Eleven of the 30 ICUs participated in the retrospective study, featuring 68 patients, including 62 women. Average body mass index at the admission was 12 ± 3 kg/m2. Twenty one were mechanically ventilated, mainly for neurological reasons. The reported average calorie intake was 22.3 ± 13 kcal/kg/24 h. Major diagnoses at admission were metabolic problems, refeeding survey and voluntary drug intoxication and infection. The most common complications were metabolic, hematological, hepatic, and infectious events, of which 10% occurred during refeeding. Seven patients developed refeeding syndrome. At day one, the average calorie intake was higher for patients who developed refeeding syndrome (23.2 ± 5 Kcal/kg/j; n = 7) versus patients without refeeding syndrome (14.1 ± 3 Kcal/kg/j; n = 61) P = 0.02. Seven patients died, two from acute respiratory distress syndrome and five from multiorgan-failure associated with major hydroelectrolytic problems. Conclusions The frequency of AN in ICU patients is very low and the crude mortality in this group is about 10%. Prevention and early-detection of refeeding syndrome is the key point. PMID:20920160
Makhzoumi, Saniha H; Coughlin, Janelle W; Schreyer, Colleen C; Redgrave, Graham W; Pitts, Steven C; Guarda, Angela S
Weight gain is a primary treatment goal for anorexia nervosa (AN); however little is known about heterogeneity in weight gain pattern during treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests weight gain trajectory is associated with treatment outcome. This study grouped patients using mixture modeling into weight gain trajectories, and compared predictors and treatment outcomes between trajectory groups. Women diagnosed with AN or subthreshold AN (N = 211) completed self-report measures at admission and six-months after discharge from an integrated inpatient (IP)-partial hospitalization (PH) behavioral specialty eating disorders program. Gowned weights were measured daily. Three distinct trajectories emerged: negative quadratic (Optimal), negative quadratic with fast weight gain (Fast), and positive linear with slower weight gain (Slow). The majority of patients were assigned to the Optimal group. Trajectory groups differed on admission, discharge, and follow-up variables. The Fast group emerged as most distinct. Women in this group were more than twice as likely to binge and or vomit regularly compared with the other two groups and were most likely to achieve weight restoration by discharge and to have more positive weight outcomes at short-term follow-up. There were no group differences in eating disorder behavioral frequencies at follow-up when adjusting for behavioral severity at admission. Weight gain trajectory may serve as a personalized in-treatment marker of outcome and could inform research on moderators and mediators of treatment response. Randomized controlled treatment studies, utilizing weight gain trajectories to determine group membership, may help identify subgroups of patients with differential responses to treatment interventions.
Frølich, Jacob; Hansen, Stinus; Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Andresen, Andreas K; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Støving, René K
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture and estimated failure load in weight-bearing vs. non-weight-bearing bones in AN. We included twenty-five females with AN, and twenty-five female controls matched on age and height. Bone geometry, vBMD and trabecular microarchitecture were assessed using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the distal radius and tibia. At both sites, cortical perimeter and total bone area were similar in patients and controls. Total vBMD was lower in the AN group in the tibia (p < 0.0005) but not in the radius. In the tibia, cortical thickness was approximately 25% lower (p < 0.0005) in the AN group, whereas there was no significant difference in the radius. In terms of trabecular microarchitecture, all indices [bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV); trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp.)] were impaired in AN in the tibia (p values range < 0.01-0.0001). In the radius, BV/TV and Tb.N were lower (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively); Tb.Sp. was higher (p < 0.001), whereas Tb.Th. did not differ, compared to controls. Estimated failure load was lower in patients in both the radius and the tibia (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.0001, respectively), most pronounced in the tibia. In conclusion, the impairment of cortical thickness and estimated failure load were significantly more pronounced in the weight-bearing tibia, compared to the non-weight-bearing radius, implying a direct effect of low body weight on bone loss in AN.
Silber, T J
The diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children and adolescents has some commonality but also differs from that of this condition in adults. A new understanding of AN is emerging: research data from the fields of epidemiology, genetics, and brain biology, suggest that there may be an underlying brain diathesis predisposing towards AN. It is now proposed that that what starts as a harmless diet, once it turns into a more prolonged food restriction may trigger an eating disorder in a genetically neurobiologically predisposed population. The condition may be then perpetuated by the biochemical changes induced by weight loss, ketosis, and the impact of the ensuing malnutrition on the brain (starvation illness). This change of paradigm from a psychological understanding to a neurobiological conceptualization calls for an early intervention to assure nutritional rehabilitation as soon as an eating disorder is suspected in children, without needing to wait for all the classical features of the diagnosis as seen in adults. This new model is agnostic about the origins of the disease and questions the classic assumption of "an underlying family pathology". It gives strong support to treatments such as Family Based Treatment, also referred to as the "Maudsley method". Essentially this consists of empowering parents to monitor and supervise the nutritional rehabilitation of their children. Hence pediatricians no longer need to be bystanders when treating these children and adolescents. They now have a clearly defined role: early diagnosticians, clinical monitors (of potential medical complications), nutrition advisors, and as members of a multidisciplinary team, patient and family advocates and educators.
Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Rieko; Matsuoka, Michiko; Chiba, Hiromi; Ozono, Shuichi; Tanigawa, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuki; Croarkin, Paul E.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro
Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements using 123I-iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26) and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil-binding activity in cortical regions of interest and psychometric profiles and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). “Depression–Dejection” and “Confusion” POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil-binding activity. Decreased binding in the anterior cingulate cortex and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered
Müller, Timo Dirk; Reichwald, Kathrin; Brönner, Günter; Kirschner, Jeanette; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Scherag, André; Herzog, Wolfgang; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Lichtner, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias; Schäfer, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke
Background Several lines of evidence indicate that the central cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) as well as the major endocannabinoid degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) are implicated in mediating the orexigenic effects of cannabinoids. The aim of this study was to analyse whether nucleotide sequence variations in the CNR1, FAAH, NAAA and MGLL genes are associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods We analysed the association of a previously described (AAT)n repeat in the 3' flanking region of CNR1 as well as a total of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representative of regions with restricted haplotype diversity in CNR1, FAAH, NAAA or MGLL in up to 91 German AN trios (patient with AN and both biological parents) using the transmission-disequilibrium-test (TDT). One SNP was additionally analysed in an independent case-control study comprising 113 patients with AN and 178 normal weight controls. Genotyping was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, ARMS-PCR or using 3730xl capillary sequencers. Results The TDT revealed no evidence for association for any of the SNPs or the (AAT)n repeat with AN (all two-sided uncorrected p-values > 0.05). The lowest p-value of 0.11 was detected for the A-allele of the CNR1 SNP rs1049353 for which the transmission rate was 59% (95% confidence interval 47%...70%). Further genotyping of rs1049353 in 113 additional independent patients with AN and 178 normal weight controls could not substantiate the initial trend for association (p = 1.00). Conclusion As we found no evidence for an association of genetic variation in CNR1, FAAH, NAAA and MGLL with AN, we conclude that genetic variations in these genes do not play a major role in the etiology of AN in our study groups. PMID:19014633
Moriya, Junko; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Akabayashi, Akira
Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is the competitive antagonist of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) located at melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 (MC3R and MC4R), and also acts as an MC4R inverse agonist. Hypothalamic AGRP controls food intake and body weight in rodents. It has also been found in human plasma. To study the possibility of disturbances in melanocortin receptor-related peptides in eating disorders, plasma AGRP, alpha-MSH, and leptin levels were measured in 18 female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) (age, 23.5+/-7.1 yr; body mass index (BMI) 14.5+/-1.8 kg/m(2)) and 17 age-matched female controls (age, 25.8+/-3.9 yr; BMI 20.2+/-1.6 kg/m(2)). Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting, and plasma peptides levels were measured using ELISA. Plasma AGRP levels increased significantly in AN patients when compared with controls (P<0.01) while plasma alpha-MSH levels were not significantly different. Plasma leptin levels decreased significantly in AN patients when compared with controls (P<0.001). In addition, plasma AGRP levels were negatively correlated with leptin (r=-0.41, P<0.01) and BMI (r=-0.40, P<0.05) in all subjects. In conclusion, plasma AGRP elevation may be related to energy homeostasis disturbance in AN, and in addition to leptin, peripheral AGRP levels could be used as a nutritional marker in AN patients.
Gueguen, Juliette; Piot, Marie-Aude; Orri, Massimiliano; Gutierre, Andrea; Le Moan, Jocelyne; Berthoz, Sylvie; Falissard, Bruno; Godart, Nathalie
Background Qigong is a mind-body intervention focusing on interoceptive awareness that appears to be a promising approach in anorexia nervosa (AN). In 2008, as part of our multidimensional treatment program for adolescent inpatients with AN, we began a weekly qigong workshop that turned out to be popular among our adolescent patients. Moreover psychiatrists perceived clinical benefits that deserved further exploration. Methods and findings A qualitative study therefore sought to obtain a deeper understanding of how young patients with severe AN experience qigong and to determine the incentives and barriers to adherence to qigong, to understanding its meaning, and to applying it in other contexts. Data were collected through 16 individual semi-structured face-to-face interviews and analyzed with the interpretative phenomenological analysis method. Eleven themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 superordinate themes describing the incentives and barriers related to the patients themselves (individual dimension), to others (relational dimension), and to the setting (organizational dimension). Individual dimensions associated with AN (such as excessive exercise and mind-body cleavage) may curb adherence, whereas relational and organizational dimensions appear to provide incentives to join the activity in the first place but may also limit its post-discharge continuation. Once barriers are overcome, patients reported positive effects: satisfaction associated with relaxation and with the experience of mind-body integration. Conclusions Qigong appears to be an interesting therapeutic tool that may potentiate psychotherapy and contribute to the recovery process of patients with AN. Further analysis of the best time window for initiating qigong and of its place in overall management might help to overcome some of the barriers, limit the risks, and maximize its benefits. PMID:28152083
Xu, Jie; Harper, Jessica A; Van Enkevort, Erin A; Latimer, Kelsey; Kelley, Urszula; McAdams, Carrie J
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an illness that frequently begins during adolescence and involves weight loss. Two groups of adolescent girls (AN-A, weight-recovered following AN) and (HC-A, healthy comparison) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving social evaluations, allowing comparison of neural activations during self-evaluations, friend-evaluations, and perspective-taking self-evaluations. Although the two groups were not different in their whole-brain activations, anxiety and body shape concerns were correlated with neural activity in a priori regions of interest. A cluster in medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate correlated with the body shape questionnaire; subjects with more body shape concerns used this area less during self than friend evaluations. A cluster in medial prefrontal cortex and the cingulate also correlated with anxiety such that more anxiety was associated with engagement when disagreeing rather than agreeing with social terms during self-evaluations. This data suggests that differences in the utilization of frontal brain regions during social evaluations may contribute to both anxiety and body shape concerns in adolescents with AN. Clinical follow-up was obtained, allowing exploration of whether brain function early in course of disease relates to illness trajectory. The adolescents successful in recovery used the posterior cingulate and precuneus more for friend than self evaluations than the adolescents that remained ill, suggesting that neural differences related to social evaluations may provide clinical predictive value. Utilization of both MPFC and the precuneus during social and self evaluations may be a key biological component for achieving sustained weight-recovery in adolescents with AN.
