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Sample records for alcohols aromatic tertiary

  1. Frozen Chirality of Tertiary Aromatic Amides: Access to Enantioenriched Tertiary α-Amino Acid or Amino Alcohol without Chiral Reagent.

    PubMed

    Mai, Thi Thoa; Viswambharan, Baby; Gori, Didier; Guillot, Régis; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Kouklovsky, Cyrille; Alezra, Valérie

    2017-04-27

    One of the fundamental and intriguing aspects of life is the homochirality of the essential molecules. In this field, the absolute asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids is a major challenge. Herein, we report access, by chemical means, to tertiary α-amino acid derivatives in up to 96 % ee without using any chiral reagent. In our strategy, the dynamic axial chirality of tertiary aromatic amides is frozen in a crystal and is responsible for the stereoselectivity of the subsequent steps. Furthermore, we could control the configuration of the final product by manually sorting and selecting the initial crystals. Based on vibrational circular dichroism studies, we could rationalize the observed stereoselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. μ-Oxo-Dinuclear-Iron(III)-Catalyzed O-Selective Acylation of Aliphatic and Aromatic Amino Alcohols and Transesterification of Tertiary Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Rikiya; Fujimoto, Chika; Yazaki, Ryo; Ohshima, Takashi

    2016-08-22

    A highly chemoselective and reactive μ-oxo-dinuclear iron(III) salen catalyst for transesterification was developed. The developed iron complex catalyzed acylation of aliphatic amino alcohols with nearly perfect O-selectivity, even when using activated esters, for which chemoselectivity is more difficult to control. In addition, O-selective transesterification of aromatic amino alcohols was achieved for the first time. The high activity of the iron complex enabled the use of sterically congested tertiary alcohols, including unprecedented tert-butanol. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Asymmetric Synthesis of Tertiary Benzylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Antczak, Monika I.; Cai, Feng; Ready, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Vinyl, aryl and alkynyl organometallics add to ketones containing a stereogenic sulfoxide. Tertiary alcohols are generated in diastereomerically and enantiomerically pure form. Reductive lithiation converts the sulfoxide into a variety of useful functional groups. PMID:21142190

  4. Alcohol consumption in tertiary education students.

    PubMed

    Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F; McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2011-07-09

    Heavy alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults is an issue of significant public concern. With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 attending tertiary education, there is an opportunity within these settings to implement programs that target risky drinking. The aim of the current study was to survey students and staff within a tertiary education institution to investigate patterns of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, knowledge of current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for alcohol consumption and intentions to seek help for alcohol problems. Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group) participated in a telephone interview. Questions related to knowledge of NHMRC guidelines, drinking behaviour, alcohol-related problems and help-seeking intentions for alcohol problems. Level of psychological distress was also assessed. Of the completed interviews, 774 (65%) were students and 422 (35%) were staff. While staff were more likely to drink regularly, students were more likely to drink heavily. Alcohol consumption was significantly higher in students, in males and in those with a history of earlier onset drinking. In most cases, alcohol-related problems were more likely to occur in students. The majority of students and staff had accurate knowledge of the current NHMRC guidelines, but this was not associated with lower levels of risky drinking. Psychological distress was associated with patterns of risky drinking in students. Our findings are consistent with previous studies of tertiary student populations, and highlight the disconnect between knowledge of relevant guidelines and actual behaviour. There is a clear need for interventions within tertiary education institutions that promote more effective means of coping with psychological distress and improve help-seeking for alcohol problems, particularly among young men.

  5. Alcohol consumption in tertiary education students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults is an issue of significant public concern. With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 attending tertiary education, there is an opportunity within these settings to implement programs that target risky drinking. The aim of the current study was to survey students and staff within a tertiary education institution to investigate patterns of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, knowledge of current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for alcohol consumption and intentions to seek help for alcohol problems. Methods Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group) participated in a telephone interview. Questions related to knowledge of NHMRC guidelines, drinking behaviour, alcohol-related problems and help-seeking intentions for alcohol problems. Level of psychological distress was also assessed. Results Of the completed interviews, 774 (65%) were students and 422 (35%) were staff. While staff were more likely to drink regularly, students were more likely to drink heavily. Alcohol consumption was significantly higher in students, in males and in those with a history of earlier onset drinking. In most cases, alcohol-related problems were more likely to occur in students. The majority of students and staff had accurate knowledge of the current NHMRC guidelines, but this was not associated with lower levels of risky drinking. Psychological distress was associated with patterns of risky drinking in students. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with previous studies of tertiary student populations, and highlight the disconnect between knowledge of relevant guidelines and actual behaviour. There is a clear need for interventions within tertiary education institutions that promote more effective means of coping with psychological distress and improve help-seeking for alcohol problems, particularly among young men. PMID:21740593

  6. Two stage production of ether from tertiary alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, B.S.

    1993-07-27

    A two stage process is described for the production of ether comprising the steps of: (a) feeding a tertiary alcohol to a first distillation column reactor into a feed zone; (b) concurrently in said first distillation column reactor (i) contacting said tertiary alcohol with an acid ion exchange resin catalyst as a component in distillation structure in a distillation reaction zone at a temperature in the range of 165 to 200 F thereby dissociating said tertiary alcohol to the corresponding tertiary olefin and water, characterized in that sufficient water is maintained in said distillation reaction zone to inhibit the reaction of the tertiary olefin with itself to form dimers and (ii) separating said tertiary olefin and said water by fractional distillation; (c) withdrawing said tertiary olefin from said first distillation column reactor as overheads; (d) withdrawing said unreacted tertiary alcohol and water from said first distillation column reactor as bottoms; (e) feeding said tertiary olefin to a second distillation column reactor into a feed zone; and (f) concurrently in said second distillation column reactor (i) contacting said tertiary olefin diluted with an inert alkane in the mole ratio of 1:5 to 1:100 and a C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohol feed with an acid ion exchange resin catalyst as a component in distillation structure in a distillation reaction zone thereby reacting at least a portion of said alcohol and said tertiary olefin to form a reaction mixture containing an alkyl tertiary alkyl ether, unreacted alcohol and unreacted tertiary olefin, and (ii) separating said alkyl tertiary alkyl ether and said unreacted alcohol from said unreacted tertiary olefin by fractional distillation.

  7. Grignard Synthesis of Various Tertiary Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, T. Stephen

    1998-01-01

    A general Grignard procedure is presented for the synthesis of aliphatic, tertiary alcohols containing six to nine carbons. Without revealing the specific starting materials, students are challenged to identify their unknown products from physical (boiling points, refractive indices) and spectral (infrared O-H, C-H and fingerprint regions) data. Once a product is identified retro-synthetic considerations point to which alkyl halide and ketone were required as starting materials. This laboratory exercise in organic synthesis incorporates anhydrous techniques, distillation, and infrared analysis. RX + Mg ---> [RMgX] + R'R"C=O ---> [RR'R"COMgX] ---> RR'R"COH Criteria RX = C2-C5 1' alkyl bromide (unbranched) R'R"C=O = C3-C5 ketone RR'R"COH = C6-C9 3' alcohol

  8. Ruthenium-catalyzed tertiary amine formation from nitroarenes and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Liu, Yong; Peng, Shengming; Shuai, Qi; Deng, Guojun; Li, Chao-Jun

    2010-11-05

    A highly selective ruthenium-catalyzed C-N bond formation was developed by using the hydrogen-borrowing strategy. Various tertiary amines were obtained efficiently from nitroarenes and primary alcohols. The reaction tolerates a wide range of functionalities. A tentative mechanism was proposed for this direct amination reaction of alcohols with nitroarenes.

  9. Synthesis of unsymmetric tertiary amines via alcohol amination.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shaofeng; Deng, Youquan; Shi, Feng

    2015-06-11

    The first one-pot selective synthesis of unsymmetric tertiary amines is reported by the amination of two types of alcohols with primary amines via the development of a simple CuAlOx-HT catalyst and enables the synthesis of unsymmetric amines in a wide variety of primary amines and alcohols.

  10. Development of Enantiospecific Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Boronic Esters with Aromatic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Odachowski, Marcin; Bonet, Amadeu; Essafi, Stephanie; Conti-Ramsden, Philip; Harvey, Jeremy N; Leonori, Daniele; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2016-08-03

    The stereospecific cross-coupling of secondary boronic esters with sp(2) electrophiles (Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is a long-standing problem in synthesis, but progress has been achieved in specific cases using palladium catalysis. However, related couplings with tertiary boronic esters are not currently achievable. To address this general problem, we have focused on an alternative method exploiting the reactivity of a boronate complex formed between an aryl lithium and a boronic ester. We reasoned that subsequent addition of an oxidant or an electrophile would remove an electron from the aromatic ring or react in a Friedel-Crafts-type manner, respectively, generating a cationic species, which would trigger 1,2-migration of the boron substituent, creating the new C-C bond. Elimination (preceded by further oxidation in the former case) would result in rearomatization giving the coupled product stereospecifically. Initial work was examined with 2-furyllithium. Although the oxidants tested were unsuccessful, electrophiles, particularly NBS, enabled the coupling reaction to occur in good yield with a broad range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters, bearing different steric demands and functional groups (esters, azides, nitriles, alcohols, and ethers). The reaction also worked well with other electron-rich heteroaromatics and 6-membered ring aromatics provided they had donor groups in the meta position. Conditions were also found under which the B(pin)- moiety could be retained in the product, ortho to the boron substituent. This protocol, which created a new C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) and an adjacent C-B bond, was again applicable to a range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters. In all cases, the coupling reaction occurred with complete stereospecificity. Computational studies verified the competing processes involved and were in close agreement with the experimental observations.

  11. Development of Enantiospecific Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Boronic Esters with Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The stereospecific cross-coupling of secondary boronic esters with sp2 electrophiles (Suzuki–Miyaura reaction) is a long-standing problem in synthesis, but progress has been achieved in specific cases using palladium catalysis. However, related couplings with tertiary boronic esters are not currently achievable. To address this general problem, we have focused on an alternative method exploiting the reactivity of a boronate complex formed between an aryl lithium and a boronic ester. We reasoned that subsequent addition of an oxidant or an electrophile would remove an electron from the aromatic ring or react in a Friedel–Crafts-type manner, respectively, generating a cationic species, which would trigger 1,2-migration of the boron substituent, creating the new C–C bond. Elimination (preceded by further oxidation in the former case) would result in rearomatization giving the coupled product stereospecifically. Initial work was examined with 2-furyllithium. Although the oxidants tested were unsuccessful, electrophiles, particularly NBS, enabled the coupling reaction to occur in good yield with a broad range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters, bearing different steric demands and functional groups (esters, azides, nitriles, alcohols, and ethers). The reaction also worked well with other electron-rich heteroaromatics and 6-membered ring aromatics provided they had donor groups in the meta position. Conditions were also found under which the B(pin)- moiety could be retained in the product, ortho to the boron substituent. This protocol, which created a new C(sp2)–C(sp3) and an adjacent C–B bond, was again applicable to a range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters. In all cases, the coupling reaction occurred with complete stereospecificity. Computational studies verified the competing processes involved and were in close agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:27384259

  12. Differentiation of primary, secondary and tertiary aromatic amines in fossil fuels using trifluoroacylation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.S.; Green, J.B.; Yu, S.K.T.; Vrana, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An analytical method which distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary amines has been developed. Trifluoroacetic anhydride, with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as a catalyst, is used to form di- and mono-trifluoroacylated derivatives of primary and secondary aromatic amines, respectively. Tertiary aromatic amines such as quinoline do not react. GC/MS is then used to analyze the derivatized samples. Retention indices and response factors (relative to 4-fluoroaniline) are reported for >50 pure compounds known or expected to be present in fossil fuel base fractions. Also, results from the analysis of base fractions from mildly hydrotreated SRC II coal liquids and petroleum-derived light cycle oils will be reported.

  13. Differentiation of primary, secondary and tertiary aromatic amines in fossil fuels using trifluoroacylation. 1, Analytical methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.S.; Green, J.B.; Yu, S.K.T.; Vrana, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An analytical method which distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary amines has been developed. Trifluoroacetic anhydride, with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as a catalyst, is used to form di- and mono-trifluoroacylated derivatives of primary and secondary aromatic amines, respectively. Tertiary aromatic amines such as quinoline do not react. GC/MS is then used to analyze the derivatized samples. Retention indices and response factors (relative to 4-fluoroaniline) are reported for >50 pure compounds known or expected to be present in fossil fuel base fractions. Also, results from the analysis of base fractions from mildly hydrotreated SRC II coal liquids and petroleum-derived light cycle oils will be reported.

  14. Characterization of four Rhodococcus alcohol dehydrogenase genes responsible for the oxidation of aromatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xue; Taki, Hironori; Komukai, Syoko; Sekine, Mitsuo; Kanoh, Kaneo; Kasai, Hiroaki; Choi, Seon-Kang; Omata, Seiha; Tanikawa, Satoshi; Harayama, Shigeaki; Misawa, Norihiko

    2006-08-01

    Four genes were isolated and characterized for alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyzing the oxidation of aromatic alcohols such as benzyl alcohol to their corresponding aldehydes, one from o-xylene-degrading Rhodococcus opacus TKN14 and the other three from n-alkane-degrading Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4. Various aromatic alcohols were bioconverted to their corresponding carboxylic acids using Escherichia coli cells expressing each of the four ADH genes together with an aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (phnN) from Sphingomonas sp. strain 14DN61. The ADH gene (designated adhA) from strain TKN14 had the ability to biotransform a wide variety of aromatic alcohols, i.e., 2-hydroxymethyl-6-methylnaphthalene, 2-hydroxymethylnaphthalene, xylene-alpha,alpha'-diol, 3-chlorobenzyl alcohol, and vanillyl alcohol, in addition to benzyl alcohol with or without a hydroxyl, methyl, or methoxy substitution. In contrast, the three ADH genes of strain PR4 (designated adhA, adhB, and adhC) exhibited lower ability to degrade these alcohols: these genes stimulated the conversion of the alcohol substrates by only threefold or less of the control value. One exception was the conversion of 3-methoxybenzyl alcohol, which was stimulated sevenfold by adhB. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of these four enzymes indicated that they differed from other Zn-dependent ADHs.

  15. Complex formation equilibria of some aromatic beta-amino-alcohols.

    PubMed

    Carunchio, Vincenzo; Canepari, Silvia; Cardarelli, Enrico; Pietrodangelo, Adriana

    2004-03-01

    Complex formation equilibria of some aromatic beta-amino-alcohols with zinc(II), cadmium(II) and silver(I) have been investigated. The structure of the considered ligands (2-amino-1-phenyl-1-propanol, 2-amino-3-phenyl-1-propanol and 2-amino-1,3-propanediol) are similar to some hormones and alcaloids, like adrenaline, noradrenaline and ephedrine, and differ each other for the number and the relative position of alcoholic and phenyl groups. Equilibria constants at 25 degrees C and micro = 0.5 M (KNO3) have been determined by potentiometric titrations. The comparison of the obtained values with those previously determined for some aliphatic beta-amino-alcohols with the same polar heads has allowed to evidence the influence of aromatic ring on the coordinating properties of ligands, which is different depending on the considered metal ion. In particular, two contrasting effects have been evidenced. The electron withdrawing effect of the aromatic ring causes a decrease of amine basicity, more relevant when phenyl and hydroxylic groups are in 1-3 position, which reflects in a reduction of metal-NH2 coordination bond. This effect is predominant in the case of zinc(II) complexes and causes a reduction of complex stability which results directly proportional to the amine group basicity. On the other hand, in the case of silver(I) and cadmium(II) complexes, phenyl group seems to contribute directly to the coordination of the metal ion causing a stabilization of complexes.

  16. Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkylation of Aromatic Amines by Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Sina; Ertl, Michael; Irrgang, Torsten; Kempe, Rhett

    2015-12-07

    The implementation of inexpensive, Earth-abundant metals in typical noble-metal-mediated chemistry is a major goal in homogeneous catalysis. A sustainable or green reaction that has received a lot of attention in recent years and is preferentially catalyzed by Ir or Ru complexes is the alkylation of amines by alcohols. It is based on the borrowing hydrogen or hydrogen autotransfer concept. Herein, we report on the Co-catalyzed alkylation of aromatic amines by alcohols. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions, and selectively generates monoalkylated amines. The observed selectivity allows the synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted diamines. A novel Co complex stabilized by a PN5 P ligand catalyzes the reactions most efficiently. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ambient cure polyimide foams prepared from aromatic polyisocyanates, aromatic polycarboxylic compounds, furfuryl alcohol, and a strong inorganic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hamermesh, Charles L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Flame and temperature resistant polyimide foams are prepared by the reaction of an aromatic dianhydride, e.g., pyromellitic dianhydride, with an aromatic polyisocyanate, e.g., polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PAPI) in the presence of an inorganic acid and a lower molecular weight alcohol, e.g., dilute sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid and furfuryl alcohol. The exothermic reaction between the acid and the alcohol provides the heat necessary for the other reactants to polymerize without the application of any external heat. Such mixtures, therefore, are ideally suited for in situ foam formation, especially where the application of heat is not practical or possible.

  18. Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 for Enantioselective Bioconversion of Aromatic Secondary Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xi; Zhang, Chong; Orita, Izumi; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2013-01-01

    A novel thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) showing activity toward aromatic secondary alcohols was identified from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkADH). The gene, tk0845, which encodes an aldo-keto reductase, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 31 kDa. It was highly thermostable with an optimal temperature of 90°C and a half-life of 4.5 h at 95°C. The apparent Km values for the cofactors NAD(P)+ and NADPH were similar within a range of 66 to 127 μM. TkADH preferred secondary alcohols and accepted various ketones and aldehydes as substrates. Interestingly, the enzyme could oxidize 1-phenylethanol and its derivatives having substituents at the meta and para positions with high enantioselectivity, yielding the corresponding (R)-alcohols with optical purities of greater than 99.8% enantiomeric excess (ee). TkADH could also reduce 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone to (R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-phenylethanol with high enantioselectivity (>99.6% ee). Furthermore, the enzyme showed high resistance to organic solvents and was particularly highly active in the presence of H2O–20% 2-propanol and H2O–50% n-hexane or n-octane. This ADH is expected to be a useful tool for the production of aromatic chiral alcohols. PMID:23354700

  19. Thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 for enantioselective bioconversion of aromatic secondary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi; Zhang, Chong; Orita, Izumi; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Fukui, Toshiaki; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2013-04-01

    A novel thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) showing activity toward aromatic secondary alcohols was identified from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkADH). The gene, tk0845, which encodes an aldo-keto reductase, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 31 kDa. It was highly thermostable with an optimal temperature of 90°C and a half-life of 4.5 h at 95°C. The apparent K(m) values for the cofactors NAD(P)(+) and NADPH were similar within a range of 66 to 127 μM. TkADH preferred secondary alcohols and accepted various ketones and aldehydes as substrates. Interestingly, the enzyme could oxidize 1-phenylethanol and its derivatives having substituents at the meta and para positions with high enantioselectivity, yielding the corresponding (R)-alcohols with optical purities of greater than 99.8% enantiomeric excess (ee). TkADH could also reduce 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone to (R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-phenylethanol with high enantioselectivity (>99.6% ee). Furthermore, the enzyme showed high resistance to organic solvents and was particularly highly active in the presence of H2O-20% 2-propanol and H2O-50% n-hexane or n-octane. This ADH is expected to be a useful tool for the production of aromatic chiral alcohols.

  20. Air-Liquid Interfaces: I. Alcohols and Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Heather; van Loon, Lisa; Hommel, Elizabeth

    2004-03-01

    Alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons solutions were investigated using broad bandwidth sum frequency generation (BBSFG), a highly surface-selective spectroscopy, and IR and Raman spectroscopies. For aqueous methanol solutions the surface hydrogen bonding environment is quite different relative to the bulk environment. The surface BBSFG studies suggest that methanol is a more efficient hydrogen bonding acceptor when the methanol molecule resides in the interfacial region. Methanol reaction with sulfuric acid was also studied to quantify and understand the formation of mono methyl sulfonate relative to the dimethyl sulfonate. We have also investigated several neat and water-saturated liquid aromatic hydrocarbon surfaces. The data indicate that benzene and similar molecules are tilted at their air-liquid interface. With the introduction of relatively few water molecules into a 1-methyl naphthalene (1-MN) liquid (1 water: 336 1-MN) a rearrangement of the surface molecules is induced, leading to an increased number density of the methyl groups arranged such that more methyl groups are oriented in the same direction into the air phase at the air-liquid 1-MN interface.

  1. Highly efficient heterogeneous gold-catalyzed direct synthesis of tertiary and secondary amines from alcohols and urea.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Qian, Yue; Ding, Ran-Sheng; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Urea, the white gold: The efficient synthesis of tertiary and secondary amines is achieved by heterogeneous gold-catalyzed direct amination of stoichiometric alcohols with urea in good to excellent yields. Via a hydrogen autotransfer pathway, the reactions of primary alcohols with urea give tertiary amines exclusively, while secondary alcohols selectively afford secondary amines.

  2. [Experimental research on alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2013-07-01

    Using two vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, M15, M30 and pure gasoline, E10, E20 separately, 25 degrees C normal temperature type I emission test, -7 degrees C low temperature type VI emission test and type IV evaporation emission test were carried out. FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS methods were utilized to measure alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions. The test results indicate that at the low as well as normal ambient temperature, as the alcohols proportion increasing in the fuel, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde increase proportionally, benzene, toluene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene decrease slightly. The unregulated emissions at the low ambient temperature are significantly higher than those at the normal ambient temperature. The difference of HC emissions in the entire process of evaporative emission tests of E10, gasoline and M15 fuels is slight. There is a small difference of unregulated emissions in the diurnal test of three fuels.

  3. Asymmetric organocatalytic synthesis of tertiary azomethyl alcohols: key intermediates towards azoxy compounds and α-hydroxy-β-amino esters.

    PubMed

    Carmona, José A; Gonzalo, Gonzalo de; Serrano, Inmaculada; Crespo-Peña, Ana M; Šimek, Michal; Monge, David; Fernández, Rosario; Lassaletta, José M

    2017-04-05

    A series of peracylated glycosamine-derived thioureas have been synthesized and their behavior as bifunctional organocatalysts has been tested in the enantioselective nucleophilic addition of formaldehyde tert-butyl hydrazone to aliphatic α-keto esters for the synthesis of tertiary azomethyl alcohols. Using the 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucosamine derived 3,5-bis-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl thiourea the reaction could be accomplished with high yields (75-98%) and moderate enantioselectivities (50-64% ee). Subsequent high-yielding and racemization-free tranformations of both aromatic- and aliphatic-substituted diazene products in a one pot fashion provide a direct entry to valuable azoxy compounds and α-hydroxy-β-amino esters.

  4. HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  5. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  6. [Impact of a hand hygiene campaign on alcoholic hand rub consumption in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Robles-García, Mónica; Rebollo-Rodrigo, Henar; Antolín-Juárez, Francisco Manuel; de la Cal López, Marta; Navarro-Córdoba, Mar; Llorca, Javier

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of a hand hygiene program on consumption of alcoholic hand rub, and specifically the impact of the development of hand washing training in a tertiary hospital belonging to the Cantabrian Health Service in Spain. We performed an ecological study from January 2005 to December 2008. The dependent variable was consumption of alcoholic hand rub (ml/day). As the independent variable, we used the hand hygiene campaign developed by the Cantabrian Health Service. The relationship between alcoholic hand rub consumption and the campaign was evaluated using multiple linear regression. The training received in hand hygiene in hospital wards was associated with consumption of alcoholic hand rub, which improved as the campaign became consolidated (in 2008) and showed a positive effect, particularly its training aspects. Copyright © 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. NMP and O2 as Radical Initiator: Trifluoromethylation of Alkenes to Tertiary β-Trifluoromethyl Alcohols at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Lu, Qingquan; Huang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Jian; Liao, Fan; Peng, Pan; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-12-18

    A novel strategy was developed to trigger ·CF3 by using in situ generated peroxide in NMP under O2 or air as the radical initiator. Radical trifluoromethylation of alkenes was achieved toward tertiary β-trifluoromethyl alcohols. Various tertiary β-trifluoromethyl alcohols can be synthesized in good yields without extra oxidants or transition metal catalysts. Preliminary mechanistic investigation revealed that O2 diffusion can influence the reaction rate.

  8. An efficient method for the preparation of tertiary esters by palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhuo; Gøgsig, Thomas M; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2012-01-06

    The palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of aryl bromides is described for the efficient preparation of tertiary esters. The protocol proved compatible with a wide variety of functionalized (hetero)aromatic bromides, as well as several different sterically hindered tertiary alcohols, affording the alkoxycarbonylated products in high yields. Finally, the formation of aromatic trityl esters is discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  10. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  11. Electron-impact promoted fragmentation of alkyl-n-/1-phenylethyl/-carbamates of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Halpern, B.; Solomon, D. D.; Duffield, A. M.

    1971-01-01

    The mass spectra of twenty alkyl carbamates derived from primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols are investigated, using deuterium labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Several of the primary and secondary alcohol derivatives are found to yield an ion formally equivalent to the product ion of a McLafferty rearrangement. Deuterium labeling, however, revealed a lack, in these carbamate derivatives, of the usual site specificity associated with the McLafferty rearrangement. A double hydrogen rearrangement process was observed in the mass spectra of several carbamates derived from tertiary alcohols.

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of cigarette ingredients: aromatic and aliphatic alcohol compounds.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Smith, Donna C; Oldham, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Various aromatic and aliphatic alcohol compounds are found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. A battery of tests was used to compare the toxicity of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes containing eight aromatic and aliphatic alcohol compounds that were added individually to experimental cigarettes at three different levels. The lowest target inclusion level was 100 ppm and the highest level was 24,400 ppm. Mainstream smoke from each of the cigarette types was evaluated using analytical chemistry and assays to measure in vitro cytotoxicity (neutral red uptake) and Salmonella (five strains) mutagenicity. For three of the compounds (benzyl alcohol, propyl paraben, and rum flavor), 90-day smoke inhalation studies with 6-week recovery periods were also performed using rats. Inclusion of eugenol produced several dose-related reductions in concentrations of selected smoke constituents. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were unaffected by any of the test ingredients, except for dose-related reductions in cytotoxicity of the gas vapor phase produced by the inclusion of eugenol. The three smoke inhalation studies showed a few sporadic differences between the groups and there were no differences in the patterns of recovery for any of the ingredients. Despite using exaggerated inclusion levels of the eight aliphatic and aromatic alcohol compounds in experimental cigarettes, there was minimal toxicological response, which is consistent with published reports of studies using mixtures of compounds added to tobacco.

  13. Novel approach to the preparation of hemisuccinates of steroids bearing tertiary alcohol group.

    PubMed

    Longin, Ondřej; Černý, Ivan; Drašar, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    17β-O-Hemisuccinates of typical representatives of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids, 17β-hydroxy-17-methylandrostan-4-en-3-one, 17β-hydroxy-17-methyl-2-oxa-5α-androstan-3-one, 17β-hydroxy-17-methyl-5α-androstano-[3,2-c]pyrazole, were prepared. Several methods for the hemisuccinate preparation were tested. The indirect method using 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide coupling reagent to form an ester bond of steroid with 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl hydrogen butanedioate was finally applied. Using the selectively removable protecting group, the desired hemisuccinates of steroids bearing tertiary alcohol group were obtained.

  14. Transition-Metal-Free Decarboxylative Photoredox Coupling of Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols with Aromatic Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Benjamin; Nauth, Alexander M; Opatz, Till

    2016-08-05

    A transition-metal-free protocol for the redox-neutral light-induced decarboxylative coupling of carboxylic acids with (hetero)aromatic nitriles at ambient temperature is presented. A broad scope of acids and nitriles is accepted, and alcohols can be coupled in a similar fashion through their oxalate half esters. Various inexpensive sources of UV light and even sunlight can be used to achieve this C-C bond formation proceeding through a free radical mechanism.

  15. Evaluation of an Alcohol Withdrawal Protocol and a Preprinted Order Set at a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Karen; Dahri, Karen; Chow, Ivy; Legal, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol withdrawal protocols involving symptom-triggered administration of benzodiazepine have been established to reduce the duration of treatment and the cumulative benzodiazepine dose (relative to usual care). However, the effects of a protocol combining fixed-schedule and symptom-triggered benzodiazepine dosing are less clear. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of a combination fixed-scheduled and symptom-triggered benzodiazepine dosing protocol for alcohol withdrawal, relative to usual care, for medical inpatients at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A chart review of admissions to the internal medicine service for alcohol withdrawal was conducted to compare treatment outcomes before (October 2005 to April 2007) and after (October 2007 to April 2009) implementation of the combination protocol. The primary outcome was duration of benzodiazepine treatment for alcohol withdrawal. The secondary outcomes were cumulative benzodiazepine dose administered, safety implications, and use of adjunctive medications. Results: A total of 159 patients met the inclusion criteria. Assessable data were available for 71 charts from the pre-implementation period and 72 charts from the post-implementation period. The median duration of benzodiazepine treatment was 91 h before implementation and 57 h after implementation (p < 0.001). Use of the protocol was also associated with a significant reduction in severe complications of alcohol withdrawal (50% versus 33%, p = 0.019), median cumulative benzodiazepine dose (in lorazepam equivalents) (20.0 mg versus 15.5 mg, p = 0.026), and use of adjunctive medications (65% versus 38%, p = 0.001). The incidence of serious adverse outcomes of treatment with benzodiazepines was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Implementation of an alcohol withdrawal protocol with a combination of fixed-schedule and symptom-triggered benzodiazepine dosing in a medical ward was associated with a shorter duration

  16. Thermal analysis of tertiary butyl alcohol/sucrose/water ternary system.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Jian-Guo; Hua, Tse-Chao; Liu, Bao-Lin; Zhou, Guo-Yan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the freezing properties of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA)/sucrose/water ternary system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is employed to determine the glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated solution Tg' and the crystallization (or devitrification) temperature Tr. DSC measurements show that the presence of sucrose hinders the crystallization of TBA during cooling. The residual TBA in the glassy state will cause a decrease in Tg' and will crystallize during heating. An increase in the cooling rate causes a decrease in Tg'. For 10% TBA/10% sucrose/water ternary system, the critical heating rate is approximately 250 degrees C/min. Annealing treatment at temperatures below Tg' causes the crystallization of TBA, which indicates that TBA molecules still have appreciable mobility even at temperatures below Tg'. When the ratio of TBA to sucrose is less than 0.2, TBA cannot crystallize during cooling.

  17. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    PubMed

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data.

  18. On the origin of mesoscale structures in aqueous solutions of tertiary butyl alcohol: the mystery resolved.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Marián; Rak, Dmytro

    2014-03-13

    We have performed a detailed experimental study on aqueous solutions of tertiary butyl alcohol which were a subject of long-standing controversies regarding the puzzling presence of virtually infinitely stable large-scale structures in such solutions occurring at length scales exceeding appreciably dimensions of individual molecules, referred to also as mesoscale structures. A combination of static and dynamic light scattering yielding information on solution structure and dynamics and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry yielding information on chemical composition was used. We show that tertiary butyl alcohol clearly exhibiting such structures upon mixing with water does not contain any propylene oxide, which was previously considered as a source of these structures (an impurity expected to be present in all commercial samples of TBA). More importantly, we show that no mesoscale structures are generated upon addition of propylene oxide to aqueous solutions of TBA. The ternary system TBA/water/propylene oxide exhibits homogeneous mixing of the components on mesoscales. We show that the source of the mesoscale structures is a mesophase separation of appreciably more hydrophobic compounds than propylene oxide. These substances are explicitly analytically identified as well as their disappearance upon filtering out the mesoscale structures by nanopore filtration. We clearly show which substances are disappearing upon filtration and which are not. This enables us to estimate with rather high probability the chemical composition of the mesoscale structures. Visualization of large-scale structures via nanoparticle tracking analysis is also presented. Video capturing the mesoscale particles as well as their Brownian motion can be found in the Supporting Information .

