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Sample records for alcohols fatty acids

  1. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol.

  2. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-03

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products.

  3. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The... generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The... generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols (PMN...

  10. PROPERTIES OF MONOLAYERS OF OMEGAMONOHALOGENATED FATTY ACIDS AND ALCOHOLS ABSORBED ON WATER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FATTY ACIDS , *ALCOHOLS, MONOMOLECULAR FILMS, MONOMOLECULAR FILMS, HALOGENS, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, IODINE COMPOUNDS, SURFACE PROPERTIES, SURFACES, DIPOLE MOMENTS, IONS, PH FACTOR, WATER, ADSORPTION.

  11. Cinnamyl alcohols and methyl esters of fatty acids from Wedelia prostrata callus cultures.

    PubMed

    El-Mawla, Ahmed M A Abd; Farag, Salwa F; Beuerle, Till

    2011-01-01

    Two methyl esters of fatty acids, namely octadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl stearate) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl palmitate), in addition to four cinnamyl alcohol derivatives, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol 4-O-glucoside (coniferin), were isolated from callus cultures of Wedelia prostrata. The structure of coniferin was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods, while the other compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography in comparison with standards.

  12. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  13. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE PAGES

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; ...

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore » and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  14. Exacerbation of Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Iron Load

    PubMed Central

    Patere, S. N.; Majumdar, A. S.; Saraf, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography), polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. PMID:22303057

  15. Physiological Function of Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Long-Chain (C30) Fatty Acids in Alcohol Tolerance of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, D. S.; Jung, S.-H.; Shen, G.-J.; Hollingsworth, R. I.; Zeikus, J. G.

    2002-01-01

    A mutant strain (39E H8) of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus that displayed high (8% [vol/vol]) ethanol tolerance for growth was developed and characterized in comparison to the wild-type strain (39E), which lacks alcohol tolerance (<1.5% [vol/vol]). The mutant strain, unlike the wild type, lacked primary alcohol dehydrogenase and was able to increase the percentage of transmembrane fatty acids (i.e., long-chain C30 fatty acids) in response to increasing levels of ethanol. The data support the hypothesis that primary alcohol dehydrogenase functions primarily in ethanol consumption, whereas secondary alcohol dehydrogenase functions in ethanol production. These results suggest that improved thermophilic ethanol fermentations at high alcohol levels can be developed by altering both cell membrane composition (e.g., increasing transmembrane fatty acids) and the metabolic machinery (e.g., altering primary alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities). PMID:11916712

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children: a novel approach?

    PubMed

    Verduci, Elvira; Lassandro, Carlotta; Radaelli, Giovanni; Soldati, Laura

    2015-04-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents the most common chronic liver disease in obese children of industrialized countries. Nowadays the first line of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and lifestyle intervention; however compliance to these interventions is very difficult to maintain in long term period. This editorial discusses about docosahexaenoic acid treatment as possible novel approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Docosahexaenoic acid may modulate the inflammatory response, improve insulin sensitivity and could be effective in enhancing intestinal barrier integrity, essential to protect a healthy gut-liver axis. Indeed alteration of gut microbiota composition and increased intestinal permeability may rise the exposure of liver to gut-derived bacterial products, causing activation of signalling pathways implicated in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis. This mechanism has been observed in vitro and animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease but also in a clinical study in adults. While evidence suggests that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation may decrease liver fat in adults, in pediatric population only a study examined this topic. In obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease well designed randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the possible efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid treatment, and underlying mechanisms, to identify the optimal required dose and to evaluate if the docosahexaenoic acid effect is limited to the duration of the treatment or it may continue after the end of treatment.

  17. Oleyl alcohol inhibits intestinal long-chain fatty acid absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Murota, K; Kawada, T; Matsui, N; Sakakibara, M; Takahashi, N; Fushiki, T

    2000-12-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are important nutrients, but obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in humans. In this study we investigated the effect of oleyl alcohol on the intestinal long-chain fatty acid absorption in rats. We administered [14C]oleic acid and oleyl alcohol as lipid emulsion intraduodenally in unanesthetized lymph-cannulated rats and measured the lymphatic output of oleic acid. Second, we orally administered lipid emulsion with a stomach tube and measured the luminal and mucosal oleic acid residues. Furthermore, rats were fed oleyl alcohol as a dietary component for 20 days, and fecal lipid and the weight of adipose tissues were measured. In lymph-cannulated rats, triglyceride and [14C]oleic acid output in the lymph were significantly lower in the presence of oleyl alcohol when compared with the absence of oleyl alcohol in a dose-dependent manner. The radioactivity remaining in the intestinal lumen was more strongly detected in rats that had been orally administered oleyl alcohol than in the controls. The feces of rats fed an oleyl-alcohol-added diet contained much higher amounts of lipids, and the weights of their adipose tissues were significantly lower than in the control group. These results suggest that oleyl alcohol inhibits the rat gastrointestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids in vivo.

  18. Novel fatty acid esters of p-coumaryl alcohol in epicuticular wax of apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, B D; Schmidt, W F; Kirk, M C; Barnes, S

    2001-08-01

    Hexane extracts of epicuticular wax from cv. Gala apples were noted to have an unusual, broad absorbance maximum at approximately 258 nm, which led us to isolate and identify the primary UV-absorbing compounds. Column and thin-layer chromatography yielded a fraction that gave a series of paired, 260-nm-absorbing peaks on C(18) HPLC. These were shown to be a family of phenolic fatty acid esters, for which retention times increased with increasing fatty acid chain length, and paired peaks were esters of two related phenolics with the same fatty acid moiety. Alkaline hydrolysis of the esters released two water-soluble phenolics separable by C(18) HPLC. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry gave a molecular mass of 150 for both, and (1)H NMR plus UV absorbance spectra identified them as E and Z isomers of p-coumaryl alcohol. Alkaline cleavage of the fatty acid esters in the presence of methanol or ethanol resulted in partial derivatization of E-p-coumaryl alcohol to the corresponding gamma-O-methyl or O-ethyl ether. Gradient HMQC NMR of the HPLC-purified stearate ester of E-p-coumaryl alcohol indicated that fatty acid esterification occurs at the gamma-OH rather than at the 4-OH on the phenyl ring. This is the first report of fatty acid esters of monolignols as a natural plant product.

  19. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  20. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols.

  1. Effect of wheatgrass on membrane fatty acid composition during hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol and heated PUFA.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Shakya, Garima; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism is a broad term used for problems related to alcohol, medically considered as disease, specifically an addictive illness, abuse, and dependence. It is the major cause of liver disease in western countries. Alcoholic liver disease encompasses the hepatic alterations leading to fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. Fried food items prepared with repeatedly heated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) exacerbate the disturbances induced by alcohol. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal. Wheatgrass (WG) is used as a supplemental nutrition because of its unique curative properties. As it has antioxidant property, it prevents cancer, diabetes, and acts as liver cleanser. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of WG on preserving membrane integrity in liver damage induced by alcohol and heated PUFA (ΔPUFA).The rats were divided into four groups. The animals in group 1 served as normal (standard diet), group 2 served as hepatotoxic (alcohol + ΔPUFA), group 3 served as treated (alcohol + ΔPUFA + WG), and group 4 served as WG control. The compositions of membrane fatty acid, total phospholipids, phospholipase A, C (PLA and PLC) were analyzed in liver to evaluate the effects of WG. Changes in fatty acid composition, decrease in phospholipids levels, and increase in PLA, PLC were observed in the diseased group. Restoration effect was seen in WG-treated rats. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, we conclude that WG effectively protects the liver against alcohol and ΔPUFA-induced changes in fatty acid composition and preserves membrane integrity.

  2. Reductive Etherification of Fatty Acids or Esters with Alcohols using Molecular Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Erb, Benjamin; Risto, Eugen; Wendling, Timo; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2016-06-22

    In the presence of a catalyst system consisting of a ruthenium/triphos complex and the Brønsted acid trifluoromethanesulfonimide, mixtures of fatty acids and aliphatic alcohols are converted into the corresponding ethers at 70 bar H2 . The protocol allows the sustainable one-step synthesis of valuable long-chain ether fragrances, lubricants, and surfactants from renewable sources. The reaction protocol is extended to various fatty acids and esters both in pure form and as mixtures, for example, tall oil acids or rapeseed methyl ester (RME). Even the mixed triglyceride rapeseed oil was converted in one step.

  3. Calculations of phase equilibria for mixtures of triglycerides, fatty acids, and their esters in lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.; Anikeev, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    The objects of study were mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and also the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state was used as a thermodynamic model for the phase state of the selected mixtures over wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges. Group methods were applied to determine the critical parameters of pure substances and their acentric factors. The parameters obtained were used to calculate the phase diagrams and critical parameters of mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters, at various alcohol/oil ratios. The conditions of triglyceride transesterification in various lower alcohols providing the supercritical state of reaction mixtures were selected.

  4. Convergent functional genomic studies of omega-3 fatty acids in stress reactivity, bipolar disorder and alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Le-Niculescu, H; Case, N J; Hulvershorn, L; Patel, S D; Bowker, D; Gupta, J; Bell, R; Edenberg, H J; Tsuang, M T; Kuczenski, R; Geyer, M A; Rodd, Z A; Niculescu, A B

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment option in psychiatric disorders. Given their other health benefits and their relative lack of toxicity, teratogenicity and side effects, they may be particularly useful in children and in females of child-bearing age, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. A comprehensive mechanistic understanding of their effects is needed. Here we report translational studies demonstrating the phenotypic normalization and gene expression effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in a stress-reactive knockout mouse model of bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcoholism, using a bioinformatic convergent functional genomics approach integrating animal model and human data to prioritize disease-relevant genes. Additionally, to validate at a behavioral level the novel observed effects on decreasing alcohol consumption, we also tested the effects of DHA in an independent animal model, alcohol-preferring (P) rats, a well-established animal model of alcoholism. Our studies uncover sex differences, brain region-specific effects and blood biomarkers that may underpin the effects of DHA. Of note, DHA modulates some of the same genes targeted by current psychotropic medications, as well as increases myelin-related gene expression. Myelin-related gene expression decrease is a common, if nonspecific, denominator of neuropsychiatric disorders. In conclusion, our work supports the potential utility of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically DHA, for a spectrum of psychiatric disorders such as stress disorders, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and beyond. PMID:22832392

  5. Convergent functional genomic studies of ω-3 fatty acids in stress reactivity, bipolar disorder and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Le-Niculescu, H; Case, N J; Hulvershorn, L; Patel, S D; Bowker, D; Gupta, J; Bell, R; Edenberg, H J; Tsuang, M T; Kuczenski, R; Geyer, M A; Rodd, Z A; Niculescu, A B

    2011-04-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment option in psychiatric disorders. Given their other health benefits and their relative lack of toxicity, teratogenicity and side effects, they may be particularly useful in children and in females of child-bearing age, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. A comprehensive mechanistic understanding of their effects is needed. Here we report translational studies demonstrating the phenotypic normalization and gene expression effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in a stress-reactive knockout mouse model of bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcoholism, using a bioinformatic convergent functional genomics approach integrating animal model and human data to prioritize disease-relevant genes. Additionally, to validate at a behavioral level the novel observed effects on decreasing alcohol consumption, we also tested the effects of DHA in an independent animal model, alcohol-preferring (P) rats, a well-established animal model of alcoholism. Our studies uncover sex differences, brain region-specific effects and blood biomarkers that may underpin the effects of DHA. Of note, DHA modulates some of the same genes targeted by current psychotropic medications, as well as increases myelin-related gene expression. Myelin-related gene expression decrease is a common, if nonspecific, denominator of neuropsychiatric disorders. In conclusion, our work supports the potential utility of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically DHA, for a spectrum of psychiatric disorders such as stress disorders, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and beyond.

  6. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake.

  7. Inhibitory effects of several saturated fatty acids and their related fatty alcohols on the growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Yui, Satoru; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of 5 saturated fatty acids and their related alcohols on the growth of Candida albicans. The inhibitory effects of these compounds against the yeast and hyphal growth forms of C. albicans were examined using the modified NCCLS method and crystal violet staining, respectively. Among these compounds, capric acid inhibited both types of growth at the lowest concentration. The IC(80), i.e., the concentration at which the compounds reduced the growth of C. albicans by 80% in comparison with the growth of control cells, of capric acid for the hyphal growth of this fungus, which is indispensable for its mucosal invasion, was 16.7 μM. These fatty acids, including capric acid, have an unpleasant smell, which may limit their therapeutic use. To test them at reduced concentrations, the combined effect of these fatty acids and oligonol, a depolymerized polyphenol, was evaluated in vitro. These combinations showed potent synergistic inhibition of hyphal growth [fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index = 0.319]. Our results demonstrated that capric acid combined with oligonol could be used as an effective anti-Candida compound. It may be a candidate prophylactic or therapeutic tool against mucosal Candida infection.

  8. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  9. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  10. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Richard C; Mathies, Laura D; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1) eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2) dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3) dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  11. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Required for Normal Alcohol Response Behaviors in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Richard C.; Mathies, Laura D.; Davies, Andrew G.; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1) eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2) dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3) dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol. PMID:25162400

  12. Bile Acids and Dysbiosis in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandsma, Robert; Comelli, Elena M.; Arendt, Bianca M.; Zhang, Ling; Fung, Scott; Fischer, Sandra E.; McGilvray, Ian G.; Allard, Johane P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by dysbiosis. The bidirectional effects between intestinal microbiota (IM) and bile acids (BA) suggest that dysbiosis may be accompanied by an altered bile acid (BA) homeostasis, which in turn can contribute to the metabolic dysregulation seen in NAFLD. This study sought to examine BA homeostasis in patients with NAFLD and to relate that with IM data. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of adults with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver: NAFL or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: NASH) and healthy controls (HC). Clinical and laboratory data, stool samples and 7-day food records were collected. Fecal BA profiles, serum markers of BA synthesis 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and intestinal BA signalling, as well as IM composition were assessed. Results 53 subjects were included: 25 HC, 12 NAFL and 16 NASH. Levels of total fecal BA, cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and BA synthesis were higher in patients with NASH compared to HC (p<0.05 for all comparisons). The primary to secondary BA ratio was higher in NASH compared to HC (p = 0.004), but ratio of conjugated to unconjugated BAs was not different between the groups. Bacteroidetes and Clostridium leptum counts were decreased in in a subset of 16 patients with NASH compared to 25 HC, after adjusting for body mass index and weight-adjusted calorie intake (p = 0.028 and p = 0.030, respectively). C. leptum was positively correlated with fecal unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) (r = 0.526, p = 0.003) and inversely with unconjugated CA (r = -0.669, p<0.0001) and unconjugated CDCA (r = - 0.630, p<0.0001). FGF19 levels were not different between the groups (p = 0.114). Conclusions In adults with NAFLD, dysbiosis is associated with altered BA homeostasis, which renders them at increased risk of hepatic injury. PMID:27203081

  13. Effects of alcohol inhalation on the fatty acid composition of rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, D.M.; Karanian, J.W.; Salem, N. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in rat tissues are altered by alcohol exposure. Therefore, rats were exposed to ethanol vapor using an inhalation system designed in their laboratory and capable of producing rats with blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 50-400 mg%, as desired. Mean BEC were determined after 7 or 14 days of exposure and the lipids were extracted from brains, hearts, livers and aortas by the method of Bligh and Dyer. These total lipid extracts were transmethylated with BF/sub 3/ in methanol and analyzed using a fused silica capillary column. The largest compositional changes were observed in the liver after 14 days of exposure; 18:0, 18:2w6 and 20:4w6 decreased by 7, 18, and 20%, respectively, whereas 16:1w7, 18:1w9, 18:3w3 and 22:6w3 increased by 42, 19, 9, and 11%, respectively. A similar, although quantitatively smaller, effect was observed after only 7 days of alcohol inhalation. Little change was observed in the total lipid extract fatty acyl distribution in the brain or heart, however, the aorta showed losses in the polyunsaturates 20:4w6 and 22:6w3. More detailed data will be presented for the fatty acid distributional changes in individual phospholipid classes. It appears that the direction and magnitude of compositional changes depend upon both the duration of exposure and the blood concentration of alcohol.

  14. Biochemical characteristics of AtFAR2, a fatty acid reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana that reduces fatty acyl-CoA and -ACP substrates into fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Doan, Thuy T P; Carlsson, Anders S; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2016-01-01

    Fatty alcohols and derivatives are important for proper deposition of a functional pollen wall. Mutations in specific genes encoding fatty acid reductases (FAR) responsible for fatty alcohol production cause abnormal development of pollen. A disrupted AtFAR2 (MS2) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana results in pollen developing an abnormal exine layer and a reduced fertility phenotype. AtFAR2 has been shown to be targeted to chloroplasts and in a purified form to be specific for acyl-ACP substrates. Here, we present data on the in vitro and in planta characterizations of AtFAR2 from A. thaliana and show that this enzyme has the ability to use both, C16:0-ACP and C16:0-CoA, as substrates to produce C16:0-alcohol. Our results further show that AtFAR2 is highly similar in properties and substrate specificity to AtFAR6 for which in vitro data has been published, and which is also a chloroplast localized enzyme. This suggests that although AtFAR2 is the major enzyme responsible for exine layer functionality, AtFAR6 might provide functional redundancy to AtFAR2.

  15. Pentoxifylline ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice by upregulating fatty acid β-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jia-Hung; Chao, Jung; Chang, Ming-Ling; Peng, Wen-Huang; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pao, Li-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, is characterised by abnormal fat accumulation in the liver in the absence of excessive alcohol intake. In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), concurrent NAFLD might increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and the mortality rate. Although several studies have examined the effectiveness of pentoxifylline (PTX) in NAFLD treatment, no results are available to verify the effectiveness of PTX in treating T2D associated with NAFLD. In this study, we developed a combined high-fat diet-induced obesity and low-dose streptozocin-induced hyperglycaemia mouse model to mimic the concurrent NAFLD and T2D pathological condition. By combining physiological assessments, pathological examinations, metabolomics studies on blood, urine, and liver, and measurements of gene and protein expression, we elucidated the effectiveness and the underlying mechanism of action of PTX in the hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice. Our results revealed that PTX ameliorated NAFLD in the hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice by upregulating fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, the glycolysis pathway and branched-chain amino acid-related pathways in these mice were restored by PTX. PMID:27612024

  16. Size distributions of n-alkanes, fatty acids and fatty alcohols in springtime aerosols from New Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mingjie; Fu, Pingqing; Aggarwal, Shankar G; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa

    2016-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in New Delhi, India from March 6 to April 6, 2012. Homologous series of n-alkanes (C19C33), n-fatty acids (C12C30) and n-alcohols (C16C32) were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed a high-variation in the concentrations and size distributions of these chemicals during non-haze, haze, and dust storm days. In general, n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and n-alcohols presented a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm for fine modes and coarse modes, respectively. Overall, the particulate matter mainly existed in the coarse mode (≥2.1 μm), accounting for 64.8-68.5% of total aerosol mass. During the haze period, large-scale biomass burning emitted substantial fine hydrophilic smoke particles into the atmosphere, which leads to relatively larger GMDs (geometric mean diameter) of n-alkanes in the fine mode than those during the dust storms and non-haze periods. Additionally, the springtime dust storms transported a large quantity of coarse particles from surrounding or local areas into the atmosphere, enhancing organic aerosol concentration and inducing a remarkable size shift towards the coarse mode, which are consistent with the larger GMDs of most organic compounds especially in total and coarse modes. Our results suggest that fossil fuel combustion (e.g., vehicular and industrial exhaust), biomass burning, residential cooking, and microbial activities could be the major sources of lipid compounds in the urban atmosphere in New Delhi.

  17. Agreement between the fatty acid ethyl ester hair test for alcohol and social workers' reports.

    PubMed

    Kulaga, Vivian; Gareri, Joey; Fulga, Netta; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social worker reports and the fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) test as a biomarker for heavy alcohol use. In 2005, a diagnostic program to detect excessive alcohol use by FAEE hair analysis in parents at high risk of having children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders was established. All cases submitted by Child Protective Services between May and December of 2007 (n = 172) were included comparing social worker reports with FAEE test outcome by odds ratio analysis. A subanalysis of mothers (n = 119), excluding fathers, was also performed. Factors associated with testing positive for hair FAEE in parents, and mothers alone, were: knowledge of a specific instance of problem drinking within the past 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 5.11, 2.57-10.16 and OR = 8.51, 3.59-20.18, respectively) and third party reports alleging alcohol abuse (OR = 3.31, 1.69-6.46 and OR = 3.30, 1.45-7.50, respectively). Mothers who admitted to heavy drinking were also seven times more likely to test positive for hair FAEE (OR = 6.74, 1.50-30.38) than those who did not. Factors negatively associated with testing positive for hair FAEE in parents, and mothers alone, were: social workers testing for FAEE without the suspicion of alcohol use but rather as a measure to "cover all bases" (OR = 0.09, 0.02-0.40 and (OR = 0.13, 0.03-0.58, respectively) or because of a history/suspicion of illicit drug use (OR = 0.2, 0.07-0.55 and OR = 0.26, 0.08-0.80, respectively). Eleven of 15 reports, indicating levels of consumption, were also in clinical agreement with FAEE test outcome. The FAEE hair test is being applied for the first time in the present context. Our results show the test corroborates well with social workers' suspicion of alcohol use. Reported factors directly related to alcohol use were significantly associated with testing positive for excessive alcohol use, whereas factors not directly related to alcohol use were negatively

  18. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis. PMID:26602919

  19. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-11-25

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis.

  20. [The unity of pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty disease of liver. The metabolic disorder of fatty acids and triglycerides].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Ivanova, K V; Malyshev, P P; Kaba, S I; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty disease of liver (steatosis) is still as unclear as a loss of hepatocytes similar to apoptosis, development of biological reaction of inflammation, its transformation into steatohepatitis with subsequent fibrosis and formation of atrophic cirrhosis. The article suggests that steatosis is developed due to higher concentration of palmitic saturated fatty acid (C 16:0) in food, intensification of its endogenic synthesis from food carbohydrates and glucose and development of insulin resistance. It is displayed in in hormone ability to activate both oxidation in cells of glucose and synthesis of oleic monoene fatty acid from palmitic saturated fatty acid (C 18:1). The insulin resistance initiates pathologic process on the level of paracrine associations of cells resulting in permanent increase of concentration of non-etherified fatty acids in intercellular medium and intensification of their passive absorption by cells. The phylogenetically ancient mitochondrions will not to oxidize glucose until non-etherified fatty acids are present in cytosol and hence there is an opportunity to oxidize them. To eliminate undesirable action of polar saturated palmitic fatty acid, the cells etherify it by spirit glyceride into triglycerides to deposit in cytosol or to secrete into blood in a form of lipoproteins of very low density. Under insulin resistance, saturated palmitic fatty acid synthesized by hepatocytes from glucose, does not further transform into oleic monoenic fatty acid. The cells are to etherify endogenic (exogenic) palmnitic saturated fatty acid into composition of aphysiologic palmitic triglycerides (saturated palmitic fatty acid in position sn-2 of spirit glyceride). At that, triglycerides of palmitat-palmitat-oleat and even tripalmitat type are formed. The melting temperature of tripalmitat is 48 degrees C and melting temperature of physiologic trioletat is 13 degrees C. The intracellular lipases factually can't hydrolyze

  1. The composition of the cuticular and internal free fatty acids and alcohols from Lucilia sericata males and females.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Wieloch, Wioletta; Włóka, Emilia; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    GC, GC-MS, and HPLC-LLSD analyses were used to identify and quantify cuticular and internal lipids in males and females of the blow-fly (Lucilia sericata). Sixteen free fatty acids, seven alcohols and cholesterol were identified and quantitatively determined in the cuticular lipids of L. sericata. Cuticular fatty acids ranged from C(6) to C(20) and included unsaturated entities such as 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9, 20:4n-3 and 20:5n-3. Cuticular alcohols (only saturated and even-numbered) ranged from C(12) to C(20) in males and C(10) to C(22) in females. Only one sterol was found in the cuticular lipids of both males and females. 23 free fatty acids, five alcohols and cholesterol were identified in the internal lipids. Internal fatty acids were present in large amounts-7.4 mg/g (female) and 10.1 mg/g (male). Only traces of internal alcohols (from C(14) to C(26) in males, from C(14) to C(22) in females) were found in L. sericata. Large amounts of internal cholesterol were identified in L. sericata males and females (0.49 and 0.97 mg/g of the insect body, respectively).