Arcelus, Jon; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; González-Gómez, Jana; Granero, Roser; Custal, Nuria; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabé, Monica; Tárrega, Salomé; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-García, José C.; Fernández-Real, José M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
The restoration of body composition (BC) parameters is considered to be one of the most important goals in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about differences between AN diagnostic subtypes [restricting (AN-R) and binge/purging (AN-BP)] and weekly changes in BC during refeeding treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of our study were twofold: 1) to assess the changes in BC throughout nutritional treatment in an AN sample and 2) to analyze predictors of BC changes during treatment, as well as predictors of treatment outcome. The whole sample comprised 261 participants [118 adult females with AN (70 AN-R vs. 48 AN-BP), and 143 healthy controls]. BC was measured weekly during 15 weeks of day-hospital treatment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Assessment measures also included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, as well as a number of other clinical indices. Overall, the results showed that AN-R and AN-BP patients statistically differed in all BC measures at admission. However, no significant time×group interaction was found for almost all BC parameters. Significant time×group interactions were only found for basal metabolic rate (p = .041) and body mass index (BMI) (p = .035). Multiple regression models showed that the best predictors of pre-post changes in BC parameters (namely fat-free mass, muscular mass, total body water and BMI) were the baseline values of BC parameters. Stepwise predictive logistic regressions showed that only BMI and age were significantly associated with outcome, but not with the percentage of body fat. In conclusion, these data suggest that although AN patients tended to restore all BC parameters during nutritional treatment, only AN-BP patients obtained the same fat mass values as healthy controls. Put succinctly, the best predictors of changes in BC were baseline BC values, which did not, however, seem to influence treatment outcome. PMID:26600309
Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo
Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances.
DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Beck, Thomas J.; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Gordon, Catherine M.
Young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have reduced secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrogen contributing to skeletal deficits. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of oral DHEA+ combined oral contraceptive (COC) vs. placebo on changes in bone geometry in young women with AN. Eighty women with AN, aged 13-27 yr, received a random, double-blinded assignment to micronized DHEA (50 mg/d) + COC (20μg ethinyl estradiol/0.1mg levonorgestrel) or placebo for 18 mo. Measurements of aBMD at the total hip were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0, 6, 12, and 18 mo. We used the Hip Structural Analysis (HSA) Program to determine BMD, cross-sectional area (CSA), and section modulus at the femoral neck and shaft. Each measurement was expressed as a percentage of the age-, height-, and lean mass-specific mean from an independent sample of healthy adolescent females. Over the 18 months, DHEA+COC led to stabilization in femoral shaft BMD (0.0 ± 0.5 % of normal mean for age, height, and lean mass/year) compared with decreases in the placebo group (−1.1 ± 0.5% per year, p=0.03). Similarly, CSA, section modulus, and cortical thickness improved with treatment. In young women with AN, adrenal and gonadal hormone replacement improved bone health and increased cross sectional geometry. Our results indicate that this combination treatment has a beneficial impact on surrogate measures of bone strength, and not only bone density, in young women with AN. PMID:23744513
Scacchi, Massimo; Pincelli, Angela Ida; Cavagnini, Francesco
Growth hormone (GH) plays a key role not only in the promotion of linear growth but also in the regulation of intermediary metabolism, body composition, and energy expenditure. On the whole, the hormone appears to direct fuel metabolism towards the preferential oxidation of lipids instead of glucose and proteins, and to convey the energy derived from metabolic processes towards the synthesis of proteins. On the other hand, body energy stores and circulating energetic substrates take an important part in the regulation of somatotropin release. Finally, central and peripheral peptides participating in the control of food intake and energy expenditure (neuropeptide Y, leptin, and ghrelin) are also involved in the regulation of GH secretion. Altogether, nutritional status has to be regarded as a major determinant in the regulation of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in animals and humans. In these latter, overweight is associated with marked impairment of spontaneous and stimulated GH release, while acute dietary restriction and chronic undernutrition induce an amplification of spontaneous secretion together with a clear-cut decrease in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plasma levels. Thus, over- and undernutrition represent two conditions connoted by GH hypersensitivity and GH resistance, respectively. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by peculiar changes of the GH-IGF-I axis. In these patients, low circulating IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced GH production rate, highly disordered mode of somatotropin release, and variability of GH responsiveness to different pharmacological challenges. These abnormalities are likely due not only to the lack of negative IGF-I feedback, but also to a primary hypothalamic alteration with increased frequency of growth hormone releasing hormone discharges and decreased somatostatinergic tone. Given the reversal of the above alterations following weight recovery, these abnormalities can be seen as
Dawson, Lisa; Mullan, Barbara; Sainsbury, Kirby
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a difficult to treat mental illness associated with low motivation for change. Despite criticisms of the transtheoretical stages of change model, both generally and in the eating disorders (EDs), this remains the only model to have been applied to the understanding of motivation to recover from AN. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) would provide a good fit for understanding and predicting motivation to recover from AN. Two studies were conducted - in the first study eight women who had recovered from chronic AN were interviewed about their experiences of recovery. The interview data were subsequently used to inform the development of a purpose-designed questionnaire to measure the components of the TPB in relation to recovery. In the second study, the resultant measure was administered to 67 females with a current diagnosis of AN, along with measures of eating disorder psychopathology, psychological symptoms, and an existing measure of motivation to recover (based on the transtheoretical model). Data from the interview study confirmed that the TPB is an appropriate model for understanding the factors that influence motivation to recover from AN. The results of the questionnaire study indicated that the pre-intention variables of the TPB accounted for large proportions of variance in the intention to recover (72%), and more specifically the intention to eat normally and gain weight (51%). Perceived behavioural control was the strongest predictor of intention to recover, while attitudes were more important in the prediction of the intention to eat normally/gain weight. The positive results suggest that the TPB is an appropriate model for understanding and predicting motivation in AN. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Steinglass, Joanna E; Albano, Anne Marie; Simpson, H Blair; Wang, Yuanjia; Zou, Jingjing; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy
Objective Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe illness with high rates of relapse. Exposure and Response Prevention for AN (AN-EXRP) is a new approach that specifically addresses maladaptive eating behavior by targeting eating-related fear and anxiety. The aim of this study was to evaluate AN-EXRP as an adjunctive strategy to improve eating behavior during weight restoration, at a pivotal moment when treatment goals shift toward relapse prevention. Method A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare AN-EXRP with a comparison condition, Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT). Hospitalized patients with AN (n=32) who had achieved weight restoration to a BMI > 18.5 kg/m2 received 12 sessions of either AN-EXRP or CRT. Outcome was assessed by change in caloric intake in an objective assessment of eating behavior. Results The average test meal caloric intake of participants who received AN-EXRP increased from 352±263 kcal at baseline to 401±215 kcal post-treatment, while that of participants who received CRT decreased from 501±232 kcal at baseline to 424±221 kcal post-treatment (t(28)=2.5, p=0.02). Improvement in intake was significantly associated with improvement in eating-related anxiety (Spearman’s ρ=0.40, p=0.03). Conclusions These data demonstrate that AN-EXRP, compared to a credible comparison intervention, is associated with better caloric intake in a laboratory meal over time in AN. Additional studies are required to determine whether incorporation of these techniques into a longer treatment program leads to enduring and clinically significant change. PMID:24488838
Elran-Barak, Roni; Accurso, Erin C.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Sztainer, Maya; Byrne, Catherine; Le Grange, Daniel
Objective To describe eating patterns in youth with restricting and binge/purge type anorexia nervosa (AN) and to examine whether eating patterns are associated with binge eating or purging behaviors. Method Participants included 160 children and adolescents (M=15.14±2.17 years) evaluated at The University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program who met criteria for DSM-5 restrictive type AN (AN-R; 75%; n=120) or binge eating/purging type AN (AN-BE/P; 25%; n=40). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) upon initial evaluation. Results Youth with AN-R and AN-BE/P differed in their eating patterns, such that youth with AN-R consumed meals and snacks more regularly relative to youth with AN-BE/P. Among youth with AN-BE/P, skipping dinner was associated with a greater number of binge eating episodes (r=−.379, p<0.05), while skipping breakfast was associated with a greater number of purging episodes (r=−.309, p<0.05). Discussion Youth with AN-R generally follow a regular meal schedule, but are likely consuming insufficient amounts of food across meals and snacks. In contrast, youth with AN-BE/P tend to have more irregular eating patterns, which may play a role in binge eating and purging behaviors. Adults monitoring of meals may be beneficial for youth with AN, and particularly those with AN-BE/P who engage in irregular eating patterns. PMID:24777645
Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Katzman, Debra K.; Ebrahimi, Seda; Lee, Hang; Mendes, Nara; Snelgrove, Deirdre; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Objective To (i) compare fracture prevalence in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN) vs. normal-weight controls and (ii) examine whether reductions in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) predict fracture risk in females with AN. Methods 418 females (310 with active AN and 108 normal-weight controls) 12–22 years old were studied cross-sectionally. Lifetime fracture history was recorded by a physician during participant interviews. Body composition and aBMD measurements of the whole body, whole body less head, lumbar spine, and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for the lumbar spine. Results Participants with AN and normal-weight controls did not differ for chronological age, sexual maturity, or height. The lifetime prevalence of prior fracture was 59.8% higher in those with AN compared to controls (31.0 % versus 19.4 %, p = 0.02), and the fracture incidence rate peaked in our cohort after the diagnosis of AN. Lower aBMD and lumbar BMAD were not associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in the AN or control group on univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared to controls, fracture prevalence was significantly higher in the subgroup of girls with AN who had normal aBMD or only modest reductions of aBMD (Z-scores > −1 or −1.5). Discussion This is the first study to show that the risk of fracture during childhood and adolescence is significantly higher in patients with AN than in normal-weight controls. Fracture prevalence is increased in this cohort of subjects with AN even without significant reductions in aBMD. PMID:24430890
Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.
Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844
Lavender, Jason M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Ellison, Jo; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel
Objective Evidence supports the presence of significant variability in the timing of affective experiences and eating disorder (ED) behaviors across ED populations. This study examined the naturalistic timing of affective states and ED behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods Women (N = 118) with full or subthreshold DSM-IV AN completed two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-reports of affect and ED behaviors. Patterns of positive affect, negative affect, and tension/anxiety across hours of the day and days of the week were examined using linear mixed models. Variation in ED behavior occurrence (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, exercise, meal skipping, and self-weighing) across hours of the day and days of the week was examined using general estimating equations. Results Results revealed significant variation in tension/anxiety across hours of the day; there were no significant associations between time of day and negative or positive affect. All affective variables significantly varied across days of the week, with both negative affect and tension/anxiety highest in the middle of the week and lowest on the weekends. The ED behaviors all significantly varied across hours of the day, with binge eating and vomiting most common in later hours, exercise and self-weighing most common in earlier hours, and meal skipping most common at times corresponding to breakfast and lunch. ED behaviors did not significantly vary across days of the week. Conclusion The significant patterns of variation in the timing of affective experiences and ED behaviors may have utility in informing theories and interventions for AN. PMID:26282336
Leppanen, J; Cardi, V; Ng, K W; Paloyelis, Y; Stein, D; Tchanturia, K; Treasure, J
Altered social-emotional functioning is considered to play an important role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Recently, there has been increasing interest in investigating the role of intranasal oxytocin in social-emotional processing. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intranasal oxytocin on the interpretation and expression of emotions among people with AN. Thirty women with AN and 29 age-matched healthy women took part in the present study, which used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. The participants received a single dose of 40 IU of intranasal oxytocin in one session and a placebo spray in the other. Fifteen minutes after administration, the participants completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test to assess the interpretation of complex emotions and mental states followed by a video task, which assessed expressions of facial affect when they were viewing humorous and sad film clips. The intranasal oxytocin did not significantly influence the expression or interpretation of emotions in the AN or healthy comparison groups. The AN group expressed significantly less positive emotion, spent more time looking away and reported experiencing a significantly more negative affect in response to the film clips. The finding that intranasal oxytocin had little to no effect on the interpretation or expression of emotions in either group supports the notion that the effects of oxytocin on social-emotional processing are not straightforward and may depend on individual and environmental differences, as well as the emotion being processed. Replication of these findings is necessary to explore the effect of timing on the effects of oxytocin before firm conclusions can be drawn. Nonetheless, these findings add to the steady accumulation of evidence that people with AN have reduced emotional expression and avoidance of emotionally provoking stimuli.
Pollatos, Olga; Herbert, Beate M.; Berberich, Götz; Zaudig, Michael; Krauseneck, Till; Tsakiris, Manos
Background: Interoceptive abilities are known to be affected in anorexia nervosa (AN). Previous studies could show that private self-focus can enhance interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) in healthy participants. As body dissatisfaction is high in AN, confrontation with bodily features such as the own face might have a directly opposed effect in AN. Whether patients with AN can benefit from self-focus in their IAcc and whether this pattern changes over the time-course of cognitive behavioral therapy was investigated in this study. Methods: Fifteen patients with AN from the Psychosomatic Clinic in Windach were assessed three times in the time course of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy. They were compared to 15 controls, recruited from Ulm University and tested in a comparable setting. Both groups performed the heartbeat perception task assessing IAcc under two conditions either enhancing (“Self”) or decreasing (“Other”) self-focused attention. Furthermore, body dissatisfaction was assessed by a subscale of the Eating Disorder (ED) Inventory 2. Results: Patients with AN scored higher in IAcc when watching others’ faces as compared to one’s own face while performing the heartbeat perception task. The opposite pattern was observed in controls. IAcc remained reduced in AN as compared to controls in the time-course of cognitive-behavioral therapy, while body-dissatisfaction improved in AN. High body dissatisfaction was related to poorer IAcc in the “Self” condition. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that using self-focused attention reduces IAcc in AN while the opposite pattern was observed in controls. Confronting anorexic patients with bodily features might increase body-related avoidance and therefore decrease IAcc. The current study introduces a new perspective concerning the role of interoceptive processes in AN and generates further questions regarding the therapeutic utility of methods targeting self-focus in the treatment of AN. PMID:27729855
Giampietro, Vincent; Uher, Rudolf; Mataix-Cols, David; Brammer, Michael J.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C.
Anorexia nervosa (AN), obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are often co-morbid; however, the aetiology of such co-morbidity has not been well investigated. This study examined brain activation in women with AN and in healthy control (HC) women during the provocation of symmetry/ordering-related anxiety. During provocation, patients with AN showed more anxiety compared to HCs, which was correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. Activation in the right parietal lobe and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) in response to provocation was reduced in the AN group compared with the HC group. The reduced right parietal activation observed in the AN group is consistent with parietal lobe involvement in visuospatial cognition and with studies of OCD reporting an association between structural abnormalities in this region and the severity of ‘ordering’ symptoms. Reduced rPFC activation in response to symmetry/ordering provocation has similarities with some, but not all, data collected from patients with AN who were exposed to images of food and bodies. Furthermore, the combination of data from the AN and HC groups showed that rPFC activation during symptom provocation was inversely correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. These data suggest that individuals with AN have a diminished ability to cognitively deal with illness-associated symptoms of provocation. Furthermore, our data also suggest that symptom provocation can progressively overload attempts by the rPFC to exert cognitive control. These findings are discussed in the context of the current neurobiological models of AN. PMID:24844926
The MOSAIC study - comparison of the Maudsley Model of Treatment for Adults with Anorexia Nervosa (MANTRA) with Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM) in outpatients with anorexia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified, anorexia nervosa type: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a biologically based serious mental disorder with high levels of mortality and disability, physical and psychological morbidity and impaired quality of life. AN is one of the leading causes of disease burden in terms of years of life lost through death or disability in young women. Psychotherapeutic interventions are the treatment of choice for AN, but the results of psychotherapy depend critically on the stage of the illness. The treatment response in adults with a chronic form of the illness is poor and drop-out from treatment is high. Despite the seriousness of the disorder the evidence-base for psychological treatment of adults with AN is extremely limited and there is no leading treatment. There is therefore an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for adults with AN. The aim of the Maudsley Outpatient Study of Treatments for Anorexia Nervosa and Related Conditions (MOSAIC) is to evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of two outpatient treatments for adults with AN, Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM) and the Maudsley Model of Treatment for Adults with Anorexia Nervosa (MANTRA). Methods/Design 138 patients meeting the inclusion criteria are randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups (MANTRA or SSCM). All participants receive 20 once-weekly individual therapy sessions (with 10 extra weekly sessions for those who are severely ill) and four follow-up sessions with monthly spacing thereafter. There is also optional access to a dietician and extra sessions involving a family member or a close other. Body weight, eating disorder- related symptoms, neurocognitive and psychosocial measures, and service use data are measured during the course of treatment and across a one year follow up period. The primary outcome measure is body mass index (BMI) taken at twelve months after randomization. Discussion This multi-center study provides a large sample size, broad inclusion criteria and a follow
van Opstal, Anna M.; Westerink, Anna M.; Teeuwisse, Wouter M.; van der Geest, Mirjam A. M.; van Furth, Eric F.; van der Grond, Jeroen
Background: Inconsistent findings about the neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) hinder the development of effective treatments for this severe mental disorder. Therefore, the need arises for elucidation of neurobiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of AN. The hypothalamus plays a key role in the neurobiological processes that govern food intake and energy homeostasis, processes that are disturbed in anorexia nervosa (AN). The present study will assess the hypothalamic response to energy intake and the hypothalamic structure in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods: Ten women aged 18–30 years diagnosed with AN and 11 healthy, lean (BMI < 23 kg/m2) women in the same age range were recruited. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine function of the hypothalamus in response to glucose. Structural MRI was used to determine differences in hypothalamic volume and local gray matter volume using manual segmentation and voxel-based morphometry. Results: No differences were found in hypothalamic volume and neuronal activity in response to a glucose load between the patients and controls. Whole brain structural analysis showed a significant decrease in gray matter volume in the cingulate cortex in the AN patients, bilaterally. Conclusions: We argue that in spite of various known changes in the hypothalamus the direct hypothalamic response to glucose intake is similar in AN patients and healthy controls. PMID:25999808
Chan, Jean L; Mantzoros, Christos S
Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that plays a key part in energy homoeostasis. Advances in leptin physiology have established that the main role of this hormone is to signal energy availability in energy-deficient states. Studies in animals and human beings have shown that low concentrations of leptin are fully or partly responsible for starvation-induced changes in neuroendocrine axes, including low reproductive, thyroid, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) hormones. Disease states such as exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhoea and anorexia nervosa are also associated with low concentrations of leptin and a similar spectrum of neuroendocrine abnormalities. We have recently shown in an interventional, proof-of-concept study that leptin can restore ovulatory menstrual cycles and improve reproductive, thyroid, and IGF hormones and bone markers in hypothalamic amenorrhoea. Further studies are warranted to establish the safety and effectiveness of leptin for the infertility and osteoporosis associated with hypothalamic amenorrhoea, and to clarify its role in anorexia nervosa.
Kasperek-Zimowska, Beata Joanna; Zimowski, Janusz Grzegorz; Biernacka, Katarzyna; Kucharska-Pietura, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip
A growing number of publications indicates presence of significant deficits in social cognition in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). These deficits appear to be comparable in qualitative and quantitative dimension with impairment of the same functions among people with Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim of this study is to identify subject areas in the field of impairment of social cognition processes among people with Asperger syndrome and anorexia nervosa taking into consideration the potential contribution of genetic pathways of oxytocin and vasopressin in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In the first part of the paper a systematic analysis of studies aimed at the evaluation of the processes of social cognition among patients with AN and AS has been carried out. The results of a significant number of studies confirm the presence of deficits in social cognition in AN and AS. In addition, among patients with AN and AS there exists a similar structure and distribution of the brain functions in regions responsible for social cognition. The second part of the paper describes the role of the oxytocin-vasopressin system (OT-AVP) in the processes of social cognition in AN and AS. Its genetic basis and the possible importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the genes: OXT, AVP, CD38, OXTR, AVPR1A and LNPEP have also been presented.
This case report describes the management of a 49-year-old female with restricting-type anorexia nervosa and excessive compulsive exercising associated with rhabdomyolysis, high levels of serum creatine kinase (CK) (3,238 U/L), and marked hyponatremia (Na+: 123 mEq/L) in the absence of purging behaviours or psychogenic polydipsia; it is the first case report to describe exercise-associated hyponatremia in a patient with anorexia nervosa. The patient, who presented with a body mass index (BMI) of 13.4 kg/m2, was successfully treated by means of an adapted inpatient version of an enhanced form of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-E). Within a few days, careful water restriction, solute refeeding, and the specific cognitive behavioural strategies and procedures used to address the patient's excessive compulsive exercising and undereating produced a marked reduction in CK levels, which normalised within one week. Exercise-associated hyponatremia also gradually improved, with serum sodium levels returning to normal within two weeks. The patient thereby avoided severe complications such as cerebral or pulmonary oedema or acute renal failure and was discharged after 20 weeks of treatment with a BMI of 19.0 kg/m2 and improved eating disorder psychopathology. PMID:27721832
Boehm, Ilka; Finke, Beatrice; Tam, Friederike I; Fittig, Eike; Scholz, Michael; Gantchev, Krassimir; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan
Anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe mental disorder with an onset during adolescence, has been found to be difficult to treat. Identifying variables that predict long-term outcome may help to develop better treatment strategies. Since body image distortion and weight gain are central elements of diagnosis and treatment of AN, the current study investigated perceptual body image distortion, defined as the accuracy of evaluating one's own perceived body size in relation to the actual body size, as well as total and early weight gain during inpatient treatment as predictors for long-term outcome in a sample of 76 female adolescent AN patients. Long-term outcome was defined by physical, psychological and psychosocial adjustment using the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule as well as by the mere physical outcome consisting of menses and/or BMI approximately 3 years after treatment. Perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain predicted long-term outcome (explained variance 13.3 %), but not the physical outcome alone. This study provides first evidence for an association of perceptual body image distortion with long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa and underlines the importance of sufficient early weight gain.