  19. The influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the adsorption properties of aromatic alcohols and thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeeva, V. V.; Terent'ev, A. V.; Buryak, A. K.

    2008-06-01

    The thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption equilibria of primary aromatic alcohols and thiols on graphitized carbon black at 300 K were determined by the molecular-statistical method. The influence of intramolecular effects under the action of the force field of the sorbent on the conformation of the molecules studied was considered in comparison with n-alkylbenzenes having similar structures. An increase in the chain length by one-CH2 group was shown to influence the formation of intramolecular H-bonds in alcohol and thiol molecules. In adsorption, a considerable fraction of molecules assumed configurations close to planar. An exception was the nonplanar conformation of the 2-phenylethanol molecule stabilized by the intramolecular H-bond.

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in alcoholic drinks and the identification of their potential sources.

    PubMed

    García-Falcón, M S; Simal-Gándara, J

    2005-09-01

    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly those with a high molecular mass, have been classified as probably being carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The significance of the determination of PAHs is reflected by the special attention the European Union is paying to regulating their maximum allowed levels in various types of foodstuffs. Like tobacco and smoked meats, alcoholic drinks can also contain these carcinogenic chemicals, as the latter have been detected in the charred insides of barrels, some ingredients such as caramel or the smoke released during the drying of germinated barley in beer or whisky. This paper determined the contents of seven PAHs in alcoholic beverages of variable alcoholic strength that had been aged in charred barrels for different times (months, years). The aim was to elucidate the dependence of the formation of seven PAHs on the type of charring (traditional or convective) used and the charring intensity (light, medium or heavy). Based on the results, the way the tree raw material is toasted strongly influences PAH levels in alcoholic drinks; thus, traditional charring produces increased amounts of PAHs from the wood relative to convective toasting. The sum of the analysed PAH concentrations in the aged alcoholic beverages studied ranged from zero for a white wine to 172 ng l(-1) for a 'brandy de jerez solera'. The carcinogenic indicator benzo[a]pyrene was found at concentrations below 10 ng l(-1). These PAH concentrations in alcoholic beverages are very low relative to those in smoked and char-broiled foodstuffs. Any health hazards, however, can be minimized by using convective toasting to manufacture the barrels where the drinks are to be aged.

  1. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water Part 3. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 11 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aromatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For nine systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All new data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  2. Mutation of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase at Trp-110 affects stereoselectivity of aromatic ketone reduction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jay M; Musa, Musa M; Rodriguez, Luis; Sutton, Dewey A; Popik, Vladimir V; Phillips, Robert S

    2014-08-21

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols. We have been studying a thermostable, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+))-dependent, secondary ADH from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (TeSADH). In the current work, we expanded our library of TeSADH and adopted the site-saturation mutagenesis approach in creating a comprehensive mutant library at W110. We used phenylacetone as a model substrate to study the effectiveness of our library because this substrate showed low enantioselectivity in our previous work when reduced using W110A TeSADH. Five of the newly designed W110 mutants reduced phenylacetone at >99.9% ee, and two of these mutants exhibit an enantiomeric ratio (E-value) of over 100. These five mutants also reduced 1-phenyl-2-butanone and 4-phenyl-2-butanone to their corresponding (S)-configured alcohols in >99.9% ee. These new mutants of TeSADH will likely have synthetic utility for reduction of aromatic ketones in the future.

  3. Direct construction of quaternary carbons from tertiary alcohols via photoredox-catalyzed fragmentation of tert-alkyl N-phthalimidoyl oxalates.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Gregory L; Quasdorf, Kyle W; Overman, Larry E

    2013-10-16

    A convenient method for the direct construction of quaternary carbons from tertiary alcohols by visible-light photoredox coupling of tert-alkyl N-phthalimidoyl oxalate intermediates with electron-deficient alkenes is reported.

  4. Formation of sulfonyl aromatic alcohols by electrolysis of a bisazo reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Elizalde-González, María P; Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; García-Díaz, Esmeralda; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M

    2012-12-05

    Five sulfonyl aromatic alcohols, namely 4-((2-hydroxyethyl)sulfonyl)phenol, 4-((2-(2-((4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl)ethoxy)vinyl)sulfonyl)phenol, 4-(ethylsulfonyl)phenol, 4-(vinylsulfonyl)phenol and 5-((4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl)-2-penten-1-ol were identified by LC-ESI-Qq-TOF-MS as products formed by electrolysis of the bisazo reactive dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Since electrolyses were performed in an undivided cell equipped with Ni electrodes in alkaline medium, amines like 4-(2-methoxyethylsulfonyl)benzene-amine (MEBA) with m/z 216 were also suspected to be formed due to the plausible chemical reaction in the bulk or the cathodic reduction of RB5 and its oxidation by-products. Aiming to check this hypothesis, a method was used for the preparation of MEBA with 98% purity, via chemical reduction also of the dye RB5. The logP of the synthesized sulfonyl aromatic compounds was calculated and their logkw values were determined chromatographically. These data were discussed in regard to the relationship between hydrophobicity/lipophilicity and toxicity.

  5. Acceleration of disproportionation of aromatic alcohols through self-emulsification of reactants in water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binbin; Song, Jinliang; Liu, Huizhen; Han, Buxing; Jiang, Tao; Fan, Honglei; Zhang, Zhaofu; Wu, Tianbin

    2012-12-01

    Exploration of new and effective routes to conduct organic reactions in water using the special properties of water/organics is of great importance. In this work, we performed the disproportionation of various aromatic alcohols in water and in different organic solvents. It was demonstrated that the disproportionation reactions of the alcohols were accelerated more effectively in water than organic-solvent-based or solvent-free reactions. A series of control experiments were conducted to study the mechanism of the accelerated reaction rate in water. It was shown that the reactants could emulsify the reactant/water systems at the reaction conditions owing to their amphiphilic nature. The regularly orientated reactant molecules at the water/reactant droplet interface improved the contact probability of the reactive groups and the Pd nanocatalysts, which is one of the main reasons for the enhanced reaction rate in water. Controlling the self-emulsification of amphiphilic reactant/water systems has great application potential for optimizing the rate and/or selectivity of many organic reactions.

  6. A study into blood alcohol concentration in fatal accidents among vulnerable road users in a tertiary care hospital Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, Anuruddhi Samanthika; Kitulwatte, Indira Deepthi; Senarathne, Udara Dilrukshi

    2015-01-01

    Reckless driving behaviour associated with alcohol has been well known. In Sri Lanka, research on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in road fatalities is scares. Thus, we studied the BAC in vulnerable road users (VRUs) encountered in medico-legal autopsies. A retrospective descriptive study based on case records of VRU fatalities from 2005 to 2012 referred for a tertiary care unit for post-mortem examination was conducted. A pro-forma was developed to extract data from the post-mortem blood alcohol reports. Data were analysed using percentages and p-values. There were 119 cases from the 328 autopsies to investigate blood alcohol tests. A total of 51% (n = 61) out of 119 had BAC above 80 mg/100 ml and mean level was 103 mg/100 ml. 2/3 of pedestrians had a BAC above 80 mg/100 ml with a mean level of 139 mg/dl. The highest mean blood alcohol (158 mg/dl) was reported from three-wheeler users. Majority of cases with more than 80 mg/100 ml BAC was reported in the age group of 40-60 years, while 40% of the elderly too had a BAC above 80 mg/100 ml. The comparison between pedestrians having above 80 mg/100 ml of BAC with that of other VRUs (active road users) showed a significant statistical difference (p = 0.017). The study results suggest that alcohol influence among pedestrians represent a significant risk factor for fatal road traffic accidents.

  7. Selective iridium-catalyzed alkylation of (hetero)aromatic amines and diamines with alcohols under mild reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Blank, Benoît; Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2009-01-01

    A P,N-ligand-coordinated iridium complex has been employed as an efficient catalyst for the selective monoalkylation of (hetero)aromatic amines with alcohols. A significant improvement of this alkylation method has been achieved, such that it can be performed at a temperature of 70 degrees C and with catalyst loadings as low as 0.1 mol % Ir, while still affording excellent yields of secondary amines. Furthermore, the high selectivity of this catalyst for the monoalkylation of aromatic amino functions has been successfully exploited for the alkylation of diamines in both symmetric and nonsymmetric fashions, providing a novel and very efficient synthetic tool for the preparation of N,N'-dialkylated aromatic diamines.

  8. Effect of different solvent on the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn2S4 for selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols to aromatic aldehydes under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Li; Ye, Xiangju; Meng, Sugang; Fu, Xianliang; Chen, Shifu

    2016-10-01

    A series of ternary chalcogenides, zinc indium sulphide (ZnIn2S4), were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method with different solvents. The structure, textural, and optical properties of the resulting materials were thoroughly characterized by several techniques. The as-prepared ZnIn2S4 samples could all be employed as excellent photocatalysts to activate O2 for selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols to aromatic aldehydes under visible light illumination. The results showed that ZnIn2S4 prepared in ethanol solvent (ZIS-EtOH) exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among the screened samples. The differences of photocatalytic performance for ZnIn2S4 samples prepared in different media were mainly attributed to the different levels of exposed {0001} special facets caused by the exposure extent of the basic crystal plane. In addition, rad O2- and positive holes were proved to be the main active species during the photocatalytic process. Combined with the previous reports, a possible photocatalytic mechanism for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde over ZnIn2S4 sample was proposed.

  9. GRASr2 evaluation of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances used as flavoring ingredients.

    PubMed

    Marnett, Lawrence J; Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Adams, Timothy B; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Taylor, Sean V

    2014-04-01

    This publication is the 1st in a series of publications by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Assoc. summarizing the Panel's 3rd re-evaluation of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status referred to as the GRASr2 program. In 2011, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 2700 flavor ingredients that have previously met the criteria for GRAS status under conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr2) based, in part, on their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

  10. NAD-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in wheats (Triticum L.) and goatgrasses (Aegilops L.): evolutionary genetics.

    PubMed

    Jaaska, V

    1984-04-01

    Evolutionary electrophoretic variation of a NAD-specific aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase, AADH-E, in wheat and goatgrass species is described and discussed in comparison with a NAD-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-A) and a NADP-dependent AADH-B studied previously. Cultivated tetraploid emmer wheats (T. turgidum s. l.) and hexaploid bread wheats (T. aestivum s. l.) are all fixed for a heterozygous triplet, E(0.58)/E(0.64). The slowest isoenzyme, E(0.58), is controlled by a homoeoallelic gene on the chromosome arm 6AL of T. aestivum cv. 'Chinese Spring' and is inherent in all diploid wheats, T. monococcum s. Str., T. boeoticum s. l. and T. urartu. The fastest isoenzyme, E(0.64), is presumably controlled by the B- and D-genome homoeoalleles of the bread wheat and is the commonest alloenzyme of diploid goat-grasses, including Ae. speltaides and Ae. tauschii. The tetraploid T. timopheevii s. str. has a particular heterozygous triplet E(0.56)/E(0.71), whereas the hexaploid T. zhukovskyi exhibited polymorphism with electromorphs characteristic of T. timopheevii and T. monococcum. Wild tetraploid wheats, T. dicoccoides and T. araraticum, showed partially homologous intraspecific variation of AADH-E with heterozygous triplets E(0.58)/E(0.64) (the commonest), E(0.58)/E(0.71), E(0.45)/E(0.58), E(0.48)/E(0.58) and E(0.56)/E(0.58) recorded. Polyploid goatgrasses of the D-genome group, excepting Ae. cylindrica, are fixed for the common triplet E(0.58)/E(0.64). Ae. cylindrica and polyploid goatgrasses of the C(u)-genome group, excepting Ae. kotschyi, are homozygous for E(0.64). Ae. kotschyi is exceptional, showing fixed heterozygosity for both AADH-E and ADH-A with unique triplets E(0.56)/E(0.64) and A(0.49)/A(0.56).

  11. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  12. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  13. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  14. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio-economic background to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael J; Leyland, Alastair H; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    If socio-economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Comparing cohort studies. United Kingdom. Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty-07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Participants self-reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22-26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non-manual) indicated socio-economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and -0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non-manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non-smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college and university) despite socio-economic background being associated in opposite directions with these risk

  15. Catalyst free synthesis of α-fluoro-β-hydroxy ketones/α-fluoro-ynols via electrophilic fluorination of tertiary propargyl alcohols using Selectfluor™ (F-TEDA-BF4).

    PubMed

    Naveen, Naganaboina; Balamurugan, Rengarajan

    2017-03-01

    A facile method for the synthesis of α-fluoro-β-hydroxy ketones/α-fluoro-ynols from tertiary propargyl alcohols under electrophilic fluorination conditions using F-TEDA-BF4 has been presented. The products bear pharmaceutically important α-fluoro ketone, gem-diaryl and fluorohydrin moieties in the same molecule. Interestingly, this catalyst free protocol results in monofluorination.

  16. Ruthenium-catalyzed cross-coupling of tertiary propargyl alcohols with omega-alkynenitriles: a regio- and stereoselective surrogate for an aldol condensation.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Maulide, Nuno; Rudd, Michael T

    2009-01-21

    A novel catalytic alkyne cross-coupling reaction is reported which connects tertiary propargyl alcohols with omega-alkynylnitriles with perfect atom economy. This remarkable process generates highly functionalized, stereodefined dienones that are formal aldol products in a single step. Moreover, the specificity of the cyano substituent for this reaction demonstrates the unique and somewhat underappreciated properties of that functional group.

  17. Asymmetric reduction and oxidation of aromatic ketones and alcohols using W110A secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus.

    PubMed

    Musa, Musa M; Ziegelmann-Fjeld, Karla I; Vieille, Claire; Zeikus, J Gregory; Phillips, Robert S

    2007-01-05

    An enantioselective asymmetric reduction of phenyl ring-containing prochiral ketones to yield the corresponding optically active secondary alcohols was achieved with W110A secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (W110A TESADH) in Tris buffer using 2-propanol (30%, v/v) as cosolvent and cosubstrate. This concentration of 2-propanol was crucial not only to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic phenyl ring-containing substrates in the aqueous reaction medium, but also to shift the equilibrium in the reduction direction. The resulting alcohols have S-configuration, in agreement with Prelog's rule, in which the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) cofactor transfers its pro-R hydride to the re face of the ketone. A series of phenyl ring-containing ketones, such as 4-phenyl-2-butanone (1a) and 1-phenyl-1,3-butadione (2a), were reduced with good to excellent yields and high enantioselectivities. On the other hand, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (7a) was reduced with lower ee than 2-butanone derivatives. (R)-Alcohols, the anti-Prelog products, were obtained by enantiospecific oxidation of (S)-alcohols through oxidative kinetic resolution of the rac-alcohols using W110A TESADH in Tris buffer/acetone (90:10, v/v).

  18. Highly Enantioselective Allylation of Ketones: An Efficient Approach to All Stereoisomers of Tertiary Homoallylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Brauns, Marcus; Mantel, Marvin; Schmauck, Julie; Guder, Marian; Breugst, Martin; Pietruszka, Jörg

    2017-09-07

    An optimized protecting group for allylboronates allowed the use of ketones in order to synthesize all isomers of quaternary homoallylic alcohols with high enantioselectivities. All symmetric isomers of the allylboronate were prepared in high yields and diastereoselectivities using Sn 2' reactions. The improved reactivity of the novel protecting group was verified by following the reaction kinetics with (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Mechanistic studies using DFT calculations were conducted to investigate the new findings. Thus, the stereochemical outcome and enhanced reactivity can be rationalized. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  20. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  1. Phase equilibria study of {N-hexylisoquinolinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide + aromatic hydrocarbons or an alcohol} binary systems.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej; Tshibangu, M Marc; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Letcher, Trevor M

    2011-04-14

    Isoquinolinium ionic liquid (IL) has been synthesized from N-hexylisoquinolinium bromide as a substrate. Specific basic characterization of the synthesized compound is included, which includes NMR spectra, elementary analysis, and water content. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, melting and solid-solid transition temperatures, as well as the enthalpy of fusion, or solid-solid transition have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique. The density and viscosity as a function of temperature have been measured for the pure IL at temperatures higher than the melting temperature and were extrapolated to T = 298.15 K. The temperature-composition phase diagrams of 8 binary mixtures composed of the IL N-hexylisoquinolinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, ([HiQuin][NTf(2)]) and an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene) or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol) have been determined from ambient temperature to the boiling-point temperature of the solvent at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 270 to 330 K. For the binary systems, the eutectic diagrams were observed with immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). In the case of the mixture {IL + benzene, or alkylbenzene} the eutectic systems with mutual immiscibility in the liquid phase with very high UCSTs were observed. These points were not detectable with our method and were observed at low IL mole fraction. For mixtures with alcohols, it was observed that with an increasing chain length of an alcohol, the solubility decreases and the UCST increases. The coexistence curves corresponding to liquid-liquid phase equilibrium boundaries and the solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been correlated using the well-known nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model.

  2. Interaction of aromatic alcohols, aldehydes and acids with α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals: A steady state radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samovich, S. N.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Benzaldehyde and its derivatives efficaciously oxidize in aqueous solutions α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals (α-HCR) of various structures, suppressing thereby the radical recombination and fragmentation reactions. The compounds containing cinnamic moieties are capable of adding α-hydroxyethyl radicals (α-HER) to the carbon-carbon double bonds conjugated with the aromatic system to form molecular products identifiable by mass spectrometry. On radiolysis of aqueous ethanol solutions, reduction of α-HER by aromatic alcohols and acids has been shown to proceed via formation of their adducts with hydrated electron species.

  3. Bioactive compounds derived from the yeast metabolism of aromatic amino acids during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mas, Albert; Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Cerezo, Ana B; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.

  4. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Troncoso, Ana M.; Garcia-Parrilla, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements. PMID:24895623

  5. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  6. Friedel-Crafts-type allylation of nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds with allylic alcohols catalyzed by a [Mo3S4Pd(η3-allyl)] cluster.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yinsong; Wang, Baomin; Zhao, Jinfeng; Song, Yuming; Qu, Lihong; Qu, Jingping

    2012-03-16

    With the direct use of allylic alcohols as allylating agents, the Friedel-Crafts-type allylic alkylation of nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds catalyzed by a [Mo(3)S(4)Pd(η(3)-allyl)] cluster is achieved. With a 3 mol % catalyst loading in acetonitrile at reflux or 60 °C, a variety of N,N-dialkylanilines and indoles reacted smoothly with allylic alcohols to afford the Friedel-Crafts-type allylation products in good to excellent yields with high levels of regioselectivity.

  7. Oxidation with the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-VO{sub 3}{sup -} - pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid reagent 2. Oxidation of alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Shul`pin, G.B.; Druzhinina, A.N.; Nizova, G.V.

    1994-02-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of catalytic amounts of VO{sub 3}{sup -} and pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid into phenols (provided excess hydrocarbon is used) or into quinones (at high H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations). 2-Propanol, ethanol, cyclohexanol, and benzyl alcohol are transformed into the corresponding aldehydes and ketones under the same conditions (without a solvent or in MeCN).

  8. Cross-dehydrogenative coupling and oxidative-amination reactions of ethers and alcohols with aromatics and heteroaromatics

    PubMed Central

    Vuram, Prasanna K.

    2017-01-01

    Cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) is a process in which, typically, a C–C bond is formed at the expense of two C–H bonds, either catalyzed by metals or other organic compounds, or via uncatalyzed processes. In this perspective, we present various modes of C–H bond-activation at sp3 centers adjacent to ether oxygen atoms, followed by C–C bond formation with aromatic systems as well as with heteroaromatic systems. C–N bond-formation with NH-containing heteroaromatics, leading to hemiaminal ethers, is also an event that can occur analogously to C–C bond formation, but at the expense of C–H and N–H bonds. A large variety of hemiaminal ether-forming reactions have recently appeared in the literature and this perspective also includes this complementary chemistry. In addition, the participation of C–H bonds in alcohols in such processes is also described. Facile access to a wide range of compounds can be attained through these processes, rendering such reactions useful for synthetic applications via Csp3 bond activations. PMID:28970941

  9. Nanoporous carbon materials with enhanced supercapacitance performance and non-aromatic chemical sensing with C1/C2 alcohol discrimination.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Adhikari, Laxmi; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Adhikari, Mandira Pradhananga; Adhikari, Rina; Hill, Jonathan P; Pradhananga, Raja Ram; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the textural properties, electrochemical supercapacitances and vapor sensing performances of bamboo-derived nanoporous carbon materials (NCM). Bamboo, an abundant natural biomaterial, was chemically activated with phosphoric acid at 400 °C and the effect of impregnation ratio of phosphoric acid on the textural properties and electrochemical performances was systematically investigated. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of various oxygen-containing surface functional groups (i.e. carboxyl, carboxylate, carbonyl and phenolic groups) in NCM. The prepared NCM are amorphous in nature and contain hierarchical micropores and mesopores. Surface areas and pore volumes were found in the range 218-1431 m(2) g(-1) and 0.26-1.26 cm(3) g(-1), respectively, and could be controlled by adjusting the impregnation ratio of phosphoric acid and bamboo cane powder. NCM exhibited electrical double-layer supercapacitor behavior giving a high specific capacitance of c.256 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) together with high cyclic stability with capacitance retention of about 92.6% after 1000 cycles. Furthermore, NCM exhibited excellent vapor sensing performance with high sensitivity for non-aromatic chemicals such as acetic acid. The system would be useful to discriminate C1 and C2 alcohol (methanol and ethanol).

  10. Nanoporous carbon materials with enhanced supercapacitance performance and non-aromatic chemical sensing with C1/C2 alcohol discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Adhikari, Laxmi; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Adhikari, Mandira Pradhananga; Adhikari, Rina; Hill, Jonathan P.; Pradhananga, Raja Ram; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have investigated the textural properties, electrochemical supercapacitances and vapor sensing performances of bamboo-derived nanoporous carbon materials (NCM). Bamboo, an abundant natural biomaterial, was chemically activated with phosphoric acid at 400 °C and the effect of impregnation ratio of phosphoric acid on the textural properties and electrochemical performances was systematically investigated. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of various oxygen-containing surface functional groups (i.e. carboxyl, carboxylate, carbonyl and phenolic groups) in NCM. The prepared NCM are amorphous in nature and contain hierarchical micropores and mesopores. Surface areas and pore volumes were found in the range 218–1431 m2 g−1 and 0.26–1.26 cm3 g−1, respectively, and could be controlled by adjusting the impregnation ratio of phosphoric acid and bamboo cane powder. NCM exhibited electrical double-layer supercapacitor behavior giving a high specific capacitance of c.256 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 together with high cyclic stability with capacitance retention of about 92.6% after 1000 cycles. Furthermore, NCM exhibited excellent vapor sensing performance with high sensitivity for non-aromatic chemicals such as acetic acid. The system would be useful to discriminate C1 and C2 alcohol (methanol and ethanol). PMID:27877898

  11. [Inheritance and phenotype expression of functional and null alleles of aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) in diploid wheats].

    PubMed

    Konovalov, A A; Shundrina, I K; Karpova, E V; Nefedov, A A; Goncharov, N P

    2014-11-01

    Functional F and null 0 alleles of the CAD1 (Aadh1) gene, which controls the biosynthesis of aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase, were studied in hybrids of the diploid wheat T. monococcum L. and Triticum sinskajae A.Filat. et Kurk. The gene CAD1 is located in chromosome 5A and is linked with the awnless gene awnS (La) with a recombination frequency of about 32%. Plants with genotypes FF, F0, and 00 were significantly different in the height and mechanical strength of the stalk (culm). The elastic limit of the culm tissues of plants FF was considerably higher than in 00 plants. F0 heterozygotes had intermediate values. The thickness of the wall of the sclerenchyma was thinner in plants with genotype 00. The chemical structure of lignin of plants with the functional CAD allele contained units of a phloroglucinol series missing in the mutant plants. The CAD genotypes had no effect on the relative content of cellulose and lignin in stalks ofdiploid wheat and insignificantly influenced the ratio of H :G : S units in the lignin structure, as well as some components of extractives.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced CYP1B1 activity is suppressed by perillyl alcohol in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Nelson L.S.; Wang Huan; Wang Yun; Leung, H.Y.; Leung, Lai K. . E-mail: laikleung@yahoo.com

    2006-06-01

    Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a dietary monoterpene with potential applications in chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Although clinical trials are under way, POH's physiological and pharmacological properties are still unclear. In the present study, the effect of POH on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced genotoxicity, and the related expression were examined in MCF-7 cells. Exposure to environmental toxicant increases the risk of cancer. Many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens and are biotransformed into their ultimate genotoxic structures by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. CYP1A1 and 1B1 are enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Our data revealed that 0.5 {mu}M of POH was effective in blocking DMBA-DNA binding. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay indicated that the administration of POH inhibited the DMBA-induced enzyme activity in MCF-7 cells. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that POH inhibited CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1 activity. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also demonstrated that the monoterpene reduced CYP1B1 mRNA abundance induced by DMBA. The present study illustrated that POH might inhibit and downregulate CYP1B1, which could protect against PAH-induced carcinogenesis.

  13. Highly Chemoselective Reduction of Amides (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) to Alcohols using SmI2/Amine/H2O under Mild Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Highly chemoselective direct reduction of primary, secondary, and tertiary amides to alcohols using SmI2/amine/H2O is reported. The reaction proceeds with C–N bond cleavage in the carbinolamine intermediate, shows excellent functional group tolerance, and delivers the alcohol products in very high yields. The expected C–O cleavage products are not formed under the reaction conditions. The observed reactivity is opposite to the electrophilicity of polar carbonyl groups resulting from the nX → π*C=O (X = O, N) conjugation. Mechanistic studies suggest that coordination of Sm to the carbonyl and then to Lewis basic nitrogen in the tetrahedral intermediate facilitate electron transfer and control the selectivity of the C–N/C–O cleavage. Notably, the method provides direct access to acyl-type radicals from unactivated amides under mild electron transfer conditions. PMID:24460078

  14. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether and tertiary-butyl alcohol in rats: Contribution of binding to α2u-globulin in male rats and high-exposure nonlinear kinetics to toxicity and cancer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Borghoff, Susan J; Ring, Caroline; Banton, Marcy I; Leavens, Teresa L

    2017-05-01

    In cancer bioassays, inhalation, but not drinking water exposure to ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), caused liver tumors in male rats, while tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), an ETBE metabolite, caused kidney tumors in male rats following exposure via drinking water. To understand the contribution of ETBE and TBA kinetics under varying exposure scenarios to these tumor responses, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed based on a previously published model for methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a structurally similar chemical, and verified against the literature and study report data. The model included ETBE and TBA binding to the male rat-specific protein α2u-globulin, which plays a role in the ETBE and TBA kidney response observed in male rats. Metabolism of ETBE and TBA was described as a single, saturable pathway in the liver. The model predicted similar kidney AUC0-∞ for TBA for various exposure scenarios from ETBE and TBA cancer bioassays, supporting a male-rat-specific mode of action for TBA-induced kidney tumors. The model also predicted nonlinear kinetics at ETBE inhalation exposure concentrations above ~2000 ppm, based on blood AUC0-∞ for ETBE and TBA. The shift from linear to nonlinear kinetics at exposure concentrations below the concentration associated with liver tumors in rats (5000 ppm) suggests the mode of action for liver tumors operates under nonlinear kinetics following chronic exposure and is not relevant for assessing human risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pyrolysis of simple chiral aromatic alcohols. Survivability and preservation of chirality on minerals of astrophysical interest: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keheyan, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The idea that extraterrestrial delivery of organic matter played an important role in prebiotic evolution depends on the capability of the biomolecules to survive at high temperatures, taking into account the fact that to reach the earth the space bodies can be exposed to a significant heat up. It has also been suggested that the chiral molecules of extraterrestrial origin might have initiated the biological homochirality, thus also the chiral properties must be preserved. The survivability of these molecules on the space bodies who reach the earth is an important question. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of temperature and influence of different minerals like silicates, ilmenite, wuestite, libethenite, etc. on the decomposition and the racemization of the most simple chiral aromatic molecule, i.e. (R)- o (S)-1-phenylethanol. In addition, other benzylic alcohols have also been studied to compare their behaviour with 1-phenylethanol. A Py-GC-MS technique was used to investigate this phenomenon. Various pyrolytic experiments, at temperatures between 100 and 600 C with and without minerals, were performed. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model was created using the results obtained with all catalysts at different temperatures and with the main products, i.e. acetophenone, dibenzylic ethers and styrene to discriminate the catalysts on the basis of their effects. The kinetic of racemization has been calculated and a tentative mechanism has been proposed. Using the trend of the enantiomeric excess in function of the temperature, a new approach to calculate the rate of racemization is proposed.

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  18. Identification of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA)-utilizing organisms in BioGAC reactors using 13C-DNA stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Aslett, Denise; Haas, Joseph; Hyman, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Biodegradation of the gasoline oxygenates methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) can cause tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) to accumulate in gasoline-impacted environments. One remediation option for TBA-contaminated groundwater involves oxygenated granulated activated carbon (GAC) reactors that have been self-inoculated by indigenous TBA-degrading microorganisms in ground water extracted from contaminated aquifers. Identification of these organisms is important for understanding the range of TBA-metabolizing organisms in nature and for determining whether self-inoculation of similar reactors is likely to occur at other sites. In this study (13)C-DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify TBA-utilizing organisms in samples of self-inoculated BioGAC reactors operated at sites in New York and California. Based on 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences, all TBA-utilizing organisms identified were members of the Burkholderiales order of the β-proteobacteria. Organisms similar to Cupriavidus and Methylibium were observed in both reactor samples while organisms similar to Polaromonas and Rhodoferax were unique to the reactor sample from New York. Organisms similar to Hydrogenophaga and Paucibacter strains were only detected in the reactor sample from California. We also analyzed our samples for the presence of several genes previously implicated in TBA oxidation by pure cultures of bacteria. Genes Mpe_B0532, B0541, B0555, and B0561 were all detected in (13)C-metagenomic DNA from both reactors and deduced amino acid sequences suggested these genes all encode highly conserved enzymes. One gene (Mpe_B0555) encodes a putative phthalate dioxygenase-like enzyme that may be particularly appropriate for determining the potential for TBA oxidation in contaminated environmental samples.