  2. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-09-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed microbial cultures with a headspace of 1.5 bar of hydrogen. Observed alcohol concentrations were 3.69+/-0.25 mM of ethanol, 8.08+/-0.85 mM of propanol and 3.66+/-0.05 mM of n-butanol. The conversion efficiency based on the electron balance was 55.1+/-5.6% with acetate as substrate, 50.3+/-4.7% with propionate and 46.7+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. Methane was the most predominant by-product in each batch experiment, 33.6+/-9.6% of VFA and hydrogen was converted to methane with acetate as substrate; which was 27.1+/-7.1% with propionate and 36.6+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. This VFAs reducing renewable fuel production process does not require carbohydrates like fermentable sugars, but uses biomass with high water content or low sugar content that is unsuitable as feedstock for current fermentation processes. This so-called low-grade biomass is abundantly present in many agricultural areas and is economically very attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  4. Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Di Santo, Serena; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intra-hepatic fat accumulation and mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully explained. Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. We investigated its activity in patients with fatty liver. LAL activity (nmol/spot/h) was measured in 100 adult healthy subjects (HS) and in 240 NAFLD patients. A sub-analysis on 35 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. Median LAL activity was 1.15 (0.95–1.72) in HS. It was significantly reduced in NAFLD [0.78 (0.61–1.01), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. A further reduction was observed in the subgroup of NASH [0.67 (0.51–0.77), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. Patients with LAL activity below median had higher values of serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-c (p < 0.05), and increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, p < 0.001; AST, p < 0.01; GGT, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with LAL activity below median were ALT (OR: 1.018, 95% CI 1.004–1.032, p = 0.011) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.551, 95% CI 1.241–5.245, p = 0.011), whilst statin use predicted a better LAL function (OR: 0.464, 95% CI 0.248–0.866, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest a strong association between impaired LAL activity and NAFLD. A better knowledge of the role of LAL may provide new insights in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:26288848

  5. Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Di Santo, Serena; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intra-hepatic fat accumulation and mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully explained. Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. We investigated its activity in patients with fatty liver. LAL activity (nmol/spot/h) was measured in 100 adult healthy subjects (HS) and in 240 NAFLD patients. A sub-analysis on 35 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. Median LAL activity was 1.15 (0.95-1.72) in HS. It was significantly reduced in NAFLD [0.78 (0.61-1.01), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. A further reduction was observed in the subgroup of NASH [0.67 (0.51-0.77), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. Patients with LAL activity below median had higher values of serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-c (p < 0.05), and increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, p < 0.001; AST, p < 0.01; GGT, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with LAL activity below median were ALT (OR: 1.018, 95% CI 1.004-1.032, p = 0.011) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.551, 95% CI 1.241-5.245, p = 0.011), whilst statin use predicted a better LAL function (OR: 0.464, 95% CI 0.248-0.866, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest a strong association between impaired LAL activity and NAFLD. A better knowledge of the role of LAL may provide new insights in NAFLD pathogenesis.

  6. Influence of two different alcohols in the esterification of fatty acids over layered zinc stearate/palmitate.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Eduardo José Mendes; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Wärnå, Johan; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Wypych, Fernando; Salmi, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    In this work, esterification of fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and stearic acid) with a commercial zinc carboxylate (a layered compound formed by simultaneous intercalation of stearate and palmitate anions) was performed. Kinetic modeling using a quasi-homogeneous approach successfully fitted experimental data at different molar ratio of fatty acids/alcohols (1-butanol and 1-hexanol) and temperature. An apparent first-order reaction related to all reactants was found and activation energy of 66 kJ/mol was reported. The catalyst showed to be unique, as it can be easily recovered like a heterogeneous catalysts behaving like ionic liquids. In addition, this catalyst demonstrated a peculiar behavior, because higher reactivity was observed with the increase in the alcohols chain length compared to the authors' previous work using ethanol.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of polyherbal formulation (Normeta) in oxidative stress induced by alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron in rats.

    PubMed

    Patere, Shilpa N; Saraf, Madhusudan N; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a large number of diseases or disorders which are initiated and/or exacerbated by pro-oxidants such as various drugs including alcohol and food additives. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral treatment with polyherbal formulation Normeta (2 ml and 4 ml/kg) on hepatic damage induced by alcohol 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained at levels between 150 and 350 mg/dl), thermally oxidized oil (polyunsaturated fatty acids) (15% of diet) and carbonyl iron (1.5-2% of diet) for 30 days in rats. In vitro studies with 1, 1-Diphenyl, 2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide and Ferric chloride (Fe(+3) ions) showed that Normeta possesses antioxidant and metal chelating activity. Alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron feeding produced an increase in serum levels of iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and decrease in serum proteins. It was also associated with elevated lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and disruption of antioxidant defence mechanism in liver, decreased body weight and increased liver to body weight ratio. Oral administration of Normeta along with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron decreased the serum iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels and increased serum protein levels. The levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased. Improvement in body weight and liver to body weight ratio was also observed. The effects of Normeta on physico-metabolic parameters were comparable with silymarin. This indicates that Normeta has favourable effect in bringing down the severity of hepatotoxicity.

  8. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  9. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Brain, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2013-01-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  10. Plasma fatty acid composition in French-Canadian children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation.

    PubMed

    Spahis, S; Alvarez, F; Dubois, J; Ahmed, N; Peretti, N; Levy, E

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. As the NAFLD pathogenesis is associated with diet and lifestyle, the aims of the present work are to assess fatty acid (FA) composition in NAFLD young French-Canadian, to determine whether treatment with n-3 FA improves the plasma FA profile, and to define the time on the effectiveness of n-3 FA supplementation. Baseline characteristics of the NAFLD subjects show increased, anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Their plasma FA composition is characterized by a percent increase in total n-6 FA and a high proportion of saturated and total monounsaturated FA, as well as a decrease in Δ5 and increase in Δ6 desaturases. In conclusion, our results document for the first time the composition of plasma FAs in NAFLD young French Canadian and the efficacy of 3-month supplementation to improve the proportion of n-3 FA in their plasma.

  11. Correlation between ethanol stress and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non-Saccharomyces in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae by multivariate techniques.

    PubMed

    Archana, K M; Ravi, R; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2015-10-01

    Wine production is a complex process both from biochemical and microbiological point of view in which yeast plays a central role. The use of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non- Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for wine fermentations is of increasing interest to enhance the quality of wine.The most common stress, yeast cells encounter during wine fermentation is the increase in ethanol concentration.To enhance ethanol tolerance, alteration in the cellular lipid composition is one of its defence mechanism. Ethanol tolerance and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non Saccharomyces forms were compared with enological strains of Sacccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for the study, tolerated 15 % of ethanol and the non Saccharomyces strains such as, Issatchenkia occidentalis and Issatchenkia orientalis tolerated 10 % of ethanol. On exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol stress, the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease in saturated fatty acids. Decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids, exhibited by non-Saccharomyces yeasts when exposed to ethanol stress, could be one of the reasons for their inability to withstand more than 10 % of alcohol. Multivariate techniques of data analysis - principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were employed in order to establish differentiation criteria as function of yeast strains, alcohol stress and their fatty acid profile. Based on the data, Chemometrics, such as principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis, can be successfully applied to fatty acid data to categorize the yeast.

  12. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  13. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  14. The antifungal activity of the cuticular and internal fatty acid methyl esters and alcohols in Calliphora vomitoria.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Cerkowniak, Magdalena; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    SUMMARY The composition of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and alcohol fractions of the cuticular and internal lipids of Calliphora vomitoria larvae, pupae and male/female adults was obtained by separating these two fractions by HPLC-LLSD and analysing them quantitatively using GC-MS. Analysis of the cuticular lipids of the worldwide, medically important ectoparasite C. vomitoria revealed 6 FAMEs with odd-numbered carbon chains from C15:0 to C19:0 in the larvae, while internal lipids contained 9 FAMEs ranging from C15:1 to C19:0. Seven FAMEs from C15:0 to C19:0 were identified in the cuticular lipids of the pupae, whereas the internal lipids of the pupae contained 10 FAMEs from C13:0 to C19:0. The cuticular lipids of males and females and also the internal lipids of males contained 5, 7 and 6 FAMEs from C15:0 to C19:0 respectively. Seven FAMEs from C13:0 to C19:0 were identified in the internal lipids of females, and 7, 6, 5 and 3 alcohols were found in the cuticular lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females respectively. Only saturated alcohols with even-numbered carbon chains were present in these lipids. Only 1 alcohol (C22:0) was detected in the internal lipids of C. vomitoria larvae, while just 4 alcohols from - C18:0 to C24:0 - were identified in the internal lipids of pupae, and males and females. We also identified glycerol and cholesterol in the larvae, pupae, males and females of C. vomitoria. The individual alcohols and FAMEs, as well as their mixtures isolated from the cuticular and internal lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females of C. vomitoria, demonstrated antimicrobial activity against entomopathogenic fungi.

  15. Altered fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in liver from morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Auguet, Teresa; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Martinez, Salomé; Porras, José Antonio; Aragonès, Gemma; Sabench, Fátima; Hernandez, Mercé; Aguilar, Carmen; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2014-12-02

    Lipid accumulation in the human liver seems to be a crucial mechanism in the pathogenesis and the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to evaluate gene expression of different fatty acid (FA) metabolism-related genes in morbidly obese (MO) women with NAFLD. Liver expression of key genes related to de novo FA synthesis (LXRα, SREBP1c, ACC1, FAS), FA uptake and transport (PPARγ, CD36, FABP4), FA oxidation (PPARα), and inflammation (IL6, TNFα, CRP, PPARδ) were assessed by RT-qPCR in 127 MO women with normal liver histology (NL, n = 13), simple steatosis (SS, n = 47) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 67). Liver FAS mRNA expression was significantly higher in MO NAFLD women with both SS and NASH compared to those with NL (p = 0.003, p = 0.010, respectively). Hepatic IL6 and TNFα mRNA expression was higher in NASH than in SS subjects (p = 0.033, p = 0.050, respectively). Interestingly, LXRα, ACC1 and FAS expression had an inverse relation with the grade of steatosis. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. In conclusion, our results indicate that lipogenesis seems to be downregulated in advanced stages of SS, suggesting that, in this type of extreme obesity, the deregulation of the lipogenic pathway might be associated with the severity of steatosis.

  16. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care. PMID:16812965

  18. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  19. Effectiveness of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    He, Xi-Xi; Wu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Ren-Pin; Chen, Chao; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Wu, Bin-Jiao; Huang, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical syndrome with the main characteristic of diffuse liver cells with fatty changes. The clinical evolution of NAFLD includes simple non-alcoholic fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Findings We conducted this review to identify the effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) in NAFLD. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ω-3 PUFA treatment for NAFLD were considered. Two reviewers assessed the quality of each study and collected data independently. Disagreements were resolved by discussion among the reviewers and any of the other authors of the paper. We performed a meta-analysis and reported summary estimates of outcomes as inverse variance (IV), fixed or random, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included seven RCTs involving 442 patients (227 for the experimental group and 215 for the control group). All the patients were divided into two groups: one treated with ω-3 PUFA and the other was the control group (generally placebo). The demographics of the ω-3 PUFA and control groups were comparable. Beneficial changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (IV 95% CI: −7.61 [−12.83 to −2.39], p = 0.004), total cholesterol (TC) (IV 95% CI: −13.41 [−21.44 to −5.38], p = 0.001), triglyceride (TG) (IV 95% CI: −43.96 [−51.21 to −36.71], p<0.00001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (IV 95% CI: 6.97 [2.05 to 11.90], p = 0.006) favored ω-3 PUFA treatment. Omega-3 PUFA tended towards a beneficial effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (IV 95% CI: −6.89 [−17.71 to 3.92], p = 0.21), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (IV 95% CI: −8.28 [−18.38 to 1.83], p = 0.11) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (IV 95% CI: −7.13 [−14.26 to 0.0], p = 0.05). Conclusions Supplementation with ω-3 PUFA is a

  20. Improved conversion efficiencies for n-fatty acid reduction to primary alcohols by the solventogenic acetogen "Clostridium ragsdalei".

    PubMed

    Isom, Catherine E; Nanny, Mark A; Tanner, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    "Clostridium ragsdalei" is an acetogen that ferments synthesis gas (syngas, predominantly H2:CO2:CO) to ethanol, acetate, and cell mass. Previous research showed that C. ragsdalei could also convert propionic acid to 1-propanol and butyric acid to 1-butanol at conversion efficiencies of 72.3 and 21.0 percent, respectively. Our research showed that C. ragsdalei can also reduce pentanoic and hexanoic acid to the corresponding primary alcohols. This reduction occurred independently of growth in an optimized medium with headspace gas exchange (vented and gassed with CO) every 48 h. Under these conditions, conversion efficiencies increased to 97 and 100 % for propionic and butyric acid, respectively. The conversion efficiencies for pentanoic and hexanoic acid to 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol, respectively, were 82 and 62 %. C. ragsdalei also reduced acetone to 2-propanol at a conversion efficiency of 100 %. Further, we showed that C. ragsdalei uses an aldehyde oxidoreductase-like enzyme to reduce n-fatty acids to the aldehyde intermediates in a reaction that requires ferredoxin and exogenous CO.

  1. Amelioration of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with NPC1L1-targeted IgY or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Sik; Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Junghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yun Bin; Han, Young-Min; Ock, Chan-Young; Cha, Ji-Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2017-01-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to comorbidities such as cardiovascular and serious metabolic diseases; however, the current therapeutic options are limited. Based on our previous report that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can significantly ameliorate high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD, we explored the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, which is a chicken egg yolk-derived IgY specific for the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, on NAFLD in mice. We generated N-IgY and confirmed its efficient cholesterol transport-blocking activity in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, which was comparable to the effect of ezetimibe (EZM). C57BL/6 wild type and fat-1 transgenic mice, capable of producing n-3 PUFAs, were fed a high fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with N-IgY. Endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs combined with N-IgY led to significant decreases in hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation (p<0.01). The combination of N-IgY and n-3 PUFAs resulted in significant upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol uptake (LDLR), reverse cholesterol transport (ABCG5/ABCG8), and bile acid metabolism (CYP7A1). Moreover, fat-1 transgenic mice treated with N-IgY showed significant downregulation of genes involved in cholesterol-induced hepatic stellate cell activation (Tgfb1, Tlr4, Col1a1, Col1a2, and Timp2). Collectively, these data suggest that n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, alone or in combination, represent a promising treatment strategy to prevent HFD-induced fatty liver through the activation cholesterol catabolism to bile acids and by decreasing cholesterol-induced fibrosis.

  2. Fatty alcohols production by oleaginous yeast.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Gibert, Jordi; Suárez, Beatriz; Lara, Armando; Ronchel, Carmen; Adrio, José L

    2015-11-01

    We have engineered Rhodosporidium toruloides to produce fatty alcohols by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. Production of fatty alcohols in flasks was achieved in different fermentation media at titers ranging from 0.2 to 2 g/L. In many of the conditions tested, more than 80 % of fatty alcohols were secreted into the cultivation broth. Through fed-batch fermentation in 7 L bioreactors, over 8 g/L of C(16)-C(18) fatty alcohols were produced using sucrose as the substrate. This is the highest titer ever reported on microbial production of fatty alcohols to date.

  3. Studies on performance evaluation of a green plasticizer made by enzymatic esterification of furfuryl alcohol and castor oil fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sohini; Ghosh, Mahua

    2017-02-10

    The esterification of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and castor oil fatty acid (COFA) at 3:1 molar ratio, by immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B (NS 435 from Novozyme) in a solvent free system gave a maximum yield of 88.64% (%w/w) at 5h. Performance of the FA-COFA ester plasticized Ethyl Cellulose (EC) films were evaluated by surface morphologies, XRD analysis, mechanical properties,thermal properties, water vapor permeability and migration stability test. It was an effective plasticizer with better mechanical properties and thermal stability at the increasing concentration of FA-COFA ester (15-25%) containing EC film, than the traditional plasticizer, i.e; dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in producing good quality films. Chemical structure and the intermolecular interactions between FA-COFA ester and ethyl cellulose chains were the causative agents of these outstanding performances. Therefore, this FA-COFA ester, with significant plasticizing property, at a certain concentration, can be a substitute of DBP.

  4. Fatty aldehyde and fatty alcohol metabolism: review and importance for epidermal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, William B

    2014-03-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  5. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. PMID:24036493

  6. Statins Increase Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver and Prevent Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Sol; Jang, Jung Eun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Woo, Sung Hoon; Kim, Bum Joong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Park, Hye Sun; Park, In-Sun; Koh, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown. Methods Seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day), for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver. Results Statin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels. Conclusion Statins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH. PMID:27098507

  7. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  8. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid-dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Decara, Juan M; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Juan; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Baixeras, Elena; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana L; Almeida, Bruno; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA) in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg(-1)) for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2). The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  9. Severity of alcohol dependence is associated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase Pro129Thr missense variant.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Matthew E; Gowin, Joshua L; Yan, Jia; Schwandt, Melanie L; Spagnolo, Primavera A; Sun, Hui; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2017-02-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reward and addiction. One of the two main endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH Pro129Thr, rs324420). The Thr129 allele has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use, but the association has not been widely replicated and may be stronger for clinical measures of severity rather than categorical diagnosis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the Thr129 allele was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) diagnosis and severity in a sample of 1434 European American and African American individuals, 952 of whom were diagnosed with lifetime AD. Participants were genotyped for FAAH rs324420, and ancestry was determined via a genome-wide panel of ancestry informative markers. Subjects participated in Structured Clinical Interviews for psychiatric disorders and 90-day Timeline Followback interviews to assess recent alcohol use. European American participants with current AD had a higher Thr129 allele frequency than non-dependent controls. In European Americans with lifetime AD, there were significantly different distributions of drinking days and binge drinking days between the two genotype groups, with Thr129 carriers reporting a median of 10 fewer abstinent days and 13 more binge drinking days than Pro129/Pro129 homozygotes. In African American participants, there were no significant differences between Thr129 allele frequency in cases and controls and no significant differences in measures of AD severity by genotype. These findings provide evidence that the Pro129Thr missense variant is associated with AD severity in European Americans.

  10. [Effects of alcoholic beverages on the fatty acid spectrum of the expired air condensate lipids in patients with tuberculosis of the respiratory organs].

    PubMed

    Pikas, O B

    2000-01-01

    Results are highlighted of the study into the pulmonary surfactant in healthy subjects. as well as in those afflicted with pulmonary tuberculosis who abused alcoholic drinks, with the aid of the chromotography techniques. It has been ascertained that activity of the pulmonary surfactant is dependent upon the clinical form of tuberculosis, its extension and presence of alcoholism. The lipid polyunsaturated fatty acids, with the linoleic (C18:2) and arachidonic (C20:4) acids being the most sensitive ones to the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the study into the spectrum of lipid fatty acids in the expired air consensate suggest intencity of LPO in the pulmonary surfactant and permit carrying out its correction in a timely fashion during the process of treatment.

  11. Natural fats and oils route to fatty alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Buchold, H.

    1983-02-21

    The Philippines will be the site for a chemical plant that will use coconut oil to make fatty alcohols by means of a direct hydrogenation route - eliminating an intermediate esterification step. The facility will produce about 65,000 tonnes/yr of coconut fatty acid and 7,900 tonnes/yr of glycerine. About half of the fatty acid produced will be used to make 29,000 tonnes/yr of fatty alcohols. The principles and operation of the process are outlined.

  12. High-yield preparation of wax esters via lipase-catalyzed esterification using fatty acids and alcohols from crambe and camelina oils.

    PubMed

    Steinke, G; Weitkamp, P; Klein, E; Mukherjee, K D

    2001-02-01

    Fatty acids obtained from seed oils of crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and camelina (Camelina sativa) via alkaline saponification or steam splitting were esterified using lipases as biocatalysts with oleyl alcohol and the alcohols derived from crambe and camelina oils via hydrogenolysis of their methyl esters. Long-chain wax esters were thus obtained in high yields when Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica) and papaya (Carica papaya) latex lipase were used as biocatalysts and vacuum was applied to remove the water formed. The highest conversions to wax esters were obtained with Novozym 435 (> or =95%) after 4-6 h of reaction, whereas with papaya latex lipase such a high degree of conversion was attained after 24 h. Products obtained from stoichiometric amounts of substrates were almost exclusively (>95%) composed of wax esters having compositions approaching that of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil, especially when crambe fatty acids in combination with camelina alcohols or camelina fatty acids in combination with crambe alcohols were used as substrates.

  13. Dietary saturated fatty acids reduce hepatic lipid accumulation but induce fibrotic change in alcohol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Peng, Hsiang-Chi; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we evaluated the influence of an ethanol-containing diet with high saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats weighing about 160 g were divided into four groups: an ethanol (E) group fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet with 36% total calories as fat (corn oil, olive oil and safflower oil); a control (C) group pair-fed an isoenergetic diet without ethanol; an ethanol with saturated fat (EHS) group fed an ethanol-containing diet which contained 40% total calories as fat (90% lard); and a control with saturated fat (CHS) group fed an isoenergetic diet without ethanol, which contained 40% total calories as fat. Results After 8 weeks of treatment, the liver weight and plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in E and EHS groups were significantly higher than those of C group. Significantly higher scores of inflammation, necrosis, and fatty changes were found in E group, whereas significantly higher scores of necrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, and fibrosis were found in EHS group. Although significantly lower plasma adiponectin concentrations were observed in both E and EHS groups, compared to C group, plasma adiponectin in EHS group was significantly higher than that in E group. There was no change in hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α expression between E and C groups, and rats in EHS group showed a significantly elevated level compared to the other groups. A lower hepatic sirtuins (SIRT)-1 level was found in E group, but it did not reach statistical significance. Moreover, the highest plasma TGF-β1 level was found in EHS group. Compared to C group, the hepatic reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substance level were significantly increased in E and EHS groups; however, there was no significant difference between E and EHS groups. Significantly increased hepatic CYP2E1 expression was observed in both E and

  14. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  15. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  16. The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are known as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases, insulin resistance and obesity accompanied by systemic inflammation, the features of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the effects on the liver induced by lipids and also few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress. This study investigates whether high-fat diets with different TFA levels induce oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks. Results A liver damage was observed in rats fed with high-fat diet via increase of liver lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The intake of oxidized oil led to higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower concentration of plasma antioxidants in comparison to rats fed with FSO. The higher inflammatory response in the liver was induced by MG diet. Liver histopathology from OSO and MG groups showed respectively moderate to severe cytoplasm vacuolation, hypatocyte hypertrophy, hepatocyte ballooning, and necroinflammation. Conclusion It seems that a strong relationship exists between the consumption of TFA in the oxidized oils and lipid peroxidation and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The extent of the peroxidative events in liver was also different depending on the fat source suggesting that feeding margarine with higher TFA levels may represent a direct source of oxidative stress for the organism. The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of TFA on NAFLD. PMID:21943357

  17. Pharmaceuticals and Surfactants from Alga-Derived Feedstock: Amidation of Fatty Acids and Their Derivatives with Amino Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Tkacheva, Anastasia; Dosmagambetova, Inkar; Chapellier, Yann; Mäki-Arvela, Päivi; Hachemi, Imane; Savela, Risto; Leino, Reko; Viegas, Carolina; Kumar, Narendra; Eränen, Kari; Hemming, Jarl; Smeds, Annika; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2015-08-24

    Amidation of renewable feedstocks, such as fatty acids, esters, and Chlorella alga based biodiesel, was demonstrated with zeolites and mesoporous materials as catalysts and ethanolamine, alaninol, and leucinol. The last two can be derived from amino acids present in alga. The main products were fatty alkanol amides and the corresponding ester amines, as confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Thermal amidation of technical-grade oleic acid and stearic acid at 180 °C with ethanolamine were non-negligible; both gave 61% conversion. In the amidation of stearic acid with ethanolamine, the conversion over H-Beta-150 was 80% after 3 h, whereas only 63% conversion was achieved for oleic acid; this shows that a microporous catalyst is not suitable for this acid and exhibits a wrinkled conformation. The highest selectivity to stearoyl ethanolamide of 92% was achieved with mildly acidic H-MCM-41 at 70% conversion in 3 h at 180 °C. Highly acidic catalysts favored the formation of the ester amine, whereas the amide was obtained with a catalyst that exhibited an optimum acidity. The conversion levels achieved with different fatty acids in the range C12-C18 were similar; this shows that the fatty acid length does not affect the amidation rate. The amidation of methyl palmitate and biodiesel gave low conversions over an acidic catalyst, which suggested that the reaction mechanism in the amidation of esters was different.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  19. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of biodiesel from fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyi; Pan, Hong; Li, Xun

    2015-09-01

    Microbial production of biodiesel from renewable feedstock has attracted intensive attention. Biodiesel is known to be produced from short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs through the expression of wax ester synthase/fatty acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase that catalyzes the esterification of short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs. Here, we engineered Escherichia coli to produce various fatty alcohol acetate esters, which depend on the expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferase ATF1 that catalyzes the esterification of fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA. The fatty acid biosynthetic pathways generate fatty acyl-ACPs, fatty acyl-CoAs, or fatty acids, which can be converted to fatty alcohols by fatty acyl-CoA reductase, fatty acyl-ACP reductase, or carboxylic acid reductase, respectively. This study showed the biosynthesis of biodiesel from three fatty acid biosynthetic pathway intermediates.