Kronenberg, J.; And Others
Describes anorexia nervosa as condition variable in etiology and resistant to treatment, which may lead to mortality in 5% of treated cases. Notes that efforts have been made for treating disorder in nonstigmatizing medical units outside psychiatric hospitals. Describes, through presentation of short case vignette, advantages of treating…
Loeb, Katharine L.; Hirsch, Alicia M.; Greif, Rebecca; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.
This article describes the successful application of family-based treatment (FBT) for a 17-year-old identical twin presenting with a 4-month history of clinically significant symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). FBT is a manualized treatment that has been studied in randomized controlled trials for adolescents with AN. This case study illustrates…
Eisler, Ivan; Simic, Mima; Russell, Gerald F. M.; Dare, Christopher
Background: There is growing evidence that family therapy is an effective treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to ascertain the long-term impact of two forms of outpatient family intervention previously evaluated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Method: A five-year follow-up was conducted on a cohort of 40 patients…
Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Prinster, Anna; Volpe, Umberto; Cantone, Elena; Pellegrino, Francesca; Canna, Antonietta; Milano, Walter; Aiello, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Maj, Mario
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects. Twenty underweight AN women, 20 symptomatic BN women and 20 healthy women underwent fMRI while tasting 0.292 M sucrose solution (sweet taste), 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride solution (bitter taste) and water as a reference taste. In symptomatic AN and BN patients the pleasant sweet stimulus induced a higher activation in several brain areas than that induced by the aversive bitter taste. The opposite occurred in healthy controls. Moreover, compared to healthy controls, AN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left anterior cingulate cortex, while BN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left insula. These results show an altered processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli in ED patients, which may be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of AN and BN.
Di Pentima, L; Magnani, M; Tortolani, D; Montecchi, F; Ardovini, C; Caputo, G
The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was administered to 62 adolescent female patients (mean age 14.3): 35 with restricting-type anorexia nervosa (RAN), and 27 with binge/purging-type anorexia nervosa (B/PAN) according to the DSM-IV criteria, all at onset and initial diagnosis. The PBI was also administered to a control group (55 subjects) and 22 patients with Crohn's disease or celiac disease. The three groups were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The RAN and B/PAN patients gave significantly different interpretations of the parental bond (PB): for the former, it was adequate with both parents, for the latter it was inadequate, especially with the father. The fact that these differences exist at the onset of anorexia prior to any possible effect of therapy suggests that its structure is determined by different family dynamics.
Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A. M.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Danner, Unna N.; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W.; Adan, Roger A. H.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food
McClelland, Jessica; Kekic, Maria; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Dew, Tracy; Van den Eynde, Frederique; David, Anthony S.; Rubia, Katya; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike
Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Methods In this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) in 60 individuals with AN. A food exposure task was administered before and after the procedure to elicit AN-related symptoms. Outcomes The primary outcome measure was ‘core AN symptoms’, a variable which combined several subjective AN-related experiences. The effects of rTMS on other measures of psychopathology (e.g. mood), temporal discounting (TD; intertemporal choice behaviour) and on salivary cortisol concentrations were also investigated. Safety, tolerability and acceptability were assessed. Results Fourty-nine participants completed the study. Whilst there were no interaction effects of rTMS on core AN symptoms, there was a trend for group differences (p = 0.056): after controlling for pre-rTMS scores, individuals who received real rTMS had reduced symptoms post-rTMS and at 24-hour follow-up, relative to those who received sham stimulation. Other psychopathology was not altered differentially following real/sham rTMS. In relation to TD, there was an interaction trend (p = 0.060): real versus sham rTMS resulted in reduced rates of TD (more reflective choice behaviour). Salivary cortisol concentrations were unchanged by stimulation. rTMS was safe, well–tolerated and was considered an acceptable intervention. Conclusions This study provides modest evidence that rTMS to the l-DLPFC transiently reduces core symptoms of AN and encourages prudent decision making. Importantly, individuals with AN considered rTMS to be a viable treatment option. These findings require replication in multiple-session studies to evaluate
Holsen, Laura M.; Santin, McKale; Meenaghan, Erinne; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Becker, Anne E.; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne
Context: Animal data suggest that oxytocin is a satiety hormone. We have demonstrated that anorexia nervosa (anorexia), a disorder characterized by food restriction, low weight, and hypoleptinemia, is associated with decreased nocturnal oxytocin secretion. We have also reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) hypoactivation in anorexia in brain regions involved in food motivation. The relationships between oxytocin, food-motivation neurocircuitry, and disordered eating psychopathology have not been investigated in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the oxytocin response to feeding in anorexia differs from healthy women and to establish the relationship between oxytocin secretion and disordered eating psychopathology and food-motivation neurocircuitry. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Participants: Participants included 35 women: 13 anorexia (AN), nine weight-recovered anorexia (ANWR), and 13 healthy controls (HC). Measures: Peripheral oxytocin and leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120 min after a standardized mixed meal. The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating psychopathology. fMRI was performed during visual processing of food and nonfood stimuli to measure brain activation before and after the meal. Results: Mean oxytocin levels were higher in AN than HC at 60 and 120 min and lower in ANWR than HC at 0, 30, and 120 min and AN at all time points. Mean oxytocin area under the curve (AUC) was highest in AN, intermediate in HC, and lowest in ANWR. Mean leptin levels at all time points and AUC were lower in AN than HC and ANWR. Oxytocin AUC was associated with leptin AUC in ANWR and HC but not in AN. Oxytocin AUC was associated with the severity of disordered eating psychopathology in AN and ANWR, independent of leptin secretion, and was associated with between-group variance in f
Background Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a highly life-threatening disorder that is extremely difficult to treat. There is evidence that family-based therapies are effective for adolescent AN, but no treatment has been proven to be clearly effective for adult AN. The methodological challenges associated with studying the disorder have resulted in recommendations that new treatments undergo preliminary testing prior to being evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of a treatment program based on a novel adaptation of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for adult Anorexia Nervosa (Radically Open-DBT; RO-DBT) that conceptualizes AN as a disorder of overcontrol. Methods Forty-seven individuals diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa-restrictive type (AN-R; mean admission body mass index = 14.43) received the adapted DBT inpatient program (mean length of treatment = 21.7 weeks). Results Seventy-two percent completed the treatment program demonstrating substantial increases in body mass index (BMI; mean change in BMI = 3.57) corresponding to a large effect size (d = 1.91). Thirty-five percent of treatment completers were in full remission, and an additional 55% were in partial remission resulting in an overall response rate of 90%. These same individuals demonstrated significant and large improvements in eating-disorder related psychopathology symptoms (d = 1.17), eating disorder-related quality of life (d = 1.03), and reductions in psychological distress (d = 1.34). Conclusions RO-DBT was associated with significant improvements in weight gain, reductions in eating disorder symptoms, decreases in eating-disorder related psychopathology and increases in eating disorder-related quality of life in a severely underweight sample. These findings provide preliminary support for RO-DBT in treating AN-R suggesting the importance of further evaluation examining long-term outcomes using
Hunt, Tamara Jo-Lynne
The purpose of this study was to understand the conditions necessary to gain research access to parents of children with anorexia. In this study, I also examined and explored avenues parents have for sharing their story and their experiences of parenting a child with anorexia as well as whether gatekeepers have a role in connecting parents and…
Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate
Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.
Van Autreve, Sara; Vervaet, Myriam
Anorexia nervosa (AN) has been associated with weaknesses in central coherence and set shifting. In this line, it has been proposed to directly address these neuropsychological features in treatment (e.g., cognitive remediation therapy). It is not clear, however, whether the 2 subtypes of AN, the restricting (AN-R) and bingeing/purging (AN-BP) type, have the same amount of problems in these domains. A systematic search of the literature was conducted, using the databases Web of Science and PubMed, looking for studies on the comparison of AN-R and AN-BP in performing central coherence/set-shifting tasks. Notably, very few authors describe the results of a direct comparison of the performance of patients with AN-R and AN-BP. In summary, the available indications for possible group differences are not strong enough to draw definitive conclusions.
Rienecke, Renee D; Richmond, Rebekah; Lebow, Jocelyn
Adolescent therapeutic alliance has been found to be associated with improvements in eating disorder cognitions and with early weight gain. The current study assessed patient and parent therapeutic alliance, correlates of parent alliance, and relationship between alliance and treatment outcome. Fifty-six patients with anorexia nervosa completed measures of therapeutic alliance and eating disorder symptoms. Patients' parents completed measures of therapeutic alliance, expressed emotion, and psychopathology. Patients' alliance predicted cognitive and behavioral symptomatology at end of treatment (β=-0.39, p=0.001), though it was not related to changes in weight (β=0.12, p=0.377). Maternal hostility was associated with lower maternal alliance (r=-0.34, p=0.05). Findings suggest that maternal hostility should be addressed in treatment, and that patient alliance may be important in achieving psychological recovery from disordered eating.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted perception of body weight. AN is a life-threatening condition that significantly increases the risk of death due to cardiac complications, such that at least one-third of all deaths in patients with AN are associated with cardiac causes including sudden death. In many reports, sudden death has been linked to reduced left ventricular function, structural changes, and QT abnormalities. However, the mechanistic details connecting AN to cardiac abnormalities remain unknown. Here we present an endomyocardial biopsy of the left ventricle in a case of AN with a reversible left ventricular systolic dysfunction. PMID:27833764
Tao, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Kako, Yuki; Yamanaka, Hiroyoshi; Ito, Koichi; Denda, Kenzo; Koyama, Tsukasa
We report the first known case of anorexia nervosa (AN) with Marchiafava-Bignami Disease (MBD) that responded to high-dose intravenous corticosteroid administration. A 16-year-old Japanese female with AN was diagnosed with MBD after rapid weight loss. During the acute stage, she suffered from a sudden onset of coma. After regaining consciousness, she presented with lack of movement, apathy, labile affect, and poverty of speech. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging showed an area of demyelination in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Positron emission tomography obtained 7 days after admission showed areas of hypoperfusion in the medial temporal lobe and in regions anterior and posterior to the central sulcus.
Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph
Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses.