  19. Disease spectrum of alcoholic liver disease in Beijing 302 Hospital from 2002 to 2013: A large tertiary referral hospital experience from 7422 patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ang; Chang, Binxia; Sun, Yin; Lin, Huiming; Li, Baosen; Teng, Guangju; Zou, Zheng-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol consumption in China has substantially increased over the last 3 decades and the number of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is rising at an alarming rate. However, accurate and representative data on time trends in its hospitalization rates are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the current status and burden of ALD in China by analyzing the data from a large tertiary referral hospital, Beijing 302 Hospital.Data were retrospectively recorded from patients diagnosed as ALD in Beijing 302 Hospital from 2002 to 2013. The disease spectrum and biochemical parameters of each patient were collected.The patients with ALD accounted for 3.93% (7422) of all patients (188,902) with liver diseases between 2002 and 2013. The number of patients hospitalized with ALD increased from 110 in 2002 to 1672 in 2013. The ratio of patients hospitalized with ALD to all patients hospitalized with liver diseases was rising almost continuously and increased from 1.68% in 2002 to 4.59% in 2013. Most patients with ALD were male. Age distribution of ALD hospitalization showed that the highest rate was in 40- to 49-year-old group in subjects. Notably, the annual proportion of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) increased 2.43 times from 2002 to 2013. We found the highest levels of mean corpuscular volume, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, total bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and alkaline phosphatase in SAH patients, while serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin, and cholinesterase were significantly decreased in SAH group. Among these ALD, the SAH patient population has the worst prognosis. Alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC) is the most common ALD, and annual admissions for ALC increased significantly during the analyzed period.The number of hospitalized patients with ALD and the annual hospitalization rate of ALD were increasing continuously in Beijing 302 Hospital from 2002 to 2013. More attention should be paid to develop population

  20. [Application of gas chromatography-high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry to the analysis of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol acetophenone and phenylacetaldehyde in complex aromatic samples].

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Cao, Zhe; Li, Jiwen; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Chuan; Gu, Songyuan

    2015-02-01

    The study focuses on the quantitative analytical characterization of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone and phenylacetaldehyde in complex aromatic samples by gas chromatography-high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF MS). The four compounds in real sample were accurately qualified and quantified through a comprehensive analysis of the GC retention times and the accurate masses of the ion fragments obtained by the high resolution MS. The new method therefore effectively avoids the interference of the real sample substrate, which reduces the accuracy of the analysis results. The peak area of the characteristic ion fragment for each compound was used for quantitation calculation. The MS signal responses of the four compounds showed good linear relationships with the corresponding mass concentrations and the linear regression coefficients were greater than 0. 99. The method recoveries were 87. 97% - 103.01%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0. 01, 0. 03, 0. 02 and 0. 01 mg/L for benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone and phenylacetaldehyde respectively. The contents of the four compounds in three real samples were analyzed. The study provided a new strategy for oxygenate analysis in complex aromatic samples using GC-QTOF MS. By measuring the accurate masses, the new method reduces the reliance on chromatographic separation ability and makes up the shortcomings of the traditional GC-MS methods.

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  2. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – ... this article? Getting the Facts What Is Alcohol? How Does It Affect the Body? Why Do Teens Drink? Why Shouldn't I ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  5. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  6. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  7. Evaluating UV/H2O2 processes for methyl tert-butyl ether and tertiary butyl alcohol removal: effect of pretreatment options and light sources.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hokanson, David R; Crittenden, John C; Trussell, Rhodes R; Minakata, Daisuke

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of UV/H2O2 process to remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) from a drinking water source. Kinetic models were used to evaluate the removal efficiency of the UV/H2O2 technologies with different pretreatment options and light sources. Two commercial UV light sources, i.e. low pressure, high intensity lamps and medium pressure, high intensity lamps, were evaluated. The following pretreatment alternatives were evaluated: (1) ion exchange softening with seawater regeneration (NaIX); (2) Pellet Softening; (3) weak acid ion exchange (WAIX); and (4) high pH lime softening followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The presence or absence of a dealkalization step prior to the UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was also evaluated for each pretreatment possibility. Pretreatment has a significant impact on the performance of UV/H2O2 process. The NaIX with dealkalization was shown to be the most cost effective. The electrical energy per order (EEO) values for MtBE and tBA using low pressure high output UV lamps (LPUV) and 10mg/LH2O2 are 0.77 and 3.0 kWh/kgal-order, or 0.20 and 0.79 kWh/m3-order, respectively. For medium pressure UV high output lamps (MPUV), EEO values for MtBE and tBA are 4.6 and 15 kWh/kgal-order, or 1.2 and 4.0 kWh/m3-order, for the same H2O2 dosage.

  8. A male-produced aggregation pheromone blend consisting of alkanediols, terpenoids, and an aromatic alcohol from the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Emerson S; Moreira, Jardel A; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2008-03-01

    Bioassays conducted with a Y-tube olfactometer provided evidence that both sexes of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) were attracted to odor produced by males. Odor collected from male M. caryae contained eight male-specific compounds: a 10:1 blend of (2S,3R)- and (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediols (representing 3.2 +/- 1.3% of the total male-specific compounds), (S)-(-)-limonene (3.1 +/- 1.7%), 2-phenylethanol (8.0 +/- 2.4%), (-)-alpha-terpineol (10.0 +/- 2.8%), nerol (2.1 +/- 1.5%), neral (63.3 +/- 7.3%), and geranial (8.8 +/- 2.4%). Initial field bioassays determined that none of these compounds was attractive as a single component. Further field trials that used a subtractive bioassay strategy determined that both sexes were attracted to the complete blend of synthetic components, but the elimination of any one component resulted in a decline in trap captures. Blends that were missing (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol, or citral (a 1:1 mixture of neral and geranial) attracted no more beetles than did controls. A pheromone blend of this complexity, composed of alkanediols, terpenoids, and aromatic alcohols, is unprecedented for cerambycid species.

  9. A New Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl N-Arylcarbamates from Isocyanates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R.

    1978-01-01

    The method involves the dissolution of a small piece of metallic lithium in a small quantity of tertiary alcohol followed by addition to a mixture of the isocyanate and the tertiary alcohol in ether. This should be useful in organic chemistry laboratory courses for the identification of tertiary alcohols. (Author/BB)

  10. A New Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl N-Arylcarbamates from Isocyanates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R.

    1978-01-01

    The method involves the dissolution of a small piece of metallic lithium in a small quantity of tertiary alcohol followed by addition to a mixture of the isocyanate and the tertiary alcohol in ether. This should be useful in organic chemistry laboratory courses for the identification of tertiary alcohols. (Author/BB)

  11. MEASUREMENT OF EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD TO DEVELOP A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER AND THE PRODUCTION OF THE BIOMARKER TERTIARY-BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common fuel additive used to increase the availability of oxygen in gasoline to reduce winter-time carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles. Also, MTBE boosts gasoline "octane" rating and, as such, allows reduction of benzene...

  12. MEASUREMENT OF EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD TO DEVELOP A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER AND THE PRODUCTION OF THE BIOMARKER TERTIARY-BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common fuel additive used to increase the availability of oxygen in gasoline to reduce winter-time carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles. Also, MTBE boosts gasoline "octane" rating and, as such, allows reduction of benzene...

  13. Relationship between Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Exposure and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Petrol Station Attendants in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianping; Wei, Qinzhi; Peng, Xiaochun; Peng, Xiaowu; Yuan, Jianhui; Hu, Dalin

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)—A well known gasoline additive substituting for lead alkyls—causes lipid disorders and liver dysfunctions in animal models. However, whether MTBE exposure is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains uncertain. We evaluate the possible relationship between MTBE exposure and the prevalence of NAFLD among 71 petrol station attendants in southern China. The personal exposure concentrations of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS. NAFLD was diagnosed by using abdominal ultrasonography according to the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD suggested by the Chinese Hepatology Association. Demographic and clinical characteristics potentially associated with NAFLD were investigated. Mutivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to measure odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The result showed that the total prevalence of NAFLD was 15.49% (11/71) among the study subjects. The average exposure concentrations of MTBE were 292.98 ± 154.90 μg/m3 and 286.64 ± 122.28 μg/m3 in NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference between them (p > 0.05). After adjusting for age, gender, physical exercise, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell (WBC), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the odds ratios were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.85–1.54; p > 0.05), 1.14 (95% CI: 0.81–1.32; p > 0.05), 1.52 (95% CI: 0.93–1.61; p > 0.05) in the groups (including men and women) with exposure concentrations of MTBE of 100–200 μg/m3, 200–300 μg/m3, and ≥300 μg/m3, respectively, as compared to the group (including men and women) ≤100 μg/m3. Our investigation indicates that exposure to MTBE does not seem to be a significant risk factor for the prevalence of

  14. General allylic C-H alkylation with tertiary nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jennifer M; Liu, Wei; Young, Andrew J; White, M Christina

    2014-04-16

    A general method for intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C-H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C-H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, α,β-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C-H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C-H alkylation/Diels-Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids.

  15. Catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin into aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas over Rh supported on La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Chunze; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Liyi

    2016-10-01

    Efficient catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin were conducted over a versatile supported catalyst Rh/La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2 to give high-value aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas. The removal of phenolic hydroxyl group was the most prevalent reaction, and importantly, almost no phenols, undesired char and saturating the aromatic ring were detected. Meanwhile, the feedstock and solvent both played key roles in H2 generation that contributed to the hydrodeoxygenation of liquid components and made the whole catalytic process out of H2 supply. Reusability tests of catalyst indicated that the crystalline phase transition and agglomeration of support, the loss of noble metal Rh and carbon deposition were the possible reasons for its deactivation in supercritical ethanol. Comparing with water, methanol and isopropanol system, ethanol was the only effective solvent for the depolymerization process.

  16. From secondary alcohols to tertiary fluoro substituents: A simple route to hydroxymethyl branched sugars with a fluorine substituent at the branching point.

    PubMed

    Schalli, Michael; Thonhofer, Martin; Wolfsgruber, Andreas; Weber, Hansjörg; Fischer, Roland; Saf, Robert; Stütz, Arnold E

    2016-12-21

    From a secondary hydroxyl group, by the simple sequence of oxidation, Wittig reaction of the obtained ulose with methoxymethylene triphenyl phosphorane, exposure of the resulting exocyclic enol ether to Selectfluor and subsequent reduction of the α-fluoro aldehyde thus obtained, tertiary fluoro substituents can be introduced into carbohydrate and carbohydrate-related scaffolds at a branching point now bearing a new hydroxymethyl group.

  17. Palladium catalyzed bicyclization of 1,8-diiodonaphthalene and tertiary propargylic alcohols to phenalenones and their applications as fluorescent chemosensor for fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Hongbo; Jin, Xiaohan; Feng, Jinwu; Wang, Yanguang; Lu, Ping

    2011-03-07

    Phenalenone derivatives were efficiently constructed from 1,8-diiodonaphthalene and tertiary propynols via a one-pot domino reaction which eventually included Pd-catalyzed Sonogoshira coupling, Pd-catalyzed allylic oxidation and Pd-catalyzed C(sp(2))-H activation. Moreover, the synthesized phenalenone derivative presented a practical application as a fluorescent chemosensor for fluoride anion with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  18. Alcohol and Drug Use in Injured Drivers – An Emergency Room Study in a Regional Tertiary Care Centre of North West India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil; Singh, Dalbir; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-01-01

    Background Statistics show an increasing proportion of alcohol and drug use in drivers in more recent times throughout the world. It has been found that among the various human factors, alcohol consumption, using drugs and subsequent driving on the roads are major risk factors. Traffic regulations in India penalises drivers who drive beyond permissible alcohol limit of 30 mg%. Consumption of psychoactive drugs such as opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines has been reported mainly among youngsters. Hardly any data is available in Indian context particularly from North-West Zone of India. Study objective To study the pattern of alcohol, opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines use in injured drivers presenting to a designated trauma centre in Chandigarh zone of North-West India. Materials and Methods Consenting injured drivers who presented to the trauma centre in Chandigarh from September 2013 to January 2014 were included. Urine samples collected from the subjects were screened for abusive drug exposure (opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines) and alcohol using commercial bedside urine immunoassay kits. In urine alcohol positive cases blood samples were collected and analysed for alcohol concentration using standard gas chromatography. Retrograde extrapolation method was used to assess BAC at the time of accident. Results A total of 200 injured drivers were included in this study. We found substance consumption in 54.5% of drivers and alcohol (40.5%) was the most prevalent substance consumed followed by opiates (13%), cannabis (7%) and benzodiazepines (7%). More than one substance was shown in urine of 11.5% of drivers. Among 81 alcohol positive screening cases, the quantitative analysis was successfully done for 76 cases. Except one, all cases showed BAC value more than 30 mg% which is the legal limit for driving any vehicle in India. The values of alcohol concentration in blood at the time of accident were in the range of 20 to 391 mg%. Conclusion This study has shown

  19. Supramolecular aromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabıyık, Hande; Sevinçek, Resul; Karabıyık, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    We report experimental and theoretical evidences for supramolecular aromaticity as a new concept to be widely used in researches about molecular crystals. CSD survey regarding frequently encountered resonance-assisted H-bonds (RAHBs) in formic acid, formamide, formimidamide, formic acid-formamide, and formamide-formimidamide dimers shows that supramolecular quasirings formed by RAHBs have remarkable electronic delocalization within themselves, which is reminiscent of aromaticity at supramolecular level. This study criticizes and reevaluates the validity of conventional judgment which states that ring systems formed by intermolecular H-bonds cannot be aromatic. Thus, the term aromaticity can be extended to supramolecular systems formed by RAHBs. Supramolecular aromaticity has a multi-fold nature involving both σ- and π-delocalization, and σ-delocalization through RAHBs takes on a task of compensating σ-deficiency within quasirings. Atomic composition in donor-acceptor set of the dimers is descriptive for supramolecular aromaticity. We revised bond-valence parameters for RAHBs and they suggest that hypervalent character of H atoms is more pronounced than their hypovalent character in RAHBs. The σ-delocalized bonding within H-bonded quasirings necessitates hypervalent character of H atoms. Quantum chemical calculations based on adiabatic Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) between the monomers reveal that topological parameters at ring critical points (RCPs) of the quasirings correlate well with Shannon's entropic aromaticity index. The presence of additional LP orbital on O atoms implying more diffused LP-orbitals in donor-acceptor set leads to the formation of resonance-disabling states reducing supramolecular aromaticity of a quasiring and energetic cost of the electron transfer between the monomers. There is a nonignorable electron transfer between the monomers even in the cases where H atoms are close to donor or acceptor atom. NBO analyses have revealed that

  20. Concerning the potential reversibility of carbometalation in alkoxide-directed Ti(Oi-Pr)4-mediated reductive cross-coupling of homoallylic alcohols with aromatic imines.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Micalizio, Glenn C

    2010-05-21

    In an attempt to understand the nature of selectivity in Ti-mediated reductive cross-coupling between homoallylic alcohols and imines, we investigated whether thermodynamic equilibration of the presumed organometallic intermediate plays a role in selectivity. No evidence could be found for olefin exchange in preformed azatitanacyclopentanes--an observation that is consistent with a model based on kinetically controlled selective carbometalation.

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  2. Concerning the Potential Reversibility of Carbometalation in Alkoxide-directed Ti(Oi-Pr)4-mediated Reductive Cross-Coupling of Homoallylic Alcohols with Aromatic Imines

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Micalizio, Glenn C.

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the nature of selectivity in Ti-mediated reductive cross-coupling between homoallylic alcohols and imines, we investigated whether thermodynamic equilibration of the presumed organometallic intermediate plays a role in selectivity. No evidence could be found for olefin exchange in preformed azatitanacyclopentanes – an observation that is consistent with a model based on kinetically controlled selective carbometalation. PMID:20379585

  3. Aromatic graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-04-13

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  4. Aromatic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  5. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. [Methyl isobutyl ether(MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether(MTBE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.

    1993-02-01

    The testing of strongly acidic catalysts for the conversion of a mixture of methanol and isobutanol to ethers and hydrocarbons was continued. Under standardized test conditions the catalysts tested this quarter were: phosphotungstic acid supported on zirconia (PW[sub 12]/ZrO[sub 2]), niobic acid'' (Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5]xH[sub 2]0), and an iron and manganese doped sulfate-modified zirconia (Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]). The overall activity of these catalysts followed the order of Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] > PW[sub 12]/ZrO[sub 2] > Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5]xH[sub 2]0 with the Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] catalyst approaching ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] in both activity and selectivity for isobutene production. The effect of the presence of water on the reaction of methanol and isobutanol over ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] was determined to be insignificant. At 157[degrees]C and a feed of 2/1 molar ratio methanol/isobutanol, the production of isobutene was unaffected by the addition of 0.05and 0.10 parts of water to the 2/1 alcohol feed. Surface areas have been determined for Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] niobic acid, and phosphotungstic acid on silica. After calcination, the surface area for Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] was found to be 83 M2 /g. Niobic acid and phosphotungstic acid on silica (PW[sub 12]/SiO[sub 2]) were found to have surface areas of 118 and 218 m[sup 2]/g, respectively. [sup 1]H NMR was used to determine if and how much 1-butene was present as a product when isobutanol is dehydrated over sulfate-modified zirconia. It was found to be present in small amounts, [le]3% of the product stream.

  6. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-08-02

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  7. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2017-07-04

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  8. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-09-13

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Group VIII metal and a crystalline alumina support.

  9. Influence of Asian and Western United States urban areas and fires on the atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and fluorotelomer alcohols in the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Primbs, Toby; Piekarz, Arkadiusz; Wilson, Glenn; Schmedding, David; Higginbotham, Carol; Field, Jennifer; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2008-09-01

    Atmospheric measurements of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) were made at Mt Bachelor Observatory (MBO), located in Oregon's Cascade Range, to understand the trans-Pacific and regional transport of SOCs from urban areas. High volume air sampling (approximately 644 m3 for 24 h periods) of both the gas and particulate phases was conducted from April 19, 2004 to May 13, 2006 (n = 69); including NASA's INTEX-B campaign in spring 2006 (n = 34 of 69). Air mass back trajectories were calculated and were used to calculate source region impact factors (SRIFs), the percentage of time the sampled air mass resided in a given source region. Particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations at MBO increased with the percentage of air mass time in Asia and, in conjunction with other data, provided strong evidence that particulate-phase PAHs are emitted from Asia and undergo trans-Pacific atmospheric transport to North America. Gas-phase PAH and fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) concentrations significantly increased with the percentage of air mass time in California's urban areas, whereas retene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations increased with the percentage of air mass time in Oregon and during regional fire events. In addition, sigma(gas-phase) PAH, retene, and levoglucosan concentrations were significantly correlated (p-value < 0.001) with sigma(PCB) concentrations, suggesting that increased atmospheric PCB concentrations were associated with fires due to the volatilization of stored PCBs from soil and vegetation.

  10. Reactions of aromatic nitro-compounds. LV. Anionic sigma-complexes of sym-trinitrobenzene with the alkoxides of dihydric alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nikov, A.I.; Gitis, S.S.; Kaminskii, A.Ya.

    1986-12-20

    The reactions of alkoxides of dihydric alcohols with 2,4,6-trinitroanisole and picryl chloride have been studied. The reaction between 2,4,6-trinitroanisole and sodium 2-hydroxyethoxide, 3-hydroxypropoxide, 4-hydroxybutoxide, and 2-methoxyethoxide gives the unsymmetrical 1-methoxy-1-hydroxyalkoxy-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate sigma-complexes, which are converted on heating into the 1,1-dihydroxyalkoxy-2,4-6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate sigma-complexes. In the case of sodium 1-methoxy-1-(..beta..-hydroxyethoxy)-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate, heating results in intramolecular spirocyclization of the ..beta..-hydroxyethoxy grouping to give sodium 6,8,10-trinitro-1,4-dioxaspiro(4,5)deca-6,9-dienate. The reaction of sodium 3-hydroxy-propoxide, 4-hydroxybutoxide, 2-methoxyethoxide, and diethyleneglycolate with picryl chloride gives the symmetrical 1,1-dihyroxyalkoxy sigma-complexes, while sodium 2-hydroxyethoxide forms a sigma-complex with a 1,3-dioxolane spiro-ring. The composition and structures of the sigma-complexes, isolated as their sodium salts, were established by their elemental analyses and PMR and IR spectroscopy.

  11. Cometabolism of Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether and Gaseous n-Alkanes by Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 Grown on C5 to C8 n-Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christy A.; O'Reilly, Kirk T.; Hyman, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 grew well on toluene, n-alkanes (C5 to C8), and 1° alcohols (C2 to C8) but not on other aromatics, gaseous n-alkanes (C1 to C4), isoalkanes (C4 to C6), 2° alcohols (C3 to C8), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), or tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). Cells grown under carbon-limited conditions on n-alkanes in the presence of MTBE (42 μmol) oxidized up to 94% of the added MTBE to TBA. Less than 3% of the added MTBE was oxidized to TBA when cells were grown on either 1° alcohols, toluene, or dextrose in the presence of MTBE. Concentrated n-pentane-grown cells oxidized MTBE to TBA without a lag phase and without generating tertiary butyl formate (TBF) as an intermediate. Neither TBF nor TBA was consumed by n-pentane-grown cells, while formaldehyde, the expected C1 product of MTBE dealkylation, was rapidly consumed. Similar Ks values for MTBE were observed for cells grown on C5 to C8 n-alkanes (12.95 ± 2.04 mM), suggesting that the same enzyme oxidizes MTBE in cells grown on each n-alkane. All growth-supporting n-alkanes (C5 to C8) inhibited MTBE oxidation by resting n-pentane-grown cells. Propane (Ki = 53 μM) and n-butane (Ki = 16 μM) also inhibited MTBE oxidation, and both gases were also consumed by cells during growth on n-pentane. Cultures grown on C5 to C8 n-alkanes also exhibited up to twofold-higher levels of growth in the presence of propane or n-butane, whereas no growth stimulation was observed with methane, ethane, MTBE, TBA, or formaldehyde. The results are discussed in terms of their impacts on our understanding of MTBE biodegradation and cometabolism. PMID:14660389

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    VanVeller, Brett; Schipper, Derek J.; Swager, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold enforces proximity of the alcohol and arene reacting partners and confers significant rigidity to the resulting π system, expanding the tool set of iptycenes for materials applications. PMID:22510100

  13. Tertiary vegetation history

    Treesearch

    C. I. Millar

    1996-01-01

    The Tertiary period, from 2.5 to 65 million years ago, was the time oforigin of the modern Sierra Nevada landscape. Climates, geology,and vegetation changed drastically in the Sierra Nevada during thistime, and analyses of this period provide both context for and insightinto vegetation dynamics of the current and future Sierra. During theearly Tertiary, warm-humid,...

  14. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    1999-11-03

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer.

  15. Formation Mechanism of NDMA from Ranitidine, Trimethylamine, and Other Tertiary Amines during Chloramination: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chloramination of drinking waters has been associated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation as a disinfection byproduct. NDMA is classified as a probable carcinogen and thus its formation during chloramination has recently become the focus of considerable research interest. In this study, the formation mechanisms of NDMA from ranitidine and trimethylamine (TMA), as models of tertiary amines, during chloramination were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). A new four-step formation pathway of NDMA was proposed involving nucleophilic substitution by chloramine, oxidation, and dehydration followed by nitrosation. The results suggested that nitrosation reaction is the rate-limiting step and determines the NDMA yield for tertiary amines. When 45 other tertiary amines were examined, the proposed mechanism was found to be more applicable to aromatic tertiary amines, and there may be still some additional factors or pathways that need to be considered for aliphatic tertiary amines. The heterolytic ONN(Me)2–R+ bond dissociation energy to release NDMA and carbocation R+ was found to be a criterion for evaluating the reactivity of aromatic tertiary amines. A structure–activity study indicates that tertiary amines with benzyl, aromatic heterocyclic ring, and diene-substituted methenyl adjacent to the DMA moiety are potentially significant NDMA precursors. The findings of this study are helpful for understanding NDMA formation mechanism and predicting NDMA yield of a precursor. PMID:24968236

  16. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether: a toxicological review.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    A number of oxygenated compounds (oxygenates) are available for use in gasoline to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions, reduce the aromatic compound content, and avoid the use of organo-lead compounds, while maintaining high octane numbers. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is one such compound. The current use of ETBE in gasoline or petrol is modest but increasing, with consequently similar trends in the potential for human exposure. Inhalation is the most likely mode of exposure, with about 30% of inhaled ETBE being retained by the lungs and distributed around the body. Following cessation of exposure, the blood concentration of ETBE falls rapidly, largely as a result of its metabolism to tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) and acetaldehyde. TBA may be further metabolized, first to 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and then to 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, the two dominant metabolites found in urine of volunteers and rats. The rapid oxidation of acetaldehyde suggests that its blood concentration is unlikely to rise above normal as a result of human exposure to sources of ETBE. Single-dose toxicity tests show that ETBE has low toxicity and is essentially nonirritant to eyes and skin; it did not cause sensitization in a maximization test in guinea pigs. Neurological effects have been observed only at very high exposure concentrations. There is evidence for an effect of ETBE on the kidney of rats. Increases in kidney weight were seen in both sexes, but protein droplet accumulation (with alpha(2u)-globulin involvement) and sustained increases in cell proliferation occurred only in males. In liver, centrilobular necrosis was induced in mice, but not rats, after exposure by inhalation, although this lesion was reported in some rats exposed to very high oral doses of ETBE. The proportion of liver cells engaged in S-phase DNA synthesis was increased in mice of both sexes exposed by inhalation. ETBE has no specific effects on reproduction, development, or genetic material. Carcinogenicity studies

  17. Cation control of diastereoselectivity in iridium-catalyzed allylic substitutions. Formation of enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and thioethers by allylation of 5H-oxazol-4-ones and 5H-thiazol-4-ones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F

    2014-01-08

    We report highly diastereo- and enantioselective allylations of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones and 5H-thiazol-4-ones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex. Enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones occurs with high diastereoselectivity by employing the corresponding zinc enolates; enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylation of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-ones occurs with the corresponding magnesium enolates with high diastereoselectivity. The allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones provides rapid access to enantioenriched tertiary α-hydroxy acid derivatives unavailable through Mo-catalyzed allylic substitution. The allylation of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-ones provides a novel method to synthesize enantioenriched tertiary thiols and thioethers. The observed cation effect implies a novel method to control the diastereoselectivity in Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution.

  18. Cation Control of Diastereoselectivity in Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions. Formation of Enantioenriched Tertiary Alcohols and Thioethers by Allylation of 5H-Oxazol-4-ones and 5H-Thiazol-4-ones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a highly diastereo- and enantioselective allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones and 5H-thiazol-4-ones catalyzed by the metallacyclic iridium complex. Enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones occurs with high diastereoselectivity by employing the corresponding zinc enolates; enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylation of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-ones requires the corresponding magnesium enolates to achieve high diastereoselectivity. The allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones provides rapid access to enantioenriched tertiary α-hydroxy acid derivatives unavailable through Mo-catalyzed allylic substitution. The allylation of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-ones provides a novel method to synthesize enantioenriched tertiary thiols and thioethers. The observed cation effect implies a novel method to control the diastereoselectivity in Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution. PMID:24295427

  19. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  20. Striped tertiary storage arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drapeau, Ann L.

    1993-01-01

    Data stripping is a technique for increasing the throughput and reducing the response time of large access to a storage system. In striped magnetic or optical disk arrays, a single file is striped or interleaved across several disks; in a striped tape system, files are interleaved across tape cartridges. Because a striped file can be accessed by several disk drives or tape recorders in parallel, the sustained bandwidth to the file is greater than in non-striped systems, where access to the file are restricted to a single device. It is argued that applying striping to tertiary storage systems will provide needed performance and reliability benefits. The performance benefits of striping for applications using large tertiary storage systems is discussed. It will introduce commonly available tape drives and libraries, and discuss their performance limitations, especially focusing on the long latency of tape accesses. This section will also describe an event-driven tertiary storage array simulator that is being used to understand the best ways of configuring these storage arrays. The reliability problems of magnetic tape devices are discussed, and plans for modeling the overall reliability of striped tertiary storage arrays to identify the amount of error correction required are described. Finally, work being done by other members of the Sequoia group to address latency of accesses, optimizing tertiary storage arrays that perform mostly writes, and compression is discussed.

  1. Activation of aromatics on the polar surfaces of zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vohs, J.M.; Barteau, M.A. )

    1989-12-28

    The reactions of the aromatic oxygenates benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, and phenol exhibit both strong similarities and strong differences as compared with their aliphatic analogues on the two polar surfaces of zinc oxide. The greatest similarities between aromatic and aliphatic compounds were observed on the (0001)-Zn polar surface. Benzyl alcohol and phenol reacted on the (0001)-Zn surface to form the corresponding surface alkoxide species. In sharp contrast to aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids, toward which the (0001)-O polar surface is unreactive, the aromatic compounds reacted on the (0001)-O polar surface. These results further demonstrate the effects of surface crystallographic structure in determining the activity and reaction pathways on the metal oxide surfaces.

  2. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  3. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  4. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  5. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  7. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ... alcohol in it than beer, malt liquor, or wine. These drink sizes have about the same amount ...

  8. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  9. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  10. Iodine, a Mild Reagent for the Aromatization of Terpenoids.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Victoriano; Prieto, Consuelo; Silva, Lucia; Rodilla, Jesús M L; Quílez del Moral, José F; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2016-04-22

    Efficient procedures based on the use of iodine for the aromatization of a series of terpenoids possessing diene and homoallylic or allylic alcohol functionalities are described. Different examples are reported as a proof-of-concept study. Furthermore, iodine also proved to mediate the dehydrogenation of testosterone.

  11. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Haley; Travis Gillham; Demetrios Yannimaras

    1999-03-31

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where any other tertiary process is presently uneconomic. Air injection on the West Hank began in November of 1994. Although West Flank air injection has increased reservoir pressure by 500 pounds per square inch (psi), production response has not yet occurred. The gas cap on the West Flank has not expanded sufficiently to push the oil rim down to the nearest down structure well. Cumulative injection to date is 1.6 BCF, only approximately 50% of the projected volume required to establish oil production response. Additional air injection is required to further expand the gas cap and thereby

  12. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  13. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  14. Trimerization of aromatic nitriles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Triazine compounds and cross-linked polymer compositions were made by heating aromatic nitriles to a temperature in the range of about 100 C to about 700 C, in the presence of a catalyst or mixture of catalysts. Aromatic nitrile-modified (terminated and/or appended) imide, benzimidazole, imidazopyrrolone, quinoxaline, and other condensation type prepolymers or their precopolymers were made which were trimerized with or without a filler by the aforementioned catalytic trimerization process.

  15. Aromatic Polyimide Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A mechanically undensified aromatic polyimide foam is made from an aromatic polyimide precursor solid residuum and has the following combination of properties: a density according to ASTM D-3574A of about 0.5 pounds/cu.ft to about 20 pounds/cu.ft; a compression strength according to ASTM D-3574C of about 1.5 psi to about 1500 psi; and a limiting oxygen index according to ASTM D-2863 of about 35% oxygen to about 75% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. The aromatic polyimide foam has no appreciable solid inorganic contaminants which are residues of inorganic blowing agents. The aromatic polyimide which constitutes the aromatic polyimide foam has a glass transition temperature (Tg) by differential scanning calorimetry of about 235 C to about 400 C; and a thermal stability of 0 to about 1% weight loss at 204 C as determined by thermogravinietric analysis (TGA). The aromatic polyimide foam has utility as foam insulation and as structural foam, for example, for aeronautical, aerospace and maritime applications.