  20. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  3. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  4. An improved method for rapidly quantifying fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium suitable for prenatal alcohol screening.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Rao, Chitra; Fulga, Netta; Aleksa, Katarina; Koren, Gideon

    2011-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, and elevated levels of FAEE in meconium are a useful biomarker for heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. FAEE in meconium has been recommended as useful and cost-effective for universal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure. To support an efficient universal screening program, an analytical method to detect and quantify FAEE in meconium needs to be accurate, inexpensive, and rapid. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical method that would satisfy these criteria and to validate this method using established laboratory guidelines. A method was developed and validated to detect and quantify four FAEEs (ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate) from 0.5 g of meconium using d(5)-ethyl esters as internal standards. The sample undergoes liquid-liquid extraction with heptane:acetone, the heptane layer is isolated and evaporated, and then, the resulting residue undergoes headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detection limits of the four FAEEs ranged from 0.020 to 0.042 nmol/g and are 6- to 25-fold lower than the individual FAEE threshold concentrations (0.5 nmol/g). This method also has good precision with the coefficient of variation ranging from 2.6 to 19.4% for concentrations of individual FAEE between 0.5 and 2.62 nmol/g meconium (n=4). Calculated concentrations of FAEE that underwent extraction from meconium were 100-101% of the expected concentration, demonstrating the accuracy of the method. The peak shape and retention time of each FAEE were unaffected by the presence of the matrix, and there is no carryover at clinically relevant concentrations. This method was also able to produce clean chromatograms from meconium samples that could not be quantified using a previous method because of high chromatographic background. This method provides an optimal approach to detecting and quantifying FAEE in

  5. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  6. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  7. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes.

  8. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Fatty Alcohol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-04-25

    To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.

  9. Alcohol dehydrogenases and an alcohol oxidase involved in the assimilation of exogenous fatty alcohols in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2015-05-01

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica can assimilate hydrophobic substrates, including n-alkanes and fatty alcohols. Here, eight alcohol dehydrogenase genes, ADH1-ADH7 and FADH, and a fatty alcohol oxidase gene, FAO1, were analyzed to determine their roles in the metabolism of hydrophobic substrates. A mutant deleted for all of these genes (ALCY02 strain) showed severely defective growth on fatty alcohols, and enhanced sensitivity to fatty alcohols in glucose-containing media. The ALCY02 strain grew normally on n-tetradecane or n-hexadecane, but exhibited slightly defective growth on n-decane or n-dodecane. It accumulated more 1-dodecanol and less dodecanoic acid than the wild-type strain when n-dodecane was fed. Expression of ADH1, ADH3 or FAO1, but not that of other ADH genes or FADH, in the ALCY02 strain restored its growth on fatty alcohols. In addition, a triple deletion mutant of ADH1, ADH3 and FAO1 showed similarly defective growth on fatty alcohols and on n-dodecane to the ALCY02 strain. Microscopic observation suggests that Adh1p and Adh3p are localized in the cytosol and Fao1p is in the peroxisome. These results suggest that Adh1p, Adh3p and Fao1p are responsible for the oxidation of exogenous fatty alcohols but play less prominent roles in the oxidation of fatty alcohols derived from n-alkanes.

  10. Plant fatty acyl reductases: enzymes generating fatty alcohols for protective layers with potential for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Primary fatty alcohols are found throughout the biological world, either in free form or in a combined state. They are common components of plant surface lipids (i.e. cutin, suberin, sporopollenin, and associated waxes) and their absence can significantly perturb these essential barriers. Fatty alcohols and/or derived compounds are also likely to have direct functions in plant biotic and abiotic interactions. An evolutionarily related set of alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases (FARs) is present in all kingdoms of life. Plant microsomal and plastid-associated FAR enzymes have been characterized, acting on acyl-coenzymeA (acyl-CoA) or acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates, respectively. FARs have distinct substrate specificities both with regard to chain length and chain saturation. Fatty alcohols and wax esters, which are a combination of fatty alcohol and fatty acid, have a variety of commercial applications. The expression of FARs with desired specificities in transgenic microbes or oilseed crops would provide a novel means of obtaining these valuable compounds. In the present review, we report on recent progress in characterizing plant FAR enzymes and in understanding the biological roles of primary fatty alcohols, as well as describe the biotechnological production and industrial uses of fatty alcohols.

  11. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  12. Direct quantitative gas chromatographic separation of C2-C6 fatty acids, methanol, and ethyl alcohol in aqueous microbial fermentation media.

    PubMed

    Rogosa, M; Love, L L

    1968-02-01

    A method is described for the direct quantitative gas chromatographic separation of C(2)-C(6) lower fatty acid homologues, methanol, and ethyl alcohol in aqueous microbial fermentation media. A hydrogen flame detector and a single-phase solid column packing, comprising beads of a polyaromatic resin (polystyrene cross-linked with divinyl benzene), were employed. Direct injections of 1 to 10 muliters of aqueous culture supernatant fluids were made. Quantitative recoveries of C(2)-C(6) acids added to culture supernatant fluids were obtained.

  13. Direct Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Separation of C2-C6 Fatty Acids, Methanol, and Ethyl Alcohol in Aqueous Microbial Fermentation Media

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, M.; Love, L. L.

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for the direct quantitative gas chromatographic separation of C2-C6 lower fatty acid homologues, methanol, and ethyl alcohol in aqueous microbial fermentation media. A hydrogen flame detector and a single-phase solid column packing, comprising beads of a polyaromatic resin (polystyrene cross-linked with divinyl benzene), were employed. Direct injections of 1 to 10 μliters of aqueous culture supernatant fluids were made. Quantitative recoveries of C2-C6 acids added to culture supernatant fluids were obtained. PMID:5645415

  14. Alkanes, Alcohols, and Fatty Acids Record Complementary Signals in Fluvial Sediments: Insights From a Three Year Congo River Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, J. D.; Schefuß, E.; Bienvenu, D. J.; Pryer, H. V.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    The concentrations, distributions, δ13C and dD of plant waxes carried by fluvial suspended sediments contain valuable information about terrestrial ecosystems and climate. To properly interpret past changes recorded in sedimentary archives it is crucial to understand the sources and variability of exported plant waxes in modern systems on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. Here, we present distributions, δ13C, and δD composition of three compound classes (n-alkanes, n-alcohols, n-alkanoic acids) in a 34-month time series of suspended sediments from the Congo River. We show multiple end-members contribute differentially to n-alkanes, as evidenced by a large δ13C spread of 4.2 ± 0.7‰ across homologues and low correlation between homologue concentrations. n-Acids and n-alcohols exhibit less δ13C variability, indicating dominance of C3 end-members. Temporally, n-acid and n-alcohol concentrations, distributions, and δD values are much more influenced by seasonal changes in discharge than n-alkanes. Increasing discharge through the low-lying swamp forest likely biases n-acids and n-alcohols toward this highly productive source area, while n-alkanes are less affected due to their more refractory nature and persistence during transport. This is reflected in large changes in n-alcohol/acid minus n-alkane δD (∆δD) between high and low discharge of 15-20‰. We conclude that the n-alkanoic acids and n-alcohols respond to seasonal/inter-annual changes in source area while n-alkanes better represent a seasonally stable signal, and that multiple n-alkyl lipid classes therefore record complementary information in sedimentary archives.

  15. Lipid and fatty acid/alcohol compositions of the subarctic copepods Neocalanus cristatus and Eucalanus bungii from various depths in the Oyashio region, western North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Nishida, Shuhei; Graeve, Martin; Kattner, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipids of Neocalanus cristatus and Eucalanus bungii (C3 to adults), collected in March, May, and December from various depths (0-2000m) were studied in the Oyashio region, western North Pacific. Total lipid and wax ester contents of younger N. cristatus stages increased during the development, being higher in May than in March and December. Major fatty acids of younger N. cristatus were 16:0, 20:5(n-3), and 22:6(n-3) and the dominant alcohols were 16:0, 16:1(n-7), 20:1(n-9)/(n-11) and 22:1(n-11). The energy-rich 20:1 and 22:1 moieties increased from the younger to the adult stages showing the importance of lipid biosynthesis which may be advantageous for successful overwintering and reproduction at depth. The 16:4(n-1) fatty acid, characteristic of a diatom diet increased in May, particularly in the younger stages. Our results suggest that the diatom-dominated feeding mode of younger N. cristatus during the spring bloom is important for an effective accumulation of wax esters. In contrast to N. cristatus, E. bungii accumulated substantial amounts of triacylglycerols. The total lipid and triacylglycerol content increased slightly toward the older developmental stages. The major fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-9) and (n-7), and 20:5(n-3). There was no evidence of developmental or seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition. The differences in the lipid storage modes of both copepods via wax esters or triacylglycerols are species-specific but their fatty acid compositions varied according to diet and developmental stage, especially in N. cristatus. These lipid characteristics are discussed in relation to reproduction, feeding modes, diapause and overwintering strategies.

  16. Involvement of endocannabinoids in alcohol “binge” drinking: studies of mice with human fatty acid amide hydrolase genetic variation and after CB1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Huang, Ted; Lee, Francis; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system has been found to play an important role in modulating alcohol intake. Inhibition or genetic deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, a key catabolic enzyme for endocannabinoids) leads to increased alcohol consumption and preference in rodent models. A common human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; C385A, rs324420) in the FAAH gene is associated with decreased enzymatic activity of FAAH, resulting in increased anandamide levels in both humans and FAAH C385A knock-in mice. Methods As this FAAH SNP has been reported to be associated with altered alcohol abuse, the present study used these genetic knock-in mice containing the human SNP C385A to determine the impact of variant FAAH gene on alcohol “binge” drinking in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) model. Results We found that the FAAHA/A mice had greater alcohol intake and preference than the wild-type FAAHC/C mice, suggesting that increased endocannabinoid signaling in FAAHA/A mice led to increased alcohol “binge” consumption. The specificity on alcohol vulnerability was suggested by the lack of any FAAH genotype difference on sucrose or saccharin intake. Using the “binge” DID model, we confirmed that selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 reduced alcohol intake in the wild-type mice. Conclusions These data suggest that there is direct and selective involvement of the human FAAH C385A SNP and CB1 receptors in alcohol “binge” drinking. PMID:26857901

  17. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. Z.; Park, B. K.; Yan, C. G.; Choi, J. G.; Ahn, J. S.; Shin, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  18. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  19. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Varatharajalu, Ravi; Garige, Mamatha; Leckey, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β) affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA) that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP) that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways. PMID:28074114

  20. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Varatharajalu, Ravi; Garige, Mamatha; Leckey, Leslie C; Lakshman, M Raj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β) affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA) that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP) that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways.

  1. Fatty alcohol production in Lipomyces starkeyi and Yarrowia lipolytica

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; ...

    2016-10-24

    Current biological pathways to produce biofuel intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels are not cost effective. Previously, oleaginous yeasts have been investigated primarily for lipid production. However, yeasts store neutral lipids intracellularly making recovery difficult and expensive. In addition, once recovered from the cells, lipids are difficult to blend directly with the existing fuels without upgrading. We have, therefore, begun to investigate secreted fatty acid-derived products which can be easily recovered and upgraded to fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrate the production of fatty alcohols by the oleaginous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi, throughmore » expression of the fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene from Marinobactor aquaeolei VT8. This strategy resulted in the production of 167 and 770 mg/L of fatty alcohols in shake flask from Y. lipolytica and L starkeyi, respectively. When using a dodecane overlay during fermentation, 92 and 99% of total fatty alcohols produced by Y. lipolytica and L. starkeyi, respectively, were extracted into the dodecane phase, which compares favorably to the 3 and 50% recovered, respectively, without the dodecane layer. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length, saturated fatty alcohols, i.e., hexadecanol (C16:0) and octadecanol (C18:0), were predominant and accounted for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that the oleaginous yeasts, Y. lipolytica and L. starkeyi, can serve as platform organisms for the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts.« less

  2. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  3. 21 CFR 178.3480 - Fatty alcohols, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fatty alcohols, synthetic. 178.3480 Section 178... § 178.3480 Fatty alcohols, synthetic. Synthetic fatty alcohols may be safely used as components of... following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive consists of fatty alcohols meeting the...

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  5. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a biocarrier on volatile fatty acids production of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chaikasem, Supawat; Abeynayaka, Amila; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    This work studied the effect of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-gel) beads, as an effective biocarrier for volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in hydrolytic reactor of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (TAnMBR). The two-stage TAnMBR, treating synthetic high strength particulate wastewater with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) [16.4±0.8 g/L], was operated at 55 °C. Under steady state conditions, the reactor was operated at an organic loading rate of 8.2±0.4 kg COD/m(3) d. Operational performance of the system was monitored by assessing VFA composition and quantity, methane production and COD removal efficiency. Increment of VFA production was observed with PVA-gel addition. Hydrolytic effluent contained large amount of acetic acid and n-butyric acid. However, increase in VFA production adversely affected the methanogenic reactor performance due to lack of methanogenic archaea.

  6. Pathophysiology of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petta, Salvatore; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Rebelos, Eleni; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miele, Luca; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Valenti, Luca; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    The physiopathology of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are influenced by diet, life style and inflammation, which have a major impact on the severity of the clinicopathologic outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A short comprehensive review is provided on current knowledge of the pathophysiological interplay among major circulating effectors/mediators of fatty liver, such as circulating lipids, mediators released by adipose, muscle and liver tissues and pancreatic and gut hormones in relation to diet, exercise and inflammation. PMID:27973438

  7. Pathophysiology of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Petta, Salvatore; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Rebelos, Eleni; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miele, Luca; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Valenti, Luca; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2016-12-11

    The physiopathology of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are influenced by diet, life style and inflammation, which have a major impact on the severity of the clinicopathologic outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A short comprehensive review is provided on current knowledge of the pathophysiological interplay among major circulating effectors/mediators of fatty liver, such as circulating lipids, mediators released by adipose, muscle and liver tissues and pancreatic and gut hormones in relation to diet, exercise and inflammation.

  8. Impact of feeding and short-term temperature stress on the content and isotopic signature of fatty acids, sterols, and alcohols in the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, I.; Treignier, C.; Grover, R.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.

    2011-09-01

    This study assesses the combined effect of feeding and short-term thermal stress on various physiological parameters and on the fatty acid, sterol, and alcohol composition of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis. The compound-specific carbon isotope composition of the lipids was also measured. Under control conditions (26°C), feeding with Artemia salina significantly increased the symbiont density and chlorophyll content and the growth rates of the corals. It also doubled the concentrations of almost all fatty acid (FA) compounds and increased the n-alcohol and sterol contents. δ13C results showed that the feeding enhancement of FA concentrations occurred either via a direct pathway, for one of the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) compounds of the food (18:3n-3 FA), or via an enhancement of photosynthate transfer (indirect pathway), for the other coral FAs. Cholesterol (C27Δ5) was also directly acquired from the food. Thermal stress (31°C) affected corals, but differently according to their feeding status. Chlorophyll, protein content, and maximal photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) decreased to a greater extent in starved corals. In such corals, FA concentrations were reduced by 33%, (especially C16, C18 FAs, and n-3 PUFA) and the sterol content by 27% (especially the C28∆5,22 and C28∆5). The enrichment in the δ13C signature of the storage and structural FAs suggests that they were the main compounds respired during the stress to maintain the coral metabolism. Thermal stress had less effect on the lipid concentrations of fed corals, as only FA levels were reduced by 13%, with no major changes in their isotope carbon signatures. In conclusion, feeding plays an essential role in sustaining T. reniformis metabolism during the thermal stress.

  9. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as alcohol markers: estimating a reliable cut-off point by evaluation of 1,057 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Bossers, Lydia; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Herre, Sieglinde; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem, especially in Western countries. Therefore, it is important to have markers of alcohol consumption with validated cut-off points. For many years research has focused on analysis of hair for alcohol markers, but data on the performance and reliability of cut-off values are still lacking. Evaluating 1,057 cases from 2005 to 2011, included a large sample group for the estimation of an applicable cut-off value when compared to earlier studies on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair. The FAEEs concentrations in hair, police investigation reports, medical history, and the macroscopic and microscopic alcohol-typical results from autopsy, such as liver, pancreas, and cardiac findings, were taken into account in this study. In 80.2 % of all 1,057 cases pathologic findings that may be related to alcohol abuse were reported. The cases were divided into social drinkers (n = 168), alcohol abusers (n = 502), and cases without information on alcohol use. The median FAEEs concentration in the group of social drinkers was 0.302 ng/mg (range 0.008-14.3 ng/mg). In the group of alcohol abusers a median of 1.346 ng/mg (range 0.010-83.7 ng/mg) was found. Before June 2009 the hair FAEEs test was routinely applied to a proximal hair segment of 0-6 cm, changing to a routinely investigated hair length of 3 cm after 2009, as proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT). The method showed significant differences between the groups of social drinkers and alcoholics, leading to an improvement in the postmortem detection of alcohol abuse. Nevertheless, the performance of the method was rather poor, with an area under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve AUC) of 0.745. The optimum cut-off value for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair FAEEs was 1.08 ng/mg, with a sensitivity of 56 % and a specificity of 80 %. In relation to the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012

  10. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.Y.; Kwak, H.S.; Choi, J.S.; Ahn, H.K.; Oh, Y.J.; Velázquez-Armenta, E.Y.; Nava-Ocampo, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  11. Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Delvin, Edgard; Patey, Natasha; Dubois, Josée; Henderson, Melanie; Lévy, Émile

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rapidly increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and its associated co-morbidities such as hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-insulinemia, hypertension, early atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are major public health concerns in many countries. Therefore the trends in child and adolescent obesity should be closely monitored over time, as in the near future, we may anticipate a major increase of young adults with the stigmata of the metabolic syndrome, and of the related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), that may lead to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:28356817

  12. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities.

  13. 21 CFR 178.3480 - Fatty alcohols, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty alcohols, synthetic. 178.3480 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3480 Fatty alcohols, synthetic. Synthetic fatty... consists of fatty alcohols meeting the specifications and definition prescribed in § 172.864 of...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3480 - Fatty alcohols, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fatty alcohols, synthetic. 178.3480 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3480 Fatty alcohols, synthetic. Synthetic fatty... consists of fatty alcohols meeting the specifications and definition prescribed in § 172.864 of...

  15. RGD-fatty alcohol-modified docetaxel liposomes improve tumor selectivity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghuan; Zheng, Xuelian; Sun, Yi; Ren, Zhao; Li, Xuemei; Cui, Guohui

    2014-07-01

    The tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) was conjugated with various fatty alcohols to obtain RGDOCnH2n+1 (n=8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18), which were incorporated into the bilayer of docetaxel liposomes to improve their tumor specificity. The fatty alcohols were accepted as linking groups to insert the tetrapeptide RGDX (X=amino acid) into the bilayer of liposomes. RGDX was previously shown to be a potent ligand to target tumor cell-surface integrin receptors, whereas RGD was not shown to have this ability. We hypothesized that RGD-fatty alcohol conjugates lacking the fourth amine X can guide liposomes to tumors without reducing their binding affinity to integrins. Antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies were evaluated in mice inoculated with S180 sarcoma. Compared with unmodified liposomes, RGD-fatty alcohol-modified liposomes successfully delivered significantly more docetaxel to tumors, which led to significant tumor weight loss and increased tumor docetaxel concentrations accompanied by reduced liver accumulation. Improved affinity of RGD-fatty alcohols to integrins was also confirmed on A375 cell model. Further comparisons among the tumor-targeting capacities of liposomes containing RGD-fatty alcohols, RGDF-fatty alcohols and RGDV-fatty acids demonstrated that RGD-fatty alcohols were as effective as the other two tetrapeptide derivatives. Therefore, a simplified tumor-targeting delivery system using RGD-fatty alcohols was developed.

  16. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene. PMID:22433663

  17. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis].

    PubMed

    Pár, Gabriella; Horváth, Gábor; Pár, Alajos

    2013-07-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome with close association with inzulin resistance and obesity, are the most common liver diseases, affecting up to a third of the population worldwide. They confer increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma as well as cardiovascular diseases. The review aims to summarize advances in epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Besides liver biopsy and biomarkers, a novel non-invasive diagnostic tool the called "controlled attenuation parameter" measuring the attenuation of ultrasound generated by the transient elastography transducer, can quantitatively assess the hepatic fat content and differentiate between steatosis grades. At the same time, liver stiffness (fibrosis) can also be evaluated. The authors present their own results obtained with the latter procedure. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the lifestyle intervention, weight loss, diet and exercise supported by cognitive behavioural therapy represent the basis of management. Components of metabolic syndrome (obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and arterial hypertension) have to be treated. Although there is no approved pharmacological therapy for NASH, it seems that long lasting administration of vitamin E in association with high dose ursodeoxycholic acid may be beneficial. In addition, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid substitution can also decrease liver fat, however, the optimal dose is not known yet. Further controlled clinical studies are warranted to establish the real value of any suggested treatment modalities for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, although these are in experimental phase yet.

  18. Fetal exposure to alcohol as evidenced by fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium in the absence of maternal drinking history in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daphne; Klein, Julia; Karaskov, Tatyana; Koren, Gideon

    2004-10-01

    The detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in neonatal meconium has been proposed as a novel screening method for intrauterine exposure to alcohol. We investigated the potential use of meconium FAEE screening in a high-risk neonatal population in the absence of maternal drinking history. One hundred forty-two meconium samples of neonates suspected of intrauterine illicit substance exposure and referred to the Motherisk Laboratory were analyzed for the existence of drugs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and FAEE by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). A positive FAEE test was previously defined as a cumulative measurement of 7 individual FAEE > or = 2 nmol/g. Seventy-one percent of the samples tested positive for at least 1 illicit drug, with cannabis being the most prevalent (52.3%). Fourteen percent of all samples tested positive for prenatal alcohol exposure, as evidenced by cumulative meconium FAEE > or = 2 nmol/g. Ethyl oleate, linoleate, palmitate, and arachidonate were detected most often and at the highest levels. At least 3 individual FAEE were detected in 95% of all positive samples, and none could be identified by the use of 1 selected FAEE. Significantly elevated levels of FAEE above the baseline and the presence of multiple FAEE species in meconium are exclusive to neonates who have likely been exposed to excessive amounts of alcohol in utero. Babies born to mothers who are suspected to use illicit drugs in pregnancy are at elevated risk for exposure also to alcohol in utero. Meconium FAEE are emerging biologic markers that can potentially facilitate earlier diagnosis and intervention for less apparent forms of alcohol-related disabilities that cannot be confirmed in the absence of maternal drinking history.