Hoffman, Elizabeth R.; Gagne, Danielle A.; Thornton, Laura M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S.; Mitchell, James E.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective To further refine our understanding of impulsivity, obsessions, and compulsions in anorexia nervosa (AN) by isolating which behaviors—binge eating, purging, or both—are associated with these features. Methods We conducted regression analyses with binge eating, purging, and the interaction of binge eating with purging as individual predictors of scores for impulsivity, obsessions, and compulsions in two samples of women with AN (n = 1373). Results Purging, but not binge eating, was associated with higher scores of impulsivity, obsessions and compulsions. Purging was also associated with worst eating rituals and with worst eating preoccupations. Conclusion Our results suggest that purging, compared with binge eating, may be a stronger correlate of impulsivity, obsessions, and compulsions in AN. PMID:22351620
Franques, Jérôme; Chiche, Laurent; Mathis, Stéphane
Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is known to be associated with various neurological manifestations. Although central manifestations such as dementia or subacute combined degeneration are the most classic, neurological manifestations also include sensory neuropathies. However, B12 deficiency is still rarely integrated as a potential cause of sensory neuronopathy. Moreover, as many medical conditions can falsely normalize serum B12 levels even in the context of a real B12 deficiency, some cases may easily remain underdiagnosed. We report the illustrating case of an anorexic patient with sensory neuronopathy and consistently normal serum B12 levels. After all classical causes of sensory neuronopathy were ruled out, her clinical and electrophysiological conditions first worsened after folate administration, but finally improved dramatically after B12 administration. B12 deficiency should be systematically part of the etiologic workup of sensory neuronopathy, especially in a high risk context such as anorexia nervosa. PMID:28294987
Villa, Valentina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Cesa, Gian Luca; Molinari, Enrico
The purpose of this explorative research was to examine how the COPE (Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced Inventory), an established instrument for measuring coping styles, and EDI-2 (Eating Disorder Inventory-2), a widely used questionnaire for assessing psychological and behavioural features of eating disorders (ED), discriminate among healthy individuals, inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and inpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN). A discriminant analysis approach was used. Results showed that coping styles such as positive attitude, planning and social support are even more discriminative variables than eating disorder features. Implications for further studies are discussed.
Steinfeld, Beate; Bauer, Anika; Waldorf, Manuel; Engel, Nicole; Braks, Karsten; Huber, Thomas J; Vocks, Silja
Body-related checking behavior, as a behavioral manifestation of a disturbed body image, fosters the development and maintenance of eating disorders. The Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ) is the most commonly used questionnaire for measuring body-related checking behavior internationally. To date, validation studies are only available for adult populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to statistically test the German-language version of the BCQ in adolescents. A total of N=129 female adolescents were examined, comprising n=57 with Anorexia Nervosa, n=24 with Bulimia Nervosa, and n=48 healthy female adolescents. A confirmatory factor analysis supports the subdivision of the BCQ into a general factor and the subfactors "overall appearance", "specific body parts" and "idiosyncratic checking", which was also found in the original version. The internal consistencies are good (α≥0.81), and the BCQ is able to differentiate well between adolescents with and without eating disorders. Significant correlations between the BCQ and other body image questionnaires point to a good convergent validity. The German-language BCQ thus constitutes a valid and reliable instrument for measuring body-related checking behavior among adolescents in clinical research and practice.
Utzinger, Linsey M.; Mitchell, James E.; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.
Objective This study examined whether having a history of anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with response to treatment in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Data from 189 adults diagnosed with BED who were randomly assigned to one of three group cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments were analyzed to compare those with and without a history of AN/BN. Results A total of 16% of the sample had a history of AN/BN. The BED subgroup with a history of AN/BN presented with higher rates of mood disorders and greater eating-related symptom severity at baseline. Participants with a history of AN/BN also had higher global eating disorder (ED) symptoms at end of treatment (EOT), and more frequent objective binge-eating episodes at EOT and 12-month follow-up. Discussion These findings suggest that in adults with BED, a history of AN/BN is predictive of greater eating-related symptom severity following group-based CBT and poorer short- and long-term binge-eating outcomes. These findings suggest that considering ED history in the treatment of adults with BED may be clinically useful. PMID:25959549
Neubauer, Karolin; Weigel, Angelika; Daubmann, Anne; Wendt, Hanna; Rossi, Maddalena; Löwe, Bernd; Gumz, Antje
This study examined paths to first treatment and the duration of untreated illness in 140 anorexia nervosa patients using validated questionnaires and a clinical interview. The differences between individuals with an early (≤14 years, n = 40), intermediate (15-18 years, n = 53) and late onset (≥19 years, n = 47) were investigated. Participants were most commonly informed about their diagnosis and first treatment facility through general practitioners and paediatricians. The duration of untreated illness exceeded 2 years in the complete sample (25.14 months) and was longest for individuals with an early onset. The early onset group was more often externally vs. internally motivated and more frequently informed about treatment options by their social network, e.g. parents, than patients with a late onset. The results emphasize the relevance of training general practitioners and paediatricians about anorexia, the need to include parents and teachers in eating disorder prevention and to improve targeting young individuals in early interventions.
Ehrlich, Stefan; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Eckart, Sarah; Merle, Julia V.; Burghardt, Roland; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Franke, Leonora; Uebelhack, Ralf; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Hellweg, Rainer
Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mutant mice show hyperphagia and hyperleptinemia. Animal and cell-culture experiments suggest multiple interrelations between BDNF and the serotonin (5-HT) system. We studied serum BDNF in patients with anorexia nervosa and its associations with peripheral indicators of the 5-HT system. To control for secondary effects of acute malnutrition, we assessed acutely underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (acAN) in comparison to long-term weight-recovered patients with the disorder (recAN) and healthy controls. Methods We determined serum BDNF, platelet 5-HT content and platelet 5-HT uptake in 33 patients in the acAN group, 20 patients in the recAN group and 33 controls. Plasma leptin served as an indicator of malnutrition. Results Patients in the acAN group were aged 14–29 years and had a mean body mass index (BMI) of 14.9 (standard deviation [SD] 1.4) kg/m2. Those in the recAN group were aged 15–29 years and had a mean BMI of 20.5 (SD 1.3) kg/m2 and the controls were aged 15–26 years and had a BMI of 21.4 (SD 2.1) kg/m2. The mean serum BDNF levels were significantly increased in the recAN group compared with the acAN group (8820, SD 3074 v. 6161, SD 2885 pg/mL, U = 154.5, p = 0.001). There were no significant associations between BDNF and either platelet 5-HT content or platelet 5-HT uptake. Among patients with anorexia nervosa, we found significant positive linear relations between BDNF and BMI (r = 0.312, p = 0.023) and between BDNF and leptin (r = 0.365, p = 0.016). Limitations We measured the signal proteins under study in peripheral blood. Conclusion Serum BDNF levels in patients with anorexia nervosa depend on the state of illness and the degree of hypoleptinemia. Upregulation of BDNF in weight-recovered patients with anorexia nervosa could be part of a regenerative process after biochemical and molecular neuronal injury due to prolonged malnutrition. Associations between the BDNF and the 5-HT system
Yehuda, Shlomo; Rabinovitz, Sharon
The two basic questions in food intake study are what we eat, and how much do we eat. Most research is directed toward the control of how much is eaten. This is likely the result of the increased number of individuals with eating disorders in the Western world. Feeding behavior is highly complex, and is controlled by many psychological, physiological, biochemical, and immunological factors. The aim of this review is to clarify the involvement of fatty acids in eating disorders such as anorexia and binge eating disorder. The review will describe the modified fatty acid profile observed in individuals with anorexia or binge eating disorder, and discuss on what factors fatty acids can exert beneficial effects. In addition, the differences and similarities between anorexia and binge eating disorder will be discussed. We suggest that beneficial effects of essential fatty acids on both anorexia and binge eating disorder can be explained by the stabilizing effect of those fatty acids on the neuronal membrane fluidity index.
Stengel, Andreas; Hofmann, Tobias; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Elbelt, Ulf; Kobelt, Peter; Klapp, Burghard F
Irisin was recently identified as cleavage product of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and shown to increase energy expenditure in mice and humans and therefore was discussed as potential treatment option in obesity. However, the regulation of irisin under conditions of severely altered body weight such as anorexia nervosa and obesity remains to be investigated. We analyzed circulating irisin levels over a broad spectrum of body weight in 40 patients with anorexia nervosa (mean body mass index, BMI 12.6±0.7 kg/m(2)), normal weight controls (22.6±0.9 kg/m(2)) and obese patients with BMI of 30-40 (36.9±1.2 kg/m(2)), 40-50 (44.9±1.1 kg/m(2)) and >50 (70.1±2.7 kg/m(2), n=8/group). Correlation analyses were performed between irisin and different body indices, parameters of body composition and hormones involved in various homeostatic processes. Obese patients showed higher circulating irisin levels compared to normal weight and anorexic patients (p<0.05) resulting in a correlation of irisin with body weight (r=0.47, p<0.01) and BMI (r=0.50, p<0.001). Plasma irisin was also positively correlated with fat mass (r=0.48, p<0.01), body cell mass (r=0.45, p<0.01) and fat free mass (r=0.40, p<0.05). Insulin levels were positively correlated with irisin (r=0.45, p<0.01), whereas circulating ghrelin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone or C-reactive protein were not (p>0.05). These data indicate that circulating irisin is affected under conditions of altered BMI with highest levels in severely obese patients. The increase of irisin under conditions of obesity may indicate a physiological function to improve glucose tolerance which is often impaired in obese subjects.
Forbush, Kelsie T; Hagan, Kelsey E; Salk, Rachel H; Wildes, Jennifer E
Bulimia nervosa can be reliably classified into subtypes based on dimensions of dietary restraint and negative affect. Community and clinical studies have shown that dietary-negative affect subtypes have greater test-retest reliability and concurrent and predictive validity compared to subtypes based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Although dietary-negative affect subtypes have shown utility for characterizing eating disorders that involve binge eating, this framework may have broader implications for understanding restrictive eating disorders.
Maria Monteleone, Alessio; Monteleone, Palmiero; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Nigro, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Cimino, Monica; Maj, Mario
Recently, anorexia nervosa (AN) has been conceptualized as a reward-related disorder, and alterations in brain reward processes have been documented in both acute and recovered AN patients. However, the role of endogenous biochemical mediators, such as ghrelin, in the modulation of reward processes has been poorly investigated in this eating disorder. Hedonic eating, that is the consumption of food exclusively for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis, is a useful paradigm to investigate the physiology of food-related reward. Therefore, we assessed the response of peripheral ghrelin to hedonic eating in 7 underweight and 7 recently weight-restored AN patients and compared it to that of previously studied healthy controls. We found that in satiated underweight patients with AN plasma ghrelin levels progressively decreased after the exposure and the consumption of both the favorite and unfavorite food whereas in satiated weight-restored AN patients and satiated healthy controls plasma ghrelin concentrations significantly increased after the exposure to the favorite food and after eating it, but decreased after the unfavorite food. These results suggest a derangement in the ghrelin modulation of food-related pleasurable and rewarding feelings, which might sustain the reduced motivation toward food intake of acute AN patients.