  16. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  17. Research on Aromatic Poly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiebooms, Rafael Hugo Ludo

    1995-11-01

    A detailed analysis of the literature indicated that substituents can only be used at the level of improving properties during processing, that end groups are only important for those polymers where the energy difference between the aromatic and quinoid structure is very small, and that stability of pi delocalisation is the most important tool for the design of low bandgap polymers. From our research it appeared that, based on a detailed NMR and FT-Raman analysis of oligomers and model compounds, the low band gap of PITN could be associated with the quinoid structure. However, a theoretical analysis of the UV-vis data of a series of aromatic isothianaphthene oligomers indicates that a substantial lowering of the band gap can be obtained in planar aromatic isothianaphthene systems. A parallel investigation of PTFITN, a soluble isothianaphthene analogue, gave some indications that this polymer should possess an aromatic structure. The aromatic structure makes it possible that the fluorines probably induce non planarity such that inter ring pi -conjugation is lowered to a considerable extent. This could explain the increased band gap of 2.1eV observed by Swann et al.^{[1] }. Analysis of a series of aza-analogues of PITN revealed that in these materials it should be possible to combine a planar aromatic geometry with enhanced processability. The 4,5-diaza and 4,7-diaza isothianaphthene polymers can therefore be considered as very promising low band gap materials. Finally, we showed that it is possible to combine the aromatic isothianaphthene ring system with another heterocycle such as thiophene in a formal copolymer. Through the development of a highly specific and efficient synthesis route to 1,3-dithienylisothianaphthene (DTI, 4), we established the basis for the further synthesis and study of formal copolymers with tailor-made electronic properties. ftn ^{[1]}M. J. Swann, G. Brooke, D. Bloor. Synth.Met., 55-57, 281-286, (1993).

  18. Ethiopian Tertiary dike swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mapping of the Ethiopian rift and Afar margins revealed the existence of Tertiary dike swarms. The structural relations of these swarms and the fed lava pile to monoclinal warping of the margins partly reflect a style of continental margin tectonics found in other parts of the world. In Ethiopia, however, conjugate dike trends appear to be unusually strongly developed. Relation of dikes to subsequent margin faulting is ambiguous, and there are instances where the two phenomena are spatially separate and of differing trends. There is no evidence for lateral migration with time of dike injection toward the rift zone. No separate impingement of Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and African rift system stress fields on the Ethiopian region can be demonstrated from the Tertiary dike swarms. Rather, a single, regional paleostress field existed, suggestive of a focus beneath the central Ethiopian plateau. This stress field was dominated by tension: there is no cogent evidence for shearing along the rift margins. A gentle compression along the rift floor is indicated. A peculiar sympathy of dike hade directions at given localities is evident.

  19. Transformations of aromatic compounds by nitrosomonas europaea

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, W.K.; Arp, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    The soil bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea is an obligate autotroph which uses O2 as an electron acceptor and ammonia as its sole natural energy source. The ubiquity of nitrifying bacteria may facilitate their use in bioremediation applications, but such applications will require a thorough knowledge of the substrate range of Ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) (catalyzing the oxidation of ammonia). This study extends the know substrate range of N. europaea to include alkylbenzenes, halobenzenes, and various N- and O-containing aromatics. Evidence is also presented that oxidation of p-cresol and ring-substituted benzylic alcohols to corresponding aldehydes joccures even in the absence of AMO activity. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  20. The aromatic ene reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Dawen; Hoye, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The ene reaction is a pericyclic process in which an alkene with an allylic hydrogen atom (the ene donor) reacts with a second unsaturated species (the enophile) to form a new product with a transposed π-bond. The aromatic ene reaction, in which the alkene component is embedded in an aromatic ring, has only been reported in a few (four) instances and has proceeded in low yield (≤6%). Here, we show efficient aromatic ene reactions in which a thermally generated aryne intermediate engages a pendant m-alkylarene substituent to produce a dearomatized isotoluene, itself another versatile but rare reactive intermediate. Our experiments were guided by computational studies that revealed structural features conducive to the aromatic ene process. We proceeded to identify a cascade comprising three reactions: (1) hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (for aryne generation), (2) intramolecular aromatic ene and (3) bimolecular Alder ene. The power of this cascade is evident from the structural complexity of the final products, the considerable scope, and the overall efficiency of these multistage, reagent- and by-product-free, single-pot transformations.

  1. The aromatic ene reaction

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dawen; Hoye, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The ene reaction is a pericyclic process in which an alkene having an allylic hydrogen atom (the ene donor) reacts with a second unsaturated species (the enophile) to form a new product with a transposed π-bond. The aromatic ene reaction, in which the alkene component is embedded in an aromatic ring, has only been reported in a few (four) instances and has proceeded in low yield (≤6%). Here we show efficient aromatic ene reactions in which a thermally generated aryne engages a pendant m-alkylarene substituent to produce a dearomatized isotoluene, itself another versatile but rare reactive intermediate. Our experiments were guided by computational studies that revealed structural features conducive to the aromatic ene process. We proceeded to identify a cascade comprising three reactions: (i) hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (for aryne generation), (ii) intramolecular aromatic ene, and (iii) bimolecular Alder ene. The power of this cascade is evident from the structural complexity of the final products, the considerable scope, and the overall efficiency of these multi-stage, reagent- and byproduct-free, single-pot transformations. PMID:24345944

  2. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei; Yokoya, Takayoshi; Kambe, Takashi; Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L. T.; Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya

    2015-07-01

    'Aromatic hydrocarbon' implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (Kxpicene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (Tc's) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting Kxpicene phase with a Tc as high as 14 K, so we now know that Kxpicene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides Kxpicene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rbxpicene and Caxpicene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for Kxpicene and Rbxpicene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of Tc that is clearly observed in some phases of aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors, suggesting behavior not explained by the standard BCS picture of superconductivity. In this article, we describe the present status of this research field, and discuss its future prospects.

  3. Stability of benzoyl peroxide in aromatic ester-containing topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Majekodunmi, Bola D; Lau-Cam, Cesar A; Nash, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    The chemical stability of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was studied in solutions and gels. The solutions (1% w/v) were prepared in single solvents (alcohol USP, isopropyl alcohol USP, ethyl benzoate, C12-15 alkyl benzoate, dimethyl isosorbide, propylene carbonate, and acetone) and in binary and tertiary combinations of these solvents, with and without the addition of antioxidant(s) (BHT, BHA, eugenol, tert-butyl hydroquinone, Tenox-2, vitamin E, and vitamin C). The solutions were stored at 37 degrees C for 5 weeks, and each week were analyzed for remaining BPO. Using first-order kinetics, the stability of BPO in solution was found to decrease in the order: ternary>binary>single solvent systems. Regardless of the number of solvents present, the highest stability of BPO (t1/2>7.5 weeks) was attained in the presence of ethyl benzoate and C12-15 alkyl benzoate. The stability of BPO in solution did not change significantly with the addition of most antioxidants. The solutions in which BPO remained most stable were one in alcohol USP-ethyl benzoate-C12-15 alkyl benzoate (60:20:20; t1/2=18.15 weeks) and another in alcohol USP-C12-15 alkyl benzoate-isopropanol plus 0.1% BHT (65:20:15; t1/2=12.44 weeks). In turn, these two solutions were converted to homogeneous gels by the addition of Cab-O-Sil. The chemical stability of BPO in these gels was evaluated at 37 degrees, 45 degrees, 50 degrees, and 55 degrees C for 5 weeks. Parallel experiments were conducted with two commercial BPO products, a 2.5% tinted gel and 5% vanishing lotion. BPO was less stable in commercial products (t1/2aromatic esters can enhance the chemical stability of BPO in solutions and gel formulations to a significant extent.

  4. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  5. Black Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  6. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse.

  7. Primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rehan; Hammond, James M

    2004-08-01

    Primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism have evolved since their original description. What was once a debilitating disease has now become one with few symptoms on initial presentation. Complications from these disorders have decreased significantly because of earlier detection. Improved management of patients with chronic renal disease has also limited complications among those with secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Appropriate management is essential even in the early phase of the disorder to minimize the morbidities that may result if left untreated.

  8. Integrated reforming/aromatization process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes an integrated process for increasing the gasoline yield from a catalytic reforming process. It comprises: charging a naphtha boiling range feedstream to a catalytic reforming reaction zone under reforming conversion conditions; withdrawing a reactor effluent stream from the reforming reaction zone; separating the reactor effluent stream into a hydrogen-rich gas stream and an unstabilized reformate stream; further separating the unstabilized reformate in a fractionator into an overhead stream containing C{sub 4} - components and a bottom stream containing C{sub 6} + components; charging the fractionator overhead stream to a catalytic aromatization zone under aromatization conversion conditions; withdrawing an aromatization zone effluent stream from the aromatization zone; cooling the aromatization zone effluent stream; separating the cooled aromatization zone effluent steam into a C{sub 4} - stream and a C{sub 5} + stream; and refluxing the C{sub 5} + aromatic gasoline stream to the fractionation zone.

  9. Selective N-alkylation of amines using nitriles under hydrogenation conditions: facile synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Takashi; Fujita, Yuki; Mizusaki, Tomoteru; Betsuin, Sae; Takamatsu, Haruki; Maegawa, Tomohiro; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2012-01-14

    Nitriles were found to be highly effective alkylating reagents for the selective N-alkylation of amines under catalytic hydrogenation conditions. For the aromatic primary amines, the corresponding secondary amines were selectively obtained under Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation conditions. Although the use of electron poor aromatic amines or bulky nitriles showed a lower reactivity toward the reductive alkylation, the addition of NH(4)OAc enhanced the reactivity to give secondary aromatic amines in good to excellent yields. Under the same reaction conditions, aromatic nitro compounds instead of the aromatic primary amines could be directly transformed into secondary amines via a domino reaction involving the one-pot hydrogenation of the nitro group and the reductive alkylation of the amines. While aliphatic amines were effectively converted to the corresponding tertiary amines under Pd/C-catalyzed conditions, Rh/C was a highly effective catalyst for the N-monoalkylation of aliphatic primary amines without over-alkylation to the tertiary amines. Furthermore, the combination of the Rh/C-catalyzed N-monoalkylation of the aliphatic primary amines and additional Pd/C-catalyzed alkylation of the resulting secondary aliphatic amines could selectively prepare aliphatic tertiary amines possessing three different alkyl groups. According to the mechanistic studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that nitriles were reduced to aldimines before the nucleophilic attack of the amine during the first step of the reaction.

  10. Aromatic embedding wins over classical hydrogen bonding - a multi-spectroscopic approach for the diphenyl ether-methanol complex.

    PubMed

    Medcraft, Chris; Zinn, Sabrina; Schnell, Melanie; Poblotzki, Anja; Altnöder, Jonas; Heger, Matthias; Suhm, Martin A; Bernhard, Dominic; Stamm, Anke; Dietrich, Fabian; Gerhards, Markus

    2016-09-21

    Dispersion interactions are omnipresent in intermolecular interactions, but their respective contributions are difficult to predict. Aromatic ethers offer competing docking sites for alcohols: the ether oxygen as a well known hydrogen bond acceptor, but also the aromatic π system. The interaction with two aromatic moieties in diphenyl ether can tip the balance towards π binding. We use a multi-spectroscopic approach to study the molecular recognition, the structure and internal dynamics of the diphenyl ether-methanol complex, employing infrared, infrared-ultraviolet and microwave spectroscopy. We find that the conformer with the hydroxy group of the alcohol binding to one aromatic π cloud and being coordinated by an aromatic C-H bond of the other phenyl group is preferred. Depending on the expansion conditions in the supersonic jet, we observe a second conformer, which exhibits a hydrogen bond to the ether oxygen and is higher in energy.

  11. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  12. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  13. Tertiary climatic fluctuations and methods of analysis of tertiary floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.

    1971-01-01

    On theoretical grounds, an analysis of the physiognomy of a Tertiary leaf assemblage is more direct and reliable than a circuitous floristic analysis in assigning thermal regimes to fossil assemblages. Using primarily foliar physiognomy and secondarily floristic composition, it can be shown that: (1) some middle latitude Tertiary assemblages probably lived under meteoroligically tropical climates; (2) a major and rapid climatic deterioration occurred in the Oligocene; and (3) a major climatic fluctuation probably occurred in the Late Eocene. These analyses thus substantiate the conclusions of several other paleobotanists regarding climatic fluctuations. Recent criticisms of these analyses are shown to be invalid and to be based largely on misinterpretations. ?? 1971.

  14. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  15. Aromatic molecules as spintronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Orellana, P. A.; Laroze, D.

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, we study the spin-dependent electron transport through aromatic molecular chains attached to two semi-infinite leads. We model this system taking into account different geometrical configurations which are all characterized by a tight binding Hamiltonian. Based on the Green's function approach with a Landauer formalism, we find spin-dependent transport in short aromatic molecules by applying external magnetic fields. Additionally, we find that the magnetoresistance of aromatic molecules can reach different values, which are dependent on the variations in the applied magnetic field, length of the molecules, and the interactions between the contacts and the aromatic molecule.

  16. Fluorinated aromatic diamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); O'Rell, Michael K. (Inventor); Hom, Jim M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a novel aromatic diamine and more particularly to the use of said diamine for the preparation of thermally stable high-molecular weight polymers including, for example, polyamides, polyamideimides, polyimides, and the like. This diamine is obtained by reacting a stoichometric amount of a disodium salt of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane with 4-chloronitrobenzene to obtain an intermediate, 2,2-bis[4-(4-nitrophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane, which is reduced to the corresponding 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane.

  17. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  18. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  19. "Carbo-aromaticity" and novel carbo-aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cocq, Kévin; Lepetit, Christine; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi

    2015-09-21

    While the concept of aromaticity is being more and more precisely delineated, the category of "aromatic compounds" is being more and more expanded. This is illustrated by an introductory highlight of the various types of "aromaticity" previously invoked, and by a focus on the recently proposed "aromatic character" of the "two-membered rings" of the acetylene and butatriene molecules. This serves as a general foundation for the definition of "carbo-aromaticity", the relevance of which is surveyed through recent results in the synthetic, physical, and theoretical chemistry of carbo-mers and in particular macrocyclic-polycyclic representatives constituting a natural family of "novel aromatic compounds". With respect to their parent molecules, carbo-mers are constitutionally defined as "carbon-enriched", and can also be functionally regarded as "π-electron-enriched". This is exemplified by recent experimental and theoretical results on functional, aromatic, rigid, σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-benzene archetypes of various substitution patterns, with emphasis on the quadrupolar pattern. For the purpose of comparison, several types of non-aromatic references of carbo-benzenes are then considered, i.e. freely rotating σ,π-acyclic carbo-n-butadienes and flexible σ-cyclic, π-acyclic carbo-cyclohexadienes, and to "pro-aromatic" congeners, i.e. rigid σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-quinoids. It is shown that functional carbo-mers are entering the field of "molecular materials" for properties such as linear or nonlinear optical properties (e.g. dichromism and two-photon absorption) and single molecule conductivity. Since total or partial carbo-mers of aromatic carbon-allotropes of infinite size such as graphene (graphynes and graphdiynes) and graphite ("graphitynes") have long been addressed at the theoretical or conceptual level, recent predictive advances on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of such carbo-materials are surveyed. Very preliminary experimental results

  20. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as β -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  1. Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between aromaticity and stability in molecules on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electrophilicity is explored. The findings reveal that aromatic molecules are less energetic, harder, less polarizable, and less electrophilic as compared to antiaromatic molecules, as expected from the electronic structure principles.

  2. Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between aromaticity and stability in molecules on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electrophilicity is explored. The findings reveal that aromatic molecules are less energetic, harder, less polarizable, and less electrophilic as compared to antiaromatic molecules, as expected from the electronic structure principles.

  3. Tertiary Literacy on the Cusp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absalom, Doug; Golebiowski, Zosia

    2002-01-01

    Outlines recent concerns regarding a perceived decline in literacy standards in Australia, with reference to changing literacy abilities and standards in tertiary education. Summarizes and critiques current discussions on changes in literacy expectations and contemporary notions of literacy. Concludes with discussion of three important agents of…

  4. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

  5. Buckets and Fire: Metaphors in Tertiary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Lisa; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines New Zealand tertiary teachers' use of metaphor and their attitudes to the consumer metaphor in relation to teaching. Based on interviews with 16 tertiary teachers, this study shows that although teachers believe the consumer metaphor is accepted by students, tertiary institutions and policy makers, and that it has affected…

  6. Buckets and Fire: Metaphors in Tertiary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Lisa; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines New Zealand tertiary teachers' use of metaphor and their attitudes to the consumer metaphor in relation to teaching. Based on interviews with 16 tertiary teachers, this study shows that although teachers believe the consumer metaphor is accepted by students, tertiary institutions and policy makers, and that it has affected…

  7. Chemoselective synthesis of substituted pyrazoles through AgOTf-catalyzed cascade propargylic substitution-cyclization-aromatization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su-Xia; Hao, Lu; Wang, Tao; Ding, Zong-Cang; Zhan, Zhuang-Ping

    2013-01-14

    A cascade AgOTf-catalyzed chemoselective approach to 3,5/1,3-disubstitued pyrazoles from propargylic alcohols and para-tolylsulfonohydrazide has been developed. Good chemoselectivity is observed depending on the different substituents in the alkyne moiety of the propargylic alcohols, generating two different kinds of products through different aromatization mechanisms. The pyrazolo[5,1-a]isoquinoline skeleton can also be effectively constructed by this method through a cascade bicyclization process.

  8. Catalytic aromatization of methane.

    PubMed

    Spivey, James J; Hutchings, Graham

    2014-02-07

    Recent developments in natural gas production technology have led to lower prices for methane and renewed interest in converting methane to higher value products. Processes such as those based on syngas from methane reforming are being investigated. Another option is methane aromatization, which produces benzene and hydrogen: 6CH4(g) → C6H6(g) + 9H2(g) ΔG°(r) = +433 kJ mol(-1) ΔH°(r) = +531 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic calculations for this reaction show that benzene formation is insignificant below ∼600 °C, and that the formation of solid carbon [C(s)] is thermodynamically favored at temperatures above ∼300 °C. Benzene formation is insignificant at all temperatures up to 1000 °C when C(s) is included in the calculation of equilibrium composition. Interestingly, the thermodynamic limitation on benzene formation can be minimized by the addition of alkanes/alkenes to the methane feed. By far the most widely studied catalysts for this reaction are Mo/HZSM-5 and Mo/MCM-22. Benzene selectivities are generally between 60 and 80% at methane conversions of ∼10%, corresponding to net benzene yields of less than 10%. Major byproducts include lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight substituted aromatics. However, carbon formation is inevitable, but the experimental findings show this can be kinetically limited by the use of H2 or oxidants in the feed, including CO2 or steam. A number of reactor configurations involving regeneration of the carbon-containing catalyst have been developed with the goal of minimizing the cost of regeneration of the catalyst once deactivated by carbon deposition. In this tutorial review we discuss the thermodynamics of this process, the catalysts used and the potential reactor configurations that can be applied.

  9. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fragrance material review on phenylethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenylethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenylethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenylethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation and Degradation of Furfuryl Alcohol, 5-Methylfurfuryl Alcohol, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Their Ethyl Ethers in Barrel-Aged Wines.

    PubMed

    Spillman; Pollnitz; Liacopoulos; Pardon; Sefton

    1998-02-16

    Furfural, 5-methylfurfural, and vanillin co-occurred in 64 barrel-aged red, white, and model wines with the reduction products, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methylfurfuryl alcohol, and vanillyl alcohol, and with the corresponding ethyl ethers of these alcohols. Hydrolytic studies in a model wine have shown that 5-methylfurfuryl ethyl ether is formed rapidly from 5-methylfurfuryl alcohol, but both decomposed quickly under the conditions. Vanillyl ethyl ether was also formed relatively rapidly, and both this ether and vanillyl alcohol were stable in the model wine. The formation of furfuryl ethyl ether from furfuryl alcohol and the subsequent decomposition of these two compounds were comparatively slow. The relative concentration of these aromatic alcohols and ethers in the barrel-aged wines was consistent with the observed stability of the furan derivatives, but low concentrations of vanillyl alcohol and vanillyl ethyl ether observed in all samples showed that factors other than solvolytic degradation were responsible for reducing the concentration of these compounds in wine. Furfuryl ethyl ether, which had an aroma threshold of 430 µg/L in a white wine, was found at approximate concentrations of up to 230 µg/L in the wines.

  13. The roles of tertiary amine structure, background organic matter and chloramine species on NDMA formation.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Kim, Daekyun; Ates, Nuray; Karanfil, Tanju

    2013-02-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a probable human carcinogen, is a disinfection by-product that has been detected in chloraminated and chlorinated drinking waters and wastewaters. Formation mechanisms and precursors of NDMA are still not well understood. The main objectives of this study were to systematically investigate (i) the effect of tertiary amine structure, (ii) the effect of background natural organic matter (NOM), and (iii) the roles of mono vs. dichloramine species on the NDMA formation. Dimethylamine (DMA) and 20 different tertiary aliphatic and aromatic amines were carefully examined based on their functional groups attached to the basic DMA structure. The wide range (0.02-83.9%) of observed NDMA yields indicated the importance of the structure of tertiary amines, and both stability and electron distribution of the leaving group of tertiary amines on NDMA formation. DMA associated with branched alkyl groups or benzyl like structures having only one carbon between the ring and DMA structure consistently gave higher NDMA yields. Compounds with electron withdrawing groups (EWG) reacted preferentially with monochloramine, whereas compounds with electron donating group (EDG) showed tendency to react with dichloramine to form NDMA. When the selected amines were present in NOM solutions, NDMA formation increased for compounds with EWG while decreased for compounds with EDG. This impact was attributed to the competitions between NOM and amines for chloramine species. The results provided additional information to the commonly accepted mechanism for NDMA formation including chloramine species reacting with tertiary amines and the role of the leaving group on overall NDMA conversion.

  14. Chemoselective Reductive Amination of Carbonyl Compounds for the Synthesis of Tertiary Amines Using SnCl2·2H2O/PMHS/MeOH.

    PubMed

    Nayal, Onkar S; Bhatt, Vinod; Sharma, Sushila; Kumar, Neeraj

    2015-06-05

    Stannous chloride catalyzed chemoselective reductive amination of a variety of carbonyl compounds with aromatic amines has been developed for the synthesis of a diverse range of tertiary amines using inexpensive polymethylhydrosiloxane as reducing agent in methanol. The present method is also applicable for the synthesis of secondary amines including heterocyclic ones.

  15. Colorless, Transparent, Aromatic Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Ezzell, K. S.; Ely, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    New process yields aromatic condensation polyimide films essentially colorless. Films between 90- and 100-percent transparent at visible wavelength of 500 nm. Optically transparent polyimide films made from variety of aromatic condensation polyimides. Range from very pale in color to colorless, compared to bright yellow color of conventional/ commercial aromatic polyimide film. Increased transparency achieved at no sacrifice in thermal stability, flexibility, toughness, or mechanical properties. These features extremely attractive as films or coating materials for aerospace applications or for any other applications where high optical transparency or thermal stability is required.

  16. Synthesis of aromatic secondary diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D.; Kahley, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of N-methyl substituted aromatic polyamides derived from the secondary aromatic diamines, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)diphenylmethane, 3,3'-bis(methylamino) diphenylmethane, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone or 3,3'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone and isophthaloyl dichloride, terphthaloyl dichloride or 3,3'diphenylmethane dicarboxylic acid dichloride was prepared by high temperature solution polymerization in s-tetrachloroethane. Compared to analogous unsubstituted and partially N-methylated aromatic polyamides, the full N-methylated polyamides exhibited significantly lower glass transition temperatures, reduced crystallinity, improved thermal stability and good solubility in chlorinated solvents.

  17. Effect of alcohol compounds found in hemicellulose hydrolysate on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zaldivar, J; Martinez, A; Ingram, L O

    2000-06-05

    Lignocellulose can be readily hydrolyzed into a mixture of sugars using dilute mineral acids. During hydrolysis, a variety of inhibitors are also produced which include aromatic alcohols from lignin and furfuryl alcohol from pentose destruction. Seven compounds were investigated individually and in binary combinations (catechol, coniferyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, guaiacol, hydroquinone, methylcatechol, and vanillyl alcohol). Aromatic alcohols and furfuryl alcohol inhibited ethanol production from xylose in batch fermentations primarily by inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli LY01, the biocatalyst. The toxicities of these compounds were directly related to their hydrophobicity. Methylcatechol was the most toxic compound tested (MIC = 1.5 g/L). In binary combination, the extent of growth inhibition was roughly additive for most compounds tested. However, combinations with furfuryl alcohol and furfural (furaldehyde) appear synergistic in toxicity. When compared individually, alcohol components which are formed during hemicellulose hydrolysis are less toxic for growth than the aldehydes and organic acids either on a weight basis or a molar basis.

  18. Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

  19. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone Using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the…

  20. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone Using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the…

  1. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  2. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  3. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  4. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  5. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  6. Description of aromaticity in porphyrinoids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Judy I; Fernández, Israel; Schleyer, Paul v R

    2013-01-09

    Like the larger nonplanar Möbius rings, porphyrinoid aromaticity is not due primarily to the macrocyclic π conjugation of the corresponding annulene perimeters. The block-localized wave function (BLW)-derived aromatic stabilization energies (ASE) of several porphyrinoids reveal that, on a per atom basis, the appended 6π electron heterocycles of porphyrinoids confer aromaticity much more effectively than the macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugations. There is no direct relationship between thermochemical stability of porphyrinoids and their macrocyclic 4n or 4n+2 π electron counts. Porphyrinoids having an "antiaromatic" macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugation pathway (e.g., 4) as well as those having no macrocyclic conjugation (e.g., 9) can be stabilized by aromaticity. Computed nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the anisotropy of the induced current density (ACID) disclose the intricate local versus macrocyclic circulation interplay for several porphyrinoids.

  7. Fragrance material review on α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α,4-Trimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fragrance material review on α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α-Dimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fragrance material review on p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-α,α-Trimethylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitisation, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyphenylquinoxalines via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents using alkali metal bases at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers are prepared either by reacting stoichiometric quantities of aromatic bis(o-diamines) with a hydroxybenzil or by reacting o-phenylenediamine with a dihydroxybenzil or bis(hydroxyphenylglyoxylyl)benzene.

  11. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  12. Polyphenylquinoxalines via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents during alkali metal bases at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers are prepared either by reacting stoichiometric quantities of aromatic bis(o-diamines) with a hydroxybenzil or by reacting o-phenylenediamine with a dihydroxybenzil or bis(hydroxyphenylglyoxylyl)benzene.

  13. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24099 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  15. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  16. Hydrogen transfer from alcohol donors to aromatic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Garry, M.J.; Virk, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen transfer reactions between cyclohexanol (CHL) donor and each of anthracene (ANT) and phenanthrene (PHE) acceptors have been studied in the liquid phase at temperatures from 300 to 425 C, times from 0.16 to 12.0 hr and initial donor/acceptor ratios of 0.125 to 15.4. In addition to the desired hydrogen transfer reaction (Rl), two other pathways were observed, namely, (R2) reversion of the hydrogenated acceptor to original acceptor by way of both hydrogen elimination (R2') and disproportionation (R2''); and (R3) pyrolytic donor decomposition. The kinetics of (R2) and R3) were also investigated and it was found that (R2) was small and (R3) negligible relative to (Rl). The hydrogen transfer reactions were bimolecular, being of order one in each of donor and acceptor. Arrhenius parameters were respectively for CHL-ANT (6.0 +- 0.2, 33.1 +- 0.6) and for CHL-PHE (7.6 +- 0.6, 42.5 +- 3.5). The observed molecularity and Arrhenius parameters suggest a concerted pericyclic mechanism for the hydrogen transfer with a relatively tight transition state akin to that well known for Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Hydrogen elimination from dihydroanthracene (DHA) and dihydrophenthrene (DHP) liquids was studied at temperatures from 300 to 450 C, times from 0.16 to 10.0 hrs and substrate concentration ranges of 0.2 to 4.0 mol/liter. The hydrogen elimination reactions were strictly unimolecular. Arrhenius parameters were respectively for DHA (12.6 +- 0.6, 50.8 +- 0.8) and for DHP (12.6 +- 0.3, 58.1 +- 0.8). The observed hydrogen elimination from DHA to ANT is strikingly analogous to that from 1,4 cyclohexadiene to benzene and suggests a similar concerted pericyclic group transfer reaction.

  17. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  18. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the proposal research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  19. Borderline between Reactivity and Prereactivity of Binary Mixtures of Gaseous Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Luca; Spada, Lorenzo; Li, Weixing; Vazart, Fanny; Barone, Vincenzo; Caminati, Walther

    2017-01-01

    By mixing primary and secondary alcohols with carboxylic acids just before the supersonic expansion within pulsed Fourier transform microwave experiments, only the rotational spectrum of the ester has been observed. However, when formic acid was mixed with tertiary alcohols, adducts have been formed and their rotational spectra have been easily measured. Quantum mechanical calculations have been performed to interpret the experimental evidence. PMID:28252840

  20. Iridium-catalyzed selective α-alkylation of unactivated amides with primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Guo, Le; Liu, Yinghua; Yao, Wubing; Leng, Xuebing; Huang, Zheng

    2013-03-01

    The first α-alkylation of unactivated amides with primary alcohols is described. An effective and robust iridium pincer complex has been developed for selective α-alkylation of tertiary and secondary acetamides involving a "borrowing hydrogen" methodology. The method is compatible with alcohols bearing various functional groups. This presents a convenient and environmentally benign protocol for α-alkylation of amides.

  1. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  2. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  4. Aromatic profile of ciders by chemical quantitative, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Antón, María José; Suárez Valles, Belén; García Hevia, Ana; Picinelli Lobo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Nine samples of Asturias cider have been analyzed for volatile, olfactometric, and sensorial profiles. The aromatic composition was mainly constituted by fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. Among the minor volatile compounds, fatty acids, volatile phenols, and alcohols were the main components. The olfactometric analysis revealed the existence of 55 aromatic areas, exhibiting a wide range of intensities. Components like amyl alcohols, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters such as 2-methylbutyrate, hexanoate and octanoate, hexanoic and octanoic acids 2-phenylethyl acetate, 4-ethyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl phenol could be considered as being part of the structure of cider aroma. The extract dilution analysis of one extract identified 2 volatile phenols (4-ethyl guaiacol and 4-ethyl phenol) among the most powerful odorants in cider. These components gave significant correlations with the sensory attributes sweet, spicy, and lees.

  5. Alcohol Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your drinks The rate and amount of alcohol consumption Your tolerance level Complications Severe complications can result ... pressure and fast heart rate. Seizures. Your blood sugar level may drop low enough to cause seizures. ...

  6. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  7. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  8. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcoholic hepatitis include: Fluid accumulation in your abdomen (ascites) Confusion and behavior changes due to a buildup ... is life-threatening and requires immediate medical care. Ascites. Fluid that accumulates in the abdomen might become ...

  9. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear liquid commonly used as a germ killer (antiseptic). This article discusses poisoning from swallowing propyl alcohol. ... Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation),and ventilator (breathing machine) Blood and urine ...

  10. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj K

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic, and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic amines has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  11. Students' ways of understanding aromaticity and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Anne Merete

    Studies in organic chemistry education focus mainly on increasing students' performance. Studies from general chemistry education reveal that students' performance is not a good indicator of conceptual understanding. In support, Bhattacharyya and Bodner (2005) reveal that chemistry graduate students can produce correct answers to reaction mechanisms tasks in organic chemistry without understanding the underlying concepts behind the tasks. This dissertation uses the constructs of Harel's DNR-based instruction (1998, 2001, in press [a]) to categorize students' ways of understanding aromaticity and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. DNR refers to three instructional principles: Duality Principle, Necessity Principle and Repeated Reasoning Principle. Primarily, this study applies the following constructs integral to the Duality Principle: ways of understanding and ways of thinking. The purpose of this study is three-fold. The first purpose is to identify students' ways of understanding aromaticity and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequently the ways of thinking that are inferred by these ways of understanding. The second purpose of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of students' beliefs (one category of ways of thinking) about learning organic chemistry. The third purpose is to show how we can help students develop more desirable ways of understanding aromaticity. First, several ways of understanding were identified from semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 undergraduate-level students. Three ways of thinking were inferred from these ways of understanding: (1) non-referential symbolic reasoning, (2) non-referential use of terminology, and (3) beliefs about learning organic chemistry. Second, the results of a 46-Item Likert-scale survey provided empirical evidence to support the claim that the students have a tendency towards memorization when learning organic chemistry. Third, this study demonstrated the potential

  12. [Alcohol experience, alcohol knowledge, and alcohol expectancy in early adolescents].