  19. Squalene in hair--a natural reference substance for the improved interpretation of fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations with respect to alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Auwärter, V; Kiessling, B; Pragst, F

    2004-10-29

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are incorporated into hair mainly from sebum. For this reason, the use of their concentration CFAEE as marker of excessive alcohol consumption is complicated by interindividual differences of the activity of the sebum glands and of elimination by hair care and hair cosmetics. Furthermore, an influence of the investigated hair length due to increasing accumulation from proximal to distal was found. Therefore, it was examined whether these sources of error can be avoided if in addition to CFAEE the relative FAEE concentrations CFAEE/CSQ related to squalene SQ as a natural reference compound were used for interpretation. Sebum contains about 10-20% SQ. A sensitive and reliable method for the determination of SQ in addition to FAEE from the same hair extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed. The concentrations of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, ethyl stearate and squalene were determined and CFAEE/CSQ was calculated for 13 teetotallers, 16 social drinkers, 12 fatalities with excessive alcohol abuse at life time and 9 cases with unclear alcohol anamnesis. CSQ ranged from 0.02 to 1.97 microg/mg (mean 0.67 microg/mg). From the results follows that squalene enables a control of the lipid content of hair and a correction of CFAEE in cases with deviations from the usual lipid content in a similar way as creatinine in urine. Preliminary values of CFAEE/CSQ were suggested for the upper limit for teetotallers (< 0.6 ng/microg) and the lower limit for excessive alcohol abuse (> 1.5 ng/microg). However, the relative concentration CFAEE/CSQ cannot completely replace the absolute concentration CFAEE, and both should regularly be used for an improved interpretation with respect to alcohol abuse.

  20. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation.

  1. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  2. Betulinic acid alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting SREBP1 activity via the AMPK-mTOR-SREBP signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hai Yan; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Soo Jung; Jo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Go Woon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2013-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease in industrialized countries. The discovery of food components that can ameliorate NAFLD is therefore of interest. Betulinic acid (BA) is a triterpenoid with many pharmacological activities, but the effect of BA on fatty liver is as yet unknown. To explore the possible anti-fatty liver effects and their underlying mechanisms, we used insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, primary rat hepatocytes and liver tissue from ICR mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Oil Red O staining revealed that BA significantly suppressed excessive triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells and in the livers of mice fed a HFD. Ca(+2)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CAMKK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were both activated by BA treatment. In contrast, the protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase (S6K) were all reduced when hepatocytes were treated with BA for up to 24h. We found that BA activates AMPK via phosphorylation, suppresses SREBP1 mRNA expression, nuclear translocation and repressed SREBP1 target gene expression in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, leading to reduced lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. These effects were completely abolished in the presence of STO-609 (a CAMKK inhibitor) or compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), indicating that the BA-induced reduction in hepatic steatosis was mediated via the CAMKK-AMPK-SREBP1 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that BA effectively ameliorates intracellular lipid accumulation in liver cells and thus is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of fatty liver disease.

  3. Metabolic engineering of fatty alcohol production in transgenic hairy roots of Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Banaś, Antoni; Królicka, Aleksandra

    2016-12-12

    Biotechnological production of fatty alcohols, important raw materials in the chemical industry, has been receiving considerable attention in recent years. Fatty alcohols are formed by the reduction of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acyl-ACPs catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR). In this study, we introduced genes encoding FARs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtFAR5) and Simmondsia chinensis (ScFAR) into Crambe abyssinica hairy roots via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. The efficiency of the transformation ranged between 30 and 45%. The fatty alcohols were only detected in the transgenic hairy root lines expressing ScFAR gene. In all tested lines stearyl alcohol (18:0-OH), arachidyl alcohol (20:0-OH), and behenyl alcohol (22:0-OH) were produced. The content of 18:0-OH varied from 1 to 3% of total fatty acids and fatty alcohols, while the amount of either 20:0-OH and 22:0-OH did not exceed 2%. The transgenic hairy root lines produced from 0.98 to 2.59 nmol of fatty alcohols per mg of dry weight. Very low activity of ScFAR was detected in the microsomal fractions isolated from the selected hairy root lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fatty alcohol production in the hairy root cultures. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;9999: 1-8. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Open All Close All Description Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ( NAFLD ) is a buildup of excessive fat ...

  5. Fatty acid composition and mechanisms of the protective effects of myrtle berry seed aqueous extract in alcohol-induced peptic ulcer in rat.

    PubMed

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Rtibi, Kais; Tounsi, Haifa; Hosni, Karim; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sakly, Mohsen; Sebai, Hichem

    2016-11-10

    This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer and antioxidant activities of myrtle berry seed aqueous extract (MBSAE) in a peptic ulcer model induced by ethanol in male Wistar rats. MBSAE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic (18:2) and oleic (18:1) acids. MBSAE also exhibited in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 172.1 μg/mL) and superoxide anion (IC50 = 200.24 μg/mL) scavenging activities. In vivo, MBSAE provided dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced gastric and duodenal macroscopic and histological alterations. Also, it inhibited secretory profile disturbances and lipid peroxidation, and preserved normal antioxidant enzyme activities and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels. More importantly, we showed that acute alcohol intoxication increased gastric and duodenal calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and free iron levels, whereas MBSAE treatment protected against intracellular mediator deregulation. In conclusion, we suggest that MBSAE has potent protective effects against alcohol-induced peptic ulcer in rat. This protection might be related in part to its antioxidant properties as well as its opposite effects on some studied intracellular mediators.

  6. Effects of Sex, Drinking History, and Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Dysregulation on the Onset of Liver Injury in Very Heavy Drinking Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Song, Ming; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Cave, Matthew C.; Barve, Shirish S.; George, David T.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; McClain, Craig J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption frequently causes liver inflammation/injury, and certain fatty acids (FAs) may be involved in this liver pathology. In this study, we evaluated the association of heavy drinking and the changes in the FA levels involved in the ω-6 (pro-inflammatory) and ω-3 (anti-inflammatory) state in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients who had no clinical manifestations of liver injury. We aimed to identify sex-based differences in patients with mild or no biochemical evidence of liver injury induced by heavy drinking. Methods A total of 114 heavy drinking AD female and male patients aged 21 to 65 years without clinical manifestations of liver injury, who were admitted to an alcohol dependence treatment program, were grouped by the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels: ≤40 IU/l, as no liver injury (GR.1), and >40 IU/l, as mild liver injury (GR.2). Patients were actively drinking until the day of admission. Comprehensive metabolic panel, comprehensive FA panel, and drinking history data were evaluated. Results Elevated ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed close association with markers of heavy alcohol intake. In the patients with mild biochemical liver injury (GR.2), females showed significantly higher AST level than males. Significant association of AST and total drinks in past 90 days (TD90) in females, and AST and heavy drinking days in past 90 days (HDD90) in males was observed. The ω-6:ω-3 ratio showed a significant pro-inflammatory response only in females with mild liver injury (GR.2) when adjusted by drinking history marker, TD90. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were increased in males with liver injury, while females did not show any comparable rise in EPA; and DHA levels were lower. Conclusions Measures of heavy drinking, TD90 and HDD90, predicted changes in liver injury. Changes in the ω-3 and ω-6 FA levels and the ω-6:ω-3 ratio showed a pro-inflammatory shift in patients with biochemical

  7. 21 CFR 178.3480 - Fatty alcohols, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty alcohols, synthetic. 178.3480 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3480 Fatty alcohols, synthetic. Synthetic fatty alcohols may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in contact with food, and...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3480 - Fatty alcohols, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fatty alcohols, synthetic. 178.3480 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3480 Fatty alcohols, synthetic. Synthetic fatty alcohols may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in contact with food, and...

  9. DETERGENCY OF THE 12 TO 18 CARBON SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    saturated fatty acids ) were explored to determine the relationship of the detergencies of such systems to the physico-chemical nature (HLB, hydrophile...suggested that in such systems the chief action is van der Waals adsorption between hydr oxide mole ratio adducts of tridecyl alcohol are poor detergents of the saturated fatty acids .

  10. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  11. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    DOE PAGES

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; ...

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products inmore » BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.« less

  12. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Coursolle, Dan; Lian, Jiazhang; Shanklin, John; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-09-01

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg L(-1) long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg L(-1) titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.

  13. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.

  14. Therapeutic Role of Ursolic Acid on Ameliorating Hepatic Steatosis and Improving Metabolic Disorders in High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanyu; Wang, Yemei; Sun, Zongxiang; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Meng, Man; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA), an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rat model. Methodology/Principal Findings Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:24489777

  15. Downregulation of microRNA-451 in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis inhibits fatty acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine production through the AMPK/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Joon Ho; Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Jung-Hee; Bae, Si Hyun; Kim, Minhyung; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Taesun; Um, Soo-Jong; Song, Byoung-Joon; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2015-07-01

    Mechanisms associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain unclear. We attempted to identify the pattern of altered gene expression at different time points in a high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD mouse model. The early up-regulated genes are mainly involved in the innate immune responses, while the late up-regulated genes represent the inflammation processes. Although recent studies have shown that microRNAs play important roles in hepatic metabolic functions, the pivotal role of microRNAs in the progression of NAFLD is not fully understood. We investigated the functions of miR-451, which was identified as a target gene in the inflammatory process in NAFLD. miR-451 expression was significantly decreased in the palmitate (PA)-exposed HepG2 cells and in liver tissues of HFD-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mice. Its decreased expressions were also observed in liver specimens of NASH patients. In vitro analysis of the effect of miR-451 on proinflammatory cytokine provided evidence for negative regulation of PA-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production. Furthermore, miR-451 over-expression inhibited translocation of the PA-induced NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus. Our result showed that Cab39 is a direct target of miRNA-451 in steatotic cells. Further study showed that AMPK activated through Cab39 inhibits NF-κB transactivation induced in steatotic HepG2 cells. miR-451 over-expression in steatotic cells significantly suppressed PA-induced inflammatory cytokine. These results provide new insights into the negative regulation of miR-451 in fatty acid-induced inflammation via the AMPK/AKT pathway and demonstrate potential therapeutic applications for miR-451 in preventing the progression from simple steatosis to severely advanced liver disease.

  16. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Assy, Nimer; Nassar, Faris; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria

    2009-04-21

    The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives.

  17. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)].

    PubMed

    Rau, Monika; Weiss, Johannes; Geier, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in Europe and in the USA with rising prevalence. Patients with a metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia) are patients at risk with the highest prevalence for NAFLD. Progression from a non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in 5-20% of patients with the potential to develop a liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. NASH patients and NAFLD patients with higher fibrosis should be identified because they are at risk of a higher mortality. A specific treatment for NASH is not available at the moment. Therefore, the treatment of risk factors and metabolic syndrome has high priority.

  18. Are the fatty acids responsible for the higher effect of oil and alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa over its aqueous extract on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites?

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mona Abd El-Fattah Ahmad; Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Trichomoniasis, the disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the sexually transmitted infection with the largest annual incidence. Metronidazole is the drug of choice recommended for the treatment of human trichomoniasis but it can lead to drug resistance and many other adverse effects. So, it is necessary for new alternatives for the treatment of this infection. Medicinal plants or herbs could be good alternative regimens to be inexpensive, effective and safe to use. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa aqueous and alcoholic extracts as well as seeds oil was examined. Different concentrations of these plant preparations were incubated in vitro with cultivated T. vaginalis trophozoites and its effect on growth was compared with metronidazole under the same conditions. Both the alcoholic extract and oil proved to be valuable agents as efficient as metronidazole in treating T. vaginalis infection. The remarkable effect of N. sativa oil may be attributed to the fact that the active principles extracted from N. sativa seeds are mostly from its essential oil (omega 3, 6, 9 as well as 7 fatty acids). However, further experimental and clinical investigations are needed to evaluate and standardize the doses of these natural products to be safe and efficient.

  19. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  20. Associations between Serum Uric Acid and the Remission of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Males

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Liu, Chunxing; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Yunfang; Guo, Zhirong; Zhang, Biao; Dong, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that higher serum uric acid (sUA) level is significantly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. However, little information is available on the relationships between sUA and NAFLD remission. In the present study, 841 NAFLD males (30–75 years) were recruited from a Chinese prospective cohort study (PMMJS) and followed up for five years. The baseline sUA levels of participants were categorized into four quartiles: 191 μmol/L≤ sUA ≤ 347 μmol/L, 347 μmol/L < sUA ≤ 392 μmol/L, 392 μmol/L < sUA ≤ 441 μmol/L and 441 μmol/L

  1. Enhanced production of fatty alcohols by engineering the TAGs synthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoling; Chen, Wei Ning

    2015-02-01

    The production of fatty acid-derived chemicals has received a great deal of attention in recent years. In yeast cells, the main storage forms of fatty acids are TAGs. However, the conversion of TAGs into fatty acid derivatives suffers from a practical standpoint. Herein, a more direct strategy was applied to accumulate cellular fatty acyl-CoAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are the activated forms of fatty acids and used as important precursors for various converting enzymes. The dga1 gene was deleted to block the fatty acyl-CoAs dependent pathway of TAGs synthesis and a significant decrease in lipid content was observed. The FAR gene was cloned and overexpressed in the wild type strain and gene disrupted strain, to convert the fatty acyl-CoAs to the corresponding fatty acid derivatives. The metabolic engineered pathway resulted in enhanced production of fatty alcohols. Compared with the wild type strain with overexpressed FAR gene, the yield of fatty alcohols in the Δdga1 strain with FAR was dramatically increased: the intracellular fatty alcohols increased from 26 mg/L to 45 mg/L, while the extracellular fatty alcohols increased from 2.2 mg/L to 4.3 mg/L. By optimizing the culture medium with increased carbon concentration and limited nitrogen concentration, the fatty alcohols yield in the Δdga1 strain with FAR was further increased to 84 mg/L in cells and 14 mg/L secreted in broth. The results in this study demonstrated the feasibility of using the designed strategy to solve the bottleneck in utilizing TAGs for fatty acid derivatives production.

  2. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  3. Molecular characterization of the fatty alcohol oxidation pathway for wax-ester mobilization in germinated jojoba seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is the only plant species known to use liquid wax esters (WE) as a primary seed storage reserve. Upon germination, WE hydrolysis releases very long-chain fatty alcohols, which must be oxidised to fatty acids by the sequential action of a fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) and ...

  4. Differential Expression of Lumican and Fatty Acid Binding Protein-1 – New Insights into the Histologic Spectrum of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Michael; Viker, Kimberly; Krishnan, Anuradha; Sanderson, Schuyler; Veldt, Bart; Kaalsbeek, A. J.; Kendrick, Michael; Thompson, Geoffrey; Que, Florencia; Swain, James; Sarr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background The basis of hepatocellular injury and progressive fibrosis in a subset of patients with NAFLD is poorly understood. We sought to identify hepatic proteins that are differentially abundant across the histologic spectrum of NAFLD. Methods Hepatic protein abundance was measured in liver samples from four groups (n=10 each) of obese (body mass index >30kg/m2) patients: 1) obese normal group (normal liver histology), 2) Simple steatosis (SS), 3) NASH-mild (steatohepatitis with fibrosis stage 0–1), and 4) NASH-progressive (steatohepatitis with fibrosis stage 2–4). Hepatic peptides were analysed on an API Qstar XL quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer using Analyst QS software. Linear trends tests were performed and used to screen for differential abundance. Results Nine known proteins were expressed with differential abundance between study groups. For seven proteins (albumin, hemoglobin beta, hemoglobin delta, dihydropyrimidinase, enolase, metal transport protein ATX1 and HSP gp96) differential abundance is likely to have been on the basis of known biologic effects of increased hepatic lipid content and/or inflammation. Lumican, a 40kDa keratin sulfate proteoglycan that regulates collagen fibril assembly and activates TGF-beta and smooth muscle actin, was expressed similarly in obese normal and SS but was overexpressed in a progressive manner in NASH-mild vs. SS (124%, p<0.001), NASH-progressive vs. NASH-mild (156%, p<0.001) and NASH-progressive vs. obese normal (178%, p<0.001). Fatty acid binding protein-1 (FABP-1), which is protective against the detergent effects of excess FFAs, facilitates intracellular FFA transport and is an important ligand for PPAR-mediated transcription, was overexpressed in SS when compared obese normal (128%, p<0.001), but was paradoxically underexpressed in NASH-mild vs. SS (73%, p<0.001), NASH-progressive vs. NASH-mild (81%, p<0.001) and NASH-progressive vs. obese normal (59%, p<0.001). Conclusions Histologically

  5. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  6. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  7. Pediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Vikas; Mansoor, Sana; Furuya, Katryn N

    2016-05-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and by 2012, more than one third of American children were overweight or obese. As a result, increasingly, children are developing complications of obesity including liver disease. In fact, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease seen in children today. Recently, there has been a burgeoning literature examining the pathogenesis, genetic markers, and role of the microbiome in this disease. On the clinical front, new modalities of diagnosing hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are being developed to provide non-invasive methods of surveillance in children. Lastly, the mainstay of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been largely through lifestyle interventions, namely, dieting and exercise. Currently, there are a number of clinical trials examining novel lifestyle and drug therapies for NAFLD that are registered with the US National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov website.

  8. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  9. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  10. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-05-27

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6-C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 &C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae.

  11. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6–C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 & C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27230732

  12. Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Alleviation of Alcoholic Fatty Liver by Polyphenols Contained in Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Ushiama, Shota; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Shibata, Hiroshi; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of the polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages on the metabolic stress induced by ethanol consumption, four groups of mice were fed for five weeks on Lieber's diet with or without ethanol, with ethanol plus ellagic acid, and with ethanol plus trans-resveratrol. Alcoholic fatty liver was observed in the group fed the ethanol diet but not in those fed the ethanol plus polyphenol diets. Liver transcriptome analysis revealed that the addition of the polyphenols suppressed the expression of the genes related to cell stress that were up-regulated by ethanol alone. Conversely, the polyphenols up-regulated the genes involved in bile acid synthesis, unsaturated fatty acid elongation, and tetrahydrofolate synthesis that were down-regulated by ethanol alone. Because parts of these genes were known to be regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), we performed the same experiment in the CAR-deficient mice. As a result, fatty liver was observed not only in the ethanol group but also with the ethanol plus polyphenol groups. In addition, there was no segregation of the gene expression profiles among these groups. These results provide a molecular basis for the prevention of alcohol-induced stress by the polyphenols in alcoholic beverages. PMID:24498295

  13. Nuclear receptor-mediated alleviation of alcoholic fatty liver by polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Ushiama, Shota; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Shibata, Hiroshi; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of the polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages on the metabolic stress induced by ethanol consumption, four groups of mice were fed for five weeks on Lieber's diet with or without ethanol, with ethanol plus ellagic acid, and with ethanol plus trans-resveratrol. Alcoholic fatty liver was observed in the group fed the ethanol diet but not in those fed the ethanol plus polyphenol diets. Liver transcriptome analysis revealed that the addition of the polyphenols suppressed the expression of the genes related to cell stress that were up-regulated by ethanol alone. Conversely, the polyphenols up-regulated the genes involved in bile acid synthesis, unsaturated fatty acid elongation, and tetrahydrofolate synthesis that were down-regulated by ethanol alone. Because parts of these genes were known to be regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), we performed the same experiment in the CAR-deficient mice. As a result, fatty liver was observed not only in the ethanol group but also with the ethanol plus polyphenol groups. In addition, there was no segregation of the gene expression profiles among these groups. These results provide a molecular basis for the prevention of alcohol-induced stress by the polyphenols in alcoholic beverages.

  14. The I148M variant of PNPLA3 reduces the response to docosahexaenoic acid in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Bedogni, Giorgio; Donati, Benedetta; Alisi, Anna; Valenti, Luca

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial was to test whether the I148M variant of Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein-3 (PNPLA3) is associated with the response to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Sixty children with NAFLD were randomized in equal numbers to DHA 250 mg/day, DHA 500 mg/day or placebo. Coherently with the primary analysis, the probability of more severe steatosis after 24 months of DHA supplementation was 50% lower [95% confidence interval (CI) -59% to -42%)] in the combined DHA 250 and 500 mg/day groups versus placebo. The present secondary analysis revealed an independent effect of PNPLA3 status on the response to DHA. In fact, the probability of more severe steatosis was higher (37%, 95% CI 26-48%) for the PNPLA3 M/M versus I/M genotype and lower (-12%, 95% CI -21% to -3%) for the I/I versus I/M genotype (Somers' D for repeated measures). We conclude that the 148M allele of PNPLA3 is associated with lower response, and the 148I allele with greater response, to DHA supplementation in children with NAFLD.

  15. Inhibition of HMGB1 release via salvianolic acid B-mediated SIRT1 up-regulation protects rats against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenjing; Shan, Wen; Gao, Lili; Gao, Dongyan; Hu, Yan; Wang, Guangzhi; Zhang, Ning; Li, Zhenlu; Tian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Wei; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Yao, Jihong

    2015-11-03

    The inflammatory mediator high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the regulation of HMGB1 in NAFLD, particularly through sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 release in NAFLD and the effect of salvianolic acid B (SalB), which is a water-soluble phenolic acid extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, on NAFLD through SIRT1/HMGB1 signaling. In vivo, SalB treatment significantly attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced liver damage, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation. Importantly, SalB significantly inhibited HMGB1 nuclear translocation and release, accompanied by SIRT1 elevation. In HepG2 cells, palmitic acid (PA)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines release were blocked by HMGB1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Moreover, pharmacological SIRT1 inhibition by Ex527 induced HMGB1 translocation and release, whereas SIRT1 activation by resveratrol or SalB reversed this trend. SIRT1 siRNA abrogated the SalB-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 acetylation and release, suggesting that SalB-mediated protection occurs by SIRT1 targeting HMGB1 for deacetylation. We are the first to demonstrate that the SIRT1/HMGB1 pathway is a key therapeutic target for controlling NAFLD inflammation and that SalB confers protection against HFD- and PA-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation through SIRT1-mediated HMGB1 deacetylation.

  16. Inhibition of HMGB1 release via salvianolic acid B-mediated SIRT1 up-regulation protects rats against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenjing; Shan, Wen; Gao, Lili; Gao, Dongyan; Hu, Yan; Wang, Guangzhi; Zhang, Ning; Li, Zhenlu; Tian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Wei; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Yao, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory mediator high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the regulation of HMGB1 in NAFLD, particularly through sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 release in NAFLD and the effect of salvianolic acid B (SalB), which is a water-soluble phenolic acid extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, on NAFLD through SIRT1/HMGB1 signaling. In vivo, SalB treatment significantly attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced liver damage, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation. Importantly, SalB significantly inhibited HMGB1 nuclear translocation and release, accompanied by SIRT1 elevation. In HepG2 cells, palmitic acid (PA)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines release were blocked by HMGB1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Moreover, pharmacological SIRT1 inhibition by Ex527 induced HMGB1 translocation and release, whereas SIRT1 activation by resveratrol or SalB reversed this trend. SIRT1 siRNA abrogated the SalB-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 acetylation and release, suggesting that SalB-mediated protection occurs by SIRT1 targeting HMGB1 for deacetylation. We are the first to demonstrate that the SIRT1/HMGB1 pathway is a key therapeutic target for controlling NAFLD inflammation and that SalB confers protection against HFD- and PA-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation through SIRT1-mediated HMGB1 deacetylation. PMID:26525891

  17. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  18. Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P; Thies, F; Wallace, F A; Miles, E A

    2002-01-01

    The immune system acts to protect the host against pathogenic invaders. However, components of the immune system can become dysregulated such that their activities are directed against host tissues, so causing damage. Lymphocytes are involved in both the beneficial and detrimental effects of the immune system. Both the level of fat and the types of fatty acid present in the diet can affect lymphocyte functions. The fatty acid composition of lymphocytes, and other immune cells, is altered according to the fatty acid composition of the diet and this alters the capacity of those cells to produce eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2, which are involved in immunoregulation. A high fat diet can impair lymphocyte function. Cell culture and animal feeding studies indicate that oleic, linoleic, conjugated linoleic, gamma-linolenic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic, arachidonic, alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids can all influence lymphocyte proliferation, the production of cytokines by lymphocytes, and natural killer cell activity. High intakes of some of these fatty acids are necessary to induce these effects. Among these fatty acids the long chain n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid, appear to be the most potent when included in the human diet. Although not all studies agree, it appears that fish oil, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid, down regulates the T-helper 1-type response which is associated with chronic inflammatory disease. There is evidence for beneficial effects of fish oil in such diseases; this evidence is strongest for rheumatoid arthritis. Since n-3 fatty acids also antagonise the production of inflammatory eicosanoid mediators from arachidonic acid, there is potential for benefit in asthma and related diseases. Recent evidence indicates that fish oil may be of benefit in some asthmatics but not others.