Background This paper aimed to investigate cognitive rigidity and decision making impairments in patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa Restrictive type (AN-R), assessing also verbal components. Methods Thirty patients with AN-R were compared with thirty age-matched healthy controls (HC). All participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery comprised of the Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Hayling Sentence Completion Task, and the Iowa Gambling Task. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to evaluate depressive symptomatology. The influence of both illness duration and neuropsychological variables was considered. Body Mass Index (BMI), years of education, and depression severity were considered as covariates in statistical analyses. Results The AN-R group showed poorer performance on all neuropsychological tests. There was a positive correlation between illness duration and the Hayling Sentence Completion Task Net score, and number of completion answers in part B. There was a partial effect of years of education and BMI on neuropsychological test performance. Response inhibition processes and verbal fluency impairment were not associated with BMI and years of education, but were associated with depression severity. Conclusions These data provide evidence that patients with AN-R have cognitive rigidity in both verbal and non-verbal domains. The role of the impairment on verbal domains should be considered in treatment. Further research is warranted to better understand the relationship between illness state and cognitive rigidity and impaired decision-making. PMID:21982555
Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Mwangi, Benson; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Zunta Soares, Giovana B; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo; Soares, Jair C
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme underweight. Studies conducted with structural MRI found reductions in brain volumes in several areas, but results are mixed. Cortical thickness has shown in other samples specific correlations with BMI in different BMI ranges. In this study, we applied a well validated procedure implemented in Freesurfer software toolkit to investigate cortical thickness in a sample of 21 patients with AN and 18 healthy controls, focusing on group differences and on the relationship between BMI and cortical thickness. Cortical thickness was reduced in patients with AN, but group differences did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. The relationship between BMI and cortical thickness was significantly different in patients with AN compared to controls in the left superior parietal/occipital cortex and left post central cortex. These findings suggest that the relationship between cortical thickness and BMI in patients with AN with less than two years of illness duration significantly differs from that in controls and possible biological mechanisms that may explain this relationship are discussed.
Satir, Dana A; Goodman, David M; Shingleton, Rebecca M; Porcerelli, John H; Gorman, Bernard S; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Barlow, David H; Thompson-Brenner, Heather
Evidence supporting outpatient treatments for anorexia nervosa (AN) is severely lacking, due to low retention and poor outcome. One explanation for drop-out is weak treatment alliances. A single-case experimental analysis accompanied by in-depth qualitative description is presented for Ms. O, who received a novel treatment for AN called Alliance Focused Treatment (AFT) that attends to ruptures in the alliance, interpersonal difficulties and emotional avoidance. At intake Ms. O met diagnostic criteria for AN, Major Depressive Disorder, and Social Phobia. She was characterized as having symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive, Avoidant, and Depressive personality disorders. Treatment began with a Baseline followed by the experimental (AFT) and comparison treatments (Behavioral Change Treatment [BCT]) using a replicated experimental single-case phase change design. Graphs of slopes of kilocalorie and alliance change facilitated observation of treatment effects. Ms. O participated in 16 sessions of AFT and 8 sessions of BCT with specific benefits. Ratings of the treatment alliance were consistently high and she evidenced significant changes in weight, quality of life, and personality pathology. Associations between rupture/repair episodes and kilocalorie increases were observed. The utility of the treatment relationship in facilitating emotional expression was evident. At posttreatment, Ms. O endorsed cognitive AN symptoms, although these were not explicitly treated. This study provides preliminary support for the feasibility and effect of AFT and BCT, and highlights the importance of the alliance in treating adults with AN. Further research on emotion regulation in AN and its effect on the treatment relationship are needed.
The present investigation concerns the multidimensionality of self-consciousness. I will specifically address this general issue by focusing on bodily self-consciousness and by considering how one is conscious of one's body through consciousness of both its physicality and its subjectivity. Here, physicality is defined as the belongingness to the physical world; subjectivity is defined as the fact of being a subject of conscious experience. Once subjectivity and physicality are differentiated from each other, the difficulty is to clarify the integration of these dimensions of bodily self-consciousness into a single experience of one's body: how does the consciousness of one's body integrate one's consciousness of one's body-as-subjective and one's consciousness of one's body-as-physical? In this investigation, I describe different forms of bodily self-consciousness in ways that shed light on the intermingling of subjectivity and physicality. I argue that being conscious of one's body-as-subjective involves experiencing one's belongingness to the physical world; conversely, being conscious of one's body-as-physical involves experiencing it as one's own; either way, such forms of bodily self-consciousness involve experiencing both the subjectivity and the physicality of one's body. The hypothesis here is that the imbalance of these dimensions relative to each other would be pathological. I will thus underline the normal multidimensionality of bodily self-consciousness by considering its pathological breakdown as it happens in anorexia nervosa.
Godier, Lauren R; Park, Rebecca J
The characteristic relentless self-starvation behaviour seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of transdiagnostic parallels with addictive behaviour. There is a paucity of standardised self-report measures of compulsive behaviour in eating disorders (EDs). Measures that index the concept of compulsive self-starvation in AN are needed to explore the suggested parallels with addictions. With this aim a novel measure of self-starvation was developed (the Self-Starvation Scale, SS). 126 healthy participants, and 78 individuals with experience of AN, completed the new measure along with existing measures of eating disorder symptoms, anxiety and depression. Initial validation in the healthy sample indicated good reliability and construct validity, and incremental validity in predicting eating disorder symptoms. The psychometric properties of the SS scale were replicated in the AN sample. The ability of this scale to predict ED symptoms was particularly strong in individuals currently suffering from AN. These results suggest the SS may be a useful index of compulsive food restriction in AN. The concept of 'starvation dependence' in those with eating disorders, as a parallel with addiction, may be of clinical and theoretical importance.
Sibeoni, Jordan; Orri, Massimiliano; Valentin, Marie; Podlipski, Marc-Antoine; Colin, Stephanie; Pradere, Jerome; Revah-Levy, Anne
Background Anorexia nervosa in adolescents can be a difficult-to-treat disease. Because qualitative research is a well-established method for deepening our understanding of subjective experiences, such as eating disorders and their treatment, we sought to perform a systematic review of qualitative studies to synthesize the views of adolescents with this disease, their parents, and their healthcare providers about its treatment. Methods We performed a thematic synthesis to develop the central themes that summarize all of the topics raised in the articles included in our review. The quality of the articles was assessed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Results We included 32 articles from seven different countries. Two central themes were inductively developed from the analysis: (1) the treatment targets (i.e., symptoms and patients in context), and (2) a therapeutic tool—a relationship, specifically the core concept of the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion Our results underline the difficulty in establishing a therapeutic alliance, the barriers to it, especially the risk that professionals, adolescents, and parents will not converse about treatment; although such a dialogue appears to be an essential component in the construction of a therapeutic alliance. PMID:28056106
Clarke, J; Ramoz, N; Fladung, A-K; Gorwood, P
Recent studies support the idea that abnormalities of the reward system contribute to onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Next to cues coding for overweight, other research suggest cues triggering the proposed starvation dependence to be pivotally involved in the AN pathogenesis. We assessed the characteristics of the cognitive, emotional and physiologic response toward disease-specific pictures of female body shapes, in adult AN patients compared with healthy control (HC) women. Frequency and amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR) in 71 patients with AN and 20 HC were registered during processing of stimuli of three weight categories (over-, under- and normal weight). We then assessed the role of the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism as a potential intermediate factor. AN patients reported more positive feelings during processing of underweight stimuli and more negative feelings for normal- and overweight stimuli. The SCR showed a group effect (P=0.007), AN patients showing overall higher frequency of the response. SCR within patients was more frequent during processing of underweight stimuli compared with normal- and overweight stimuli. The Met allele of the BDNF gene was not more frequent in patients compared with controls, but was associated to an increased frequency of SCR (P=0.008) in response to cues for starvation. A higher positive value of starvation, rather than more negative one of overweight, might more accurately define females with AN. The Met allele of the BDNF gene could partly mediate the higher reward value of starvation observed in AN. PMID:27271855
Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela
Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders.
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit physical and psychiatric symptoms, in addition to their behavioral problems, and often require admission to a general hospital with a psychiatric ward. There are only a few general hospitals with psychiatric wards available, and patients with AN tend to be concentrated in a small number of such institutions. Thus, it is difficult to provide adequate support for the treatment of patients with AN. In Kyoto, the number of general hospitals with a psychiatric ward is small. Patients with AN tend to be treated at the two university hospitals. However, our University Hospital cannot accept all patients with AN, especially the emergency admissions. Therefore, with respect to the inpatient treatment of AN, we established a cooperation agreement with other psychiatric hospitals. We are planning to divide the inpatient treatment of AN between our university hospital and other psychiatric hospitals, depending on the stage of AN and the severity of the patients' physical condition. With respect to the treatment of AN, it is necessary to establish a treatment system with each hospital playing a role.
Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Seitz, Jochen; Baines, John
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in female adolescents and exhibits the highest mortality risk of all psychiatric disorders. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological interventions is weak. Mounting data indicate that the gut microbiome interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system by neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory afferent and efferent pathways. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota influences weight regulation and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression. This article reviews how the gut-brain interaction may impact the development and course of AN. A "leaky gut", characterized by antigens traversing the intestinal wall, was demonstrated in an animal model of AN, and could underlie the low-grade inflammation and increased risk of autoimmune diseases found in AN. Moreover, starvation has a substantial impact on the gut microbiome, and diets used for re-nutrition based on animal products may support the growth of bacteria capable of triggering inflammation. As there is currently no empirically derived agreement on therapeutic re-nourishment in AN, this review discusses how consideration of gut-brain interactions may be important for treatment regarding the determination of target weight, rapidity of weight gain, refeeding methods and composition of the diet which might all be of importance to improve long-term outcome of one of the most chronic psychiatric disorders of adolescence.