    PubMed

    Tak, Young-Ran; Yun, E-hwa; An, Ji-Yeon

    2007-02-01

    This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.

  13. Aromatic-Aromatic Interactions in Biological System: Structure Activity Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopal, Appavu; Deepa, Mohan; Govindaraju, Munisamy

    2016-02-26

    While, intramolecular hydrogen bonds have attracted the greatest attention in studies of peptide conformations, the recognition that several other weakly polar interactions may be important determinants of folded structure has been growing. Burley and Petsko provided a comprehensive overview of the importance of weakly polar interactions, in shaping protein structures. The interactions between aromatic rings, which are spatially approximate, have attracted special attention. A survey of the proximal aromatic residue pairs in proteins, allowed Burley and Petsko to suggest that, “phenyl ring centroids are separated by a preferential distance of between 4.5 and 7 Å, and dihedral angles approximately 90° are most common”.

  14. Iloprost induces tertiary dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Limjeerajarus, Chalida Nakalekha; Chanarattanubol, Thichaporn; Trongkij, Panruethai; Rujiwanichkul, Mirantee; Pavasant, Prasit

    2014-11-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2), a member of the prostaglandin family, can promote angiogenesis and cell proliferation. In this study, the effect of the application of a PGI2 analog (iloprost) on dentin repair was examined in vitro and in vivo. Iloprost significantly stimulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and osteo-/odontogenic marker messenger RNA in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) under osteoinductive conditions in vitro. In addition, iloprost enhanced HDPC alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity and mineral deposition. An in vivo study was performed using a rat molar mechanical pulp exposure model. After 30 days, histologic analysis revealed that there was a dramatic tertiary dentin formation in the iloprost-treated group compared with the calcium hydroxide and the untreated control groups. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression in dental pulp tissue was increased in the iloprost-treated group as determined by immunohistochemical staining. Taken together, the present study, for the first time, shows that iloprost induces the expression of osteo-/odontogenic markers in vitro and promotes angiogenic factor expression and enhances tertiary dentin formation in vivo. This implies the potential clinical usefulness of iloprost in vital pulp therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensive Spectroscopic Characterization of Model Aromatic Substituents of Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Jacob C.; Vara, Vanesa Vaquero; Hotopp, Kelly M.; Dian, Brian C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2012-06-01

    2,6-Dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) is a model compound with aromatic substitution similar to that in sinapyl alcohol, one of the three monomers that make up lignin. 2,6-DMP has been studied combining several spectroscopic techniques that span the microwave, infrared and ultraviolet regions. Spectra from laser-induced fluorescence excitation, IR-UV hole-burning, fluorescence dip IR, dispersed fluorescence and rotational spectra have allowed us to develop more insight to the structural details, intramolecular H-bonding and electronic excited states of this sinapyl alcohol analog. Coupling in the CH stretch region, broadening effects in the IR spectra and Coriolis coupling due to the OH tunneling coordinate in the rotational spectrum will be shown as we present this diverse set of experimental data involving transitions between different vibronic, vibrational and rotational levels of the molecule. These features will be compared to those in 2-methoxyphenol and 4-methyl-2,6-DMP during the discussion.

  16. General and selective C-3 alkylation of indoles with primary alcohols by a reusable Pt nanocluster catalyst.

    PubMed

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2013-10-18

    The platinum rule: Heterogeneous, additive-free C-3 selective alkylation of indoles by aliphatic and aromatic alcohols proceeded under transfer hydrogenation conditions with the reusable Pt/θ-Al2 O3 catalyst (see scheme; TON=turnover number).

  17. Aromatic components in cometary materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Wopenka, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Raman spectra of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere show that two bands at about 1350 and 1600 delta/cm and a broader feature between 2200 and 3300 delta/cm that are characteristic of aromatic molecular units with ordered domains smaller than 25 A in diameter. This suggests that the carbonaceous material in IDPs may be similar to the polymeric component seen in meteorites, where this material is thought to consist of aromatic molecular units that are randomly interlinked by short aliphatic bridges. The features in the Raman spectra of IDPs are similar in position, and relative strength to interstellar infrared emission features that have been attributed to vibrational transitions in free molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Taken together, these observations suggest that some fraction of the carbonaceous materials in IDPs may have been produced in circumstellar dust shells and only slightly modified in interstellar space.

  18. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  19. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  20. Photocatabolism of aromatic compounds by the phototrophic purple bacterium Rhodomicrobium vannielii

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, G.E.; Madigan, M.T. )

    1991-07-01

    The phototrophic purple non-sulfur bacterium Thodomicrobium vannielii grew phototrophically (illuminated anaerobic conditions) on a variety of aromatic compounds (in the presence of CO{sub 2}). Benzoate was universally photocatabolized by all five strains of R. vannielii examined, and benzyl alcohol was photocatabolized by four of the five strains. Catabolism of benzyl alcohol by phototrophic bacteria has not been previously reported. Other aromatic substrates supporting reasonably good growth of R. vannielii strains were the methozylated benzoate derivatives vanillate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate) and syringate (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate). However, catabolism of vanillate and syringate led to significant inhibition of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis in R. vannielii cells, eventually causing cultures to cease growing. No such effect on photopigment synthesis in cells grown on benzoate or benzyl alcohol was observed. Along with a handful of other species of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, the ability of the species R. vannielii to photocatabolize aromatic compounds indicates that this organism may also be ecologically significant as a consumer of aromatic derivatives in illuminated anaerobic habitats in nature.

  1. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  2. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  3. Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P. C.; Kraus, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

  4. Polyphenylquinoxalines via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Connell, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are produced by an aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction involving an activated aromatic dihalide with an appropriate quinoxaline monomer. Polyphenylquinoxalines are high temperature thermoplastics used as adhesives, coatings, films and composite matrices. The novelty of this invention is threefold: (1) some of the quinoxaline monomers are new compositions of matter; (2) the phenylquinoxaline polymers which are the end products of the invention are new compositions of matter; and (3) the method of forming the polymers is novel, replacing a more costly prior art process, which is also limited in the kinds of products prepared therefrom.

  5. Minimum prices for alcohol and educational disparities in alcohol-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Herttua, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-05-01

    Minimum price of alcohol is one of the proposed set of alcohol policies in many high-income countries. However, the extent to which alcohol-related harm is associated with minimum prices across socioeconomic groups is not known. Using Finnish national registers in 1988-2007, we investigated, by means of time-series analysis, the association between minimum prices for alcohol overall, as well as for various types of alcoholic beverages, and alcohol-related mortality, among men and women ages 30-79 years across three educational groups. We defined quarterly aggregations of alcohol-related deaths, based on a sample including 80% of all deaths, in accordance with information on both underlying and contributory causes of death. About 62,500 persons died from alcohol-related causes during the 20-year follow-up. The alcohol-related mortality rate was more than threefold higher among those with a basic education than among those with a tertiary education. Among men with a basic education, an increase of 1% in the minimum price of alcohol was associated with a decrease of 0.03% (95% confidence interval = 0.01, 0.04%) in deaths per 100,000 person-years. Changes in the minimum prices of distilled spirits, intermediate products, and strong beer were also associated with changes in the opposite direction among men with a basic education and among women with a secondary education, whereas among the most highly educated there were no associations between the minimum prices of any beverages and mortality. Moreover, we found no evidence of an association between lower minimum prices for wine and higher rates of alcohol-related mortality in any of the population sub-groups. The results reveal associations between higher minimum prices and lower alcohol-related mortality among men with a basic education and women with a secondary education for all beverage types except wine.

  6. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.

  7. Volatile profiles of aromatic and non-aromatic rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice is enjoyed by many people as a staple food because of its flavor and texture. Some scented varieties command a premium in the marketplace because of their distinctive aroma and flavor. The compound most commonly associated with the popcorn or nutty scent of aromatic rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline...

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of tertiary thiols and thioethers

    PubMed Central

    MacLellan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Summary Enantiomerically pure tertiary thiols provide a major synthetic challenge, and despite the importance of chiral sulfur-containing compounds in biological and medicinal chemistry, surprisingly few effective methods are suitable for the asymmetric synthesis of tertiary thiols. This review details the most practical of the methods available. PMID:21647256

  9. Mixed-Sector Tertiary Education. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    This research overview provides the key messages arising from two related projects investigating tertiary education institutions that have recently begun to offer tertiary programs outside the sector of their initial establishment and the sector of the majority of their enrolments. These are TAFE institutes offering higher education programs,…

  10. Understanding Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In Clark and Lovric ("Suggestion for a theoretical model for secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics", "Math. Educ. Res. J." 20(2) (2008), pp. 25-37) we began developing a model for the secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics, based on the anthropological notion of a rite of passage. We articulated several reasons why we believe that the…

  11. Understanding Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In Clark and Lovric ("Suggestion for a theoretical model for secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics", "Math. Educ. Res. J." 20(2) (2008), pp. 25-37) we began developing a model for the secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics, based on the anthropological notion of a rite of passage. We articulated several reasons why we believe that the…

  12. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents information on tertiary education and training during 2010, including statistics on participation and outcomes. The definition of tertiary education and training adopted for this publication is formal study in vocational education and training (VET) and higher education, including enrolments in Australian Qualifications…

  13. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  14. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Brito, Arival Cardoso de; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques.

  15. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Substrate specificities and inhibition studies.

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, R W; Fewson, C A

    1988-01-01

    The apparent Km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. Benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. The other substrates of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase were all aromatic in nature, with para-substituted derivatives of benzyl alcohol being better substrates than other derivatives. Coniferyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol were also substrates. Benzaldehyde was much the most effective substrate for benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II. Benzaldehydes with a single small substituent group in the meta or para position were better substrates than any other benzaldehyde derivatives. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II could also oxidize the aliphatic aldehydes hexan-1-al and octan-1-al, although poorly. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was substrate-inhibited by benzaldehyde when the assay concentration exceeded approx. 10 microM. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, but not benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, exhibited esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Both benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II were inhibited by the thiol-blocking reagents iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, 4-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. Benzyl alcohol or benzaldehyde respectively protected against these inhibitions. NAD+ also gave some protection. Neither benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase nor benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was inhibited by the metal-ion-chelating agents EDTA, 2,2'-bipyridyl, pyrazole or 2-phenanthroline. Neither enzyme was inhibited by a range of plausible metabolic inhibitors such as mandelate, phenylglyoxylate, benzoate, succinate, acetyl-CoA, ATP or ADP. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was

  16. THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

  17. THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

  18. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  19. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  20. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

  1. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  2. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  3. Binuclear Phthalocyanines with Aromatic Bridges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    successful. (Scheme 2) Synthesis of Binuclear Phthalocyanines Covalently Bridged by Anthracene The coupling reaction of aromatic halides using elemental...available (16), it Is not active enough to undergo the desired cross coupling reaction . Less electropositive arylzinc derivatives can tolerate various electro...philic functional groups such as nitriles and esters (17). These organo- metallic reagents readily undergo cross coupling reaction with aryl halides

  4. Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as acetamide, Nmethylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  5. The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    2007-01-01

    An approach is presented that starts from two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, and combines them into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Huckel-aromatic and chiral Mobius-aromatic transition states. This is illustrated using an example that leads to apparent…

  6. Evaluation of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers from aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naiema, Ibrahim M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2017-02-01

    Products of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids, nitromonoaromatics, and furandiones - were evaluated for their potential to serve as anthropogenic SOA tracers with respect to their (1) ambient concentrations and detectability in PM2.5 in Iowa City, IA, USA; (2) gas-particle partitioning behaviour; and (3) source specificity by way of correlations with primary and secondary source tracers and literature review. A widely used tracer for toluene-derived SOA, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid was only detected in the particle phase (Fp = 1) at low but consistently measurable ambient concentrations (averaging 0.3 ng m-3). Four aromatic dicarboxylic acids were detected at relatively higher concentrations (9.1-34.5 ng m-3), of which phthalic acid was the most abundant. Phthalic acid had a low particle-phase fraction (Fp = 0.26) likely due to quantitation interferences from phthalic anhydride, while 4-methylphthalic acid was predominantly in the particle phase (Fp = 0.82). Phthalic acid and 4-methylphthalic acid were both highly correlated with 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid (rs = 0.73, p = 0.003; rs = 0.80, p < 0.001, respectively), suggesting that they were derived from aromatic VOCs. Isophthalic and terephthalic acids, however, were detected only in the particle phase (Fp = 1), and correlations suggested association with primary emission sources. Nitromonoaromatics were dominated by particle-phase concentrations of 4-nitrocatechol (1.6 ng m-3) and 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (1.6 ng m-3) that were associated with biomass burning. Meanwhile, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzyl alcohol was detected in a lower concentration (0.06 ng m-3) in the particle phase only (Fp = 1) and is known as a product of toluene photooxidation. Furandiones in the atmosphere have only been attributed to the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons; however the substantial partitioning toward the gas phase

  7. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  8. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  9. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be triggered by ...

  10. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  11. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  12. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  14. Engineering discrete stacks of aromatic molecules.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Jeremy K; Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Intrigued by transannular interactions occurring in stacked aromatic molecules, chemists have long endeavored to engineer discrete stacks of specific lengths and orientation. The maturation of self-assembly methodologies has shifted the focus away from utilizing covalent scaffolds to harnessing non-covalent interactions such as ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, metal-ligand interactions, and aromatic interactions. Aromatic molecules often assemble into ill-defined, infinite aggregates and thus multiple self-assembly techniques must be combined to achieve the desired stack size and conformations. This critical review briefly highlights covalent scaffolds of stack aromatics before focusing on modern self-assembly based strategies for engineering discrete stacks of aromatic molecules (149 references).

  15. Synthesis of cinnamyl ethers from α-vinylbenzyl alcohol using iodine as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Yoshio; Uzawa, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Nishida, Tadasuke; Murakami, Keiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Reactions of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol with other alcohols using iodine as a catalyst were investigated. The corresponding cinnamyl ethers were obtained as products. This suggested that α-vinylbenzyl alcohol was converted to cinnamyl ethers via 1-phenylallyl cation. Cinnamyl ethyl ether was obtained in 75% yield by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and ethanol in acetonitrile with iodine under the following conditions: temperature = 50 °C, molar ratio of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol:ethanol:iodine = 1:3.0:0.2, and time period = 6 h. Generally, the yields of the reactions using primary alcohols were higher than those using secondary and tertiary alcohols. Ether interchange also occurred by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and iodine, but proceeded smoothly only when an allyl group was used as the other substituent of the starting ether.

  16. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  18. MHDA-Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes for detecting non-aromatic VOCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamri, Atef; Baccar, Hamdi; Struzzi, Claudia; Bittencourt, Carla; Abdelghani, Adnane; Llobet, Eduard

    2016-10-01

    The chemical modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a long chain mercapto acid is reported as a way to improve sensitivity and response time of gas sensors for detecting alcohols, acetone and toxic gases such as DMMP. We have developed sensors employing MWCNTs decorated with gold nanoparticles and modified with a 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) monolayer. Morphological and compositional analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the gold nanoparticles and to check the bonding of the thiol monolayer. The detection of aromatic and non-aromatic volatiles and DMMP vapors by MWCNT/Au and MWCNT/Au/MHDA shows that the presence of the self-assembled layer increases sensitivity and selectivity towards non-aromatics. Furthermore, it ameliorates response dynamics, and significantly reduces nitrogen dioxide and moisture cross-sensitivity.

  19. MHDA-Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes for detecting non-aromatic VOCs

    PubMed Central

    Thamri, Atef; Baccar, Hamdi; Struzzi, Claudia; Bittencourt, Carla; Abdelghani, Adnane; Llobet, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The chemical modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a long chain mercapto acid is reported as a way to improve sensitivity and response time of gas sensors for detecting alcohols, acetone and toxic gases such as DMMP. We have developed sensors employing MWCNTs decorated with gold nanoparticles and modified with a 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) monolayer. Morphological and compositional analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the gold nanoparticles and to check the bonding of the thiol monolayer. The detection of aromatic and non-aromatic volatiles and DMMP vapors by MWCNT/Au and MWCNT/Au/MHDA shows that the presence of the self-assembled layer increases sensitivity and selectivity towards non-aromatics. Furthermore, it ameliorates response dynamics, and significantly reduces nitrogen dioxide and moisture cross-sensitivity. PMID:27721503

  20. Nucleophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R

    2014-03-18

    Iodylbenzene derivatives substituted with electron donating as well as electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring are used as precursors in aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The iodyl group (IO.sub.2) is regiospecifically substituted by nucleophilic fluoride to provide the corresponding fluoroaryl derivatives. No-carrier-added [F-18]fluoride ion derived from anhydrous [F-18](F/Kryptofix, [F-18]CsF or a quaternary ammonium fluoride (e.g., Me.sub.4NF, Et.sub.4NF, n-Bu.sub.4NF, (PhCH.sub.2).sub.4NF) exclusively substitutes the iodyl moiety in these derivatives and provides high specific activity F-18 labeled fluoroaryl analogs. Iodyl derivatives of a benzothiazole analog and 6-iodyl-L-dopa derivatives have been synthesized as precursors and have been used in the preparation of no-carrier-added [F-18]fluorobenzothiazole as well as 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa.

  1. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  2. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  7. West Hackberry Tertiary Project, Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Kenneth A.; Gillham, Travis H.; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    2002-03-04

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries.

  8. Parathyroid carcinoma presenting as tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Sherlock, D. J.; Newman, J.; Holl-Allen, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    A case of malignant transformation in established secondary hyperparathyroidism presenting as tertiary hyperparathyroidism is reported. Although rare, this occurrence has important medical and surgical implications. Images Figure 1 PMID:3983057

  9. Tertiary interactions within the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kosolapov, Andrey; Deutsch, Carol

    2009-04-01

    Although tertiary folding of whole protein domains is prohibited by the cramped dimensions of the ribosomal tunnel, dynamic tertiary interactions may permit folding of small elementary units within the tunnel. To probe this possibility, we used a beta-hairpin and an alpha-helical hairpin from the cytosolic N terminus of a voltage-gated potassium channel and determined a probability of folding for each at defined locations inside and outside the tunnel. Minimalist tertiary structures can form near the exit port of the tunnel, a region that provides an entropic window for initial exploration of local peptide conformations. Tertiary subdomains of the nascent peptide fold sequentially, but not independently, during translation. These studies offer an approach for diagnosing the molecular basis for folding defects that lead to protein malfunction and provide insight into the role of the ribosome during early potassium channel biogenesis.

  10. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  11. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  12. Hybrid Ionosilica containing aromatic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thach, U. D.; Prelot, B.; Hesemann, P.

    2015-07-01

    Ionosilicas are defined as mesostructured silica based materials bearing covalently bound ionic groups. These materials, situated at the interface of ionic liquids and structured silica mesophases, are usually synthesized following template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation procedures starting from silylated ionic compounds. Here, we report new ammonium type hybrid ionosilicas containing aromatic groups which can serve as a new platform for the design of functional materials, for applications in the areas of ion exchange reactions, drug delivery or wastewater treatment.

  13. The direct aromatization of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R.; Migone, R.A.; Kazi, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    The thermal decomposition of methane shows significant potential as a process for the production of higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of the reaction is limited. Thermodynamic calculations have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon and heavier (C{sub 10+}) materials. Much work remains to be done in optimizing the quenching process and this is one of the goals of this program. Means to lower the temperature of the reaction are being studied as this result in a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts will be investigated as a means of lowering the reaction temperature thus allowing faster quenching. It is highly likely that such studies will lead to a successful direct methane to higher hydrocarbon process.

  14. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested.

  15. Computational Prediction of RNA Tertiary Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunjie; Gong, Zhou; Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

    2012-02-01

    RNAs have been found to be involved in the biological processes. The large RNA usually consists of two basic elements: RNA hairpins and duplex. Due to the experimental determination difficulties, the few RNA tertiary structures limit our understanding of the specific regulation mechanisms and functions. Therefore, RNA tertiary structure prediction is very important for understanding RNA biological functions. Since RNA often folds hierarchically, one of the possible RNA structure prediction approaches is through the hierarchical steps. Here, we focus on the prediction method of RNA tertiary hairpin and duplex structures in which assembles the small tertiary structure fragments from well-defined RNA structural motifs. In a benchmark test with known experiment structures, more than half of the cases agree with the experimental structure better than 3 å RMSD over all the heavy atoms. The prediction results also reproduce the native like complementary base pairs of the secondary structures. Most importantly, the method performs the atomic accuracy of tertiary structures by about several minutes. We expect that the method will be a useful resource for RNA tertiary structure prediction and helpful to the biological research community.

  16. Noncomparative scaling of aromaticity through electron itinerancy

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Satadal; Goswami, Tamal; Misra, Anirban

    2015-10-15

    Aromaticity is a multidimensional concept and not a directly observable. These facts have always stood in the way of developing an appropriate theoretical framework for scaling of aromaticity. In the present work, a quantitative account of aromaticity is developed on the basis of cyclic delocalization of π-electrons, which is the phenomenon leading to unique features of aromatic molecules. The stabilization in molecular energy, caused by delocalization of π-electrons is obtained as a second order perturbation energy for archetypal aromatic systems. The final expression parameterizes the aromatic stabilization energy in terms of atom to atom charge transfer integral, onsite repulsion energy and the population of spin orbitals at each site in the delocalized π-electrons. An appropriate computational platform is framed to compute each and individual parameter in the derived equation. The numerical values of aromatic stabilization energies obtained for various aromatic molecules are found to be in close agreement with available theoretical and experimental reports. Thus the reliable estimate of aromaticity through the proposed formalism renders it as a useful tool for the direct assessment of aromaticity, which has been a long standing problem in chemistry.

  17. Depolymerization of lignin by microwave-assisted methylation of benzylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guodian; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhao, Ying; Qian, Yong; Pang, Yuxia; Ouyang, Xinping

    2016-10-01

    A new two-step lignin depolymerization strategy was developed, in which the benzylic alcohols in lignin was methylated under microwave irradiation, followed by a hydrogenolysis for the cleavage of βO4 bond with Pd/C as the catalyst. The results showed that an efficient and selective catalytic methylation of benzylic alcohols was achieved with various lignin model compounds, and the acidic environment promoted the methylation of benzylic alcohol. Methylation of benzylic alcohol increased the βO4 bond cleavage rate by 55.9%, and improved products selectivity. Preliminary study of lignin depolymerization illustrated that methylation pretreatment of benzylic alcohols facilitated lignin depolymerization to produce aromatic monomers and reduced the oxygen content of aromatic monomers.

  18. Addition of CFCl3 to Aromatic Aldehydes via in Situ Grignard Reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Barkakaty, Balaka; Talukdar, Bandana; Lokitz, Bradley

    2015-08-18

    In the case of synthetic modification of trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) to non-volatile and useful fluorinated precursors, we realized that it is a cost-effective and an environmentally benign strategy for the safe consumption/destruction of the ozone depleting potential of the reagent. In our report, we present a novel method for in situ Grignard reaction using magnesium powder and CFCl3 for synthesis of dichlorofluoromethyl aromatic alcohols.

  19. Addition of CFCl3 to Aromatic Aldehydes via in Situ Grignard Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Barkakaty, Balaka; Talukdar, Bandana; Lokitz, Bradley

    2015-08-18

    In the case of synthetic modification of trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) to non-volatile and useful fluorinated precursors, we realized that it is a cost-effective and an environmentally benign strategy for the safe consumption/destruction of the ozone depleting potential of the reagent. In our report, we present a novel method for in situ Grignard reaction using magnesium powder and CFCl3 for synthesis of dichlorofluoromethyl aromatic alcohols.

  20. Synthesis and accumulation of aromatic aldehydes in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kunjapur, Aditya M; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-08-20

    Aromatic aldehydes are useful in numerous applications, especially as flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceutical precursors. However, microbial synthesis of aldehydes is hindered by rapid, endogenous, and redundant conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. We report the construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that serves as a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis. Six genes with reported activity on the model substrate benzaldehyde were rationally targeted for deletion: three genes that encode aldo-keto reductases and three genes that encode alcohol dehydrogenases. Upon expression of a recombinant carboxylic acid reductase in the RARE strain and addition of benzoate during growth, benzaldehyde remained in the culture after 24 h, with less than 12% conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Although individual overexpression results demonstrated that all six genes could contribute to benzaldehyde reduction in vivo, additional experiments featuring subset deletion strains revealed that two of the gene deletions were dispensable under the conditions tested. The engineered strain was next investigated for the production of vanillin from vanillate and succeeded in preventing formation of the byproduct vanillyl alcohol. A pathway for the biosynthesis of vanillin directly from glucose was introduced and resulted in a 55-fold improvement in vanillin titer when using the RARE strain versus the wild-type strain. Finally, synthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) was demonstrated from benzaldehyde and glucose upon expression of a recombinant mutant pyruvate decarboxylase in the RARE strain. Beyond allowing accumulation of aromatic aldehydes as end products in E. coli, the RARE strain expands the classes of chemicals that can be produced microbially via aldehyde intermediates.

  1. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  2. Fragrance material review on α-propylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-propylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Propylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-propylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fragrance material review on p-tolyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-tolyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Tolyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-tolyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fragrance material review on β-methylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of β-methylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. β-Methylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for β-methylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fragrance material review on α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Isobutylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin sensitization, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Entropy versus aromaticity in the conformational dynamics of aromatic rings.

    PubMed

    Shishkin, Oleg V; Dopieralski, Przemyslaw; Omelchenko, Irina V; Gorb, Leonid; Latajka, Zdzislaw; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-10-01

    Comparison of the results of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of isolated benzene, pyrimidine and 1,2,4-triazine molecules reveals that the unusually low population of planar geometry of the benzene ring is caused by entropy effects despite its high aromaticity. The decrease in symmetry of the molecule results in smaller changes in entropy and Gibbs free energy due to out-of-plane deformations of the ring, leading to an increase in the population of planar geometry of the ring. This leads to differences in the topology of potential energy and Gibbs free energy surfaces.

  9. HSiCl3-Mediated Reduction of Nitro-Derivatives to Amines: Is Tertiary Amine-Stabilized SiCl2 the Actual Reducing Species?

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Manuel; Benaglia, Maurizio; Tosi, Filippo; Annunziata, Rita; Cozzi, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of a recently reported, highly chemoselective metal-free protocol of wide general applicability for the reduction of aromatic and aliphatic nitro-derivatives to amines has been investigated. The reaction is supposed to occur through the generation of a Si(II) reducing species; quantum mechanical calculations, and spectroscopic and experimental data strongly suggest the tertiary amine-stabilized dichlorosilylene to be the most probable reducing agent.

  10. Transferable force field for alcohols and polyalcohols.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Teuler, Jean-Marie; Boutin, Anne

    2009-04-30

    A new force field has been developed for alcohol and polyalcohol molecules. Based on the anisotropic united-atom force field AUA4 developed for hydrocarbons, it only introduces one new anisotropic united atom corresponding to the hydroxyl group OH. In the case of polyalcohols and complex molecules, the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy is revisited. These interactions are calculated between charges belonging to the different local dipoles of the molecule, one dipole being defined as a group of consecutive charges globally neutral. This new method allows avoiding the use of empirical scaling parameters commonly introduced to calculate 1-4 electrostatic interactions. The transferability of the proposed potential is demonstrated through the simulation of a wide variety of alcohol families: primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol), secondary alcohols (propan-2-ol), tertiary alcohols (2-methylpropan-2-ol), phenol, and diols (1,2-ethanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol). Monte Carlo simulations carried out in the Gibbs ensemble lead to a good agreement between calculated and experimental data for the thermodynamic properties along the liquid/vapor saturation curve, for the critical point coordinates and for the liquid structure at room temperature. Additional simulations were performed on the methanol + n-butane system showing the capability of the proposed potential to reproduce the azeotropic behavior of such mixtures with a good agreement.

  11. Antagonists of alcohol inhibition of cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Wilkemeyer, Michael F.; Sebastian, Anita B.; Smith, Sherri A.; Charness, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that alcohols act within specific binding pockets of selective neural proteins; however, antagonists at these sites have not been identified. 1-Alcohols from methanol through 1-butanol inhibit with increasing potency the cell–cell adhesion mediated by the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule L1. An abrupt cutoff exists after 1-butanol, with 1-pentanol and higher 1-alcohols showing no effect. Here, we demonstrate surprisingly strict structural requirements for alcohol inhibition of cell–cell adhesion in L1-transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and in NG108–15 neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cells treated with BMP-7, an inducer of L1 and neural cell adhesion molecule. The target site discriminates the tertiary structure of straight-chain and branched-chain alcohols and appears to comprise both a hydrophobic binding site and an adjacent hydrophilic allosteric site. Modifications to the 2- and 3-carbon positions of 1-butanol increased potency, whereas modifications that restrict movement about the 4-carbon abolished activity. The effects of ethanol and 1-butanol on cell–cell adhesion were antagonized by 1-pentanol (IC50 = 715 μM) and 1-octanol (IC50 = 3.6 μM). Antagonism by 1-octanol was complete, reversible, and noncompetitive. 1-Octanol also antagonized ethanol inhibition of BMP-7 morphogenesis in NG108–15 cells. 1-Octanol and related compounds may prove useful in dissecting the role of altered cell adhesion in ethanol-induced injury of the nervous system. PMID:10725368

  12. Computational study on fused five membered heterocyclic compounds containing tertiary oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yujie; Zhang, Tongcun; Piao, Ying'ai; Zhang, Xiuli; Hu, Yanying; Zhang, Liming; Jia, Shiru; He, Huixin

    2017-02-01

    The structure, stability and electronic properties of two fused five membered heterocyclic compounds containing tertiary oxygen have been investigated with quantum chemistry computation. The results show that 3H-4λ3-furo[1,2-a]furan (M1) and 2a1λ4-oxacyclopenta[cd]pentalene (M2) both own three Csbnd O bonds and especially in M2 the three Csbnd O bonds and angles are approximately identical. The two compounds are comparatively stable and M2 with three pentacycles is more stable than compound M1 according to the Csbnd O bond lengths, bond orders, Egap, electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), electrophilicity (ω), and aromaticity indexes. The aromaticity indexes such as NICS(0), NICS(1) and NICS(1)zz show that they both have strong aromaticity. The natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis shows that oxygen atom takes hybrid orbitals composed of s and p orbital components to form σ(Csbnd O) bonds in compounds M1 and M2. The second order perturbation analysis shows that the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer within the molecule exists in compound M1.