  19. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce odd chain-length fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhu; Wong, Adison; Foo, Jee Loon; Ng, Joey; Cao, Ying-Xiu; Chang, Matthew Wook; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fatty aldehydes and alcohols are valuable precursors used in the industrial manufacturing of a myriad of specialty products. Herein, we demonstrate the de novo production of odd chain-length fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expressing a novel biosynthetic pathway involving cytosolic thioesterase, rice α-dioxygenase and endogenous aldehyde reductases. We attained production titers of ∼20 mg/l fatty aldehydes and ∼20 mg/l fatty alcohols in shake flask cultures after 48 and 60 h respectively without extensive fine-tuning of metabolic fluxes. In contrast to prior studies which relied on bi-functional fatty acyl-CoA reductase to produce even chain-length fatty alcohols, our biosynthetic route exploits α-oxidation reaction to produce odd chain-length fatty aldehyde intermediates without using NAD(P)H cofactor, thereby conserving cellular resource during the overall synthesis of odd chain-length fatty alcohols. The biosynthetic pathway presented in this study has the potential to enable sustainable and efficient synthesis of fatty acid-derived chemicals from processed biomass.

  20. Identification of long chain specific aldehyde reductase and its use in enhanced fatty alcohol production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Zia; Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-09-01

    Long chain fatty alcohols have wide application in chemical industries and transportation sector. There is no direct natural reservoir for long chain fatty alcohol production, thus many groups explored metabolic engineering approaches for its microbial production. Escherichia coli has been the major microbial platform for this effort, however, terminal endogenous enzyme responsible for converting fatty aldehydes of chain length C14-C18 to corresponding fatty alcohols is still been elusive. Through our in silico analysis we selected 35 endogenous enzymes of E. coli having potential of converting long chain fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols and studied their role under in vivo condition. We found that deletion of ybbO gene, which encodes NADP(+) dependent aldehyde reductase, led to >90% reduction in long chain fatty alcohol production. This feature was found to be strain transcending and reinstalling ybbO gene via plasmid retained the ability of mutant to produce long chain fatty alcohols. Enzyme kinetic study revealed that YbbO has wide substrate specificity ranging from C6 to C18 aldehyde, with maximum affinity and efficiency for C18 and C16 chain length aldehyde, respectively. Along with endogenous production of fatty aldehyde via optimized heterologous expression of cyanobaterial acyl-ACP reductase (AAR), YbbO overexpression resulted in 169mg/L of long chain fatty alcohols. Further engineering involving modulation of fatty acid as well as of phospholipid biosynthesis pathway improved fatty alcohol production by 60%. Finally, the engineered strain produced 1989mg/L of long chain fatty alcohol in bioreactor under fed-batch cultivation condition. Our study shows for the first time a predominant role of a single enzyme in production of long chain fatty alcohols from fatty aldehydes as well as of modulation of phospholipid pathway in increasing the fatty alcohol production.

  1. Carboxylic acid reductase is a versatile enzyme for the conversion of fatty acids into fuels and chemical commodities.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M Kalim; Turner, Nicholas J; Jones, Patrik R

    2013-01-02

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as fatty alcohols and petroleum-derived alkanes have numerous applications in the chemical industry. In recent years, the renewable synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons has been made possible by engineering microbes to overaccumulate fatty acids. However, to generate end products with the desired physicochemical properties (e.g., fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alcohols), further conversion of the fatty acid is necessary. A carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) from Mycobacterium marinum was found to convert a wide range of aliphatic fatty acids (C(6)-C(18)) into corresponding aldehydes. Together with the broad-substrate specificity of an aldehyde reductase or an aldehyde decarbonylase, the catalytic conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols (C(8)-C(16)) or fatty alkanes (C(7)-C(15)) was reconstituted in vitro. This concept was applied in vivo, in combination with a chain-length-specific thioesterase, to engineer Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains that were capable of synthesizing fatty alcohols and alkanes. A fatty alcohol titer exceeding 350 mg·L(-1) was obtained in minimal media supplemented with glucose. Moreover, by combining the CAR-dependent pathway with an exogenous fatty acid-generating lipase, natural oils (coconut oil, palm oil, and algal oil bodies) were enzymatically converted into fatty alcohols across a broad chain-length range (C(8)-C(18)). Together with complementing enzymes, the broad substrate specificity and kinetic characteristics of CAR opens the road for direct and tailored enzyme-catalyzed conversion of lipids into user-ready chemical commodities.

  2. Managing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ngu, Jing Hieng; Goh, George Boon Bee; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing rapidly with the obesity and diabetes mellitus epidemics. It is rapidly becoming the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD can progress to serious complications such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Therefore, it is important to recognise this condition so that early intervention can be implemented. Lifestyle modifications and strict control of metabolic risk factors are the mainstay of treatment. As disease progression is slow in the majority of NAFLD patients, most can be managed well by primary care physicians. NAFLD patients with advanced liver fibrosis should be referred to specialist care for further assessment. PMID:27439352

  3. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by fatty acids and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Daniel; Everitt, Hannah E; Tewfik, Ihab; Clemens, Dahn L; Patel, Vinood B

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the key aspects of the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease particularly alterations to mitochondrial function remains to be resolved. The role of fatty acids in this regard requires further investigation due to their involvement in fatty liver disease and obesity. This study aimed to characterize the early effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids alone on liver mitochondrial function and during concomitant ethanol exposure using isolated liver mitochondria and VA-13 cells (Hep G2 cells that efficiently express alcohol dehydrogenase). Liver mitochondria or VA-13 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of palmitic or arachidonic acid (1 to 160 μM) for 24 h with or without 100 mM ethanol. The results showed that in isolated liver mitochondria both palmitic and arachidonic acids significantly reduced state 3 respiration in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.001), implicating their ionophoric activities. Increased ROS production occurred in a dose-dependent manner especially in the presence of rotenone (complex I inhibitor), which was significantly more prominent in arachidonic acid at 80 μM (+970%, P<0.001) than palmitic acid (+40%, P<0.01). In VA-13 cells, ethanol alone and both fatty acids (40 μM) were able to decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels and increase lipid formation. ROS production was significantly increased with arachidonic acid (+110%, P<0.001) exhibiting a greater effect than palmitic acid (+39%, P<0.05). While in the presence of ethanol, the drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular ATP levels, and increased lipid formation were further enhanced by both fatty acids, but with greater effect in the case of arachidonic acid, which also correlated with significant cytotoxicity (P<0.001). This study confirms the ability of fatty acids to promote mitochondrial injury in the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  4. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  5. Improving the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium-chain fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2014-09-01

    Microbial fatty acids are an attractive source of precursors for a variety of renewable commodity chemicals such as alkanes, alcohols, and biofuels. Rerouting lipid biosynthesis into free fatty acid production can be toxic, however, due to alterations of membrane lipid composition. Here we find that membrane lipid composition can be altered by the direct incorporation of medium-chain fatty acids into lipids via the Aas pathway in cells expressing the medium-chain thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (BTE). We find that deletion of the aas gene and sequestering exported fatty acids reduces medium-chain fatty acid toxicity, partially restores normal lipid composition, and improves medium-chain fatty acid yields.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid improves glycemic response, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehrangiz; Jamali, Haleh; Mahdavi, Reza; Kakaei, Farzad; Abedi, Rana; Kabir-Mamdooh, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate if conjugated linoleic acid supplementation (CLA) affects metabolic factors and oxidative stress in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods The study was a randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in specialized and subspecialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from January 2014 to March 2015. 38 obese NAFLD patients were randomly allocated into either the intervention group, receiving three 1000 mg softgel of CLA with a weight loss diet and 400 IU vitamin E, or into the control group, receiving only weight loss diet and 400 IU vitamin E for eight weeks. Dietary data and physical activity, as well as anthropometric, body composition, metabolic factors, and oxidative stress were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Results Weight, body composition, and serum oxidative stress, insulin, and lipid profile significantly improved in both groups, while hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (P = 0.004), total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio (P = 0.008), low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein ratio (LDL/HDL) (P = 0.002), and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio (P = 0.025) significantly decreased in the intervention group. At the end of the study, fat mass (P = 0.001), muscle mass (P = 0.023), total body water (P = 0.004), HbA1c (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P = 0.006), LDL/HDL ratio (P = 0.027), and ALT/AST ratio (P = 0.046) were significantly better in the CLA group than in the control group. Conclusion CLA improved insulin resistance, lipid disturbances, oxidative stress, and liver function in NAFLD. Therefore, it could be considered as an effective complementary treatment in NAFLD. Registration number: IRCT2014020516491N1. PMID:27586548

  7. Ameliorative potential of omega 3 fatty acids and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on experimentally-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kabel, Ahmed M; Abd Elmaaboud, Maaly A; Albarraq, Ahmed A

    2015-05-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has a relation to obesity. It may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, the therapeutic options are limited due to complex pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin and omega 3 fatty acids on experimentally-induced NASH. Sixty male albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups; control group, high fat emulsion/sucrose (HFE/S) diet, HFE/S+carboxymethyl cellulose, HFE/S +Atorvastatin, HFE/S+Fish oil and HFE/S+Atorvastatin+Fish oil. Serum alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins, insulin, glucose, C-reactive protein and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were measured. Also, hepatic TC, TG, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) were determined. Liver sections were examined histopathologically. Atorvastatin improved lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress but did not improve insulin resistance, hepatic TGF-β1 or body weight while fish oil improved lipid profile, decreased inflammation and oxidative stress, improved insulin resistance, hepatic TGF-β1 and body weight compared to HFE/S group. Atorvastatin/fish oil combination produced significant improvement in the lipid profile, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, hepatic TGF-β1 and body weight compared to the use of each of these drugs alone. This might be attributed to the effect of fish oil on the lipid profile, inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance and TGF-β1 which potentiates the effect of atorvastatin on NASH.

  8. Low simvastatin concentrations reduce oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells: An in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; LINCZ, LISA F.; THORNE, RICK F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an inflammatory condition caused by hepatic lipid accumulation that is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although statins should be used with caution in liver diseases, they are increasingly investigated as a possible treatment for NAFLD. The present study recreated an in vitro model of NAFLD using HepG2 cells exposed to oleic acid (OA), which was used to quantify OA-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of simvastatin. In addition, the effect of simvastatin on HepG2 cell morphology and microparticle generation as a marker of cell apoptosis was assessed. OA-induced lipid accumulation was quantified by Oil Red O staining and extraction for optical density determination. Stained lipid droplets were visualized using phase contrast microscopy. Furthermore, HepG2 cell-derived microparticles were counted by flow cytometry subsequent to staining for Annexin V. HepG2 cells treated with 0–1 mM OA showed dose-dependent lipid accumulation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with increasing concentrations of simvastatin followed by treatment with 1 mM OA showed that low simvastatin concentrations (4–10 µM) were able to reduce lipid accumulation by ~40%, whereas high simvastatin concentrations (20 and 30 µM) induced apoptotic changes in cell morphology and increased the production of Annexin V+ microparticles. This suggests that low simvastatin doses may have a role in preventing NAFLD. However, further investigations are required to confirm this action in vivo and to determine the underlying mechanism by which simvastatin reduces hepatic steatosis. PMID:27073470

  9. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from

  10. The association of vitamin D deficiency with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Küçükazman, Metin; Ata, Naim; Dal, Kürşat; Yeniova, Abdullah Özgür; Kefeli, Ayşe; Basyigit, Sebahat; Aktas, Bora; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Ağladioğlu, Kadir; Üre, Öznur Sari; Topal, Firdes; Nazligül, Yaşar; Beyan, Esin; Ertugrul, Derun Taner

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency has been related to diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and peripheral vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of vitamin D status in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: We included 211 consecutive subjects to examine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Of these subjects, 57 did not have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 154 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. RESULTS: The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p = 0.005), uric acid (p = 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p<0.001), γ-glutamyltransferase (p<0.0001), alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.028), HbA1c (p<0.001), ferritin (p<0.001), insulin (p = 0.016), C-peptide (p = 0.001), HOMA-IR (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.001) and white blood cell (p = 0.04) levels. In contrast, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (12.3±8.9 ng/dl, p<0.001) compared with those of the control group (20±13.6 ng/dl). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found lower serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than in subjects without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. To establish causality between vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, further interventional studies with a long-term follow-up are needed. PMID:25141113

  11. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Kanupriya; Vohra, Pankaj

    2012-09-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in 100 children, aged 5 to 12 years, to find the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), at New Delhi. Those with fatty liver on ultrasonography with no apparent etiology, were labeled as NAFLD. Three (3%) children had evidence of fatty liver on ultrasonography.

  12. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vallim, T; Salter, A M

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

  13. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; El-Den Ashmawy, Eman M Salah

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most frequent chronic liver disease that occurs across all age groups and is recognized to occur in 14%-30% of the general population, representing a serious and growing clinical problem due to the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight. Histologically, it resembles alcoholic liver injury but occurs in patients who deny significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of conditions, ranging from benign hepatocellular steatosis to inflammatory nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The majority of hepatocellular lipids are stored as triglycerides, but other lipid metabolites, such as free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids, may also be present and play a role in disease progression. NAFLD is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical conditions including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and visceral adiposity. Confirmation of the diagnosis of NAFLD can usually be achieved by imaging studies; however, staging the disease requires a liver biopsy. Current treatment relies on weight loss and exercise, although various insulin-sensitizing agents, antioxidants and medications appear promising. The aim of this review is to highlight the current information regarding epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of NAFLD as well as new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disease. PMID:25937862

  14. Films prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) and amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes with increased surface hydrophobicity and high elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and sodium salts of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films were prepared by combining the amylose complexes with poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVOH) solution at ratios varying from...

  15. Induction of CYP2E1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aljomah, Ghanim; Baker, Susan S.; Liu, Wensheng; Kozielski, Rafal; Oluwole, Janet; Lupu, Benita; Baker, Robert D.; Zhu, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports a contribution of endogenous alcohol metabolism in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not known whether the expression of alcohol metabolism genes is altered in the livers of simple steatosis. There is also a current debate on whether fatty acids induce CYP2E1 in fatty livers. In this study, expression of alcohol metabolizing genes in the liver biopsies of simple steatosis patients was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), in comparison to biopsies of NASH livers and normal controls. Induction of alcohol metabolizing genes was also examined in cultured HepG2 cells treated with ethanol or oleic acid, by qRT-PCR and Western blots. We found that the mRNA expression of alcohol metabolizing genes including ADH1C, ADH4, ADH6, catalase and CYP2E1 were elevated in the livers of simple steatosis, to similar levels found in NASH livers. In cultured HepG2 cells, ethanol induced the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein, but not ADH4 or ADH6; oleic acid did not induce any of these genes. These results suggest that elevated alcohol metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD at the stage of simple steatosis as well as more severe stages. Our in vitro data support that CYP2E1 is induced by endogenous alcohol but not by fatty acids. PMID:26551085

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most ... eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building ...

  17. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  18. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  19. Nitrated fatty acids: synthesis and measurement.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Steven R; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia/reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis and sample extraction from complex biological matrices and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed.

  20. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  1. Resveratrol Ameliorates Alcoholic Fatty Liver by Inducing Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liying; Yang, Fengli; Fang, Zhirui; Hu, Chengmu

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) is early stage of alcoholic liver disease, which can progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis if alcohol consumption is continued. The pathogenesis of AFL is associated with excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Resveratrol (RES), a dietary polyphenol found in red wines and grapes, has been shown to have a hepatoprotective effect. Autophagy is a crucial physiological process in cellular catabolism that involves the regulation of lipid droplets. Autophagy maintains a balance between protein synthesis, degradation and self-recycling. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of RES (10[Formula: see text]mg/kg, 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg, 100[Formula: see text]mg/kg) on AFL mice fed with an ethanol Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, and HepG2 cells in the presence of oleic acid and alcohol to investigate whether resveratrol could induce autophagy to attenuate lipid accumulation. The results showed that RES (30[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 100[Formula: see text]mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated hepatic steatosis and lowered the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). H&E staining showed that RES reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that RES treatment increased the number of autophagosomes and promoted the formation of autophagy. Western blot analysis showed that RES treatment increased the levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain3- II (LC3-II) and Beclin1, decreased expression of p62 protein. In addition, in vitro studies also demonstrated that RES led to the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), however, 3-Methyladenine (3-MA), a specific inhibitor of autophagy, obviously inhibited the above effects of RES. In conclusion, RES has protective effects on alcoholic hepatic steatosis, and the potential mechanism might be involved

  2. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Vibrational assignment analysis of Raman spectra of fatty alcohols].

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiao; Du, Xian-Yuan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xing-Chun; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    In the present research, Raman spectra of 31 fatty alcohols were calculated by B3LYP/6-31G (d) and verified by taking methanol for example. The study results indicate that B3LYP/6-31G (d) is an effective approach for the fatty alcohols Raman spectra calculated. The vibrational assignment and Raman spectra features of 6 unbranched alcohols were discussed and the vibrating peaks derived from stretching vibration by C-O were chosen as the research target selection, and the multiple principal component regression models were established and validated with the parameters including polarizability, thermodynamic and energy parameters of the above unbranched alcohols. There exists significant correlation between the vibrating peaks derived from stretching vibration by C-O of fatty alcohols and the parameters (sig. = 0.015). This study will benefit the Raman spectra research of homologs.

  4. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  5. The metabolism of fatty alcohols in lipid nanoparticles by alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Mumper, R J

    2006-09-01

    Fatty alcohols are commonly used in lipid-based drug delivery systems including parenteral emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (NPs). The purpose of these studies was to determine whether horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH), a NAD-dependent enzyme, could metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs and thus serve as a mechanism to degrade these NPs in the body. Solid nanoparticles (<100 nm) were engineered from oil-in-water microemulsion precursors using emulsifying wax NF as the oil phase and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78) as the surfactant. Emulsifying wax contains both cetyl and stearyl alcohols. NPs were incubated with the enzyme and NAD+ at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h, and the concentrations of fatty alcohols were quantitatively determined over time by gas chromatography (GC). The concentrations of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol within the NPs decreased to only 10-20% remaining after 15-24 h of incubation. In parallel, NP size, turbidity and the fluorescence intensity of NADH all increased over time. It was concluded that horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase/NAD+ was able to metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs, suggesting that NPs made of fatty alcohols may be metabolized in the body via endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme systems.

  6. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders.

  7. [Advanced biofuel-oriented engineering of fatty acid pathway: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2011-09-01

    Biofuel is in high demand as an alternative energy source for petroleum and diesel. Fatty acid-based biofuel has higher energy density and better compatibility with existing infrastructures. Microbial fatty acid biosynthetic pathway is important to develop biofuel. In this article, recent progresses on the modification and reconstruction of fatty acid metabolism for the production of biofuel were reviewed, with a focus on micro-diesel, long chain fatty alcohol and alkane. Problems, solutions and directions for further development of fatty acid-based biofuel were also discussed in the respect of synthetic biology.

  8. Management of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thuy-Anh; Loomba, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of abnormal liver enzymes and chronic liver disease in the US with expected rise in incidence paralleling the epidemic of obesity. A subset of patients with NAFLD have the progressive form of NAFLD that is termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by specific features on liver histology including hepatocellular ballooning degeneration, lobular inflammation, and zone-3 steatosis with or without peri-sinusoidal fibrosis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis can progress to cirrhosis and result in liver-related death. Insulin resistance is commonly seen in patients with NASH and often co-exists with other features of the metabolic syndrome including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Although weight loss through lifestyle modifications including dietary changes and increased physical exercise remains the backbone of management of NASH, it has proved challenging for patients to achieve and maintain weight loss goals. Thus, it is often necessary to couple lifestyle changes with another pharmacologic treatment for NASH. Insulin sensitizers including the biguanides (metformin), thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (exenatide) are large groups of medications that have been studied for the treatment of NASH. Other agents with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, or anti-fibrotic properties which have been studied in NASH include vitamin E, pentoxifylline, betaine, and ursodeoxycholic acid. This review will provide a detailed summary on the clinical data behind the full spectrum of treatments that exist for NASH and suggest management recommendations. PMID:25755424

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Young, Genevieve; Conquer, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary consumption of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), commonly found in fish or fish oil, may modify the risk for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. As evidence, decreased blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions, including Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Depression. Supplementation studies, using individual or combination omega-3 fatty acids, suggest the possibility for decreased symptoms associated with some of these conditions. Thus far, however, the benefits of supplementation, in terms of decreasing disease risk and/or aiding in symptom management, are not clear and more research is needed. The reasons for blood fatty acid alterations in these disorders are not known, nor are the potential mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may function in normal neuronal activity and neuropsychiatric disease prevention and/or treatment. It is clear, however, that DHA is the predominant n-3 fatty acid found in the brain and that EPA plays an important role as an anti-inflammatory precursor. Both DHA and EPA can be linked with many aspects of neural function, including neurotransmission, membrane fluidity, ion channel and enzyme regulation and gene expression. This review summarizes the knowledge in terms of dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and metabolism, as well as evidence pointing to potential mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acids in normal brain functioning, development of neuropsychiatric disorders and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in terms of symptom management.

  10. Saturated Fatty Acid Requirer of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Susan A.; Keith, Alec D.

    1971-01-01

    Dietary saturated fatty acids containing 12- to 18-carbon atoms satisfy growth requirements of Neurospora crassa mutant cel (previously named ol; Perkins et al., reference 11); unsaturated fatty acids are synthesized by direct desaturation when an appropriate saturate is available. Odd-chain saturates, 15 carbons and 17 carbons long, satisfy the requirement, and elaidic acid (18:1 Δ9trans) results in slow growth. Oleic acid and other cis-unsaturated fatty acids do not satisfy growth requirements; however, oleic acid plus elaidic acid result in growth at a faster rate than elaidate alone. The use of a spin-label fatty acid reveals that hyphae produced by cel during a slow basal level of growth have lipids that reflect a relatively rigid state of viscosity compared to wild type. cel Supplemented with fatty acids and wild type supplemented in the same way have lipids of the same viscosities as reflected by electron spin resonance. PMID:4323964

  11. The effect of membrane fluidization on protein kinase C: Inhibition by ethanol and higher alcohols and stimulation by increased lipid unsaturation or addition non-esterified fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, K.J.A.; Rubin, E.; Stubbs, C.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a membrane bound enzyme that is dependent on calcium, anionic phospholipids, and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to be fully active. The relationship between membrane fluidity and PKC activity was investigated using model vesicle systems composed of phosphatidylserine alone or in combination with phosphatidylcholine. Effects on membrane fluidity were assessed using the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene. When membrane fluidity was increased by the addition of short chain n-alkanols, PKC activity was inhibited. There was a linear relationship for a given level of inhibition and the membrane-buffer partition coefficient. By contrast, when the degree of unsaturation in the phosphatidylcholine was increased, although the bilayer was again fluidized, PKC activity was enhanced. The addition of non-esterified fatty acid also activated PKC, either when directly added to the vesicles or when generated by the addition of exogenous phospholipase A[sub 2], and again the bilayer was fluidized. It is proposed that a more fluid membrane lipid bilayer, induced by increased unsaturation or non-esterified fatty acids, facilitated optimal interaction at the DAG site since the effect could be demonstrated in a lipid free system using protamine sulfate.

  12. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  13. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  14. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines.

    PubMed

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L M; Hollywood, R

    1979-09-01

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipoxidase, for trans fatty acid by infared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of linoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, respresenting various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated that two of them contained still higher levels of trans fatty acids (greater than 60%) and negligible amounts of linoleic acid. It is proposed that margarine could be a vehicle for the distribution of some dietary linoleic acid and that the level of linoleic acid and the summation of the saturated plus trans fatty acids be known to ascertain nutritional characteristics.