Lawrence, Vanessa; Fleming, Caroline; Tchanturia, Kate
Background Difficulties with social relationships have been implicated in both the development and maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) but the friendship experiences of individuals with AN have not been explored in depth. Method Ten adults with AN took part in a semi-structured interview about their friendship experiences both before and since the onset of their illness. Results Five principle themes were identified through thematic analysis: Social Concern; Impact of AN; Social Connectedness; Inflexibility and Preferred Social Activity. Difficulties with friendship were present prior to the onset of AN in all cases, with participants experiencing anxiety in relation to various aspects of their friendships. Participants described mixed experiences of how their AN has affected their friendships but most participants described having less contact with their friends since becoming unwell. Conclusion This research highlights the role that social difficulties may play in the development of AN, whilst also emphasising the importance of addressing problems with friendship in the course of inpatient treatment. PMID:27676072
DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Giancaterino, Courtney; Rosen, Clifford J.; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Gordon, Catherine M.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by subnormal estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels. We sought to determine whether the combination of DHEA + estrogen/progestin is superior to placebo in preserving skeletal health over 18 months in AN. Females with AN, aged 13 to 27 years, were recruited for participation in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Ninety-four subjects were randomized, of whom 80 completed baseline assessments and received either study drug (oral micronized DHEA 50 mg + 20 µg ethinyl estradiol/0.1 mg levonorgestrel combined oral contraceptive pill [COC] daily; n = 43) or placebo (n = 37). Serial measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone turnover markers, and serum hormone concentrations were obtained. Sixty subjects completed the 18-month trial. Spinal and whole-body aBMD z scores were preserved in the DHEA + COC group, but decreased in the placebo group (comparing trends, P = .008 and P = .001, respectively). Bone turnover markers initially declined in subjects receiving DHEA + COC and then returned to baseline. No differences in body composition, adverse effects of therapy, or alterations in biochemical safety parameters were observed. Combined therapy with DHEA + COC appears to be safe and effective for preventing bone loss in young women with AN, whereas placebo led to decreases in aBMD. Dehydroepiandrosterone + COC may be safely used to preserve bone mass as efforts to reverse the nutritional, psychological, and other hormonal components of AN are implemented. PMID:22257645
Forsberg, Sarah; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Darcy, Alison; Aspen, Vandana; Accurso, Erin C.; Bryson, Susan W.; Agras, Stewart; Arnow, Katherine D.; Grange, Daniel Le; Lock, James
Objective The current study provides data on the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of treatment fidelity in Family-Based Treatment (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). The Family Therapy Fidelity and Adherence Check (FBT-FACT) was created to evaluate therapist adherence and competency on the core interventions in FBT. Methods Participants were 45 adolescents and their families sampled from three randomized clinical trials evaluating treatment for AN. Trained fidelity raters evaluated 19 therapists across 90 early session recordings using the FBT-FACT. They also rated an additional 15 session 1 recordings of an alternate form of family therapy – Systemic Family Therapy (SFT) for the purpose of evaluating discriminant validity of the FBT-FACT. The process of development and the psychometric properties of the FBT-FACT are presented. Results Overall fidelity ratings for each session demonstrated moderate to strong inter-rater agreement. Internal consistency of the measure was strong for sessions 1 and 2 and poor for session 3. Principal components analysis suggests sessions 1 and 2 are distinct interventions. Conclusion FBT-FACT demonstrates good reliability and validity as a measure of treatment fidelity in the early phase of FBT. PMID:25142619
Danner, Unna N; Sternheim, Lot; Bijsterbosch, Jojanneke M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Evers, Catharine; van Elburg, Annemarie A
The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with ANBP, and 40 healthy controls) participated. All women were asked to watch either a negative or a control film fragment, both followed by the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT). Before and after the fragments negative affect was measured. Additionally, relevant characteristics (e.g., overall depressive symptoms) were assessed. Differences in negative affect did not influence decision making performance. Independent of affective state, decision making was found to be impaired in women with ANBP (no learning effect on the BGT), but not in women with ANR. These findings highlight the importance of considering different AN subtypes when examining decision making processes. However, the role of negative affect on decision making remains uncertain. Since other affect related factors such as affect dysregulation may also play a role, future studies on decision making in AN should take the role of affect into account.
Mack, Isabelle; Cuntz, Ulrich; Grämer, Claudia; Niedermaier, Sabrina; Pohl, Charlotte; Schwiertz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Kurt; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul; Penders, John
The gut microbiota not only influences host metabolism but can also affect brain function and behaviour through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To explore the potential role of the intestinal microbiota in anorexia nervosa (AN), we comprehensively investigated the faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in these patients before (n = 55) and after weight gain (n = 44) in comparison to normal-weight participants (NW, n = 55) along with dietary intake and gastrointestinal complaints. We show profound microbial perturbations in AN patients as compared to NW participants, with higher levels of mucin-degraders and members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XVIII and reduced levels of the butyrate-producing Roseburia spp. Branched-chain fatty acid concentrations, being markers for protein fermentation, were elevated. Distinct perturbations in microbial community compositions were observed for individual restrictive and binge/purging AN-subtypes. Upon weight gain, microbial richness increased, however perturbations in intestinal microbiota and short chain fatty acid profiles in addition to several gastrointestinal symptoms did not recover. These insights provide new leads to modulate the intestinal microbiota in order to improve the outcomes of the standard therapy. PMID:27229737
Tagay, Sefik; Düllmann, Sonja; Schlegl, Sandra; Nater-Mewes, Ricarda; Repic, Nevena; Hampke, Christian; Brähler, Elmar; Gerlach, Gabriele; Senf, Wolfgang
The aim of the present prospective-naturalistic study was the evaluation of psychosomatic inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). 128 patients with eating disorders (n=59 AN and n=69 BN) were investigated on admission and discharge using the following standardized questionnaires: eating disorder symptoms (EDI), general psychopathology (BSI), quality of life (SF-12), and personal resources (SOC-13, SWE). Moderate to large effect sizes were achieved for the eating disorder symptoms; in addition, general psychopathology was substantially reduced at the end of treatment, and quality of life as well as personal resources were enhanced. Personal resources were found to be the strongest predictors for therapy outcome. Based on our data, important insights and recommendations may be gained for the inpatient treatment of eating disorders, especially with regard to the potential influence of personal resources.
The author examines the functions of child masturbation in the development of narcissim and distinguishes a demarcation function, a compensation function and a function serving to establish autonomy. In Binswanger's view, certain reactions to child masturbation on the part of parents may affect the interactive relationship between the child and the parent representing the primary object in such a way as to thwart or undermine these functions. The result is the appearance of masturbation substitutes in the form of certain symptoms. Binswanger distinguishes "horrified", "liberal", and "eroticized" reactions by parents, relating the first to compulsion neurosis, the second to obesity, and the third to anorexia/bulimia. The author illustrates his hypotheses with copious references to cases from his own practice.
Calvo Sagardoy, Rosa; Gallego Morales, Luis T; Kassem García, Soledad; Codesal Julián, Rosana; Blanco Fernández, Ascensión; Solórzano Ostolaza, Gloria; Morales Martínez, Carmen
Objetivo: destacar la presencia de una sensibilidad extrema hacia estímulos externos e internos (Amplificación Somatosensorial) en pacientes con Anorexia, similar pero no idéntica, a la descrita en pacientes con unexple somatic symtoms. Método: Se ha elaborado una escala de Amplificación Somatosensorial para Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria, (SASTCA), que mide la intensidad de la respuesta hacia estímulos somatosensoriales específicos. La escala ha sido cumplimentada por un grupo de 48 pacientes anoréxicas y un grupo control de 31 sujetos emparejados en edad, sexo y nivel socioeducativo. Los resultados se han comparado con los obtenidos en la escala SSAS de Barsky. Resultados: La Fiabilidad (Alfa de Cronbach 0,946; dos mitades de Guttman 0,936) y la Validez (ROC, 0,933), son indicativas de elevada sensibilidad y especificidad de la escala SASTCA. El grupo de pacientes presenta una media 58,73 12,38, significativamente superior al grupo control 37,81 7,47, (=0,001). Las pacientes presentan en la escala SSAS una media 31,21 6,68 significativamente superior al grupo control 26,58 5,49 (=0,01), aunque la diferencia es menos extremada. Ambas escalas correlacionan positivamente. 0,634 Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren la presencia en AN. de una sensibilidad extrema hacia estímulos somatosensoriales. ¿Podria esta elevada sensibilidad sensorial ayudarnos a explicar el proceso de formación del auto-concepto distorsionado (“gordo, enfermo, feo”) de estos pacientes? De confirmar su presencia en otras muestras de pacientes con anorexia, en sus familiares y en diferentes pacientes somatomorfos o TCA, esta elevada sensibilidad podría considerarse el endofenotipo somatomorfo del trastorno anoréxico.
Kissileff, H R; Brunstrom, J M; Tesser, R; Bellace, D; Berthod, S; Thornton, J C; Halmi, K
Dieting and excessive fear of eating coexist in vulnerable individuals, which may progress to anorexia nervosa [AN], but there is no objective measure of this fear. Therefore, we adapted a computer program that was previously developed to measure the satiating effects of foods in order to explore the potential of food to induce anxiety and fear of eating in adolescent girls. Twenty four adolescents (AN) and ten healthy controls without eating disorders rated pictures of different types of foods in varying sized portions as too large or too small and rated the expected anxiety of five different portions (20-320 kcal). Two low energy dense (potatoes and rice) and two high energy dense (pizza and M&Ms) foods were used. The regression coefficient of line lengths (0-100 mm) marked from "No anxiety" to "this would give me a panic attack", regressed from portions shown, was the measure of "expected anxiety" for a given food. The maximum tolerated portion size [kcal] (MTPS), computed by method of constant stimulus from portions shown, was significantly smaller for high energy dense foods, whereas the expected anxiety response was greater, for all foods, for patients compared to controls. For both groups, expected anxiety responses were steeper, and maximum tolerated portion sizes were larger, for low, than high, energy dense foods. Both maximum tolerated portion size and expected anxiety response were significantly predicted by severity of illness for the patients. Those who had larger maximum tolerated portion sizes had smaller anticipated anxiety to increasing portion sizes. Visual size had a greater influence than energy content for these responses. This method could be used to quantify the anxiety inducing potential of foods and for studies with neuro-imaging and phenotypic clarifications.