  13. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  14. Hand hygiene practices among health care workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care facility in Pune

    PubMed Central

    Anargh, V.; Singh, Harpreet; Kulkarni, Aniket; Kotwal, Atul; Mahen, Ajoy

    2012-01-01

    Background Improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers (HCWs) is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections resulting in prolonged illnesses, hospital stays, long-term disability and unexpected high costs on patients and their families, and also lead to a massive additional financial burden on the health-care system. Objective To assess knowledge and practices regarding hand hygiene among HCWs of a tertiary health care facility. Methods A cross sectional, questionnaire and observation based study was carried out in a tertiary care health care facility in Pune. Based on sample size calculations, 100 HCWs working in medical and surgical wards were studied. Results The proportion knowledgeable about hand hygiene practices was 85% and 73% HCWs were of the belief that unclean hands are an important route of cross transmission. WHO guidelines regarding procedure were being followed by 90% for hand washing with soap and water and 64% for alcohol based rubs. Majority preferred hand washing with soap and water over hand rubbing with alcohol based solutions. 21% of HCWs were missing hand hygiene opportunities 1 in 5 times. Heavy workload (38%), non availability (52%) and inaccessibility (9%) of hand hygiene facilities were the common reasons for non-compliance. Availability of ‘one time use paper towels’ was low (12%). Conclusion Inadequate compliance despite knowledge and false sense of security by alcohol based rubs was seen. A multi disciplinary, multifaceted approach is required to tackle issues of non-compliance. PMID:24532935

  15. Hand hygiene practices among health care workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care facility in Pune.

    PubMed

    Anargh, V; Singh, Harpreet; Kulkarni, Aniket; Kotwal, Atul; Mahen, Ajoy

    2013-01-01

    Improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers (HCWs) is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections resulting in prolonged illnesses, hospital stays, long-term disability and unexpected high costs on patients and their families, and also lead to a massive additional financial burden on the health-care system. To assess knowledge and practices regarding hand hygiene among HCWs of a tertiary health care facility. A cross sectional, questionnaire and observation based study was carried out in a tertiary care health care facility in Pune. Based on sample size calculations, 100 HCWs working in medical and surgical wards were studied. The proportion knowledgeable about hand hygiene practices was 85% and 73% HCWs were of the belief that unclean hands are an important route of cross transmission. WHO guidelines regarding procedure were being followed by 90% for hand washing with soap and water and 64% for alcohol based rubs. Majority preferred hand washing with soap and water over hand rubbing with alcohol based solutions. 21% of HCWs were missing hand hygiene opportunities 1 in 5 times. Heavy workload (38%), non availability (52%) and inaccessibility (9%) of hand hygiene facilities were the common reasons for non-compliance. Availability of 'one time use paper towels' was low (12%). Inadequate compliance despite knowledge and false sense of security by alcohol based rubs was seen. A multi disciplinary, multifaceted approach is required to tackle issues of non-compliance.

  16. Compactness Aromaticity of Atoms in Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.

    2010-01-01

    A new aromaticity definition is advanced as the compactness formulation through the ratio between atoms-in-molecule and orbital molecular facets of the same chemical reactivity property around the pre- and post-bonding stabilization limit, respectively. Geometrical reactivity index of polarizability was assumed as providing the benchmark aromaticity scale, since due to its observable character; with this occasion new Hydrogenic polarizability quantum formula that recovers the exact value of 4.5 a03 for Hydrogen is provided, where a0 is the Bohr radius; a polarizability based–aromaticity scale enables the introduction of five referential aromatic rules (Aroma 1 to 5 Rules). With the help of these aromatic rules, the aromaticity scales based on energetic reactivity indices of electronegativity and chemical hardness were computed and analyzed within the major semi-empirical and ab initio quantum chemical methods. Results show that chemical hardness based-aromaticity is in better agreement with polarizability based-aromaticity than the electronegativity-based aromaticity scale, while the most favorable computational environment appears to be the quantum semi-empirical for the first and quantum ab initio for the last of them, respectively. PMID:20480020

  17. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders with similar signs and symptoms. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders The range of consequences from drinking alcohol during pregnancy are collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, as not all signs and symptoms are ...

  19. Quantum transport through aromatic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Rey-González, R. R.; Laroze, D.

    2013-12-07

    In this paper, we study the electronic transport properties through aromatic molecules connected to two semi-infinite leads. The molecules are in different geometrical configurations including arrays. Using a nearest neighbor tight-binding approach, the transport properties are analyzed into a Green's function technique within a real-space renormalization scheme. We calculate the transmission probability and the Current-Voltage characteristics as a function of a molecule-leads coupling parameter. Our results show different transport regimes for these systems, exhibiting metal-semiconductor-insulator transitions and the possibility to employ them in molecular devices.

  20. Highly practical synthesis of nitriles and heterocycles from alcohols under mild conditions by aerobic double dehydrogenative catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weiyu; Wang, Chengming; Huang, Yong

    2013-04-19

    A mild, aerobic, catalytic process for obtaining nitriles directly from alcohols and aqueous ammonia is described. The reaction proceeds via a dehydrogenation cascade mediated by catalytic CuI, bpy, and TEMPO in the presence of O2. The substrate scope is broad including various functionalized aromatic and aliphatic alcohols. This protocol enabled the one-pot synthesis of various biaryl heterocycles directly from commercially available alcohols.

  1. Hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients at a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Zubieta-Rodríguez, R; Gómez-Correa, J; Rodríguez-Amaya, R; Ariza-Mejia, K A; Toloza-Cuta, N A

    Cirrhosis of the liver is known for its high risk of mortality associated with episodes of acute decompensation. There is an even greater risk in patients that present with acute-on-chronic liver failure. The identification of patients at higher risk for adverse outcomes can aid in making the clinical decisions that will improve the prognosis for these patients. To determine in-hospital mortality and evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with cirrhosis of the liver seen at a tertiary referral hospital. A descriptive, observational, cohort study was conducted on adult patients with cirrhosis of the liver, admitted to a tertiary care center in Bucaramanga, Colombia, within the time frame of March 1, 2015 and February 29, 2016. Eighty-one patients with a mean age of 62 years were included in the study. The main etiology of the cirrhosis was alcoholic (59.3%). In-hospital mortality was 23.5% and the most frequent cause of death was septic shock (68.4%), followed by hypovolemic shock (10.5%). A MELD score≥18, a leukocyte count>12,000/ul, and albumin levels below<2.5g/dl were independent factors related to hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients is high. Sepsis and bleeding are the 2 events leading to acute-on-chronic liver failure and death. A high MELD score, elevated leukocyte count, and low level of albumin are related to poor outcome during hospitalization. Adjusted prevention-centered public health measures and early and opportune diagnosis of this disease are needed to prevent the development of complications and to improve outcome in cirrhotic patients. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin ... Cortisol also has a role in cognition, including learning and memory. In particular, it has been found ...

  3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols over Atomically-Dispersed Non-Precious Metal Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Jiahan; Yin, Kehua; Serov, Alexey; ...

    2016-12-15

    Catalytic oxidation of alcohols often requires the presence of expensive transition metals. We show that earth-abundant Fe atoms dispersed throughout a nitrogen-containing carbon matrix catalyze the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by O2 in the aqueous phase. Furthermore, the activity of the catalyst can be regenerated by a mild treatment in H2. An observed kinetic isotope effect indicates that β-H elimination from the alcohol is the kinetically relevant step in the mechanism, which can be accelerated by substituting Fe with Cu. Dispersed Cr, Co, and Ni also convert alcohols, demonstrating the general utility of metal–nitrogen–carbon materials for alcohol oxidationmore » catalysis. Oxidation of aliphatic alcohols is substantially slower than that of aromatic alcohols, but adding 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy as a co-catalyst with Fe can significantly improve the reaction rate.« less

  6. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols over Atomically-Dispersed Non-Precious Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Jiahan; Yin, Kehua; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Pham, Hien N.; Sang, Xiahan; Unocic, Raymond R.; Atanassov, Plamen; Datye, Abhaya K.; Davis, Robert J.

    2016-12-15

    Catalytic oxidation of alcohols often requires the presence of expensive transition metals. We show that earth-abundant Fe atoms dispersed throughout a nitrogen-containing carbon matrix catalyze the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by O2 in the aqueous phase. Furthermore, the activity of the catalyst can be regenerated by a mild treatment in H2. An observed kinetic isotope effect indicates that β-H elimination from the alcohol is the kinetically relevant step in the mechanism, which can be accelerated by substituting Fe with Cu. Dispersed Cr, Co, and Ni also convert alcohols, demonstrating the general utility of metal–nitrogen–carbon materials for alcohol oxidation catalysis. Oxidation of aliphatic alcohols is substantially slower than that of aromatic alcohols, but adding 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy as a co-catalyst with Fe can significantly improve the reaction rate.

  7. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  8. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  9. Tertiary filtration in small wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

    2007-01-01

    Tertiary filtration can be proposed in small wastewater treatment plants with impact on protected water bodies. Rotating disk filters may be adopted, in respect to conventional sand filters, when low availability of space and low investment costs are the prevailing conditions. The overall objective of this research was to evaluate the filtration efficiency of rotating disk filters; to compare effectiveness with traditional sand filters; to analyse thoroughly the importance of particle size distribution in wastewater tertiary filtration. In the experimental activity, conventional wastewater quality parameters were investigated and particle size distribution (PSD) was characterized to discuss the filter effectiveness. The effect of design and operation parameters of tertiary filters were discussed related to particle removal curves derived from particles counts. Analysis of particle size distribution can be very useful to help comprehension of filtration processes, design of filtration treatments and to decide the best measures to improve filter performance.

  10. Correlation of tertiary formations of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNeil, F.S.; Wolfe, J.A.; Miller, D.J.; Hopkins, D.M.

    1961-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic and paleontologic studies have resulted in substantial revision of the age assignments and inter-basin correlations of the Tertiary formations of Alaska as given in both an earlier compilation by P. S. Smith (1939) and a tentative chart prepared for distribution at the First International Symposium on Arctic Geology at Calgary, Alberta (Miller, MacNeil, and Wahrhaftig, 1960). Current work in Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey and several oil companies is furnishing new information at a rapid rate and further revisions may be expected. The correlation chart (Fig. 1), the first published chart to deal exclusively with the Tertiary of Alaska, had the benefit of a considerable amount of stratigraphic data and fossil collections from some oil companies, but recent surface mapping and drilling by other oil companies in several Tertiary basins undoubtedly must have produced much more information. Nevertheless, the extent of available data justifies the publication of a revised correlation chart at this time.

  11. Modeling alcohol metabolism with the DARC/CALPHI system.

    PubMed

    Mercier, C; Fabart, V; Sobel, Y; Dubois, J E

    1991-03-01

    We present our general system for QSAR search, CALPHI (Computer-Aided Law by Hyperstructure Investigation) set up in the context of the DARC structural language. We use it to construct global, fragmentary, and topological models of the capacity of alcohols to undergo glucuronidation. The DARC/PELCO model, more precisely and more significantly, explains 98% of the total variance with only three parameters, while treating the whole set of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, whereas the best previously reported treatment restricted to primary alcohols, explains only 90% of the variance with two parameters. It provides an explicit and more precise interpretation of alcohol metabolism. The PELCO methodology is extended to evaluate the prediction reliability of both global and fragmentary models. PELCO leads to more predictions when comparison is made at the same level of reliability.

  12. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inherited disorder that ...

  14. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-).

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-) when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-) is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alkyl alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar(-)Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinetic resolution of acids in acylation reactions in the presence of chiral tertiary amines

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.M.; Dem'yanovich, V.M.; Khlebnikov, V.A.

    1988-07-10

    Asymmetric synthesis has now become an important method for the production of optically active compounds, and its most attractive form is asymmetric catalysis. This work was devoted to an investigation into asymmetric catalysis with chiral tertiary amines in acylation reactions. During the acylation of alcohols and amines by the action of racemic 2-phenylpropionic and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropionic acids in the presence of S-nicotine the initial acids are resolved kinetically. The (R)-2-phenylpropionic acid obtained in this way had an optical purity of 0.5-1.5%.

  16. Fluorescent high-performance liquid chromatography assay for lipophilic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas J

    2011-12-01

    A new ultrasensitive fluorescent derivatization procedure for chromatographic analysis of primary, secondary, and nonpolar tertiary alcohols is described. The procedure uses Bodipy FL in basic dichloromethane solution with Mukaiyama's reagent (2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide) to form highly fluorescent ester derivatives that can be separated by silica normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Rhodamine WT and Oregon green 488 were also useful derivatization reagents. The detection limit for detection of cholesterol and bryostatin by Bodipy FL was less than 1fmol. The reaction conditions are gentle enough that low concentrations of unstable alcohols such as bryostatin 1 can be measured. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Alexander

    2011-11-18

    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed.

  18. Aromatic Polyimides With Group VI Linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Ely, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    New polymer system combines thermal and solvent resistant properties of aromatic polyimides with processability of PPX polymers. PPX polymers include polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, and polyphenylene sulfone classes. Generally more processable by hot melt or thermoplastic techniques than aromatic polyimides. PPX systems more susceptible to attack by solvents and have lower glass transition temperatures than PI group.

  19. Endothermicity or exothermicity of water/alcohol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, D.; Huyskens, P.

    1993-12-01

    Excess enthalpies of mixtures of water with methanol, ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, 1-, 2- and tert-butanol were determined by dilution calorimetry in the accessible range of mole fractions at 25°C. Ab initio RHF calculations were performed on the alcohols, their dimers and complexes with water. A full optimisation at the 6-31G level was used to obtain the properties of interest of these systems. The calculated H-bond energies are similar for all the studied alcohols. Nevertheless, a systematic stabilisation of the mixed dimers is found, especially for the secondary and tertiary alcohols. The formation of mixed H-bond chains is exothermic and does not follow the rules of the geometric mean. To a first approximation, the experimental excess enthalpies Δ He for all the systems follow the equation ? The calorimetric results may be explained by the presence in water of two kinds of H-bonds differing by about 8.3 kJ mol -1 in energy. Upon dilution in water, the alcohol is inserted in a weak chain and renders the adjacent water-bond strong. As a consequence, the dilution of an alcohol in water is always exothermic. The dilution of water in an alcohol causes stabilisation of the H-bonds but has a negative effect on the non-specific cohesion. The effect of the non-specific forces increases in the homologous series, making the dissolution of water in the alcohols endothermic starting from propanol. The stabilisation of H-bonds formed by water at high dilution in the alcohols increases according to the sequence: primary < secondary < tertiary.

  20. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  1. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1988-02-16

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  2. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  3. An efficient and convenient palladium catalyst system for the synthesis of amines from allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debasis; Jagadeesh, Rajenahally V; Junge, Kathrin; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    A novel catalyst system for efficient amination of allylic alcohols with aryl and alkyl amines is presented. By applying a convenient combination consisting of Pd(OAc)(2)/1,10-phenanthroline, a variety of allylic alcohols reacted smoothly to give the corresponding secondary and tertiary amines in good to excellent yields with high regioselectivity. The usefulness of our protocol is demonstrated in the one-step synthesis of the antifungal drug naftifine and the calcium channel blocker flunarizine.

  4. Process for producing high purity aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, W.W.

    1980-05-20

    High-purity C7 and/or C8 aromatic hydrocarbons are produced by reforming a C7 or C8 full boiling carbon number naphtha feed fraction or combinations thereof under reforming conditions of sufficient severity to convert essentially all of the nonaromatic portion of the naphtha feed boiling in the C7 to C8 aromatic boiling range to C7 and/or C8 aromatics, and then separating the reformate by fractional distillation into highpurity fractions of C7 and/or C8 aromatic hydrocarbons. Preferably, the C7 and/or C8 full boiling carbon number naphtha feed fraction is reformed in a plurality of reformer reaction stages with increasingly more severe conditions in order to maximize the yield of the C7 and C8 aromatics.

  5. High-pressure liquid chromatographic separation of the naturally occurring toxicants myristicin, related aromatic ethers and falcarinol.

    PubMed

    Wulf, L W; Nagel, C W; Branen, A L

    1978-11-21

    The naturally occurring toxicants myristicin, twelve related aromatic ethers and the toxic acetylenic alcohol, falcarinol, were separated from one another by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The technique employed a microparticulate nitrile phase column and used heptane and tetrahydrofuran as the eluting solvents. Preparative HPLC with 5-micrometer silica allowed isolation of gram quantities of parsleyapiole and dillapiole from extracts of plain parsley seeds and dill seeds, respectively. Commercially available myristicin as well as other aromatic ethers were also purified in gram quantities with the preparative column.

  6. Oxalates as Activating Groups for Alcohols in Visible Light Photoredox Catalysis: Formation of Quaternary Centers by Redox-Neutral Fragment Coupling

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, David W. C.; Overman, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl oxalates are new bench-stable alcohol-activating groups for radical generation under visible light photoredox conditions. Using these precursors, the first net redox-neutral coupling of tertiary and secondary alcohols with electron-deficient alkenes is achieved. PMID:26322524

  7. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses.

    PubMed

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R; Venkata Rao, D K; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H B; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  8. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R.; Venkata Rao, D. K.; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H. B.; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition. PMID:27516768

  9. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  10. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  11. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  12. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  13. Formation of isohexyl alkylaromatic hydrocarbons from aromatization-rearrangement of terpenoids in the sedimentary environment: A new class of biomarker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Leroy; Singh, Raj K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert I.

    1996-12-01

    Seven alkylaromatic hydrocarbons with an isohexyl and a methyl substituent group on adjacent ring carbons have been identified in a suite of crude oils derived from a range of locations, source types, palaeoenvironments, and ages. Hitherto unidentified series of isohexylalkylbenzenes and isohexylalkylnaphthalenes have been observed with concentrations ranging from 10 to 565 μg/g. Isohexylalkylbenzenes occur in crude oils ranging in age from Cambrian to Tertiary suggesting both a bacterial/algal and higher plant origin, whereas isohexylalkylnaphthalenes were restricted to crude oils of Permian to Tertiary age and are exclusively associated with specific higher plant precursors. The unique structure of these compounds has been shown to result from rearrangement and A-ring opening of diterpenoid and triterpenoid natural products during aromatization. The structural features that are necessary for this process to occur are a terpenoid A-13 ring system with a gem-dimethyl group at C-4 and an angular methyl at C-10. Support for a ring opening process concomitant with aromatization was provided by laboratory experiments involving dehydrogenation of terpenoid natural products. Analysis of these reaction products showed that isohexyl alkylaromatic compounds, along with fully aromatized compounds with intact carbon skeletons were formed.

  14. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  15. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. PRACTICAL SYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC DITHIOCARBAMATES

    PubMed Central

    Padungros, Panuwat; Wei, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT Oxidation-sensitive N,N-diaryl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are synthesized in good yields by the generation of metal amide salts from N-benzoyl precursors, followed by addition of CS2. para-Substituted diphenylamines are prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution of diphenylbenzamide and saponification. Deacylation of electron-rich species such as bis(p-dimethylaminophenyl)benzamide is challenging because of the oxidative sensitivity of the anionic intermediate but could be achieved in good yield by using n-BuLi to generate a hemiaminal adduct, prior to acidification. The N,N-diaryl DTCs are stable as alkali salts and can be used to produce densely packed monolayers on gold surfaces. PMID:25999616

  17. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  18. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, D

    1999-01-01

    A symposium on "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Carcinogenesis" was presented at the third International Congress of Pathophysiology held in Lathi, Finland, 28 June-3 July 1998. The congress was also sponsored by the International Union of Biological Sciences and the International Society of Free Radical Research. Institutional support for the symposium included the Electric Power Research Institute, National Center for Toxicological Research, and EPA/National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The symposium focused on the sources, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and risk assessment of individual and mixtures of PAHs that are found in solid wastes, Superfund sites, and other hazardous waste sites. Based on the occurrence of PAHs at numerous Superfund sites and the significant data gaps on the toxic potential of certain PAHs, the information developed during this symposium would be of value in assessing health risks of these chemicals at Superfund and other hazardous waste sites. PMID:10090712

  20. Understanding crystallinity in aromatic polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celarier, Edward A.

    1992-01-01

    Aromatic polyimides are a class of polymers that show remarkable thermal stability, strength, and toughness. These properties make them attractive candidates for use in high-performance carbon fiber composites for airborne and spaceborne structural components. Our research centered on the development of an understanding of the underlying process of crystallite formation in a particular class of aryl polyimides for which there are some x-ray crystallographic data available. The ultimate aim of the project is to be able to develop a model sufficiently flexible to be able, on the basis of the chemical structure of a polymer in this class, to predict: (1) whether it will be prone to form crystallites; (2) crystallographic features of the crystallites; and (3) synthesis and/or processing conditions that will be favorable or unfavorable to crystallite formation. This will provide guidance to the laboratory chemists in their choice of candidate polymers and processing methods.

  1. Synthesis of perfluoroalkylene aromatic diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Nakahara, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Analogues of methylene dianilines were synthesized, in which the methylene group between the two aromatic nuclei was replaced by various perfluoroalkylene linkage. The hydrolytic thermal, and thermal oxidative stabilities of PMR Polyimides derived from these diamines were determined. Three types of PMR Polyimide discs were fabricated from the dimethyl ester of 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid, the methyl ester of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, and one of the following three diamines: methyl dianiline, 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, and 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane. The polyimide based on 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane exhibited the best hydrolytic, thermal, and thermal oxidative stability as determined by moisture uptake and thermogravimetric analysis.

  2. Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  3. Aromatic Prenylation in Phenazine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Orwah; Gust, Bertolt; Boll, Björn; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Heide, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    The bacterium Streptomyces anulatus 9663, isolated from the intestine of different arthropods, produces prenylated derivatives of phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. From this organism, we have identified the prenyltransferase gene ppzP. ppzP resides in a gene cluster containing orthologs of all genes known to be involved in phenazine 1-carboxylic acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas strains as well as genes for the six enzymes required to generate dimethylallyl diphosphate via the mevalonate pathway. This is the first complete gene cluster of a phenazine natural compound from streptomycetes. Heterologous expression of this cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor M512 resulted in the formation of prenylated derivatives of phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. After inactivation of ppzP, only nonprenylated phenazine 1-carboxylic acid was formed. Cloning, overexpression, and purification of PpzP resulted in a 37-kDa soluble protein, which was identified as a 5,10-dihydrophenazine 1-carboxylate dimethylallyltransferase, forming a C–C bond between C-1 of the isoprenoid substrate and C-9 of the aromatic substrate. In contrast to many other prenyltransferases, the reaction of PpzP is independent of the presence of magnesium or other divalent cations. The Km value for dimethylallyl diphosphate was determined as 116 μm. For dihydro-PCA, half-maximal velocity was observed at 35 μm. Kcat was calculated as 0.435 s-1. PpzP shows obvious sequence similarity to a recently discovered family of prenyltransferases with aromatic substrates, the ABBA prenyltransferases. The present finding extends the substrate range of this family, previously limited to phenolic compounds, to include also phenazine derivatives. PMID:19339241

  4. Adapting Cooperative Learning in Tertiary ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    An updated guideline for tertiary ELT in China has shifted the emphasis to the development of learners' ability to communicate in English. Using group work and getting learners actively involved in the actual use of English are highlighted more than before. This article focuses on adapting cooperative learning methods for ELT with tertiary…

  5. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  6. Smart Utilization of Tertiary Instructional Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John; Tee, Singwhat

    2010-01-01

    This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning…

  7. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  8. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  9. Investigating the Secondary-Tertiary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueudet, Ghislaine

    2008-01-01

    The secondary-tertiary transition has been studied in a great amount of research in mathematics education, adopting different focuses and theoretical approaches. I present here how these focuses led the authors to identify and study different students' difficulties and to develop different means of didactical action. Individual, social, but also…

  10. Smart Utilization of Tertiary Instructional Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John; Tee, Singwhat

    2010-01-01

    This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning…

  11. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  12. Sea-Level Changes during the Tertiary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Peter R.; Hardenbol, Jan

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are research procedures undertaken to determine the magnitude and timing of eustatic sea-level changes during the Tertiary Period. Data now becoming available give scientists a knowledge of conditions that may have been conducive to the formation of petroleum. (BT)

  13. Incorporating Online Tools in Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Leon P.; Rudman, Riaan J.

    2013-01-01

    Students currently studying at tertiary institutions have developed a set of attitudes and aptitudes as a result of growing up in an IT and media-rich environment. These attitudes and aptitudes influence how they learn and in order to be effective, lecturers must adapt to address their learning preferences and use the online teaching tools that…

  14. Sea-Level Changes during the Tertiary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Peter R.; Hardenbol, Jan

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are research procedures undertaken to determine the magnitude and timing of eustatic sea-level changes during the Tertiary Period. Data now becoming available give scientists a knowledge of conditions that may have been conducive to the formation of petroleum. (BT)

  15. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  16. Adapting Cooperative Learning in Tertiary ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    An updated guideline for tertiary ELT in China has shifted the emphasis to the development of learners' ability to communicate in English. Using group work and getting learners actively involved in the actual use of English are highlighted more than before. This article focuses on adapting cooperative learning methods for ELT with tertiary…

  17. Collaborating in the Transition to Tertiary Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Moore, Tim; Vance, Sheila

    The Monash University (Australia) Transition to Tertiary Writing Project seeks to produce a World Wide Web-based resource for first-year students to facilitate their transition to the kinds of thinking and writing valued at the university. The background research on which this language and academic skills (LAS) project is based centers on three…

  18. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  19. Pumping iron to keep fit: modulation of siderophore secretion helps efficient aromatic utilization in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hiren; Dave, Rachna; Venugopalan, V P

    2014-07-01

    Studies of biotechnology applications of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 have been predominantly focused on regulation and expression of the toluene degradation (TOL) pathway. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the role of other physiological factors influencing aromatic utilization. In this report, we demonstrate that P. putida KT2440 increases its siderophore secretion in response to the availability of benzyl alcohol, a model aromatic substrate. It is argued that accelerated siderophore secretion in response to aromatic substrates provides an iron 'boost' which is required for the effective functioning of the iron-dependent oxygenases responsible for ring opening. Direct evidence for the cardinal role of siderophores in aromatic utilization is provided by evaluation of per capita siderophore secretion and comparative growth assessments of wild-type and siderophore-negative mutant strains grown on an alternative carbon source. Accelerated siderophore secretion can be viewed as a compensatory mechanism in P. putida in the context of its inability to secrete more than one type of siderophore (pyoverdine) or to utilize heterologous siderophores. Stimulated siderophore secretion might be a key factor in successful integration and proliferation of this organism as a bio-augmentation agent for aromatic degradation. It not only facilitates efficient aromatic utilization, but also provides better opportunities for iron assimilation amongst diverse microbial communities, thereby ensuring better survival and proliferation.

  20. Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Cerveny; Tor Kragas; Travis Gillham

    1997-07-10

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

  1. Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Demetrios Yannimaras; Travis Gillham

    1998-07-14

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

  2. Tertiary Education in the Czech Republic: The Pathway to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesik, Richard; Gounko, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes recent policy proposals to reform Czech tertiary education. A brief overview of the evolution of Czech tertiary education presents the background against which emerging policy trends in education are examined. We relate the changes in tertiary education to the policy framework and recommendations of the OECD, underpinned by…

  3. Diversification Management at Tertiary Education Level: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takwate, Kwaji Tizhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of management of diversification at tertiary education level in view of the growth of national secondary education system which vested high scramble for tertiary education was made in relation to question of access and expansion. This paper examines management of diversification at tertiary education level as a…

  4. Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Demetrois Yannimaras; Travis Gillham

    1998-04-15

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

  5. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained.

  7. Aromatic interactions as control elements in stereoselective organic reactions.

    PubMed

    Krenske, Elizabeth H; Houk, K N

    2013-04-16

    This Account describes how attractive interactions of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have improved the accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions, including asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels-Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have also led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4 + 3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyl intermediates that contain a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, it was thought that these cycloadditions relied on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloaddition with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state: the furan adds on the same side as the Ph substituent of the oxazolidinone. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH-π interaction between furan and Ph worth approximately 2 kcal/mol. Attractive interactions with aromatic rings also control the stereoselectivity in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols favor crowded transition states, where a stabilizing CH-π interaction is present between the furan and the Ar group. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions

  8. Aromatic Interactions as Control Elements in Stereoselective Organic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Conspectus This Account describes how attractive interaction of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have led to improved accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions. These reaction types include asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels–Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4+3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyls containing a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, these cycloadditions were thought rely on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloadditions with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state, with furan adding on the same side as the oxazolidinone’s Ph substituent. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH–π interaction between furan and Ph, worth about 2.0 kcal/mol. Stereocontrol in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions, involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations, also is controlled by attractive interactions with aromatic rings. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols are found to favor crowded transition states, where a CH–π interaction is again present between furan and Ar. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions are

  9. Surface chemistry of aromatic reactants on Pt- and Mo-modified Pt catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Robinson, Allison M.; Mark, Lesli; Rasmussen, Mathew J.; ...

    2016-11-01

    Supported catalysts containing an oxophilic metal such as Mo and a noble metal such as Pt have shown promising activity and selectivity for deoxygenation of biomass-derived compounds. Here, we report that PtMo catalysts also promote hydrogenolysis of the model compound benzyl alcohol, while decarbonylation is most prevalent over unmodified Pt. A combination of single crystal surface science studies, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and vapor phase upgrading experiments using supported catalysts was carried out to better understand the mechanism by which Mo promotes deoxygenation. Molybdenum was deposited in submonolayer quantities on a Pt(111) surface and reduced at high temperature. Temperature-programmedmore » desorption (TPD) experiments using benzyl alcohol as a reactant showed greatly enhanced yields of the deoxygenation product toluene at moderate Mo coverages. To understand how the interaction of the aromatic group with the surface influenced this reactivity, we investigated the adsorption of toluene as a probe molecule. We found that the addition of Mo to Pt(111) resulted in a significant decrease in toluene decomposition. DFT calculations indicated that this decrease was consistent with decreased aromatic adsorption strengths that accompany incorporation of Mo into the Pt subsurface. The weaker aromatic-surface interaction on Pt/Mo surfaces led to a tilted adsorption geometry for benzyl alcohol, which presumably promotes hydrogenolysis to produce toluene instead of decarbonylation to produce benzene and CO. Alumina-supported Pt and PtMo catalysts were also tested for benzyl alcohol deoxygenation. PtMo catalysts had a higher rate of toluene production and lower rates of benzene and benzaldehyde production. Additionally, when benzaldehyde was used as the reactant to measure decarbonylation activity the mass-normalized rate of benzene production was 2.5 times higher on Pt than PtMo. Altogether, the results of TPD, DFT, and supported catalyst

  10. Surface chemistry of aromatic reactants on Pt- and Mo-modified Pt catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Allison M.; Mark, Lesli; Rasmussen, Mathew J.; Hensley, Jesse E.; Medlin, J. Will

    2016-11-01

    Supported catalysts containing an oxophilic metal such as Mo and a noble metal such as Pt have shown promising activity and selectivity for deoxygenation of biomass-derived compounds. Here, we report that PtMo catalysts also promote hydrogenolysis of the model compound benzyl alcohol, while decarbonylation is most prevalent over unmodified Pt. A combination of single crystal surface science studies, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and vapor phase upgrading experiments using supported catalysts was carried out to better understand the mechanism by which Mo promotes deoxygenation. Molybdenum was deposited in submonolayer quantities on a Pt(111) surface and reduced at high temperature. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments using benzyl alcohol as a reactant showed greatly enhanced yields of the deoxygenation product toluene at moderate Mo coverages. To understand how the interaction of the aromatic group with the surface influenced this reactivity, we investigated the adsorption of toluene as a probe molecule. We found that the addition of Mo to Pt(111) resulted in a significant decrease in toluene decomposition. DFT calculations indicated that this decrease was consistent with decreased aromatic adsorption strengths that accompany incorporation of Mo into the Pt subsurface. The weaker aromatic-surface interaction on Pt/Mo surfaces led to a tilted adsorption geometry for benzyl alcohol, which presumably promotes hydrogenolysis to produce toluene instead of decarbonylation to produce benzene and CO. Alumina-supported Pt and PtMo catalysts were also tested for benzyl alcohol deoxygenation. PtMo catalysts had a higher rate of toluene production and lower rates of benzene and benzaldehyde production. Additionally, when benzaldehyde was used as the reactant to measure decarbonylation activity the mass-normalized rate of benzene production was 2.5 times higher on Pt than PtMo. Altogether, the results of TPD, DFT, and supported catalyst

  11. Biodegradation of aromatic compounds by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Díaz, E; Ferrández, A; Prieto, M A; García, J L

    2001-12-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications.