  15. Plasmalogens and fatty alcohols in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ana R; da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Brites, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a special class of ether-phospholipids, best recognized by their vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerobackbone and by the observation that their deficiency causes rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). The complex plasmalogen biosynthetic pathway involves multiple enzymatic steps carried-out in peroxisomes and in the endoplasmic reticulum. The rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens resides in the formation of the fatty alcohol responsible for the formation of an intermediate with an alkyl-linked moiety. The regulation in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens also takes place at this step using a feedback mechanism to stimulate or inhibit the biosynthesis. As such, fatty alcohols play a relevant role in the formation of ether-phospholipids. These advances in our understanding of complex lipid biosynthesis brought two seemingly distinct disorders into the spotlight. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is caused by defects in the microsomal fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) leading to the accumulation of fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes. In RCDP cells, the defect in plasmalogens is thought to generate a feedback signal to increase their biosynthesis, through the activity of fatty acid reductases to produce fatty alcohols. However, the enzymatic defects in either glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) or alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) disrupt the biosynthesis and result in the accumulation of the fatty alcohols. A detailed characterization on the processes and enzymes that govern these intricate biosynthetic pathways, as well as, the metabolic characterization of defects along the pathway should increase our understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind these disorders.

  16. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  17. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  18. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  1. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  3. Glucocorticoids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Woods, Conor P; Hazlehurst, Jonathon M; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2015-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the global obesity and metabolic disease epidemic and is rapidly becoming the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and indication for liver transplantation worldwide. The hallmark pathological finding in NAFLD is excess lipid accumulation within hepatocytes, but it is a spectrum of disease ranging from benign hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis through to fibrosis, cirrhosis and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The exact pathophysiology remains unclear with a multi-hit hypothesis generally accepted as being required for inflammation and fibrosis to develop after initial steatosis. Glucocorticoids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD across all stages. They have a diverse array of metabolic functions that have the potential to drive NAFLD acting on both liver and adipose tissue. In the fasting state, they are able to mobilize lipid, increasing fatty acid delivery and in the fed state can promote lipid accumulation. Their action is controlled at multiple levels and in this review will outline the evidence base for the role of GCs in the pathogenesis of NAFLD from cell systems, rodent models and clinical studies and describe interventional strategies that have been employed to modulate glucocorticoid action as a potential therapeutic strategy.

  4. A fatty acyl-CoA reductase highly expressed in the head of honey bee (Apis mellifera) involves biosynthesis of a wide range of aliphatic fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Teerawanichpan, Prapapan; Robertson, Albert J; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-09-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are social insects which have remarkable complexity in communication pheromones. These chemical signals comprise a mixture of hydrocarbons, wax esters, fatty acids, aldehydes and alcohols. In this study, we detected several long chain aliphatic alcohols ranging from C18-C32 in honey bees and the level of these alcohols varied in each body segment. C18:0Alc and C20:0Alc are more pronounced in the head, whereas C22:0Alc to C32Alc are abundant in the abdomen. One of the cDNAs coding for a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (AmFAR1) involved in the synthesis of fatty alcohols was isolated and characterized. AmFAR1 was ubiquitously expressed in all body segments with the predominance in the head of honey bees. Heterologous expression of AmFAR1 in yeast revealed that AmFAR1 could convert a wide range of fatty acids (14:0-22:0) to their corresponding alcohols, with stearic acid 18:0 as the most preferred substrate. The substrate preference and the expression pattern of AmFAR1 were correlated with the level of total fatty alcohols in bees. Reconstitution of the wax biosynthetic pathway by heterologous expression of AmFAR1, together with Euglena wax synthase led to the high level production of medium to long chain wax monoesters in yeast.

  5. Cellular Effects of Perfluorinated Fatty Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    TCDD appeared to interfere with fatty acid metabolism leading to an increase in unsaturation. Furthermore, Andersen et al. (2) proposed that such an...increase in cellular unsaturated fatty acids may lead-to excessive membrane fluidity (as indicated by induced changes in red blood cell fragility) and...TASK WORK UNITELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Claificati on) ~/~. Cellular Effects of Perfluorinated Fatty Ac ds 12. PERSONAL

  6. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  8. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diet and gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a severe liver disease that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity and its related insulin-resistance state. Evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in energy storage and the subsequent development of obesity and some of its related diseases is now well established. More recently, a new role of gut microbiota has emerged in NAFLD. The gut microbiota is involved in gut permeability, low-grade inflammation and immune balance, it modulates dietary choline metabolism, regulates bile acid metabolism and produces endogenous ethanol. All of these factors are molecular mechanisms by which the microbiota can induce NAFLD or its progression toward overt non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Modification of the gut microbiota composition and/or its biochemical capacity by specific dietary or pharmacological interventions may advantageously affect host metabolism. Large-scale intervention trials, investigating the potential benefit of prebiotics and probiotics in improving cardiometabolic health in high-risk populations, are fervently awaited. PMID:26417275

  9. Fate of free and linear alcohol-ethoxylate-derived fatty alcohols in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas W; Itrich, Nina R

    2006-05-01

    Pure homologues of [1-14C] C12, C14, and C16 alcohols and the linear alcohol ethoxylates, AE [1-14C alkyl] C13E9 and C16E9 were tested in a batch-activated sludge die-away system to assess their biodegradation kinetics and to predict levels of free alcohol derived from AE biodegradation in treated effluent. First-order rates for primary biodegradation were similar for all alcohols (86-113 h(-1)) and were used to predict removal under typical treatment conditions. Predicted removals of fatty alcohols ranged from 99.76% to 99.85%, consistent with published field data. During the biodegradation of the AE homologues, lower than expected levels of fatty alcohol based upon the assumption that biodegradation occurs through central fission were observed. Rather than fatty alcohols, the major metabolites were polar materials resulting from omega oxidation of the alkyl chain prior to or concurrent with central cleavage. The amounts of free fatty alcohols that were formed from AEs in influent and escape into effluent were negligible due both to their rapid degradation and to the finding that formation of free alcohol through central cleavage is only a minor degradation pathway in activated sludge.

  10. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  11. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  12. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  13. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  14. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy. PMID:23112921

  15. Relative irritancy of free fatty acids of different chain length.

    PubMed

    Stillman, M A; Maibach, H I; Shalita, A R

    1975-01-01

    Free fatty acids of human skin surface lipids have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris because of their apparent irritant and comedogenic properties. Prior studies on the relative irritancy of free fatty acids revealed the saturated C8 to C14 fatty acids and a C18 dienoic unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic) to be most irritating. Saturated free fatty acids from C3 to C18, and unsaturated C18 free fatty acids were applied daily under occlusive patch tests to human skin until detectable erythema appeared. The most irritating fatty acids were C8 through C12. Of the unsaturated fatty acids tested, only linoleic acid produced irritation.

  16. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Less Toxic Than Their Parent Fatty Acids Generated during Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Trivedi, Ram N.; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-01-01

    Although ethanol causes acute pancreatitis (AP) and lipolytic fatty acid (FA) generation worsens AP, the contribution of ethanol metabolites of FAs, ie, FA ethyl esters (FAEEs), to AP outcomes is unclear. Previously, pancreata of dying alcoholics and pancreatic necrosis in severe AP, respectively, showed high FAEEs and FAs, with oleic acid (OA) and its ethyl esters being the most abundant. We thus compared the toxicities of FAEEs and their parent FAs in severe AP. Pancreatic acini and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to FAs or FAEEs in vitro. The triglyceride of OA (i.e., glyceryl tri-oleate) or OAEE was injected into the pancreatic ducts of rats, and local and systemic severities were studied. Unsaturated FAs at equimolar concentrations to FAEEs induced a larger increase in cytosolic calcium, mitochondrial depolarization, and necro-apoptotic cell death. Glyceryl tri-oleate but not OAEE resulted in 70% mortality with increased serum OA, a severe inflammatory response, worse pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Our data show that FAs are more likely to worsen AP than FAEEs. Our observations correlate well with the high pancreatic FAEE concentrations in alcoholics without pancreatitis and high FA concentrations in pancreatic necrosis. Thus, conversion of FAs to FAEE may ameliorate AP in alcoholics. PMID:26878214

  17. [Sialadenosis in a patient with alcoholic fatty liver developing after heavy alcohol drinking].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yeon Hwa; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Seong Hwan; Son, Byoung Kwan; Jun, Dae Won; Jo, Yun Ju; Ryu, Yong Suk; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2009-07-01

    Sialadenosis is a unique form of non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic bilateral salivary gland disorder characterized by recurrent painless swelling which usually occurs in parotid glands. Alcoholism is one of the main causes of sialadenosis along with diabetes, bulimia, and other idiopathic causes. The prognosis is verified according to the degree of liver function. We present a case of a 46 year-old man who had alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed as alcoholic sialadenosis based on clinical points of recurrent bilateral parotid swelling after heavy alcohol drinking, computed tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. After stopping alcohol drinking and treated with conservative treatment, he got improved without specific sequela.

  18. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease--new view].

    PubMed

    Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Lawniczak, Małgorzata; Marlicz, Wojciech; Miezyńska-Kurtycz, Joanna; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2008-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, through the necroinflammatory disorder of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NAFLD/NASH is mostly related with visceral adiposity, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus (DM t.2) and metabolic syndrome. Pathogenetic concepts of NAFLD include overnutrition and underactivity, insulin resistance (IR) and genetic factor. The prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated to be 17-33% in some countries, NASH may be present in about 1/3 of such cases, while 20-25% of NASH cases could progress to cirrhosis. NAFLD is now recognized as one of the most frequent reason of liver tests elevation without clinical symptoms. Insulin resistance is considering as having a central role in NAFLD pathogenesis. In hepatocytes, IR is related to hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, formation of advanced glycation end-products, increased free fatty acids and their metabolites, oxidative stress and altered profiles of adipocytokines. Early stages of fatty liver are clinically silent and include elevation of ALT and GGTP, hyperechogenic liver in USG and/or hepatomegaly. Among clinical symptoms, abdominal discomfort is relatively common as well as chronic fatigue. NAFLD/NASH is not a benign disease, progressive liver biopsy have shown histological progression of fibrosis in 32%, the estimated rate of cirrhosis development is 20% and a liver--related death is 12% over 10 years. No treatment has scientifically proved to ameliorate NAFLD or to avoid its progression. The various therapeutic alternatives are aimed at interfering with the risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder in order to prevent the progression to end-stage liver disease. The most important therapeutic measure is increasing insulin sensitivity by an attempt to change a lifestyle mostly by dieting and physical activity in order to loose weight. The most used agent is metformin, the others

  19. 40 CFR 721.10245 - Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched and linear fatty alcohol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10245 Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic). (a... generically as branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (PMN P-09-207) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10245 - Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branched and linear fatty alcohol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10245 Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic). (a... generically as branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (PMN P-09-207) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10245 - Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branched and linear fatty alcohol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10245 Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic). (a... generically as branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (PMN P-09-207) is subject to reporting under...

  2. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration.

  3. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  5. Optimization of fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway for selectively enhanced production of C12/14 and C16/18 fatty alcohols in engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the increasing stress from oil price and environmental pollution, aroused attention has been paid to the microbial production of chemicals from renewable sources. The C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols are important feedstocks for the production of surfactants and detergents, which are widely used in the most respected consumer detergents, cleaning products and personal care products worldwide. Though bioproduction of fatty alcohols has been carried out in engineered E. coli, several key problems have not been solved in earlier studies, such as the quite low production of C16/18 alcohol, the lack of optimization of the fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway, and the uncharacterized performance of the engineered strains in scaled-up system. Results We improved the fatty alcohol production by systematically optimizing the fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway, mainly targeting three key steps from fatty acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) to fatty alcohols, which are sequentially catalyzed by thioesterase, acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase and fatty acyl-CoA reductase. By coexpression of thioesterase gene BTE, acyl-CoA synthase gene fadD and fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene acr1, 210.1 mg/L C12/14 alcohol was obtained. A further optimization of expression level of BTE, fadD and acr1 increased the C12/14 alcohol production to 449.2 mg/L, accounting for 75.0% of the total fatty alcohol production (598.6 mg/L). In addition, by coexpression of thioesterase gene ‘tesA, acyl-CoA synthase gene fadD and fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene FAR, 101.5 mg/L C16/18 alcohol was obtained, with C16/18 alcohol accounting for 89.2% of the total fatty alcohol production. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report on selective production of C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols by microbial fermentation. This work achieved high-specificity production of both C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols. The encouraging 598.6 mg/L of fatty alcohols represents the highest titer reported so far. In

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients.

  7. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  8. Fatty alcohol production in Lipomyces starkeyi and Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-10-24

    Current biological pathways to produce biofuel intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels are not cost effective. Previously, oleaginous yeasts have been investigated primarily for lipid production. However, yeasts store neutral lipids intracellularly making recovery difficult and expensive. In addition, once recovered from the cells, lipids are difficult to blend directly with the existing fuels without upgrading. We have, therefore, begun to investigate secreted fatty acid-derived products which can be easily recovered and upgraded to fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrate the production of fatty alcohols by the oleaginous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi, through expression of the fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene from Marinobactor aquaeolei VT8. This strategy resulted in the production of 167 and 770 mg/L of fatty alcohols in shake flask from Y. lipolytica and L starkeyi, respectively. When using a dodecane overlay during fermentation, 92 and 99% of total fatty alcohols produced by Y. lipolytica and L. starkeyi, respectively, were extracted into the dodecane phase, which compares favorably to the 3 and 50% recovered, respectively, without the dodecane layer. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length, saturated fatty alcohols, i.e., hexadecanol (C16:0) and octadecanol (C18:0), were predominant and accounted for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that the oleaginous yeasts, Y. lipolytica and L. starkeyi, can serve as platform organisms for the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts.

  9. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  10. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-,...

  11. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    PubMed

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  12. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-03-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD.

  13. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children: focus on nutritional interventions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Gong, Sitang; Ye, Shui Qing; Lyman, Beth; Geng, Lanlan; Chen, Peiyu; Li, Ding-You

    2014-10-28

    With increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common cause of liver disease among children and adolescents in industrialized countries. It is generally recognized that both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence to implicate altered gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. The first line of prevention and treatment of NAFLD in children should be intensive lifestyle interventions such as changes in diet and physical activity. Recent advances have been focused on limitation of dietary fructose and supplementation of antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotics/probiotics. Convincing evidences from both animal models and human studies have shown that reduction of dietary fructose and supplement of vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotics/probiotics improve NAFLD.

  14. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children: Focus on Nutritional Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Gong, Sitang; Ye, Shui Qing; Lyman, Beth; Geng, Lanlan; Chen, Peiyu; Li, Ding-You

    2014-01-01

    With increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common cause of liver disease among children and adolescents in industrialized countries. It is generally recognized that both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence to implicate altered gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. The first line of prevention and treatment of NAFLD in children should be intensive lifestyle interventions such as changes in diet and physical activity. Recent advances have been focused on limitation of dietary fructose and supplementation of antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotics/probiotics. Convincing evidences from both animal models and human studies have shown that reduction of dietary fructose and supplement of vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotics/probiotics improve NAFLD. PMID:25353664

  15. Non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Singer, Cristina; Stancu, Polixenia; Coşoveanu, Simona; Botu, Alina

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, there has been extremely much information which reveals an alarming increase of obesity in children and, at the same time, an increase of the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD implies a wide range of affections starting from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); the latter can evolve to cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma. All these affections were noticed in children, too. The article presents data on the epidemiology, pathogeny, clinical and paraclinical findings, and treatment of NAFLD in children.

  16. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    SINGER, CRISTINA; STANCU, POLIXENIA; COŞOVEANU, SIMONA; BOTU, ALINA

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, there has been extremely much information which reveals an alarming increase of obesity in children and, at the same time, an increase of the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD implies a wide range of affections starting from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); the latter can evolve to cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma. All these affections were noticed in children, too. The article presents data on the epidemiology, pathogeny, clinical and paraclinical findings, and treatment of NAFLD in children. PMID:25729601

  17. Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bu, Weiming; Liu, Renyu; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Loll, Patrick J; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2012-06-01

    A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 μM affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the fatty acid from oxidation. Cocrystals of arachidonic acid and horse spleen apoferritin diffracted to 2.18 Å and revealed specific binding to the 2-fold intersubunit pocket. This pocket shields most of the fatty acid and its double bonds from solvent but allows the arachidonate tail to project well into the ferrihydrite mineralization site on the ferritin L-subunit, a structural feature that we implicate in the effects on mineralization by demonstrating that the much shorter saturated fatty acid, caprylate, has no significant effects on mineralization. These combined effects of arachidonate binding by ferritin are expected to lower both intracellular free iron and free arachidonate, thereby providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for limiting lipid peroxidation, free radical damage, and proinflammatory cascades during times of cellular stress.

  18. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  19. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  20. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreatic Disease: A Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh; Akella, Sai; Glandt, Mariela; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-12-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has doubled over the last three decades. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can lead to pancreatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease (NAFPD). NAFPD describes a phenotype entity ranging from deposition of fat in the pancreas to pancreatic inflammation, and resultant fibrosis, which is similar to that of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFPD may represent a meaningful manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pancreatic steatosis can be diagnosed on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to a correlation between pancreatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome, pancreatic steatosis may lead to a worse outcome in pancreatitis and may be an etiological factor in pancreatic cancer, but we need further research to examine the associations, pathophysiology, and the impact of pancreatic steatosis and NAFPD on the human health.

  1. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreatic Disease: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh; Akella, Sai; Glandt, Mariela; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has doubled over the last three decades. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can lead to pancreatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease (NAFPD). NAFPD describes a phenotype entity ranging from deposition of fat in the pancreas to pancreatic inflammation, and resultant fibrosis, which is similar to that of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFPD may represent a meaningful manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pancreatic steatosis can be diagnosed on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to a correlation between pancreatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome, pancreatic steatosis may lead to a worse outcome in pancreatitis and may be an etiological factor in pancreatic cancer, but we need further research to examine the associations, pathophysiology, and the impact of pancreatic steatosis and NAFPD on the human health. PMID:28058076

  2. Suberin-associated fatty alcohols in Arabidopsis: distributions in roots and contributions to seed coat barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Sollapura J; Kosma, Dylan K; Pulsifer, Ian P; Scandola, Sabine; Pascal, Stéphanie; Joubès, Jérôme; Dittrich-Domergue, Franziska; Lessire, René; Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    Suberin is found in a variety of tissues, such as root endoderms and periderms, storage tuber periderms, tree cork layer, and seed coats. It acts as a hydrophobic barrier to control the movement of water, gases, and solutes as well as an antimicrobial barrier. Suberin consists of polymerized phenolics, glycerol, and a variety of fatty acid derivatives, including primary fatty alcohols. We have conducted an in-depth analysis of the distribution of the C18:0 to C22:0 fatty alcohols in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots and found that only 20% are part of the root suberin polymer, together representing about 5% of its aliphatic monomer composition, while the remaining 80% are found in the nonpolymeric (soluble) fraction. Down-regulation of Arabidopsis FATTY ACYL REDUCTASE1 (FAR1), FAR4, and FAR5, which collectively produce the fatty alcohols found in suberin, reduced their levels by 70% to 80% in (1) the polymeric and nonpolymeric fractions from roots of tissue culture-grown plants, (2) the suberin-associated root waxes from 7-week-old soil-grown plants, and (3) the seed coat suberin polymer. By contrast, the other main monomers of suberin were not altered, indicating that reduced levels of fatty alcohols did not influence the suberin polymerization process. Nevertheless, the 75% reduction in total fatty alcohol and diol loads in the seed coat resulted in increased permeability to tetrazolium salts and a higher sensitivity to abscisic acid. These results suggest that fatty alcohols and diols play an important role in determining the functional properties of the seed coat suberin barrier.

  3. Suberin-Associated Fatty Alcohols in Arabidopsis: Distributions in Roots and Contributions to Seed Coat Barrier Properties1[W

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanath, Sollapura J.; Kosma, Dylan K.; Pulsifer, Ian P.; Scandola, Sabine; Pascal, Stéphanie; Joubès, Jérôme; Dittrich-Domergue, Franziska; Lessire, René; Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Suberin is found in a variety of tissues, such as root endoderms and periderms, storage tuber periderms, tree cork layer, and seed coats. It acts as a hydrophobic barrier to control the movement of water, gases, and solutes as well as an antimicrobial barrier. Suberin consists of polymerized phenolics, glycerol, and a variety of fatty acid derivatives, including primary fatty alcohols. We have conducted an in-depth analysis of the distribution of the C18:0 to C22:0 fatty alcohols in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots and found that only 20% are part of the root suberin polymer, together representing about 5% of its aliphatic monomer composition, while the remaining 80% are found in the nonpolymeric (soluble) fraction. Down-regulation of Arabidopsis FATTY ACYL REDUCTASE1 (FAR1), FAR4, and FAR5, which collectively produce the fatty alcohols found in suberin, reduced their levels by 70% to 80% in (1) the polymeric and nonpolymeric fractions from roots of tissue culture-grown plants, (2) the suberin-associated root waxes from 7-week-old soil-grown plants, and (3) the seed coat suberin polymer. By contrast, the other main monomers of suberin were not altered, indicating that reduced levels of fatty alcohols did not influence the suberin polymerization process. Nevertheless, the 75% reduction in total fatty alcohol and diol loads in the seed coat resulted in increased permeability to tetrazolium salts and a higher sensitivity to abscisic acid. These results suggest that fatty alcohols and diols play an important role in determining the functional properties of the seed coat suberin barrier. PMID:24019425

  4. The Association of Fatty Acids With Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-09

    Experimental studies have shown that omega-6 fatty acids enhance and omega - 3 fatty acids suppress oncogenesis. Correlational studies also indicate...that breast cancer incidence is positively linked to omega-6 consumption but is negatively related to intake of omega - 3 fatty acids, derived mainly from...arachidonic acid), and omega - 3 fatty acids (20:5n3, eicosapentaenoic acid; 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid) were similar in cases and controls

  5. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  6. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%–23% fat and 57%–65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%–55% fat and 27%–38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA) as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance. PMID:26556368

  7. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2015-11-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%-23% fat and 57%-65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%-55% fat and 27%-38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA) as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance.

  8. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  9. Fatty Acid Synthetase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Harold P.; Volkmann, Carol M.; Chao, Fu-Chuan

    1967-01-01

    A light particle fraction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, obtained from the crude ribosomal material, and containing the fatty acid synthetase, consisted primarily of 27S and 47S components. This fraction has a protein-ribonucleic acid ratio of about 13. Electron micrographs showed particles ranging in diameter between 100 and 300 A in this material. By use of density gradient analysis, the fatty acid synthetase was found in the 47S component. This component contained particles which were predominantly 300 A in diameter and which were considerably flatter than ribosomes, and it consisted almost entirely of protein. Images PMID:6025308

  10. Microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an attractive route to produce liquid transportation fuels and commodity oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recently, genes and enzymes, which comprise metabolic pathways for producing fatty acid-derived compounds (e.g. esters, alkanes, olefins, ketones, alcohols, polyesters) have been elucidated and used in engineered microbial hosts. The resulting strains often generate products at low percentages of maximum theoretical yields, leaving significant room for metabolic engineering. Economically viable processes will require strains to approach theoretical yields, particularly for replacement of petroleum-derived fuels. This review will describe recent progress toward this goal, highlighting the scientific discoveries of each pathway, ongoing biochemical studies to understand each enzyme, and metabolic engineering strategies that are being used to improve strain performance. PMID:23541503

  11. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  12. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  13. Metabolic engineering of fatty acyl-ACP reductase-dependent pathway to improve fatty alcohol production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Zhu, Fayin; Lu, Lei; Fu, Aisi; Lu, Jiankai; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-03-01

    Fatty alcohols are important components of surfactants and cosmetic products. The production of fatty alcohols from sustainable resources using microbial fermentation could reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emission. However, the industrialization of this process has been hampered by the current low yield and productivity of this synthetic pathway. As a result of metabolic engineering strategies, an Escherichia coli mutant containing Synechococcus elongatus fatty acyl-ACP reductase showed improved yield and productivity. Proteomics analysis and in vitro enzymatic assays showed that endogenous E. coli AdhP is a major contributor to the reduction of fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols. Both in vitro and in vivo results clearly demonstrated that the activity and expression level of fatty acyl-CoA/ACP reductase is the rate-limiting step in the current protocol. In 2.5-L fed-batch fermentation with glycerol as the only carbon source, the most productive E. coli mutant produced 0.75 g/L fatty alcohols (0.02 g fatty alcohol/g glycerol) with a productivity of up to 0.06 g/L/h. This investigation establishes a promising synthetic pathway for industrial microbial production of fatty alcohols.