Boehm, Ilka; Geisler, Daniel; King, Joseph A.; Ritschel, Franziska; Seidel, Maria; Deza Araujo, Yacila; Petermann, Juliane; Lohmeier, Heidi; Weiss, Jessika; Walter, Martin; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan
The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is poorly understood. Results from functional brain imaging studies investigating the neural profile of AN using cognitive and emotional task paradigms are difficult to reconcile. Task-related imaging studies often require a high level of compliance and can only partially explore the distributed nature and complexity of brain function. In this study, resting state functional connectivity imaging was used to investigate well-characterized brain networks potentially relevant to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the symptomatology and etiology of AN. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was obtained from 35 unmedicated female acute AN patients and 35 closely matched healthy controls female participants (HC) and decomposed using spatial group independent component analyses (ICA). Using validated templates, we identified components covering the fronto-parietal “control” network, the default mode network (DMN), the salience network, the visual and the sensory-motor network. Group comparison revealed an increased functional connectivity between the angular gyrus and the other parts of the fronto-parietal network in patients with AN in comparison to HC. Connectivity of the angular gyrus was positively associated with self-reported persistence in HC. In the DMN, AN patients also showed an increased functional connectivity strength in the anterior insula in comparison to HC. Anterior insula connectivity was associated with self-reported problems with interoceptive awareness. This study, with one of the largest sample to date, shows that acute AN is associated with abnormal brain connectivity in two major resting state networks (RSN). The finding of an increased functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network adds novel support for the notion of AN as a disorder of excessive cognitive control, whereas the elevated functional connectivity of the anterior insula with the DMN may reflect the high
El Ghoch, Marwan; Gatti, Davide; Calugi, Simona; Viapiana, Ombretta; Bazzani, Paola Vittoria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
Background: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most frequent medical complications of anorexia nervosa (AN). The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the association between weight gain/restoration and BMD in adolescents with AN. Methods: Literature searches, study selection, method, and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data were collated using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1156 articles retrieved, 19 studies met the inclusion criteria, and their analysis revealed four main findings. First, six studies reported that weight gain and restoration are associated with BMD stabilization after one year of follow-up from baseline. Second, seven studies with longer follow-up periods (≈16 months) reported significant improvements in BMD measures. Third, one study showed that normalization of BMD can be achieved after ≈30-month follow-up of normal-weight maintenance. Fourth, another study showed that male adolescents with AN who achieve weight gain but remain underweight may experience further BMD loss, unlike their weight-restored counterparts (BMI ≥ 19 kg/m2), who show a significant increase in BMD and bone mineral accrual rates that double those of healthy male adolescents. The first two findings can be considered robust, as they are supported by strong evidence. The third and fourth findings, however, derive from single studies and therefore require further confirmation. Conclusion: The literature supports weight gain as an effective strategy for promoting BMD increase in adolescents with AN. However, this process is slow, and improvements do not become detectable until ≈16-month follow-up. PMID:27916839
Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Stadnitski, Tatjana; Wesche, Daniela; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schwab, Michael; Wild, Beate
Objective The role of emotion dysregulation with regard to the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is increasingly discussed. It is both assumed that AN symptoms have an impact on difficulties in tolerating aversive emotions and that—conversely—emotion dysregulation influences AN. To date, such conclusions are drawn on the basis of cross-sectional data not allowing for inferences on the temporal dynamics. The current study investigates the longitudinal interaction between emotional intolerance and core AN symptoms over the course of inpatient treatment by comparing patients with high (BMI<15 kg/m2) vs. low symptom severity (HSS vs. LSS). Method The study adopted a longitudinal, process-oriented design with N = 16 analysed electronic diaries. Throughout the course of their inpatient treatment, the patients answered questions daily about emotional intolerance and their AN-specific cognitions and behaviours. The temporal dynamics between emotional intolerance and these variables were analysed using a multivariate time series approach. Results The time series of the processes under investigation adequately reflected the individual treatment courses. The majority of significant linear time trends was found for HSS patients. Most importantly, analysis revealed significant temporal interactions between emotional intolerance and AN symptoms in almost 70% of HSS patients. Thereby, up to 37% of variance in eating restraint and up to 23% in weight concern could be attributed to changes in emotional intolerance. Conclusions The findings support the notion that intolerable unpleasant emotions in severely affected AN patients influence their psychopathology. Additionally, time series analysis outlined the inter-individual heterogeneity of psychosomatic treatment courses of AN patients. PMID:27191959
Kandemir, Nurgun; Becker, Kendra; Slattery, Meghan; Tulsiani, Shreya; Singhal, Vibha; Thomas, Jennifer J; Coniglio, Kathryn; Lee, Hang; Miller, Karen K; Eddy, Kamryn T; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita
Clinicians currently use different low-weight cut-offs both to diagnose anorexia nervosa (AN) and to determine AN severity in adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of existing cut-offs and severity criteria by determining which are most strongly associated with risk for low bone mineral density (BMD). Height adjusted BMD Z scores were calculated for 352 females: 262 with AN and 90 healthy controls (controls) (12-20.5 years), using data from the BMD in Childhood Study, for the lumbar spine, whole body less head, and total hip. For most cut-offs used to define low weight (5th or 10th BMI percentile, BMI of 17.5 or 18.5, and 85 or 90% of median BMI), AN had lower BMD Z scores than controls. AN at >85 or >90% expected body weight for height (EBW-Ht) did not differ in BMD Z scores from controls, but differed significantly from AN at ≤85 or ≤90% EBW-Ht. Among AN, any amenorrhea was associated with lower BMD. AN had lower BMD than controls across DSM-5 and The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) severity categories. The SAHM moderate severity classification was differentiated from the mildly malnourished classification by lower BMD at hip and spine sites. Amenorrhea and %EBW-Ht ≤ 85 or ≤ 90% are markers of severity of bone loss within AN. Among severity categories, BMI Z scores (SAHM) may have the greatest utility in assessing the degree of malnutrition in adolescent girls that corresponds to lower BMD.
Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Wesche, Daniela; Kopf, Stefan; Herzog, Wolfgang; Wild, Beate
Background Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, appears to play a major role in the homeostasis of body weight and psychobiological processes associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is scarce data on its exact influence on this disorder, in particular data over time. Objective The present study addresses whether leptin changes during inpatient treatment play a role for treatment outcome and psychological factors in underweight AN patients. Methods In order to understand whether leptin’s role differs in relation to AN severity, data were assessed from 11 patients with a very low BMI and a higher chronicity (high severity group; HSS; mean BMI at the beginning of the study = 13.6; mean duration of illness = 5.1 years) vs. nine with less severe symptoms (LSS; mean BMI = 16.2; mean duration of illness = 3.7 years). During the course of treatment, serum leptin concentrations were assessed weekly while weight (BMI) was assessed twice per week. Concomitantly, psychological variables were obtained by means of electronic diaries. Unconditional linear growth models were calculated to evaluate the temporal course of leptin in relation to BMI. For HSS patients, two phases of treatment (BMI < 16 and BMI ≥ 16 kg/m2) were investigated. Results Leptin increased significantly with BMI in both groups of patients. For HSS patients, the increase of leptin in the first treatment phase did not predict later increases in BMI. Furthermore, the relationship of leptin and psychological factors was modulated by symptom severity. In HSS patients, higher leptin levels were associated with greater feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress whereas in LSS patients a higher leptin level showed the trend to be associated with lower psychological symptom burden. Conclusions Our results suggest that leptin changes are differently associated with weight gain and psychological symptoms depending on the severity of starvation. PMID:28030575
Cederlöf, Martin; Thornton, Laura M; Baker, Jessica; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Rück, Christian; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with anorexia nervosa (AN), a comorbid profile that complicates the clinical management of both conditions. This population-based study aimed to examine patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, shared familial risks and shared genetic factors between OCD and AN at the population level. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (N=19,814) or AN (N=8,462) in the Swedish National Patient Register between January 1992 and December 2009; their first-, second- and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. Female twins from the population-based Swedish Twin Register (N=8,550) were also included. Females with OCD had a 16-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of AN, whereas males with OCD had a 37-fold increased risk. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for a later diagnosis of AN (risk ratio, RR=3.6), whereas individuals first diagnosed with AN had an even greater risk for a later diagnosis of OCD (RR=9.6). These longitudinal risks were about twice as high for males than for females. First- and second-degree relatives of probands with OCD had an increased risk for AN, and the magnitude of this risk tended to increase with the degree of genetic relatedness. Bivariate twin models revealed a moderate but significant degree of genetic overlap between self-reported OCD and AN diagnoses (ra =0.52, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81), but most of the genetic variance was disorder-specific. The moderately high genetic correlation supports the idea that this frequently observed comorbid pattern is at least in part due to shared genetic factors, though disorder-specific factors are more important. These results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice.
Li, Wei; Lai, Tsz M.; Loo, Sandra K.; Strober, Michael; Mohammad-Rezazadeh, Iman; Khalsa, Sahib; Feusner, Jamie
Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) share the clinical symptom of disturbed body image, which may be a function of perceptual distortions. Previous studies suggest visual or visuospatial processing abnormalities may be contributory, but have been unable to discern whether these occur early or late in the visual processing stream. We used electroencephalography (EEG) and visual event related potentials (ERP) to investigate early perceptual neural activity associated with processing visual stimuli. Methods: We performed EEG on 20 AN, 20 BDD, 20 healthy controls, all unmedicated. In order to probe configural/holistic and detailed processing, participants viewed photographs of faces and houses that were unaltered or filtered to low or high spatial frequencies, respectively. We calculated the early ERP components P100 and N170, and compared amplitudes and latencies among groups. Results: P100 amplitudes were smaller in AN than BDD and healthy controls, regardless of spatial frequency or stimulus type (faces or houses). Similarly, N170 latencies were longer in AN than healthy controls, regardless of spatial frequency or stimulus type, with a similar pattern in BDD at trend level significance. N170 amplitudes were smaller in AN than controls for high and normal spatial frequency images, and smaller in BDD than controls for normal spatial frequency images, regardless of stimulus type. Poor insight correlated with lower N170 amplitudes for normal and low spatial frequency faces in the BDD group. Conclusions: Individuals with AN exhibit abnormal early visual system activity, consistent with reduced configural processing and enhanced detailed processing. This is evident regardless of whether the stimuli are appearance–or non-appearance-related, and thus may be a reflection of general, early perceptual abnormalities. As N170 amplitude could be a marker of structural encoding of faces, lower values may be associated with perceptual distortions
Mattar, Lama; Thiébaud, Marie-Raphaele; Huas, Caroline; Cebula, Christelle; Godart, Nathalie
Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder are frequently reported to co-occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is clinical consensus that depressive symptoms and anxiety may in part be sequelae of malnutrition in AN. However, evidence-based data are still very rare. The present study among severe AN patients investigates links between these psychological variants and nutritional status at admission and subsequent to nutritional rehabilitation. Twenty-four women with AN diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) were included prospectively and consecutively at hospitalisation. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Several psychological aspects were assessed using various scales for depression, anxiety, social phobia, obsessive and eating behaviour symptoms. Follow-up weights and heights at 4-12 years after hospital discharge were measured in 18 patients. BMI and all the scores except the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) showed significant improvement between admission and discharge. This study highlights the fact that some of the depressive and anxiety symptoms at least partially decrease with nutrition rehabilitation. The improvement in the scores on the psychometric scales between admission and discharge was not correlated with BMI improvement. Psychometric scores at admission and at discharge were not correlated with BMI at follow-up. BMI at follow-up was correlated with minimum lifetime BMI (r=0.486, P=0.04). Future studies should use a better indicator for nutritional status than BMI alone, and should also consider the initial degree of weight loss and the rate at which weight was lost.
Byrne, Catherine E.; Accurso, Erin C.; Arnow, Katherine D.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel
Objective To determine whether increases in adolescent or parental self-efficacy predicted subsequent weight gain in two different therapies for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site randomized clinical trial for family-based treatment (FBT) and individual adolescent focused therapy (AFT). Both adolescent and parental self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and sessions 2, 4, 6, and 8. Adolescent self-efficacy was assessed using a generic measure of self-efficacy, while parental self-efficacy was assessed using a measure specific to the recovery of an eating disorder. Weight was assessed at baseline, sessions 1 through 8, and end of treatment. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the relation between patient and parent self-efficacy and subsequent weight gain, controlling for weight at the previous time point. Results For families who received FBT, greater within-treatment increases in parental self-efficacy predicted greater subsequent adolescent weight gain compared to those who received FBT with lesser change in parental self-efficacy and those who received AFT. Interestingly, adolescent self-efficacy did not significantly predict subsequent weight gain. Discussion Greater increases in parental self-efficacy predicted significantly greater subsequent weight gain for adolescents who received FBT, but the same was not true for adolescents who received AFT. Neither overall level nor change in adolescent self-efficacy significantly predicted subsequent weight gain in either treatment group. These findings emphasize the importance of increasing parental self-efficacy in FBT in order to impact adolescent weight outcomes. PMID:25808269
The etiology of anorexia nervosa (A