  12. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  13. Teaching the Biological Consequences of Alcohol Abuse through an Online Game: Impacts among Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Miller, Leslie M.; Beier, Margaret E.; Wang, Shu

    2012-01-01

    A multimedia game was designed to serve as a dual-purpose intervention that aligned with National Science Content Standards, while also conveying knowledge about the consequences of alcohol consumption for a secondary school audience. A tertiary goal was to positively impact adolescents' attitudes toward science through career role-play…

  14. Teaching the Biological Consequences of Alcohol Abuse through an Online Game: Impacts among Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Miller, Leslie M.; Beier, Margaret E.; Wang, Shu

    2012-01-01

    A multimedia game was designed to serve as a dual-purpose intervention that aligned with National Science Content Standards, while also conveying knowledge about the consequences of alcohol consumption for a secondary school audience. A tertiary goal was to positively impact adolescents' attitudes toward science through career role-play…

  15. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreak at a tertiary referral eye care clinic.

    PubMed

    Montessori, V; Scharf, S; Holland, S; Werker, D H; Roberts, F J; Bryce, E

    1998-08-01

    An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred at a tertiary referral eye care clinic between late September and mid-November 1995. Before the outbreak, instruments were cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol and handwashing between patients was not routine. Infection control measures were implemented when the outbreak was recognized in mid-October. Control measures included triaging suspected cases to a separate waiting area, cohorting cases to a specific examining room, endorsing the use of gloves and handwashing during examinations of patients, and cleaning instruments with a buffered bleach solution. Thirty-six cases were diagnosed before the infection control measures were taken, and 3 cases were seen after the control measures were taken. Also, numerous secondary cases occurred in the community. No additional cases were diagnosed from DEcember to February 25, 1996. Acquisition of the infection was linked to visits to 4 of 20 physicians in the eye clinic with 61% of cases associated with visits to 1 of those 4 physicians. The use of diagnostic lenses applied directly to the eye was associated with infection (odds ratio = 2.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 10.4), although this did not reach statistical significance. The use of tonometers, ophthalmic solutions, or laser therapy was not associated with infection, and all environmental cultures were negative. This outbreak emphasizes the need for implementation of routine infection control guidelines to prevent nosocomial transmission of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and stresses the need for appropriate disinfection of instruments.

  16. Brain Aromatization: Classical Roles and New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Charles E.; Liu, Mingyue; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2010-01-01

    Aromatization of testosterone to estradiol by neural tissue has classically been associated with the regulation of sexual differentiation, gonadotropin secretion, and copulatory behavior. However, new data indicate that the capacity for aromatization is not restricted to the endocrine brain and demonstrate roles for locally-formed estrogens in neurogenesis and in responses of brain tissue to injury. This manuscript summaries our current understanding of the distribution and regulation of aromatase in the brain and discusses the classical and novel roles it plays. A better understanding of brain aromatization could shed new light on its physiologic and pathologic functions and someday lead to new centrally acting drug therapies. PMID:19401952

  17. Purification and characterization of benzyl alcohol- and benzaldehyde- dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Basu, Aditya; Phale, Prashant S

    2011-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes benzyl alcohol via catechol and methylnaphthalenes through detoxification pathway via hydroxymethylnaphthalenes and naphthaldehydes. Based on metabolic studies, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (BADH) and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BZDH) were hypothesized to be involved in the detoxification pathway. BADH and BZDH were purified to apparent homogeneity and were (1) homodimers with subunit molecular mass of 38 and 57 kDa, respectively, (2) NAD(+) dependent, (3) broad substrate specific accepting mono- and di-aromatic alcohols and aldehydes but not aliphatic compounds, and (4) BADH contained iron and magnesium, while BZDH contained magnesium. BADH in the forward reaction converted alcohol to aldehyde and required NAD(+), while in the reverse reaction it reduced aldehyde to alcohol in NADH-dependent manner. BZDH showed low K (m) value for benzaldehyde as compared to BADH reverse reaction. Chemical cross-linking studies revealed that BADH and BZDH do not form multi-enzyme complex. Thus, the conversion of aromatic alcohol to acid is due to low K (m) and high catalytic efficiency of BZDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BADH is a novel enzyme and diverged during the evolution to gain the ability to utilize mono- and di-aromatic compounds. The wide substrate specificity of these enzymes enables strain to detoxify methylnaphthalenes to naphthoic acids efficiently.

  18. Coupling DNA-binding and ATP hydrolysis in Escherichia coli RecQ: role of a highly conserved aromatic-rich sequence.

    PubMed

    Zittel, Morgan C; Keck, James L

    2005-01-01

    RecQ enzymes are broadly conserved Superfamily-2 (SF-2) DNA helicases that play critical roles in DNA metabolism. RecQ proteins use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to drive DNA unwinding; however, the mechanisms by which RecQ links ATPase activity to DNA-binding/unwinding are unknown. In many Superfamily-1 (SF-1) DNA helicases, helicase sequence motif III links these activities by binding both single-stranded (ss) DNA and ATP. However, the ssDNA-binding aromatic-rich element in motif III present in these enzymes is missing from SF-2 helicases, raising the question of how these enzymes link ATP hydrolysis to DNA-binding/unwinding. We show that Escherichia coli RecQ contains a conserved aromatic-rich loop in its helicase domain between motifs II and III. Although placement of the RecQ aromatic-rich loop is topologically distinct relative to the SF-1 enzymes, both loops map to similar tertiary structural positions. We examined the functions of the E.coli RecQ aromatic-rich loop using RecQ variants with single amino acid substitutions within the segment. Our results indicate that the aromatic-rich loop in RecQ is critical for coupling ATPase and DNA-binding/unwinding activities. Our studies also suggest that RecQ's aromatic-rich loop might couple ATP hydrolysis to DNA-binding in a mechanistically distinct manner from SF-1 helicases.

  19. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in an epidemiology study of patients with chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Coté, Gregory A.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Slivka, Adam; Hawes, Robert H; Anderson, Michelle A.; Burton, Frank R.; Brand, Randall E; Banks, Peter A.; Lewis, Michele D; DiSario, James A.; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Amann, Stephen T.; Baillie, John; Money, Mary E.; O'Connell, Michael; Whitcomb, David C.; Sherman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcohol has been implicated in the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in 60%–90% patients, although percentages in the United States are not known. We investigated the frequency of alcohol-related CP at tertiary U.S. referral centers. Methods We studied data from patients with CP (n=539) and controls (n=695) enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis Study-2 from 2000 to 2006 at 20 U.S. referral centers. CP was defined by definitive evidence in imaging or histologic analyses. Subjects and physicians each completed a detailed study questionnaire. Using physician-assigned diagnoses, patients were assigned to the following etiology groups: alcohol (with/without other diagnoses), non-alcohol (any etiology of CP from other than alcohol), or idiopathic (no etiology identified). Results The distribution of patients among etiology groups were: alcohol (44.5%), non-alcohol (26.9%), and idiopathic (28.6%). Physicians identified alcohol as the etiology more frequently in men (59.4% in men vs 28.1% in women), but non-alcohol (18% in men vs 36.7% in women) and idiopathic etiologies (22.6% in men vs 35.2% in women) more often in women (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Non-alcohol etiologies were equally divided among obstructive, genetic, and other causes. Compared with controls, patients with idiopathic CP were more likely to have ever smoked (58.6% vs 49.7%, P<0.05) or have a history of chronic renal disease or failure (5.2% vs 1.2%, P<0.01). In multivariate analyses, smoking (ever, current, and amount) was independently associated with idiopathic CP. Conclusions The frequency of alcohol-related CP at tertiary U.S. referral centers is lower than expected. Idiopathic CP and non-alcohol etiologies represent a large subgroup, particularly among women. Smoking is an independent risk factor for idiopathic CP. PMID:21029787

  20. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  1. Impact of upgrading wastewater treatment plant on the removal of typical methyl, oxygenated, chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; Cao, Wei; Liu, Bochuan; Bai, Yaohui; Qi, Weixiao; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-12-15

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) secondary effluent is a main source for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (SPAHs) to wastewater receiving rivers in Beijing. The treatment technologies are being upgraded in the WWTPs as the tertiary treatment. To assess the improvement of the removal efficiencies of PAHs and SPAHs after the treatment upgrading, we investigated 16 PAHs and 4 types of SPAHs in the secondary and tertiary treatment process in 5 major WWTPs. Most of the parent PAHs, methyl PAHs, oxygenated PAHs and chlorinated PAHs were detected in the influent, secondary and tertiary effluent. The concentrations of ΣSPAHs (61ng/L-529ng/L) were similar to ΣPAHs (89ng/L-474ng/L), indicating that SPAHs should not be ignored when studying the PAH contamination. ΣPAHs and ΣSPAHs were largely removed by the secondary treatment (45%-82%) and less by the tertiary treatment (0%-24%). The removal efficiencies were lower in the secondary and tertiary treatment in WWTPs than in the lab-scale experiment conducted previously, probably a result of the association of PAHs and SPAHs with dissolved organic matters (DOMs) in wastewater. DOMs might be a limiting factor for the removal of PAHs and SPAHs in WWTPs. The estimated yearly loadings of the total PAHs and SPAHs decreased only 21% in the tertiary effluent compared with the secondary effluent in WWTP1 and 9% in WWTP3. Therefore, the upgrading of WWTPs did not efficiently improve the removal of PAHs and SPAHs. DOMs should be further considered for improving the removal of PAHs, SPAHs and similar contaminants in WWTPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, E.; Presnyakova, V.; Goncharov, D.; Goncharov, M.; Presnyakova, E.; Presnyakov, S.; Moiseeva, I.; Kolesnikova, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this connection, we improved the express methods of determining the mixture of volatile aromatic substances by the spectrophotometry of aromatic water and steam distillate of essential oil raw materials (traditional or biotechnological with rose smell). Direct spectrophotometry of distillation water is impossible because it is a colloid of liquid oil and law is not observed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve 1 ml of distillate in ethanol in the ratio 1:4, in this case we take real solution with no lipophilic fall-out on the walls of cuvette, also the light absorption law is observed. There are stable maximums in spectrums of studied oils. Optical density of these maximums is a result of summary absorption of terpenoid components (aromatic and monoterpene alcohols, its ethers). Optical density of tested and standard solutions is measured in appropriate wavelengths. Spectrophotometric method of determination of essential oil quantity in aromatic water with rose smell differs with high sensitivity (10-5-10-6 gmol/l) and allows to determine oil concentration from 0,900 to 0,008 mg with an error less than 1%. At that, 1 ml is enough for analysis. It’s expedient to apply this method while operating with small quantity of water distillate in biochemical and biotechnological researches and also as express control for extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oil raw material (rose petals and flowers from different origin, eremothecium cultural liquid etc.).

  3. The biochemistry of alcohol and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Palmer, T N

    1989-01-01

    The vast majority of the adult population of most societies consume alcohol to some degree. In the U.K., although average alcohol consumption is moderate, it is not generally appreciated that the per capita consumption varies markedly within the population: approximately one-twentieth of the adult population accounts for half of the total alcohol consumed. Alcohol abuse is consequently a major health problem affecting 1-1.5 million people in this country. The most obvious effects of excessive alcohol consumption are on the central nervous system and on social behaviour. However, alcohol is metabolized predominantly in the liver and it can impair and impede the liver's capacity to metabolize other substances including nutrients, steroids, vitamins, and certain organic compounds foreign to the body (referred to as xenobiotics). It is possible therefore, from the biochemical perspective, to explain many of the effects of alcohol on the body on the basis of its interaction with essential liver metabolism. What remains obscure is the mechanism whereby chronic alcohol abuse leads to permanent damage to the liver and other organs. Recent research suggests that acetaldehyde (a metabolite of alcohol) may play a key role in this process.

  4. Production of aromatic compounds in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gosset, Guillermo

    2009-12-01

    The aromatic class of chemicals includes a large number of industrially important products. In bacteria and plants, the shikimate pathway and related biosynthetic pathways are a source of aromatic compounds having commercial value. Bacterial strains for the production of aromatic compounds from simple carbon sources as raw material have been generated by applying metabolic engineering and random/combinatorial strategies that modify central metabolism, aromatic biosynthetic pathways, transport, and regulatory functions. These strategies are complemented with heterologous gene expression and protein engineering. Engineered Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida strains are enabling the development of sustainable processes for the manufacture of 2-phenylethanol, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, p-hydroxystyrene, p-hydroxybenzoate, anthranilate, and cyclohexadiene-transdiols, among other useful chemicals.

  5. Sediment-Associated Reactions of Aromatic Amines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of aromatic amines to sediments and soils can occur by both reversible physical processes and irreversible chemical processes. To elucidate the significance of these sorption pathways, the sorption kinetics of aniline and pyridine were studied in resaturated pond sedimen...

  6. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  7. Sediment-Associated Reactions of Aromatic Amines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of aromatic amines to sediments and soils can occur by both reversible physical processes and irreversible chemical processes. To elucidate the significance of these sorption pathways, the sorption kinetics of aniline and pyridine were studied in resaturated pond sedimen...

  8. Sodium Perborate Oxidation of an Aromatic Amine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juestis, Laurence

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving the oxidation of aromatic primary amines to the corresponding azo compound; suggests procedures for studying factors that influence the yield of such a reaction, including the choice of solvent and the oxidant-amine ratio. (MLH)

  9. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  10. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  11. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  12. Clinical experience of baclofen in alcohol dependence: A chart review

    PubMed Central

    Rozatkar, Abhijit R.; Kapoor, Abhishek; Sidana, Ajeet; Chavan, Bir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Craving is recognized as a formidable barrier in the management of patients with alcohol dependence. Among pharmacological agents that have been used in experimental studies for reduction in craving, baclofen appears to have a significant advantage over other agents. Methodology: The study is retrospective chart review of patients (n = 113) who have been treated with baclofen for alcohol dependence in a tertiary hospital of North India. Baseline assessments included sociodemography, motivation, quantity-frequency of alcohol use, and other alcohol-related clinical parameters. Weekly assessments, for a period of 4 weeks, were extracted from records which included dose of baclofen, craving intensity, and alcohol consumption. Results: The study sample was predominantly male, mean age of 41.49 (±9.75) years, most having a family history of substance use (70.97%), and many reporting binge use pattern in last year (49.46%). Baseline assessment revealed 48.7% of the sample was in precontemplation phase for alcohol use and 70% reported severe and persistent craving. This persistent craving was reported by only 15% of the sample by the end of 4 weeks treatment with baclofen (20–40 mg/day). Thirty-four percent of patients reported continued problematic use of alcohol by the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Our clinical experience suggests that baclofen reduces craving and alcohol consumption including in those with poor motivation. The drug causes few side effects and does not add to the intoxication effect of alcohol. Considering that baclofen is safe in those with liver cirrhosis and reduces withdrawal symptoms due to alcohol, a controlled trial comparing it with standard treatment is required. PMID:28163402

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  14. Effects of tertiary treatment by fungi on organic compounds in a kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Filipe; Silva, Lurdes; Freitas, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Ruth; Diniz, Mário; Castro, Luísa; Peres, Isabel; Duarte, Armando Costa

    2010-05-01

    Pulp and paper mills generate a plethora of pollutants depending upon the type of pulping process. Efforts to mitigate the environmental impact of such effluents have been made by developing more effective biological treatment systems in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, colour and lignin content. This study is the first that reports an evaluation of the effects of a tertiary treatment by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Rhizopus oryzae) on individual organic compounds of a Eucalyptus globulus bleached kraft pulp and paper mill final effluent after secondary treatment (final effluent). The tertiary treatment with P. sajor caju, T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium and R. oryzae was performed in batch reactors, which were inoculated with separate fungi species and monitored throughout the incubation period. Samples from effluent after secondary and after tertiary treatment with fungi were analysed for both absorbance and organic compounds. The samples were extracted for organic compounds using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The efficiencies of the SPE procedure was evaluated by recovery tests. A total of 38 compounds (carboxylic acids, fatty alcohols, phenolic compounds and sterols) were identified and quantified in the E. globulus bleached kraft pulp mill final effluent after secondary treatment. Recoveries from the extraction procedure were between 98.2% and 99.9%. The four fungi species showed an adequate capacity to remove organic compounds and colour. Tertiary treatment with R. oryzae was able to remove 99% of organic compounds and to reduce absorbance on 47% (270 nm) and 74% (465 nm). P. sajor caju, T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium were able to remove 97%, 92% and 99% of organic compounds, respectively, and reduce 18% (270 nm) to 77% (465 nm), 39% (270 nm) to 58% (465 nm) and 31% (270 nm) to 10% (465 nm) of absorbance

  15. Extreme Modulation Properties of Aromatic Fluorine

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Michael N; Gakh, Andrei A

    2011-01-01

    Thorough examination of the current literature as well as publicly available databases allowed us to qualify aromatic fluorine as a unique modulator of biological properties of organic compounds. In some rare cases, introduction of fluorine increased biological activity 100,000 times and even higher. We have also identified several examples where aromatic fluorine substantially reduced biological activity. Selected individual cases of extreme modulation are presented and discussed in the paper.

  16. An Aromatic Inventory of the Local Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, A. R.; Engelbracht, C. W.; van Zee, L.; Dale, D. A.; Smith, J. D. T.; Gordon, K. D.; Wu, Y.; Lee, J. C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Johnson, L. C.; Block, M.; Calzetti, D.; Cohen, S. A.; Lee, H.; Schuster, M. D.

    2010-05-01

    Using infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we perform the first inventory of aromatic feature emission (also commonly referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission) for a statistically complete sample of star-forming galaxies in the local volume. The photometric methodology involved is calibrated and demonstrated to recover the aromatic fraction of the Infrared Array Camera 8 μm flux with a standard deviation of 6% for a training set of 40 SINGS galaxies (ranging from stellar to dust dominated) with both suitable mid-infrared Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra and equivalent photometry. A potential factor of 2 improvement could be realized with suitable 5.5 μm and 10 μm photometry, such as what may be provided in the future by the James Webb Space Telescope. The resulting technique is then applied to mid-infrared photometry for the 258 galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey, a large sample dominated in number by low-luminosity dwarf galaxies for which obtaining comparable mid-infrared spectroscopy is not feasible. We find the total LVL luminosity due to five strong aromatic features in the 8 μm complex to be 2.47 × 1010 L sun with a mean volume density of 8.8 × 106 L sun Mpc-3. Twenty-four of the LVL galaxies, corresponding to a luminosity cut at MB = -18.22, account for 90% of the aromatic luminosity. Using oxygen abundances compiled from the literature for 129 of the 258 LVL galaxies, we find a correlation between metallicity and the aromatic-to-total infrared emission ratio but not the aromatic-to-total 8 μm dust emission ratio. A possible explanation is that metallicity plays a role in the abundance of aromatic molecules relative to the total dust content, but other factors, such as star formation and/or the local radiation field, affect the excitation of those molecules.

  17. Aromaticity and relative stabilities of azines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Judy I-Chia; Li, Qianshu; Schleyer, Paul von Ragué

    2010-11-05

    The most refined nucleus-independent chemical shift index (NICS(0)(πzz)) and the extra cyclic resonance energies (ECREs), based on the block localized wave function (BLW) method, show that the aromaticity of all azines is like that of benzene. The same is true for aza-naphthalenes relative to naphthalene. The lower relative energies of isomers with vicinal N's are due to the weakness of NN bonds rather than to reduced aromaticity.

  18. Microbial Aromatization of Steroids into Equilin

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, S. N.; Vézina, Claude

    1970-01-01

    This report describes the bioconversion of 19-hydroxy-androsta-4, 7-diene-3, 17-dione into equilin with Nocardia rubra. Through mutation and improvement of medium and of conditions, the bioconversion could be improved to yield 40% equilin for a substrate concentration of 1 g/liter. Aromatization of several other 19-hydroxy and 19-nor substrates of the androstene series is reported, and the influence of various substitutions of the substrate molecule on aromatization is discussed. PMID:5492438

  19. Aromatic Polyimides Containing Meta-Biphenoxy Moieties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Whitley, Karen S.; Pratt, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of two novel monomers and subsequent incorporation into aromatic polyimides yields polyimides containing meta-biphenoxy moieties exhibiting stability at high temperatures and having glass-transition temperatures lower than state-of-the-art polyimides containing para-biphenoxy moieties. Because of outstanding thermal stability, low density, resistance to radiation, electrical-insulating capability, toughness, and flexibility, linear aromatic polyimides used increasingly for applications in aerospace and electronics industries and possibly in others.

  20. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2011-02-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH{sup +}s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 {mu}m interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH{sup +}s have a band near 6.2 {mu}m, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH{sup +}s still have emission near 6.2 {mu}m, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 {mu}m overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 {mu}m, so that the 6.2 {mu}m band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH{sup +}s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 {mu}m (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 {mu}m Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  1. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  2. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  3. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berné, O.; Joblin, C.; Mulas, G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Goicoechea, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Thanks to high sensitivity, high angular resolution and broad spectral coverage, SPICA will offer a unique opportunity to better characterize the nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs), to better use them as probes of astrophysical environments. The angular resolution will enable to probe the chemical frontiers in the evolution process from VSGs to neutral PAHs, to ionized PAHs and to "Grand-PAHs" in photodissotiation regions and HII regions, as a function of G0 /n (UV radiation field / density). High sensitivity will favor the detection of the far-IR skeletal emission bands of PAHs, which provide specific fingerprints and could lead to the identification of individual PAHs. This overall characterization will allow to use PAH and VSG populations as tracers of physical conditions in spatially resolved protoplanetary disks and nearby galaxies (using mid-IR instruments), and in high redshift galaxies (using the far-IR instrument), thanks to the broad spectral coverage SPICA provides. Based on our previous experience with ISO and Spitzer we discuss how these goals can be reached.

  5. Ultra-high olfactory sensitivity for the human sperm-attractant aromatic aldehyde bourgeonal in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Linda; Laska, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that certain aromatic aldehydes are ligands for olfactory receptors expressed in mammalian sperm cells and induce sperm chemotaxis. Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of five CD-1 mice for seven aromatic aldehydes was investigated. With all seven stimuli, the mice discriminated concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with bourgeonal the animals even detected concentrations as low as 0.1 ppq (parts per quadrillion) which constitutes the lowest olfactory detection threshold value reported in this species so far. The presence of a tertiary butyl group in para-position (relative to the functional aldehyde group) combined with a lack of an additional alkyl group next to the functional aldehyde group may be responsible for the extraordinary sensitivity of the mice for bourgeonal.

  6. The Tertiary and Quaternary pectens of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Ralph

    1906-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. The first is a brief outline of the different Tertiary and Pleistocene formations of California, giving the type localities, where, when, and by whom first described, their salient characters, where they and their supposed equiyalents are known to occur, the species of Pecten found in them, and their typical fauna as far as known. The second is devoted to the description and illustration of all of the known Tertiary, Pleistocene, and Recent Pectens of the western coast of North America from Alaska to and including the Gulf of California. With the description of each species is also given an account of its geologic and geographic range and, where practicable, its associated fauna.

  7. Intrathyroidal parathyroid hyperplasia in tertiary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Seup; Ryu, Han Suk; Kang, Kyung Ho; Park, Sung Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report herein a case of intrathyroidal parathyroid hyperplasia in a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The patient was recommended for parathyroidectomy due to sustained hypercalcemia after kidney transplantation. Preoperative radiologic evaluations showed a benign-looking thyroid mass and three enlarged parathyroid glands. Intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level and frozen biopsy results indicated a missed parathyroid gland after immediate subtotal parathyroidectomy. Then, a secondary partial resection of thyroid including the thyroid nodule was performed. An excised intrathyroid nodule was diagnosed to be parathyroid hyperplasia by frozen biopsy, and intraoperative iPTH level abruptly decreased. A benign-looking thyroidal mass in patients with secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism should be carefully evaluated considering the possibility of an intrathyroidal parathyroid hyperplasia. PMID:24964443

  8. Decomposition of free chlorine with tertiary ammonium.

    PubMed

    Katano, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohei; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Tsukatani, Toshihide

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of free chlorine with tertiary ammonium or amine compounds in aqueous solution was studied by the amperometry at a rotating Pt-disk electrode. The amperometric method can be applied to follow the concentration of free chlorine (c(Cl)) even in the presence of chloramine species. By addition of mono- and dibutylammonium to the solution containing free chlorine, the step-like decrease in c(Cl) was observed, indicating the rapid formation of the stable chloramine species. By addition of tributylammonium, the c(Cl) was decreased exponentially to nearly zero even if the free chlorine was present initially in excess. The c(Cl)-t curves can be explained by tributylammonium-species-catalyzed decomposition of free chlorine to chloride ion. The catalytic decomposition was observed also with the tertiary-ammonium-based anion-exchange resins. Furthermore, the anion-exchange resins exhibited the decomposition of not only free chlorine but also chloramines in water.

  9. Natural mediators in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase mediator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.

    2000-02-01

    The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds was studied in systems consisting of laccase from Trametes versicolor and so-called mediator compounds. The enzymatic oxidation of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluorene was mediated by various laccase substrates (phenols and aromatic amines) or compounds produced and secreted by white rot fungi. The best natural mediators, such as phenol, aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were as efficient as the previously described synthetic compounds ABTS [2,2{prime}-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The oxidation efficiency increased proportionally with the redox potentials of the phenolic mediators up to a maximum value of 0.9 V and decreased thereafter with redox potentials exceeding this value. Natural compounds such as methionine, cysteine, and reduced glutathione, containing sulfhydryl groups, were also active as mediator compounds.

  10. Aromatic evolution of wine packed in virgin and recycled PET bottles.

    PubMed

    Dombre, Clara; Rigou, Peggy; Wirth, Jérémie; Chalier, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of the aromatic profile of a rosé wine packed in glass, virgin and recycled PET bottles was studied. Wine stored in PET and glass bottles was clearly differentiated after 5months of storage but only by a limited number of compounds. More pronounced decrease of oxygen sensitive compounds such as methionol was observed in PET bottles as well as the apparition of oxidative and ageing aroma compounds such as ethyl pyruvate, furfural or dioxanes in higher concentration. Compared to virgin PET bottles, recycled PET bottles induced slight changes favouring the presence of esters and alcohols. The chemical evolution of wine was the most important phenomenon that explains the loss of flavour rather than the sorption into PET. Because of their moderate oxygen permeability, the use of virgin PET and recycled PET bottles could be adapted for short conservation of wine but detrimental to aromatic quality if long conservation is intended.

  11. Carbohydrate-Aromatic Interactions in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Kieran L; Bartlett, Gail J; Diehl, Roger C; Agirre, Jon; Gallagher, Timothy; Kiessling, Laura L; Woolfson, Derek N

    2015-12-09

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions play pivotal roles in health and disease. However, defining and manipulating these interactions has been hindered by an incomplete understanding of the underlying fundamental forces. To elucidate common and discriminating features in carbohydrate recognition, we have analyzed quantitatively X-ray crystal structures of proteins with noncovalently bound carbohydrates. Within the carbohydrate-binding pockets, aliphatic hydrophobic residues are disfavored, whereas aromatic side chains are enriched. The greatest preference is for tryptophan with an increased prevalence of 9-fold. Variations in the spatial orientation of amino acids around different monosaccharides indicate specific carbohydrate C-H bonds interact preferentially with aromatic residues. These preferences are consistent with the electronic properties of both the carbohydrate C-H bonds and the aromatic residues. Those carbohydrates that present patches of electropositive saccharide C-H bonds engage more often in CH-π interactions involving electron-rich aromatic partners. These electronic effects are also manifested when carbohydrate-aromatic interactions are monitored in solution: NMR analysis indicates that indole favorably binds to electron-poor C-H bonds of model carbohydrates, and a clear linear free energy relationships with substituted indoles supports the importance of complementary electronic effects in driving protein-carbohydrate interactions. Together, our data indicate that electrostatic and electronic complementarity between carbohydrates and aromatic residues play key roles in driving protein-carbohydrate complexation. Moreover, these weak noncovalent interactions influence which saccharide residues bind to proteins, and how they are positioned within carbohydrate-binding sites.

  12. Aromaticity of the doubly charged [8]circulenes.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V; Valiev, Rashid R; Karaush, Nataliya N; Sundholm, Dage; Minaev, Boris F

    2016-04-07

    Magnetically induced current densities and current pathways have been calculated for a series of fully annelated dicationic and dianionic tetraphenylenes, which are also named [8]circulenes. The gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method has been employed for calculating the current density susceptibilities. The aromatic character and current pathways are deduced from the calculated current density susceptibilities showing that the neutral [8]circulenes have two concentric pathways with aromatic and antiaromatic character, respectively. The inner octatetraene core (the hub) is found to sustain a paratropic (antiaromatic) ring current, whereas the ring current along the outer part of the macrocycle (the rim) is diatropic (aromatic). The neutral [8]circulenes can be considered nonaromatic, because the sum of the ring-current strengths of the hub and the rim almost vanishes. The aromatic character of the doubly charged [8]circulenes is completely different: the dianionic [8]circulenes and the OC-, CH-, CH2-, SiH-, GeH-, SiH2-, and GeH2-containing dicationic species sustain net diatropic ring currents i.e., they are aromatic, whereas the O-, S-, Se-, NH-, PH- and AsH-containing dicationic [8]circulenes are strongly antiaromatic. The present study also shows that GIMIC calculations on the [8]circulenes provide more accurate information about the aromatic character than that obtained using local indices such as nuclear-independent chemical shifts (NICSs) and (1)H NMR chemical shifts.

  13. Carbohydrate–Aromatic Interactions in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein–carbohydrate interactions play pivotal roles in health and disease. However, defining and manipulating these interactions has been hindered by an incomplete understanding of the underlying fundamental forces. To elucidate common and discriminating features in carbohydrate recognition, we have analyzed quantitatively X-ray crystal structures of proteins with noncovalently bound carbohydrates. Within the carbohydrate-binding pockets, aliphatic hydrophobic residues are disfavored, whereas aromatic side chains are enriched. The greatest preference is for tryptophan with an increased prevalence of 9-fold. Variations in the spatial orientation of amino acids around different monosaccharides indicate specific carbohydrate C–H bonds interact preferentially with aromatic residues. These preferences are consistent with the electronic properties of both the carbohydrate C–H bonds and the aromatic residues. Those carbohydrates that present patches of electropositive saccharide C–H bonds engage more often in CH−π interactions involving electron-rich aromatic partners. These electronic effects are also manifested when carbohydrate–aromatic interactions are monitored in solution: NMR analysis indicates that indole favorably binds to electron-poor C–H bonds of model carbohydrates, and a clear linear free energy relationships with substituted indoles supports the importance of complementary electronic effects in driving protein–carbohydrate interactions. Together, our data indicate that electrostatic and electronic complementarity between carbohydrates and aromatic residues play key roles in driving protein–carbohydrate complexation. Moreover, these weak noncovalent interactions influence which saccharide residues bind to proteins, and how they are positioned within carbohydrate-binding sites. PMID:26561965

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Peroxide-mediated transition-metal-free direct amidation of alcohols with nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fuhong; Liu, Yong; Tang, Chenglin; Deng, Guo-Jun

    2012-02-17

    An unusual direct amidation of alcohols with nitroarenes mediated by peroxides has been discovered. The reaction tolerated a wide range of functionalities, and various aromatic amides were obtained in moderate to good yields in the absence of transition-metal catalyst. The peroxides and solvents had a significant impact on the reaction yield.