  14. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  15. Maximization of volatile fatty acids production from alginate in acidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong Duc; Seon, Jiyun; Lee, Seong Chan; Song, Minkyung; Woo, Hee-Chul

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimum fermentative condition of alginate with the respect to the simultaneous effects of alginate concentration and initial pH to maximize the production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) and alcohols. The results showed that the alginate fermentation was significantly affected by initial pH than by alginate concentration and there was no interaction between the two variables. The optimum condition was 6.2g alginate/L and initial pH 7.6 with a maximum TVFAs yield of 37.1%. Acetic acids were the main constituents of the TVFAs mixtures (i.e., 71.9-95.5%), while alcohols (i.e., ethanol, butanol, and propanol) were not detected.

  16. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  17. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  18. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  19. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    PubMed

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  20. Polyenylphosphatidylcholine attenuates alcohol-induced fatty liver and hyperlipemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Navder, K P; Baraona, E; Lieber, C S

    1997-09-01

    Chronic administration of a soybean-derived polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) extract prevents the development of cirrhosis in alcohol-fed baboons. To assess whether this phospholipid also affects earlier changes induced by alcohol consumption (such as fatty liver and hyperlipemia), 28 male rat littermates were pair-fed liquid diets containing 36% of energy either as ethanol or as additional carbohydrate for 21 d, and killed 90 min after intragastric administration of the corresponding diets. Half of the rats were given PPC (3 g/l), whereas the other half received the same amount of linoleate (as safflower oil) and choline (as bitartrate salt). PPC did not affect diet or alcohol consumption [15.4 +/- 0.5 G/(kg.d)], but the ethanol-induced hepatomegaly and the hepatic accumulation of lipids (principally triglycerides and cholesterol esters) and proteins were about half those in rats not given PPC. The ethanol-induced postprandial hyperlipemia was lower with PPC than without, despite an enhanced fat absorption and no difference in the level of plasma free fatty acids. The attenuation of fatty liver and hyperlipemia was associated with correction of the ethanol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial oxidation of palmitoyl-1-carnitine and the depression of cytochrome oxidase activity, as well as the increases in activity of serum glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases. Thus, PPC attenuates early manifestations of alcohol toxicity, at least in part, by improving mitochondrial injury. These beneficial effects of PPC at the initial stages of alcoholic liver injury may prevent or delay the progression to more advanced forms of alcoholic liver disease.

  1. Supplementation of Saturated Long-chain Fatty Acids Maintains Intestinal Eubiosis and Reduces Ethanol-induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Torralba, Manolito; Tan, Justin; Embree, Mallory; Zengler, Karsten; Stärkel, Peter; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; DePew, Jessica; Loomba, Rohit; Ho, Samuel B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Nelson, Karen E.; Fouts, Derrick E.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis, and development of alcoholic liver disease requires gut-derived bacterial products. However, little is known about how alterations to the microbiome contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Methods We used the Tsukamoto-French mouse model which involves continuous intragastric feeding of isocaloric diet or alcohol for 3 weeks. Bacterial DNA from the cecum was extracted for deep metagenomic sequencing. Targeted metabolomics assessed concentrations of saturated fatty acids in cecal contents. To maintain intestinal metabolic homeostasis, diets of ethanol-fed and control mice were supplemented with saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, amounts of lactobacilli, and saturated LCFA were measured in fecal samples of non-alcoholic individuals and patients with active alcohol abuse. Results Analyses of intestinal contents from mice revealed alcohol-associated changes to the intestinal metagenome and metabolome, characterized by reduced synthesis of saturated LCFA. Maintaining intestinal levels of saturated fatty acids in mice resulted in eubiosis, stabilized the intestinal gut barrier and reduced ethanol-induced liver injury. Saturated LCFA are metabolized by commensal Lactobacillus and promote their growth. Proportions of bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were lower in feces from patients with active alcohol abuse than controls. Total levels of LCFA correlated with those of lactobacilli in fecal samples from patients with active alcohol abuse but not in controls. Conclusion In humans and mice, alcohol causes intestinal dysbiosis, reducing the capacity of the microbiome to synthesize saturated LCFA and the proportion of Lactobacillus species. Dietary approaches to restore levels of saturated fatty acids in the intestine might reduce ethanol

  2. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)--A Review.

    PubMed

    Karim, M F; Al-Mahtab, M; Rahman, S; Debnath, C R

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Hepatology clinics. It is closely related to the increased frequency of overweight or obesity. It has recognised association with metabolic syndrome. Central obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia are commonest risk factors. Association with hepatitis C genotype 3 is also recognised. NAFLD is an important cause of cyptogenic cirrhosis of liver. It affects all populations and all age groups. Most patients with NAFLD are asymptomatic or vague upper abdominal pain. Liver function tests are mostly normal or mild elevation of aminotranferases. Histological features almost identical to those of alcohol-induced liver damage and can range from mild steatosis to cirrhosis. Two hit hypothesis is prevailing theory for the development of NAFLD. Diagnosis is usually made by imaging tools like ultrasonogram which reveal a bright liver while liver biopsy is gold standard for diagnosis as well as differentiating simple fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Prognosis is variable. Simple hepatic steatosis generally has a benign long-term prognosis. However, one to two third of NASH progress to fibrosis or cirrhosis and may have a similar prognosis as cirrhosis from other liver diseases. Treatment is mostly control of underlying disorders and dietary advice, exercise, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, or cytoprotective agents. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing. So it needs more research to address this problem.

  3. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  4. Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk.

    PubMed

    Francois, C A; Connor, S L; Wander, R C; Connor, W E

    1998-02-01

    Although it is known that the fatty acid profile of human milk is altered by diet, the rapidity with which this occurs has not been addressed. We hypothesized that after absorption the fatty acids of a given meal would be transferred rapidly from the chylomicrons of the blood into human milk. Fourteen lactating women drank six test formulas, each containing a different fat: menhaden oil, herring oil, safflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil, or cocoa butter. The subjects collected a midfeeding milk sample before consuming the breakfast test formula and additional samples at 6, 10, 14, and 24 h and then once daily for 4-7 d. Fatty acids of special interest included eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from menhaden oil, cetoleic acid from herring oil, linoleic acid from safflower oil, linolenic acid from canola oil, lauric acid from coconut oil, and palmitic and stearic acids from cocoa butter. Each of these fatty acids increased significantly in human milk within 6 h of consumption of the test formulas (P < 0.001). Maximum increases occurred 10 h after safflower oil; 14 h after cocoa utter, coconut oil, canola oil, and menhaden oil (eicosapentaenoic acid); and 24 h after herring oil and menhaden oil (docosahexaenoic acid). All of these fatty acids remained significantly elevated in milk (P < 0.05) for 10-24 h, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which remained significantly elevated for 2 d, and eicosapentaenoic acid, which remained elevated for 3 d. These data support the hypothesis that there is a rapid transfer of dietary fatty acids from chylomicrons into human milk.

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity: biochemical, metabolic and clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Milić, Sandra; Lulić, Davorka; Štimac, Davor

    2014-07-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. Presentation of the disease ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that includes central abdominal obesity along with other components. Up to 80% of patients with NAFLD are obese, defined as a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2). However, the distribution of fat tissue plays a greater role in insulin resistance than the BMI. The large amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) individuals contributes to a high prevalence of NAFLD. Free fatty acids derived from VAT tissue, as well as from dietary sources and de novo lipogenesis, are released to the portal venous system. Excess free fatty acids and chronic low-grade inflammation from VAT are considered to be two of the most important factors contributing to liver injury progression in NAFLD. In addition, secretion of adipokines from VAT as well as lipid accumulation in the liver further promotes inflammation through nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways, which are also activated by free fatty acids, and contribute to insulin resistance. Most NAFLD patients are asymptomatic on clinical presentation, even though some may present with fatigue, dyspepsia, dull pain in the liver and hepatosplenomegaly. Treatment for NAFLD and NASH involves weight reduction through lifestyle modifications, anti-obesity medication and bariatric surgery. This article reviews the available information on the biochemical and metabolic phenotypes associated with obesity and fatty liver disease. The relative contribution of visceral and liver fat to insulin resistance is discussed, and recommendations for clinical evaluation of affected individuals is provided.

  6. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, P; Paletas, K

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic entity increasingly recognized as a major health burden in developed countries. It includes a spectrum of liver damage ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and rarely, progression to cirrhosis. Recent studies emphasize the role of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and subsequent lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development and progression of NAFLD. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports an association between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. Although the data are mainly epidemiological, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome seems to have common pathophysiological mechanisms, with focus on insulin resistance as a key factor. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of both NAFLD and metabolic syndrome and the findings that strongly support the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a possible component in the cluster of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19240815

  7. [THE FATTY ACIDS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Catalán, Julio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo

    2015-09-01

    The functionality of the eukaryotic cell depends on the cell membrane, the genetic information and action of different organelles with or without the presence of membranes. The functionality of the cell membrane and organelles containing it depends primarily on the type and location of fatty acids in the phospholipids and the type of enzymes associated with them, this allows the fatty acids to be metabolized to new species that exert various functions. From this perspective, some essential fatty acids (EFAs) that produce metabolites that exert health benefits are identified, (for example antiinflammatory, neuroprotection, etc) and exert negative effects metabolites (eg inflammation, necrosis promoters, atheroma, etc.) are also generated. In general, these adverse or beneficial effects depend on the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 obtained in the diet. Thus, the higher this ratio is more negative effect; therefore the challenge of the current supply is obtained through food consumption, lower ratios in these fatty acids. The present review aims to present recent evidence on the effects of some AGEs, and the role of diet in maintaining health.

  8. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  9. Melting of saturated fatty acid zinc soaps.

    PubMed

    Barman, S; Vasudevan, S

    2006-11-16

    The melting of alkyl chains in the saturated fatty acid zinc soaps of different chain lengths, Zn(C(n)H(2n+1)COO)(2); n = 11, 13, 15, and 17, have been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and vibrational spectroscopy. These compounds have a layer structure with the alkyl chains arranged as tilted bilayers and with all methylene chains adopting a planar, all-trans conformation at room temperature. The saturated fatty acid zinc soaps exhibit a single reversible melting transition with the associated enthalpy change varying linearly with alkyl chain length, but surprisingly, the melting temperature remaining constant. Melting is associated with changes in the conformation of the alkyl chains and in the nature of coordination of the fatty acid to zinc. By monitoring features in the infrared spectra that are characteristic of the global conformation of the alkyl chains, a quantitative relation between conformational disorder and melting is established. It is found that, irrespective of the alkyl chain length, melting occurs when 30% of the chains in the soap are disordered. These results highlight the universal nature of the melting of saturated fatty acid zinc soaps and provide a simple explanation for the observed phenomena.

  10. n-3 Fatty acids and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Mastana, Sarabjit S; Lindley, Martin R

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is one of the most common and prevalent problems worldwide affecting over 300 million individuals. There is some evidence from observational and intervention studies to suggest a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA in inflammatory diseases, specifically asthma. Marine-based n-3 PUFA have therefore been proposed as a possible complementary/alternative therapy for asthma. The proposed anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 fatty acids may be linked to a change in cell membrane composition. This altered membrane composition following n-3 fatty acid supplementation (primarily EPA and DHA) can modify lipid mediator generation via the production of eicosanoids with a reduced inflammatory potential/impact. A recently identified group of lipid mediators derived from EPA including E-series resolvins are proposed to be important in the resolution of inflammation. Reduced inflammation attenuates the severity of asthma including symptoms (dyspnoea) and exerts a bronchodilatory effect. There have been no major health side effects reported with the dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids or their mediators; consequently supplementing with n-3 fatty acids is an attractive non-pharmacological intervention which may benefit asthma.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in emerging psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Schaefer, Miriam R; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Smesny, Stefan; McGorry, Pat; Berger, Gregor; Amminger, G Paul

    2012-01-01

    The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites for the cause and treatment of psychotic disorders are widely discussed. The efficacy as an augmenting agent in chronic schizophrenia seems to be small or not present, however epidemiological data, as well as some recent controlled studies in emerging psychosis point towards possible preventive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in early and very early stages of psychotic disorders and some potential secondary or tertiary beneficial long-term effects in later, more chronic stages, in particular for metabolic or extra-pyramidal side effects. In this comprehensive review, we describe the physiology and metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipases, epidemiological evidence and the effect of these fatty acids on the brain and neurodevelopment. Furthermore, we examine the available evidence in indicated prevention in emerging psychosis, monotherapy, add-on therapy and tolerability. The neuroprotective potential of n-3 LC-PUFAs for indicated prevention, i.e. delaying transition to psychosis in high-risk populations needs to be further explored.

  12. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds.

    PubMed

    Sathe, S K; Seeram, N P; Kshirsagar, H H; Heber, D; Lapsley, K A

    2008-11-01

    Eight almond (Prunus dulcis L.) cultivars from 12 different California counties, collected during crop years 2004 to 2005 and 2005 to 2006, were extracted with petroleum ether. The extracts were subjected to GC-MS analyses to determine fatty acid composition of soluble lipids. Results indicated palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and alpha-linolenic (C18:3) acid, respectively, accounted for 5.07% to 6.78%, 57.54% to 73.94%, 19.32% to 35.18%, and 0.04% to 0.10%; of the total lipids. Oleic and linoleic acid were inversely correlated (r=-0.99, P= 0.05) and together accounted for 91.16% to 94.29% of the total soluble lipids. Statistically, fatty acid composition was significantly affected by cultivar and county.

  13. Effects of pyrazinamide on fatty acid synthesis by whole mycobacterial cells and purified fatty acid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, Helena I; Mizrahi, Valerie; Barry, Clifton E

    2002-04-01

    The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during intracellular hydrolysis of the corresponding amides, was not a direct consequence of modulation of fatty acid synthesis by these compounds but reflected the response to inorganic acid stress. Analysis of fatty acid synthesis in crude mycobacterial cell extracts demonstrated that pyrazinoic acid failed to directly modulate the fatty acid synthase activity catalyzed by fatty acid synthase I (FAS-I). However, fatty acid synthesis was irreversibly inhibited by 5-chloro-pyrazinamide in a time-dependent fashion. Moreover, we demonstrate that pyrazinoic acid does not inhibit purified mycobacterial FAS-I, suggesting that this enzyme is not the immediate target of pyrazinamide.

  14. Genetics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: From susceptibility and nutrient interactions to management

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Kanth, Vishnubhotla Venkata; Sasikala, Mitnala; Sharma, Mithun; Rao, Padaki Nagaraja; Reddy, Duvvuru Nageshwar

    2016-01-01

    Genetics plays an important role in determining the susceptibility of an individual to develop a disease. Complex, multi factorial diseases of modern day (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and obesity) are a result of disparity between the type of food consumed and genes, suggesting that food which does not match the host genes is probably one of the major reasons for developing life style diseases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver is becoming a global epidemic leading to substantial morbidity. While various genotyping approaches such as whole exome sequencing using next generation sequencers and genome wide association studies have identified susceptibility loci for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including variants in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 genes apart from others; nutrient based studies emphasized on a combination of vitamin D, E and omega-3 fatty acids to manage fatty liver disease. However majority of the studies were conducted independent of each other and very few studies explored the interactions between the genetic susceptibility and nutrient interactions. Identifying such interactions will aid in optimizing the nutrition tailor made to an individual’s genetic makeup, thereby aiding in delaying the onset of the disease and its progression. The present topic focuses on studies that identified the genetic susceptibility for NAFLD, nutritional recommendations, and their interactions for better management of NAFLD. PMID:27458502

  15. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Wojciech; Socha, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasingly prevalent in children, together with obesity. Transaminases, tests for insulin resistance, ultrasonography and MRI are variably used as surrogates markers of steatosis. Other liver diseases, such as Wilson disease, should be excluded. A liver biopsy is performed in selected cases: young children, familial history of severe disease, inconclusive tests for other pathologies, suspected advanced fibrosis, hypertransaminasemia despite weight loss and in clinical trials. Weight reduction, and changes in lifestyle, are the front-line treatment. Drug therapy is under evaluation.

  16. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: structure elucidation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D John; Burkart, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  17. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  18. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  19. Quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Zhao, Hui; Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Cong; Yang, Menglong; Bai, Fali

    2011-11-11

    Simple and rapid quantitative determination of fatty-acid-based biofuels is greatly important for the study of genetic engineering progress for biofuels production by microalgae. Ideal biofuels produced from biological systems should be chemically similar to petroleum, like fatty-acid-based molecules including free fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols and fatty alkanes. This study founded a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven free fatty acids, nine fatty acid methyl esters, five fatty acid ethyl esters, five fatty alcohols and three fatty alkanes produced by wild-type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically engineered strain. Data obtained from GC-MS analyses were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. The linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and precision (RSD) of the method were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fatty-acid-based biofuels can be directly determined by GC-MS without derivation. Therefore, rapid and reliable quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria can be achieved using the GC-MS method founded in this work.

  20. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-02-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by fat deposition within liver cells. Liver fat content reflects the equilibrium between several metabolic pathways involved in triglyceride synthesis and disposal, such as lipolysis in adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, triglyceride esterification, fatty acid oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis/secretion in hepatic tissue. In particular, it has been demonstrated that hepatic de novo lipogenesis plays a significant role in NAFLD pathogenesis. It is widely known that the fatty acid composition of the diet influences hepatic lipogenesis along with other metabolic pathways. Therefore, dietary fat may not only be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, but may also prevent and/or reverse hepatic fat accumulation. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as a potential cause of hepatic fat accumulation or as a potential treatment for NAFLD are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fat influence triglyceride deposition in the liver. A high-fat diet or the dietary administration of conjugated linoleic acids induced hepatic steatosis. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with krill oil or pine nut oil helped in the prevention and/or in the treatment of steatotic liver. Quite interesting is the "case" of olive oil, since several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models.

  1. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) /non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kiyo-aki; Takamura, Toshinari

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the form of triglycerides in the hepatocytes. A more severe form of NAFLD with necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis is called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The liver is located in the center of the body's organ network and acts as a coordinator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, it is important to perform nutritional therapy of patients with NAFLD/NASH while maintaining the energy balance in the entire body.

  2. Manipulation of Galactolipid Fatty Acid Composition with Substituted Pyridazinones

    PubMed Central

    John, Judith B. St.

    1976-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the major lipids of the chloroplast membranes, the mono- and digalactosyl diglycerides, can be definably altered with various substituted pyridazinones. Galactolipid fatty acid composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be altered so that there is a decrease in linolenic acid accompanied by an increase in linoleic acid without a shift in the relative proportion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids; the fatty acid composition can be shifted toward a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids; or the fatty acid composition of the monogalactosyl diglycerides can be altered in preference to the digalactosyl diglycerides. Also, the light-mediated parallel accumulation of chlorophyll and linolenic acid can be separated with a substituted pyridazinone. The substituted pyridazinones may be useful tools in clarifying the role the galactolipids and their component fatty acids play in the structure and function of chloroplast membranes in higher plants. PMID:16659420

  3. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  4. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  5. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  6. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  7. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  8. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10691 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10691... Substances § 721.10691 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-13-267) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10687 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10687 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-201, P-13-203, P-13-204, P-13-205, P-13-206, P-13-207,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10680 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10680... Substances § 721.10680 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the... unsaturated, fatty acids containing up to 15% water by weight reacted with a minimum of three moles of...

  3. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C 8 -C 18 Saturated); Exemption from the... fatty acids (C 8 -C 18 saturated) applied pre- and post-harvest on all raw agricultural commodities when... eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of ammonium salts of fatty acids...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  5. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  7. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  8. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    PubMed

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication.

  9. Translational approaches: From fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Natalia; Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Tiribelli, Claudio; Bellentani, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one, if not the most common, cause of chronic liver disease affecting both adults and children. The increasing number of cases at an early age is the most worrying aspect of this pathology, since it provides more time for its evolution. The spectrum of this disease ranges from liver steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and in some cases, hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD may not always be considered a benign disease and hepatologists must be cautious in the presence of fatty liver. This should prompt the use of the available experimental models to understand better the pathogenesis and to develop a rational treatment of a disease that is dangerously increasing. In spite of the growing efforts, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is still poorly understood. In the present article we review the most relevant hypotheses and evidence that account for the progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. The available in vitro and in vivo experimental models of NASH are discussed and revised in terms of their validity in translational studies. These studies must be aimed at the discovery of the still unknown triggers or mediators that induce the progression of hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. PMID:25083077

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Prashant; Das, Manoja K; Arora, Narendra K

    2007-04-01

    Obesity has emerged as a significant global health problem in the pediatric population. Pediatric liver disease is a serious complication of childhood obesity. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an entity in the spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from fat in the liver--simple steatosis, NASH/ steatohepatitis--fat with in.ammation and/or fibrosis to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis when fat may no longer be present. NASH is associated with obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance (IR), and hypertriglyceridemia. Children get NAFLD, and the incidence of this pediatric liver disease is rising as childhood obesity becomes increasingly prevalent. Although much remains to be learned about pediatric NAFLD, it is already evident that children with NASH risk progressive liver damage, including cirrhosis. Liver biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis, and other causes of fatty liver in childhood must be excluded. Gradual weight loss through increased regular exercise and a low-fat, low-refined carbohydrate diet appears to be effective. Drug treatments are being developed. The important message is that childhood obesity poses important health problems, including but not limited to potentially severe chronic liver disease. Early diagnosis of children who are only overweight is a worthy goal so that strategies to limit obesity can be instituted as early as possible. Identification of genetic risks is important, but management will invariably require changes in environmental factors. In addition to individual treatment, a multifaceted, societal initiative is required for solving the childhood obesity epidemic.

  11. Translational approaches: from fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Natalia; Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Tiribelli, Claudio; Bellentani, Stefano

    2014-07-21

    Over the past few decades, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one, if not the most common, cause of chronic liver disease affecting both adults and children. The increasing number of cases at an early age is the most worrying aspect of this pathology, since it provides more time for its evolution. The spectrum of this disease ranges from liver steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and in some cases, hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD may not always be considered a benign disease and hepatologists must be cautious in the presence of fatty liver. This should prompt the use of the available experimental models to understand better the pathogenesis and to develop a rational treatment of a disease that is dangerously increasing. In spite of the growing efforts, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is still poorly understood. In the present article we review the most relevant hypotheses and evidence that account for the progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. The available in vitro and in vivo experimental models of NASH are discussed and revised in terms of their validity in translational studies. These studies must be aimed at the discovery of the still unknown triggers or mediators that induce the progression of hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis.

  12. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  13. Metabolic diversity in biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria involving conjugated fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-08-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a effectively transforms linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acids of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. The transformation of various polyunsaturated fatty acids by washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a was investigated. Besides linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid [cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3)], gamma-linolenic acid (cis-6,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), columbinic acid (trans-5,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), and stearidonic acid [cis-6,cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4)] were found to be transformed. The fatty acids transformed by the strain had the common structure of a C18 fatty acid with the cis-9,cis-12 diene system. Three major fatty acids were produced from alpha-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, and trans-10,cis-15-18:2. Four major fatty acids were produced from gamma-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-10-18:2, and trans-10-octadecenoic acid. The strain transformed the cis-9,cis-12 diene system of C18 fatty acids into conjugated diene systems of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-9,trans-11. These conjugated dienes were further saturated into the trans-10 monoene system by the strain. The results provide valuable information for understanding the pathway of biohydrogenation by anaerobic bacteria and for establishing microbial processes for the practical production of conjugated fatty acids, especially those produced from alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  17. Research on food and nutrition characteristics of conjugated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the physiological effects of fatty acids with conjugated double bonds were widely examined in vitro and in vivo. Initially, a method for determination of conjugated fatty acids in food and biological samples was established. I then clarified that the oxidative stability of conjugated fatty acids was improved by the form of triacylglycerol and addition of an antioxidant, and the influence of this effect on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of conjugated fatty acids was clarified in vivo. In addition, antitumor, anti-angiogenesis, and antiobesity effects of conjugated fatty acids were found for the first time, thus demonstrating the usefulness of conjugated fatty acids. This communication mainly outlines the data obtained for conjugated linolenic acid. In addition, this review summarizes my research on conjugated fatty acid.