  16. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  17. Cooperative tertiary interaction network guides RNA folding

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, Robert M.; Woodson1, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-coding RNAs form unique three-dimensional structures, which perform many biochemical and regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting and native PAGE. Double and triple mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on native state stability. Instead, formation of core and peripheral structural motifs are cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native topology of the ribozyme. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses non-native structures and makes the search for the native state more efficient. We suggest that cooperativity in non-coding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures that promote a unique fold despite a rugged energy landscape. PMID:22500801

  18. Trans-dentinal stimulation of tertiary dentinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, A J; Murray, P E; Sloan, A J; Matthews, J B; Zhao, S

    2001-08-01

    Trans-dentinal stimulation of tertiary dentinogenesis has long been recognized, and has traditionally been ascribed to diffusion of irritant substances arising during injury and restorative treatment. Identification of bio-active components, especially growth factors including TGF-beta s, sequestered within dentin matrix provides a new explanation for cellular signaling during tertiary dentinogenesis. Both isolated dentin matrix components and pure growth factors (TGF-beta s) have been shown to signal cellular events leading to reactionary and reparative tertiary dentinogenesis. Release of these bio-active components from dentin matrix may arise during carious attack and other injury to the tissue, and also during subsequent surgical intervention and restoration of the tooth. Both cavity-conditioning agents and leaching from restorative materials may contribute to release of these components. Distance of diffusion, as determined by cavity residual dentin thickness, and other restorative parameters may influence the signaling process after release of these components. Careful consideration of the interplay between tissue injury and surgical and restorative material factors is required for optimum exploitation of the exquisite regenerative capacity of dentin-pulp for more biological approaches to clinical treatment of dental disease.

  19. Tertiary serpentinite tectonics in northern Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, F.; Draper, G.

    1985-01-01

    At least 4 types of serpentinite bodies are found in N. Hispaniola, by different inclusion and Tertiary deformation styles: (1) Narrow slivers occurring on Tertiary faults, rarely containing inclusions, which occur throughout the region. (2) Massive fractured serpentinites associated with a Cretaceous volcanic plutonic and metamorphic basement, and containing rodingite dikes, occurs in the Puerto Plata region. (3) Massive, fractured, but coherent bodies containing Tertiary limestone clasts which apparently the same as nearby limestone overlying the serpentinite occur west of Puerto Plata. (4) Diapirically emplaced bodies in the Gaspar Hernandez region containing both brecciated and massive zones and containing a variety of inclusions. Type 4 bodies protrude into the clastic Upper Eocene Altamira Fm. The most common tectonic inclusions in these bodies are rounded cobbles of diorite and gabbro. Amphibolites are also common, but friable greenschists and blueschists are rare, as are blocks of clastic sediments. The authors suggest that large blocks of the Altamira Fm. were incorporated into the serpentinite during their past Eocene diapirism and that these blocks were deformed in a brittle manner into gouge zones by internal movements in the diapir. Type 4 serpentinites may therefore have incorporated inclusions at high crustal levels by brittle processes. Type 2 bodies, in contrast, may have incorporated inclusions by ductile flow of serpentinite at lower crustal levels. Type 33 bodies are the most enigmatic. They may be sedimentary, but alternatively may have incorporated limestone in a gouge (as for type 4), which has later healed to a coherent mass.

  20. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons V : 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, Earl R

    1946-01-01

    The method used for the synthesis and purification of an 8-gallon quantity of 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene from m-creosol consists in obtaining m-methylcyclohexanone from m-creosol by hydrogenation followed by oxidation, condensation of the ketone with ethylmagnesium bromide, dehydration of the tertiary alcohol obtained, and the dehydration of the olefins to 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene. A yield of 28 percent of the theoretical was obtained from 98 percent commercial m-creosol. The physical properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene are compared with selected values from the literature.

  1. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  2. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  3. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  4. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  5. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  6. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  7. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self-esteem Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol can put ... or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  8. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  9. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  10. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  11. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  12. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  13. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  14. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  16. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  17. Antidepressants and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressive disorder) Why is it bad to mix antidepressants and alcohol? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. It's best to avoid combining antidepressants and alcohol. It may worsen your symptoms, and ...

  18. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcohol URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcohol.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  19. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  20. Tertiary treatment of slaughterhouse effluent: degradation kinetics applying UV radiation or H2O2/UV.

    PubMed

    Luiz, D B; Genena, A K; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M; Schröder, H Fr

    2009-01-01

    In some Brazilian regions, surface water has become scarce, e.g. semi arid climate areas and densely populated and industrial areas, where water over-exploitation and/or fluvial pollution has been more common. Advanced oxidative processes (AOP) provide treated water as a source of reuse water even with the characteristics of drinking water enabling water reuse practices also in food industries. The secondary wastewater of a slaughterhouse was the water source for a tertiary treatment study evaluating the kinetics of the photo-induced degradation of color and UV254 under UV radiation with and without the addition of H2O2. The proximity of the k' values of color and UV254 degradation by UV indicates that the compounds responsible for color may be the same content measured by UV254. The H2O2/UV treatment was 5.2 times faster than simple UV in removing aromatic compounds. The degradation kinetics of aromatic compounds in both treatments followed a pseudo-first order law. The pseudo-first order constant for H2O2/UV and UV treatments were kUV254'=0.0306 min(-1) and kUV254'=0.0056 min(-1), respectively.

  1. Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation of Simple Alcohols by Transition Metals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The “exploding” flask demonstration presents a well-known illustration of heterogeneous catalyzed methanol oxidation. We find that for the same vapor pressure, the demonstration also works for all primary and secondary alcohols up to butanol but not for a tertiary alcohol. Also, we show that the demonstration works for a large range of transition metal catalysts. Hence, this demonstration, which is often applied for the repetitive explosions when methanol is used, may also be used to argue the requirement of initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol to an aldehyde in the catalytic reaction mechanism to support the general insensitivity to reactant molecules in heterogeneous catalysis in contrast to biological catalysis and to provide proof for activity trends as often depicted by volcano plots. PMID:28919644

  2. Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation of Simple Alcohols by Transition Metals.

    PubMed

    Jacobse, Leon; Vink, Sebastiaan O; Wijngaarden, Sven; Juurlink, Ludo B F

    2017-09-12

    The "exploding" flask demonstration presents a well-known illustration of heterogeneous catalyzed methanol oxidation. We find that for the same vapor pressure, the demonstration also works for all primary and secondary alcohols up to butanol but not for a tertiary alcohol. Also, we show that the demonstration works for a large range of transition metal catalysts. Hence, this demonstration, which is often applied for the repetitive explosions when methanol is used, may also be used to argue the requirement of initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol to an aldehyde in the catalytic reaction mechanism to support the general insensitivity to reactant molecules in heterogeneous catalysis in contrast to biological catalysis and to provide proof for activity trends as often depicted by volcano plots.

  3. The intrinsic (gas-phase) acidities of bridgehead alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Rebeca; Dávalos, Juan Z.; Abboud, José-Luis M.; Alkorta, I.; Koppel, I.; Koppel, I. A.; Sonoda, T.; Mishima, M.

    2007-11-01

    The gas-phase acidities of 1-adamantanol and perfluoro1-adamantanol were determined by means of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry (FT-ICR). The acidity of perfluoro1-adamantanol seems to be the highest ever reported for an alcohol. A computational study of these species and their anions at both the MP2/6-311 + G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) levels was performed. Also studied were the tertiary alcohols (including their perfluorinated forms) derived from norbornane, bicyclo[2.2E2]octane and cubane. It was found that: (i) the intrinsic acidity of non-fluorinated bridgehead alcohols increases with the strain of the hydrocarbon framework and, (ii) perfluorination of these compounds strongly increases their acidity and, likely, significantly modifies their internal strain.

  4. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  5. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  6. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  7. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  8. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  9. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  10. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  12. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  13. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  14. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  15. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  16. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  17. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  18. The effects of moderate alcohol consumption on female hormone levels and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Gill, J

    2000-01-01

    Studies that have investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the level of oestrogens and progesterone in both pre- and post-menopausal women are reviewed. It is concluded that several lines of evidence point to an alcohol-induced rise in natural or synthetic oestrogen levels in women. Proposed mechanisms include an increased rate of aromatization of testosterone or a decreased rate of oxidation of oestradiol to oestrone. Moderate alcohol consumption has also been linked to decreased progesterone levels in pre-menopausal women. The relevance of these findings to female health, fertility and the timing of the menopause is considered.

  19. AROMATIC AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN A LAMINAR PREMIXED N-BUTANE FLAME. (R825412)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane¯oxygen¯argon burner s...

  20. Aromatic metabolism of filamentous fungi in relation to the presence of aromatic compounds in plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Marinović, Mila; Nousiainen, Paula; Liwanag, April J M; Benoit, Isabelle; Sipilä, Jussi; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2015-01-01

    The biological conversion of plant lignocellulose plays an essential role not only in carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems but also is an important part of the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The presence of the recalcitrant aromatic polymer lignin is one of the major obstacles in the biofuel/biochemical production process and therefore microbial degradation of lignin is receiving a great deal of attention. Fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass, and in particular the basidiomycete white rot fungi are of major importance in converting plant aromatics due to their ability to degrade lignin. However, the aromatic monomers that are released from lignin and other aromatic compounds of plant biomass are toxic for most fungi already at low levels, and therefore conversion of these compounds to less toxic metabolites is essential for fungi. Although the release of aromatic compounds from plant biomass by fungi has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been given to the metabolic pathways that convert the resulting aromatic monomers. In this review we provide an overview of the aromatic components of plant biomass, and their release and conversion by fungi. Finally, we will summarize the applications of fungal systems related to plant aromatics.

  1. Catalysts for polyimide foams from aromatic isocyanates and aromatic dianhydrides. [flame retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M.; Estrella, C. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polyimide foam products having greatly improved burn-through and flame-spread resistance are prepared by the reaction of aromatic polyisocyanates with aromatic dianhydrides in the presence of metallic salts of octoic acid. The salts, for example stannous octoate, ferric octoate and aluminum octoate, favor the formation of imide linkages at the expense of other possible reactions.

  2. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and L-fucitol, respectively.

  3. Rhodium‐Catalyzed Decarbonylative Borylation of Aromatic Thioesters for Facile Diversification of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hidenori; Uetake, Yuta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Transformation of aromatic thioesters into arylboronic esters was achieved efficiently using a rhodium catalyst. The broad functional‐group tolerance and mild conditions of the method have allowed for the two‐step decarboxylative borylation of a wide range of aromatic carboxylic acids, including commercially available drugs. PMID:28124826

  4. Isolating nitrated and aromatic aerosols and nitrated aromatic gases as sources of ultraviolet light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    1999-02-01

    Measurements in 1973 and 1987 showed that downward ultraviolet (UV) irradiances within the boundary layer in Los Angeles were up to 50% less than those above the boundary layer. Downward total solar irradiances were reduced by less than 14% in both studies. It is estimated that standard gas and particulate absorbers and scatterers accounted for only about 52-62% of the observed UV reductions at Claremont and Riverside. It is hypothesized that absorption by nitrated and aromatic aerosol components and nitrated aromatic gases caused at least 25-30% of the reductions (with aerosols accounting for about 4/5 of this percent). The remaining reductions are still unaccounted for. Absorbing aerosol components include nitrated aromatics, benzaldehydes, benzoic acids, aromatic polycarboxylic acids, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrated inorganics. Many of these species have been observed to date in atmospheric particles, and absorption coefficient data indicate many are strong absorbers at long UV wavelengths. Since aerosols containing nitrated or aromatic aerosols have been observed widely in many areas aside from Los Angeles the finding may account for a portion of UV extinction in those regions as well. In Los Angeles, the finding may be important for predicting smog evolution, since UV reductions associated with high aerosol loadings were estimated to cause a 5-8% decrease in ozone mixing ratios in August 1987. Further laboratory and field studies are needed to quantify better the extent of UV absorption due to nitrated and aromatic aerosols and nitrated aromatic gases.

  5. AROMATIC AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN A LAMINAR PREMIXED N-BUTANE FLAME. (R825412)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane¯oxygen¯argon burner s...

  6. An overview of the AROMAT campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Van Roozendael, Michel; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Meier, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Boscornea, Andreea; Vajaiac, Sorin; Bellegante, Livio; Nemuc, Anca; Nicolae, Doina; Shaifangar, Reza; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign and its follow-up AROMAT-2 were held in September 2014 and August 2015, respectively. Both campaigns focused on two geophysical targets: the city of Bucharest and the large power plants of the Jiu Valley, which are located in a rural area 170 km West of Bucharest. These two areas are complementary in terms of emitted chemical species and their spatial distributions. The objectives of the AROMAT campaigns were (i) to test recently developed airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies such as the AirMAP imaging DOAS system (University of Bremen), the NO2 sonde (KNMI), and the compact SWING whiskbroom imager (BIRA), and (ii) to prepare the validation programme of the future Atmospheric Sentinels, starting with Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) to be launched in early summer 2016. We present results from the different airborne instrumentations and from coincident ground-based measurements (lidar, in-situ, and mobile DOAS systems) performed during both campaigns. The AROMAT dataset addresses several of the mandatory products of TROPOMI/S5P, in particular NO2 and SO2 (horizontal distribution and profile from aircraft, plume image with ground-based SO2 and NO2 cameras, transects with mobile DOAS, in-situ), H2CO (mobile MAX-DOAS), and aerosols (lidar, airborne FUBISS-ASA2 sun-photometer, and aircraft in-situ). We investigate the information content of the AROMAT dataset for satellite validation studies based on co-located OMI and GOME-2 data, and simulations of TROPOMI measurements. The experience gained during AROMAT and AROMAT-2 will be used in support of a large-scale TROPOMI/S5P validation campaign in Romania scheduled for summer 2017.

  7. Mixed Alcohol Dehydration over Bronsted and Lewis Acidic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Connor P.; Ramanathan, Anand; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Behl, Mayank; Gjersing, Erica; Griffin, Michael; Zhu, Hongda; Subramaniam, Bala; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Hensley, Jesse E.

    2015-12-01

    Mixed alcohols are attractive oxygenated products of biomass-derived syngas because they may be catalytically converted to a range of hydrocarbon products, including liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Catalytic dehydration to form olefins is a potential first step in the conversion of C2–C4 alcohols into longer-chain hydrocarbons. Here, we describe the physical and chemical characterization along with catalytic activity and selectivity of 4 Brønsted and Lewis acidic catalysts for the dehydration of two mixed alcohol feed streams that are representative of products from syngas conversion over K-CoMoS type catalysts (i.e., ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol). Specifically, a Lewis acidic Zr-incorporated mesoporous silicate (Zr-KIT-6), a commercial Al-containing mesoporous silicate (Al-MCM-41), a commercial microporous aluminosilicate (HZSM-5), and a commercial microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO-34) were tested for mixed alcohol dehydration at 250, 300 and 350 °C. The zeolite materials exhibited high activity (>98% ethanol conversion) at all temperatures while the mesoporous materials only displayed significant activity (>10% ethanol conversion) at or above 300 °C. The turnover frequencies for ethanol dehydration at 300 °C decreased in the following order: HZSM-5 > SAPO-34 > Al-MCM-41 > Zr-KIT-6, suggesting that Brønsted acidic sites are more active than Lewis acidic sites for alcohol dehydration. At 300 °C, SAPO-34 produced the highest yield of olefin products from both a water-free ethanol rich feed stream and a C3+-alcohol rich feed stream containing water. Post-reaction characterization indicated changes in the Brønsted-to-Lewis acidic site ratios for Zr-KIT-6, Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5. Ammonia temperature programmed desorption indicated that the acid sites of post-reaction samples could be regenerated following treatment in air. The post-reaction SAPO-34 catalyst contained more aromatic, methylated aromatic

  8. Mixed Alcohol Dehydration over Bronsted and Lewis Acidic Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Nash, Connor P.; Ramanathan, Anand; Ruddy, Daniel A.; ...

    2015-12-01

    Mixed alcohols are attractive oxygenated products of biomass-derived syngas because they may be catalytically converted to a range of hydrocarbon products, including liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Catalytic dehydration to form olefins is a potential first step in the conversion of C2–C4 alcohols into longer-chain hydrocarbons. Here, we describe the physical and chemical characterization along with catalytic activity and selectivity of 4 Brønsted and Lewis acidic catalysts for the dehydration of two mixed alcohol feed streams that are representative of products from syngas conversion over K-CoMoS type catalysts (i.e., ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol). Specifically, a Lewis acidic Zr-incorporated mesoporous silicate (Zr-KIT-6),more » a commercial Al-containing mesoporous silicate (Al-MCM-41), a commercial microporous aluminosilicate (HZSM-5), and a commercial microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO-34) were tested for mixed alcohol dehydration at 250, 300 and 350 °C. The zeolite materials exhibited high activity (>98% ethanol conversion) at all temperatures while the mesoporous materials only displayed significant activity (>10% ethanol conversion) at or above 300 °C. The turnover frequencies for ethanol dehydration at 300 °C decreased in the following order: HZSM-5 > SAPO-34 > Al-MCM-41 > Zr-KIT-6, suggesting that Brønsted acidic sites are more active than Lewis acidic sites for alcohol dehydration. At 300 °C, SAPO-34 produced the highest yield of olefin products from both a water-free ethanol rich feed stream and a C3+-alcohol rich feed stream containing water. Post-reaction characterization indicated changes in the Brønsted-to-Lewis acidic site ratios for Zr-KIT-6, Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5. Ammonia temperature programmed desorption indicated that the acid sites of post-reaction samples could be regenerated following treatment in air. The post-reaction SAPO-34 catalyst contained more aromatic, methylated aromatic and polyaromatic compounds

  9. Hückel's Rule of Aromaticity Categorizes Aromatic closo Boron Hydride Clusters.

    PubMed

    Poater, Jordi; Solà, Miquel; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc

    2016-05-23

    A direct connection is established between three-dimensional aromatic closo boron hydride clusters and planar aromatic [n]annulenes for medium and large boron clusters. In particular, the results prove the existence of a link between the two-dimensional Hückel rule, as followed by aromatic [n]annulenes, and Wade-Mingos' rule of three-dimensional aromaticity, as applied to the aromatic [Bn Hn ](2-) closo boron hydride clusters. The closo boron hydride clusters can be categorized into different series, according to the n value of the Hückel (4 n+2) π rule. The distinct categories studied in this work correspond to n=1, 2, and 3. Each category increases in geometrical difficulty but, more importantly, it is possible to associate each category with the number of pentagonal layers in the structure perpendicular to the main axis. Category 1 has one pentagonal layer, category 2 has two, and category 3 has three.

  10. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R

    2015-07-14

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the acridone product of the synthesis are analyzed by common techniques available in most undergraduate chemistry laboratories, such as melting point, TLC, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Yields for each transformation in the synthesis are generally moderately low to good (20-90%) and nearly all of the students (>90%) who attempted the synthesis were able to produce the final acridone product.

  11. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the proposal research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  12. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johannson, M.; Feeley, O.C.; Bogar, S.; Lawson, E.; Kieke, M.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobuty ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  13. Children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Raphael, B

    1983-03-01

    The familial nature of alcoholism is well established, but the interaction of nature and nurture remains unresolved. Other effects of alcoholic parents on the psychopathology of their children are poorly documented, with studies variably claiming that there is no discernible impact or that there is a significantly higher incidence of problems, particularly in the area of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. The relative importance of family disharmony and disruption which so often accompanies alcohol abuse, as against the impact of the alcohol abuse itself, is rarely considered. The literature on the psychopathology of children of alcoholic parents is reviewed and the relevance of the last two issues explored.

  14. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  15. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  16. [Alcohol induced cognitive deficits].

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Singewald, Evelin M; Ruepp, Beatrix; Marksteiner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies could show a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition but also with processes of ageing both social and biological. Acute effects of alcohol during intoxication include clinical signs such as excitation and reduced inhibition, slurred speech, and increased reaction time but also cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in memory functions. However, these cognitive deficits during alcohol intoxication are reversible while patients with alcohol addiction and chronic alcohol intake show severe impairments of cognitive functions especially deficits in executive functions. Frontal executive impairments in these patients include deficits in problem solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory.Additionally, gender specific deficits are relevant for the course of the disease and its concomitant health problems with female alcoholics showing a higher vulnerability for cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy at earlier stages of alcoholism history.

  17. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  18. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  19. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The draft Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether.

  1. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  2. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  3. Extraction of antimony with tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W

    1967-06-01

    The extractability of antimony(III) and (V) with tridodecylamine from various aqueous solutions is reported. Extraction from nitric and hydrofluoric acid solutions is low, but extraction from sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrobromic solutions is high. Antimony-(III) can be separated from antimony(V) in 7M nitric acid or 0.64M hydrobromic acid. The extraction of antimony from hydrochloric acid solutions in methanol, ethanol, and acetone-water mixtures is greater than from pure aqueous solutions of the same acidity. The elements from which antimony can be separated with tertiary amines are given.

  4. Vibrational analysis of tertiary alkyl bromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsends; Gross, Lorelei

    Infrared spectra have been obtained for 2-bromo-2-methylpentane and 3-bromo-3-methylpentane. Both compounds exist in THHH and TCHH conformations. Normal coordinate calculations were made for these two compounds and for 2-bromo-2-methylbutane, using the 44-parameter modified valence force field that was used for tertiary chlorides. Fifteen force constants were adjusted to fit 169 frequencies below 1500 cm-1 of six molecules (two each for the three named compounds) with an average error of 5.6 cm-1. Vibrational assignments are presented.

  5. Vibrational analysis of tertiary alkyl bromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsends; Gross, Lorelei

    1982-11-01

    Infrared spectra have been obtained for 2-bromo-2-methylpentane and 3-bromo-3-methylpentane. Both compounds exist in THHH and TCHH conformations. Normal coordinate calculations were made for these two compounds and for 2-bromo-2-methylbutane, using the 44-parameter modified valence force field that was used for tertiary chlorides. Fifteen force constants were adjusted to fit 169 frequencies below 1500 cm -1 of six molecules (two each for the three named compounds) with an average error of 5.6 cm -1. Vibrational assignments are presented.

  6. Ion exclusion chromatography of aromatic acids.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Fotouh R; Kirkpatrick, Christine L; Danielson, Neil D

    2013-08-01

    The determination of aromatic acids by ion exclusion chromatography is challenging due to peak tailing and the long retention time of hydrophobic solutes. This review discusses the retention mechanisms and the factors affecting retention, eluents and detection methods used in ion exclusion chromatography of aromatic acids such as mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-carboxylic acids, amino acids, sulfonates and phenol. In addition, the different approaches used to improve the chromatographic separation of these compounds are also discussed. These approaches include introducing an internal gradient of the ionic strength, using vacancy ion exclusion chromatography, employing a hydrophilic cation exchange resin or adding a modifier such as heptanol to the dilute sulfuric acid mobile phase. The applications of these methods in the analysis of aromatic acids are provided with a table summarizing the stationary phases, the mobile phases and the detection methods.

  7. The fundamental chemical equation of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Remi; Lepetit, Christine

    2013-03-21

    In the search for the chemical measure of molecular aromaticity, namely the energetic gain of a cyclic delocalized structure for just being cyclic, the numerous definitions of generic aromatic stabilisation energies proposed hitherto stand as approximates of the conceptual limit devised within the framework of spectral graph theory, i.e. the topological resonance energy (TRE). After a 36 year challenge, the TRE acyclic reference of any π-cyclic molecule, originally merely defined by an abstract matching polynomial, is now given a real chemical structure: the Möbius-twisted head-to-tail metathesis cyclo-dimer of the parent ring. The original treatment at the Hückel molecular orbital level of theory can now be extended to DFT or ab initio levels. The corresponding ring opening-closing-twisting chemical transformation provides the observable basis for the measure of aromaticity under either vertical or adiabatic conditions.

  8. Chemotaxis of Azospirillum species to aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-de-Victoria, G.; Lovell, C.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Azospirillum sspeciesare free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria commonly found in soils and in association with plant roots, including important agricultural crops. Rhizosphere colonization my Azospirillum species has been shown to stimulate growth of a variety of plant species. Chemotaxis is one of the properties which may contribute to survival, rhizosphere colonization and the initiation of mutualistic interactions by Azospirillum species. This study evaluates the chemotactic responses of three Azospirillum stains to a variety of aromatic compounds:benzoate, catechol, 4-HB, and PCA. Results indicate that the same aromatic substance can elicit different chemotactic responses from different Azospirillum species, and that Azospirillum can detect aromatic substrates at concentrations similar to those they encounter naturally. 36 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  9. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1996-02-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  10. Reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm) of solid-state polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, M. R. M.; Applin, D. M.; Norman, L.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds based on fused aromatic rings, and are formed in a variety of astrophysical, solar nebula and planetary processes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known or suspected to occur in a wide variety of planetary settings including icy satellites, Titan’s hazes, carbonaceous meteorites, comet nuclei, ring particles; and terrestrial organic-rich lithologies such as coals, asphaltites, and bituminous sands. Relatively few measurements of the visible and near-infrared spectra of PAHs exist, yet this wavelength region (350-2500 nm) is widely used for remote sensing. This study presents detailed analyses of the 350-2500 nm reflectance spectra of 47 fine-grained powders of different high-purity solid-state PAHs. Spectral properties of PAHs change with variations in the number and connectivity of linked aromatic rings and the presence and type of side-groups and heterocycles. PAH spectra are characterized by three strong features near ∼880 nm, ∼1145 nm, and ∼1687 nm due to overtones of νCH fundamental stretching vibrations. Some PAHs are amenable to remote detection due to the presence of diagnostic spectral features, including: Nsbnd H stretching overtones at 1490-1515 nm in NH- and NH2-bearing PAHs, aliphatic or saturated bond Csbnd H overtone vibrations at ∼1180-1280 nm and ∼1700-1860 nm; a broad asymmetric feature between ∼1450 nm and ∼1900 nm due to Osbnd H stretching overtones in aromatic alcohols, Csbnd H and Cdbnd O combinations near ∼2000-2010 nm and ∼2060-2270 nm in acetyl and carboxyl-bearing PAHs. Other substituents such as sulphonyl, thioether ether and carboxyl heterocycles, or cyano, nitrate, and aromatic side groups, do not produce well-resolved diagnostic spectral features but do cause shifts in the positions of the aromatic Csbnd H vibrational overtone features. Fluorescence is commonly suppressed by the presence of heterocycles, side-groups and in many non-alternant PAHs

  11. Thermomechanical manipulation of aromatic peptide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sedman, Victoria L; Allen, Stephanie; Chen, Xinyong; Roberts, Clive J; Tendler, Saul J B

    2009-07-07

    Self-assembling aromatic dipeptides are among the smallest known biological materials which readily form ordered nanostructures. The simplicity of nanotube formation makes them highly desirable for a range of bionanotechnology applications. Here, we investigate the application of the atomic force microscope as a thermomechanical lithographic tool for the machining of nanotubes formed by two self-assembling aromatic peptides; diphenylalanine and dinapthylalanine. Trenches and indentations of varying depth and width were patterned into the peptide tubes with nanometer precision highlighting the ability to thermally machine and manipulate these robust and versatile nanotubes.

  12. Aromatic Medicinal Plants from Tajikistan (Central Asia)

    PubMed Central

    Sharopov, Farukh S.; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Setzer, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Tajikistan is a small country located in Central Asia. The mostly mountainous terrain with a continental, subtropical, and semiarid climate, is characterized by diverse flora. Many people in Tajikistan rely on medicinal plants as their traditional form of medicine to prevent and cure health disorders. Aromatic medicinal plants, in particular, have played an important role for the local people. In this review, we present a summary of the uses of 18 aromatic medicinal plants from Tajikistan and their compositions of secondary metabolites. PMID:28933380

  13. AN AROMATIC INVENTORY OF THE LOCAL VOLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, A. R.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Block, M.; Van Zee, L.; Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Schuster, M. D.; Smith, J. D. T.; Gordon, K. D.; Wu, Y.; Lee, J. C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Johnson, L. C.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, H.

    2010-05-20

    Using infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we perform the first inventory of aromatic feature emission (also commonly referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission) for a statistically complete sample of star-forming galaxies in the local volume. The photometric methodology involved is calibrated and demonstrated to recover the aromatic fraction of the Infrared Array Camera 8 {mu}m flux with a standard deviation of 6% for a training set of 40 SINGS galaxies (ranging from stellar to dust dominated) with both suitable mid-infrared Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra and equivalent photometry. A potential factor of 2 improvement could be realized with suitable 5.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m photometry, such as what may be provided in the future by the James Webb Space Telescope. The resulting technique is then applied to mid-infrared photometry for the 258 galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey, a large sample dominated in number by low-luminosity dwarf galaxies for which obtaining comparable mid-infrared spectroscopy is not feasible. We find the total LVL luminosity due to five strong aromatic features in the 8 {mu}m complex to be 2.47 x 10{sup 10} L{sub sun} with a mean volume density of 8.8 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} Mpc{sup -3}. Twenty-four of the LVL galaxies, corresponding to a luminosity cut at M{sub B} = -18.22, account for 90% of the aromatic luminosity. Using oxygen abundances compiled from the literature for 129 of the 258 LVL galaxies, we find a correlation between metallicity and the aromatic-to-total infrared emission ratio but not the aromatic-to-total 8 {mu}m dust emission ratio. A possible explanation is that metallicity plays a role in the abundance of aromatic molecules relative to the total dust content, but other factors, such as star formation and/or the local radiation field, affect the excitation of those molecules.

  14. Chromium levels in spices and aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Cabrera, C; Lorenzo, M L; López, M C

    2000-02-28

    We determined the presence of chromium in a total of 72 samples of 17 different spices and aromatic herbs. Electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) was used to determine Cr content in the samples mineralized with HNO3 and V2O5. The analytical characteristics of the proposed method were tested, and the accuracy and precision was also verified against an NBS-certified reference material. Chromium concentrations ranged from not detectable to 1.42 micrograms/g (dry wt.) and Cr presence was detected in 95% of samples. Spices and aromatic herbs are widely consumed in the Spanish diet and in the Mediterranean diet, in general.

  15. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  16. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  17. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  18. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  19. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction

    PubMed Central

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABAA, glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca2+ channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  20. Alcohol and alcohol problems research. 17. Malta.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, A M

    1991-08-01

    This article is an enquiry into the current status of alcohol in Maltese culture. The responses of society to alcoholism depend on the way members of the community perceive the problems incurred by the use and abuse of a dependence producing substance like alcohol. These perceptions and subsequent responses are very much influenced by prevailing attitudes and beliefs. Malta is a melting point of cultures. This factor, together with a high density population and Malta's geopolitical strategic position, combine to make Malta a tolerant society. There is a laissez-faire response to alcoholism, at least partly due to the present inability to identify the need to take appropriate measures. The police force, medical profession and politicians still do not feel the responsibility or the need to provide effective laws and regulations, specialized treatment services or educative programmes on alcohol-related issues. A systematic enquiry is needed urgently to determine the severity and degree of the problems posed by alcohol abuse among the Maltese. Such an enquiry should be followed by a well planned national policy which includes local approaches and interventions. Finally, these interventions must be evaluated frequently and developed to achieve better results in the future.