  18. Evolution of fatty alcohols in olive oils produced in Calabria (Southern Italy) during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted on olive oils extracted from olives collected in South West Calabria (Southern Italy) over three harvest years 2010-2011-2012. Three autochthonous cultivars were considered: Cassanese, Ottobratica and Sinopolese and seven allochtonous cultivars: Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nocellara Messinese, Nociara, Pendolino and Picholine. Thin Layer Chromatography - Gas Chromatograph (TLC-GC) technique permitted the separation and analysis of the fatty alcohol compounds. A general decline in fatty alcohol content was found during the three months of sampling, most evident in hexacosanol. Pendolino showed the greatest decline. A less evident decrease was measured in the odd chained fatty alcohols, mainly in heptacosanol. Both harvest date and cultivar significantly influenced the fatty alcohol content. This is the first report about the fatty alcohol variation during ripening in olive oil produced in South West Calabria (Southern Italy).

  19. Inhibition of Ileal Water Absorption by Intraluminal Fatty Acids INFLUENCE OF CHAIN LENGTH, HYDROXYLATION, AND CONJUGATION OF FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, Helmut V.; Phillips, Sidney F.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of fatty acids on ileal absorption of water, electrolytes, glucose, and taurocholate was examined in Thirty-Vella fistulas in five mongrel dogs. Fatty acid absorption also was measured. Segments of terminal ileum were perfused at steady state with isotonic electrolyte solutions containing 11.2 mM glucose, 4.5 mM taurocholate, and 0.1-5.0 mM fatty acid. Three C18 fatty acids, oleic acid, 10(9)-hydroxystearic acid, and ricinoleic acid, completely inhibited water absorption at 5 mM. Sodium, chloride, and potassium absorptions were inhibited in parallel with absorption of water. Differences between the potencies of C18 fatty acids were apparent when lesser concentrations were perfused. Dodecanoic and decanoic acids were as effective as C18 fatty acids at 5 mM but octanoic and hexanoic acids were ineffective. The polar group of C18 fatty acids was modified by conjugating oleic and ricinoleic acids with taurine. When these compounds and a substituted C18 fatty acid, p-n-decylbenzenesulfonate, were perfused, water absorption was also inhibited. Short-chain fatty acids (C3 and C4) and their hydroxylated derivatives were ineffective at 5 mM. When water absorption was inhibited, absorption of glucose and taurocholate was decreased. We speculate that the phenomenon of inhibition of water and electrolyte absorption by fatty acids may be relevant to steatorrhea and diarrhea in man. Images PMID:4808636

  20. Oil recovery process: injection of fatty alcohol followed by soap

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, R.; Carlin, J.

    1980-07-22

    A method is described for recovering crude oil from a subterranean reservoir having one or more injection means in fluid communication with one or more producing means. The method comprises injecting into said reservoir through said injection means an effective quantity of a solution of a fatty alcohol wherein the alcohol is selected from the group consisting of n-dodecyl, n-octyl and oleyl alcohols and mixtures thereof ranging in concentration from about 0.1 to about 10.0 weight percent of the injected solution and either a crude oil or a refined fraction of crude oil followed by an effective quantity of a solution comprising a soap and water wherein said soap is a sodium dodecyl sulfate ranging in concentration from about 0.05 to about 5.0 weight percent of the injected solution, said solutions combining with the crude oil present in the reservoir to form an oil-in-water emulsion, driving said solutions and emulsion through the reservoir by injection of a driving fluid and recovering the crude oil through said produciton means.

  1. Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2014-03-01

    Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species.

  2. Vildagliptin ameliorates biochemical, metabolic and fatty changes associated with non alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mazhar; Majeed Babar, Muhammad Zafar; Hussain, Muhammad Shahbaz; Akhtar, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Vildagliptin in non-alcoholic, fatty liver disease patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: A randomized placebo controlled trial was conducted at outpatient clinic of Medical Unit-I of Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, in which fifty eight patients of NAFLD with dyslipidemia were divided in to two, case and control groups. The case group was given tablet Vildagliptin 50mg twice a day for twelve weeks and control group was given placebo in same way. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, liver enzymes and ultrasound finding of fatty liver were assayed before and after treatment. Results: After 12 weeks treatment of vildagliptin there was significant improvement in following parameters. Body weight and BMI decreased significantly from 88 ± 11 to79 ± 12 kg (p0.036) and 30±4to 27±5 kg/m2 (p 0.005) respectively. Notable reduction in the value of TC, TG and LDL-C (TC:252±24 to 220±20mg/dl (p 0.031); TG: 190±24 to115±22 mg/dl (p 0.005); LDL-C 160±15 to 145±13mg/dl (p 0.004). HDL-C level increased significantly from 29±5to45±4 mg/dl (p 0.001). There was remarkable reduction in aminotransferases level (ALT: 78± 17 to 48±14IU/L (p 0.036). AST: 63.3±13 to41±11IU/L (p 0.002). There was overall 65.5% improvement in fatty liver grading on ultrasound with vildagliptin while non significant effects were seen in placebo group in all of the above parameters. Conclusion: Vildagliptin exhibited beneficial effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Non-diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:28083033

  3. Fatty acid profile of unconventional oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha; Sathish Kumar, M H

    2012-01-01

    The continued increase in human population has resulted in the rise in the demand as well as the price of edible oils, leading to the search for alternative unconventional sources of oils, particularly in the developing countries. There are hundreds of un- or underexplored plant seeds rich in oil suitable for edible or industrial purposes. Many of them are rich in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, which establish their utility as "healthy oils." Some agrowaste products such as rice bran have gained importance as a potential source of edible oil. Genetic modification has paved the way for increasing the oil yields and improving the fatty acid profiles of traditional as well as unconventional oilseeds. Single cell oils are also novel sources of edible oil. Some of these unconventional oils may have excellent potential for medicinal and therapeutic uses, even if their low oil contents do not promote commercial production as edible oils.

  4. Three-dimensional perfused human in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewski, Tomasz; Cornforth, Terri; Snow, Sophie A; Ouro-Gnao, Larissa; Rowe, Cliff; Large, Emma M; Hughes, David J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To develop a human in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), utilising primary hepatocytes cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) perfused platform. METHODS Fat and lean culture media were developed to directly investigate the effects of fat loading on primary hepatocytes cultured in a 3D perfused culture system. Oil Red O staining was used to measure fat loading in the hepatocytes and the consumption of free fatty acids (FFA) from culture medium was monitored. Hepatic functions, gene expression profiles and adipokine release were compared for cells cultured in fat and lean conditions. To determine if fat loading in the system could be modulated hepatocytes were treated with known anti-steatotic compounds. RESULTS Hepatocytes cultured in fat medium were found to accumulate three times more fat than lean cells and fat uptake was continuous over a 14-d culture. Fat loading of hepatocytes did not cause any hepatotoxicity and significantly increased albumin production. Numerous adipokines were expressed by fatty cells and genes associated with NAFLD and liver disease were upregulated including: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1, fatty acid-binding protein 3 and CYP7A1. The metabolic activity of hepatocytes cultured in fatty conditions was found to be impaired and the activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 were significantly reduced, similar to observations made in NAFLD patients. The utility of the model for drug screening was demonstrated by measuring the effects of known anti-steatotic compounds. Hepatocytes, cultured under fatty conditions and treated with metformin, had a reduced cellular fat content compared to untreated controls and consumed less FFA from cell culture medium. CONCLUSION The 3D in vitro NAFLD model recapitulates many features of clinical NAFLD and is an ideal tool for analysing the efficacy of anti-steatotic compounds. PMID:28127194

  5. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  6. Metabolites and biodegradation pathways of fatty alcohol ethoxylates in microbial biocenoses of sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Steber, J; Wierich, P

    1985-01-01

    The biodegradation of fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers was studied by analyzing the 14C-labeled intermediates isolated from the effluent of a model continuous-flow sewage treatment plant after dosage of either alkyl- or heptaglycol-labeled stearyl alcohol ethoxylate (SA-7EO). In each case, uncharged and carboxylated (mainly dicarboxylated) polyethylene glycols constituted the most prominent metabolites. The results indicate that there is a faster degradation of the alkyl than the polyethylene glycol moiety and that there are two distinct primary degradation mechanisms acting simultaneously in microbial biocenoses: intramolecular scission of the surfactant as well as omega- and beta-oxidation of the alkyl chain. Characterization of the bulk of 14C-labeled metabolites as a homologous series of neutral and acidic polyglycol units and identification of several C2-fragments accounted for the depolymerization of the hydrophilic part of the surfactant by stepwise cleavage of ether-bound EO units; from additional degradation studies employing either neutral or carboxylated 14C-labeled polyethylene glycols as model metabolites, it was concluded that hydrolytic as well as oxidative cleavage of C2-units is involved. Most of the identified low-molecular-weight 14C-labeled acids suggest an ultimate degradation of EO monomers by the oxidative dicarbonic acid cycle or the glycerate pathway or both. In addition, the finding of considerable amounts of oxalic and formic acids allow consideration of an additional mineralization route via glyoxylic, oxalic, and formic acids. The simultaneous action of different degradation mechanisms indicates the involvement of several distinct bacterial groups in the biodegradation of fatty alcohol ethoxylates under environmental conditions. PMID:3994363

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  8. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  9. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  10. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  12. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  14. Modulation of Nitro-fatty Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vitturi, Dario A.; Chen, Chen-Shan; Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Koenitzer, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Nicolas A.; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation, characterized by the activation of both resident and infiltrated immune cells, is accompanied by increased production of oxidizing and nitrating species. Nitrogen dioxide, the proximal nitrating species formed under these conditions, reacts with unsaturated fatty acids to yield nitroalkene derivatives. These electrophilic products modulate protein function via post-translational modification of susceptible nucleophilic amino acids. Nitroalkenes react with Keap1 to instigate Nrf2 signaling, activate heat shock response gene expression, and inhibit NF-κB-mediated signaling, inducing net anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective metabolic responses. We report the purification and characterization of a NADPH-dependent liver enzyme that reduces the nitroalkene moiety of nitro-oleic acid, yielding the inactive product nitro-stearic acid. Prostaglandin reductase-1 (PtGR-1) was identified as a nitroalkene reductase by protein purification and proteomic studies. Kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, immunological and molecular biology approaches as well as clinical analyses confirmed this identification. Overexpression of PtGR-1 in HEK293T cells promoted nitroalkene metabolism to inactive nitroalkanes, an effect that abrogated the Nrf2-dependent induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression by nitro-oleic acid. These results situate PtGR-1 as a critical modulator of both the steady state levels and signaling activities of fatty acid nitroalkenes in vivo. PMID:23878198

  15. Altered gut microbial energy and metabolism in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Michail, Sonia; Lin, Malinda; Frey, Mark R; Fanter, Rob; Paliy, Oleg; Hilbush, Brian; Reo, Nicholas V

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is becoming the new pediatric epidemic. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently associated with obesity and has become the most common cause of pediatric liver disease. The gut microbiome is the major metabolic organ and determines how calories are processed, serving as a caloric gate and contributing towards the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The goal of this study is to examine gut microbial profiles in children with NAFLD using phylogenetic, metabolomic, metagenomic and proteomic approaches. Fecal samples were obtained from obese children with or without NAFLD and healthy lean children. Stool specimens were subjected to 16S rRNA gene microarray, shotgun sequencing, mass spectroscopy for proteomics and NMR spectroscopy for metabolite analysis. Children with NAFLD had more abundant Gammaproteobacteria and Prevotella and significantly higher levels of ethanol, with differential effects on short chain fatty acids. This group also had increased genomic and protein abundance for energy production with a reduction in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and urea cycle and urea transport systems. The metaproteome and metagenome showed similar findings. The gut microbiome in pediatric NAFLD is distinct from lean healthy children with more alcohol production and pathways allocated to energy metabolism over carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, which would contribute to development of disease.

  16. Altered gut microbial energy and metabolism in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Sonia; Lin, Malinda; Frey, Mark R.; Fanter, Rob; Paliy, Oleg; Hilbush, Brian; Reo, Nicholas V.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is becoming the new pediatric epidemic. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently associated with obesity and has become the most common cause of pediatric liver disease. The gut microbiome is the major metabolic organ and determines how calories are processed, serving as a caloric gate and contributing towards the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The goal of this study is to examine gut microbial profiles in children with NAFLD using phylogenetic, metabolomic, metagenomic and proteomic approaches. Fecal samples were obtained from obese children with or without NAFLD and healthy lean children. Stool specimens were subjected to 16S rRNA gene microarray, shotgun sequencing, mass spectroscopy for proteomics and NMR spectroscopy for metabolite analysis. Children with NAFLD had more abundant Gammaproteobacteria and Prevotella and significantly higher levels of ethanol, with differential effects on short chain fatty acids. This group also had increased genomic and protein abundance for energy production with a reduction in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and urea cycle and urea transport systems. The metaproteome and metagenome showed similar findings. The gut microbiome in pediatric NAFLD is distinct from lean healthy children with more alcohol production and pathways allocated to energy metabolism over carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, which would contribute to development of disease. PMID:25764541

  17. Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.

  18. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis during development.

    PubMed

    Girard, J; Duée, P H; Ferré, P; Pégorier, J P; Escriva, F; Decaux, J F

    1985-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred oxidative substrates of the heart, skeletal muscles, kidney cortex and liver in adult mammals. They are supplied to these tissues either as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), or as triglycerides after hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase. During fetal life, tissue capacity to oxidize NEFA is very low, even in species in which the placental transfer of NEFA and carnitine is high. At birth, the ability to oxidize NEFA from endogenous sources or from milk (a high-fat diet) develops rapidly in various tissues and remains very high throughout the suckling period. Ketogenesis appears in the liver by 6 to 12 hrs after birth, and the ketone bodies are used as oxidative fuels by various tissues during the suckling period. At the time of weaning, the transition from a high-fat to a high-carbohydrate diet is attended by a progressive decrease in the ketogenic capacity of the liver, whereas other tissues (skeletal muscle, heart, kidney) maintain a high capacity for NEFA oxidation. The nutritional and hormonal factors involved in changes in fatty acid oxidation during development are discussed.

  19. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  20. Fatty acids of Thespesia populnea: Mass spectrometry of picolinyl esters of cyclopropene fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thespesia populnea belongs to the plant family of Malvaceae which contain cyclopropane and cyclopropene fatty acids. However, previous literature reports vary regarding the content of these compounds in Thespesia populnea seed oil. In this work, the content of malvalic acid (8,9-methylene-9-heptade...

  1. Effects of resveratrol in experimental and clinical non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Heebøll, Sara; Thomsen, Karen Louise; Pedersen, Steen B; Vilstrup, Hendrik; George, Jacob; Grønbæk, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and related conditions like non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide and therapeutic options are limited. Alternative treatment options are therefore intensively sought after. An interesting candidate is the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) that activates adenosinmonophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and silent information regulation-2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). In addition, RSV has known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we review the current evidence for RSV-mediated effects on NAFLD and address the different aspects of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis with respect to free fatty acid (FFA) flux from adipose tissue, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, inadequate FFA β-oxidation and additional intra- and extrahepatic inflammatory and oxidant hits. We review the in vivo evidence from animal studies and clinical trials. The abundance of animal studies reports a decrease in hepatic triglyceride accumulation, liver weight and a general improvement in histological fatty liver changes, along with a reduction in circulating insulin, glucose and lipid levels. Some studies document AMPK or SIRT1 activation, and modulation of relevant markers of hepatic lipogenesis, inflammation and oxidation status. However, AMPK/SIRT1-independent actions are also likely. Clinical trials are scarce and have primarily been performed with a focus on overweight/obese participants without a focus on NAFLD/NASH and histological liver changes. Future clinical studies with appropriate design are needed to clarify the true impact of RSV treatment in NAFLD/NASH patients. PMID:24799987

  2. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  3. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty...

  4. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  9. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  10. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  11. Volatile fatty acids production from marine macroalgae by anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Nhan; Nam, Woo Joong; Jeon, Young Joong; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2012-11-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced from the marine macroalgae, Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinite by anaerobic fermentation using a microbial community derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Methanogen inhibitor (iodoform), pH control, substrate concentration, and alkaline and thermal pretreatments affected VFA productivity. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were the main products. A maximum VFA concentration of 15.2g/L was obtained from 50 g/L of L. japonica in three days at 35°C and pH 6.5-7.0. Pretreatment with 0.5 N NaOH improved VFA productivity by 56% compared to control. The result shows the applicability of marine macroalgae as biomass feedstock for the production of VFAs which can be converted to mixed alcohol fuels.

  12. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  13. Effect of intracellular lipid accumulation in a new model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In vitro exposure of liver cells to high concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) results in fat overload which promotes inflammatory and fibrogenic response similar to those observed in patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). Since the mechanisms of this event have not been fully characterized, we aimed to analyze the fibrogenic stimuli in a new in vitro model of NASH. Methods HuH7 cells were cultured for 24 h in an enriched medium containing bovine serum albumin and increasing concentrations of palmitic and oleic acid at a molar ratio of 1:2 (palmitic and oleic acid, respectively). Cytotoxic effect, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and production of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines were measured. Results FFA induces a significant increment in the intracellular content of lipid droplets. The gene expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly increased. The protein level of interleukin-8 was also increased. Intracellular lipid accumulation was associated to a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta 1, alpha 2 macroglobulin, vascular endothelial growth factor A, connective tissue growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 2, thrombospondin 1. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated a significant increment of early apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The exposure of hepatocytes to fatty acids elicits inflammation, increase of oxidative stress, apoptosis and production of fibrogenic cytokines. These data support a primary role of FFA in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH. PMID:22380754

  14. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    As the serious effects of global climate change become apparent and access to fossil fuels becomes more limited, metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists are looking towards greener sources for transportation fuels. In recent years, microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals from simple sugars. Specifically, we overexpressed all three fatty acid biosynthesis genes, namely acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1) and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2), in S. cerevisiae. When coupled to triacylglycerol (TAG) production, the engineered strain accumulated lipid to more than 17% of its dry cell weight, a four-fold improvement over the control strain. Understanding that TAG cannot be used directly as fuels, we also engineered S. cerevisiae to produce drop-in fuels and chemicals. Altering the terminal "converting enzyme" in the engineered strain led to the production of free fatty acids at a titer of approximately 400 mg/L, fatty alcohols at approximately 100mg/L and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) at approximately 5 mg/L directly from simple sugars. We envision that our approach will provide a scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals.

  15. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  16. Very-long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids, 3-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters and 2-alkanols from cuticular waxes of Aloe arborescens leaves.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Peng, Chen; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Abe, Ikuro; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    The present work aimed at a comprehensive chemical characterization of the cuticular wax mixtures covering leaves of the monocot species Aloe arborescens. The wax mixtures were found to contain typical aliphatic compound classes in characteristic chain length distributions, including alkanes (predominantly C31), primary alcohols (predominantly C28), aldehydes (predominantly C32), fatty acid methyl esters (predominantly C28) and fatty acids (bimodal distribution around C32 and C28). Alkyl esters ranging from C42 to C52 were identified, and found to mainly contain C28 alcohol linked to C16-C20 acids. Three other homologous series were identified as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (predominantly C28), their methyl esters (predominantly C28), and 2-alkanols (predominantly C31). Based on structural similarities and homolog distributions, the biosynthetic pathways leading to these novel wax constituents can be hypothesized. Further detailed analyses showed that the A. arborescens leaf was covered with 15 μg/cm(2) wax on its adaxial side and 36 μg/cm(2) on the abaxial side, with 3:2 and 1:1 ratios between epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on each side, respectively. Terpenoids were found mainly in the intracuticular waxes, whereas very-long-chain alkanes and fatty acids accumulated to relatively high concentrations in the epicuticular wax, hence near the true surface of the leaf.

  17. Epoxygenated Fatty Acids Inhibit Retinal Vascular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Megan E.; Hammer, Sandra S.; McCollum, Gary W.; Penn, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of elevating epoxygenated fatty acids on retinal vascular inflammation. To stimulate inflammation we utilized TNFα, a potent pro-inflammatory mediator that is elevated in the serum and vitreous of diabetic patients. In TNFα-stimulated primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, total levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), but not epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), were significantly decreased. Exogenous addition of 11,12-EET or 19,20-EDP when combined with 12-(3-adamantane-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), an inhibitor of epoxide hydrolysis, inhibited VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and protein levels; conversely the diol product of 19,20-EDP hydrolysis, 19,20-DHDP, induced VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression. 11,12-EET and 19,20-EDP also inhibited leukocyte adherence to human retinal microvascular endothelial cell monolayers and leukostasis in an acute mouse model of retinal inflammation. Our results indicate that this inhibition may be mediated through an indirect effect on NFκB activation. This is the first study demonstrating a direct comparison of EET and EDP on vascular inflammatory endpoints, and we have confirmed a comparable efficacy from each isomer, suggesting a similar mechanism of action. Taken together, these data establish that epoxygenated fatty acid elevation will inhibit early pathology related to TNFα-induced inflammation in retinal vascular diseases. PMID:27966642

  18. Glycosyltransferases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yu-Tao; Su, Hai-Ying; An, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of NAFLD are still not fully understood. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are a diverse class of enzymes involved in catalyzing the transfer of one or multiple sugar residues to a wide range of acceptor molecules. GTs mediate a wide range of functions from structure and storage to signaling, and play a key role in many fundamental biological processes. Therefore, it is anticipated that GTs have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this article, we present an overview of the basic information on NAFLD, particularly GTs and glycosylation modification of certain molecules and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis. In addition, the effects and mechanisms of some GTs in the development of NAFLD are summarized. PMID:26937136

  19. Glycosyltransferases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu-Tao; Su, Hai-Ying; An, Wei

    2016-02-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of NAFLD are still not fully understood. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are a diverse class of enzymes involved in catalyzing the transfer of one or multiple sugar residues to a wide range of acceptor molecules. GTs mediate a wide range of functions from structure and storage to signaling, and play a key role in many fundamental biological processes. Therefore, it is anticipated that GTs have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this article, we present an overview of the basic information on NAFLD, particularly GTs and glycosylation modification of certain molecules and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis. In addition, the effects and mechanisms of some GTs in the development of NAFLD are summarized.

  20. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  1. Development of an environmentally benign process for the production of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Jordan, V; Gutsche, B

    2001-04-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is an important intermediate step in oleochemistry. The oleochemical production route starts with the renewable raw materials fat and oil and ends at fatty alcohols and different special products. Fatty acid methyl esters can be formed at mild reaction temperatures by transesterification of natural triglycerides (fats and oils). This contribution will show the development of a continuous process which is considering the main principles of production integrated environmental protection. The main advantages of this process are low energy consumption and minimal waste production. The process alternatives are shown and a scope on future problems which have to be solved to reach a real additional improvement of the fatty acid methyl esters production is given.

  2. Fatty Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Volatile energy costs and environmental concerns have spurred interest in the development of alternative, renewable, sustainable, and cost-effective energy resources. Environment-friendly processes involving microbes can be used to synthesize advanced biofuels. These fuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels in supporting high-power demanding machinery such as aircrafts and trucks. From an engineering perspective, the pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis is an attractive route for the production of advanced fuels such as fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and alkanes. The robustness and excellent accessibility to molecular genetics make the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a suitable host for the purpose of bio-manufacturing. Recent advances in metabolic engineering, as well as systems and synthetic biology, have now provided the opportunity to engineer yeast metabolism for the production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals.

  3. Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dyall, S C; Michael-Titus, A T

    2008-01-01

    The central nervous system is highly enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the omega-6 and omega-3 series. The presence of these fatty acids as structural components of neuronal membranes influences cellular function both directly, through effects on membrane properties, and also by acting as a precursor pool for lipid-derived messengers. An adequate intake of omega-3 PUFA is essential for optimal visual function and neural development. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that increased intake of the long-chain omega-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may confer benefits in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders, and in particular neurodegenerative conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are still poorly understood. Recent evidence also indicates that in addition to the positive effects seen in chronic neurodegenerative conditions, omega-3 PUFA may also have significant neuroprotective potential in acute neurological injury. Thus, these compounds offer an intriguing prospect as potentially new therapeutic approaches in both chronic and acute conditions. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence of the neurological benefits of omega-3 PUFA, looking specifically at neurodegenerative conditions and acute neurological injury.

  4. Autophagy and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lavallard, Vanessa J; Gual, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, or cellular self-digestion, is a catabolic process that targets cell constituents including damaged organelles, unfolded proteins, and intracellular pathogens to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy is crucial for development, differentiation, survival, and homeostasis. Important links between the regulation of autophagy and liver complications associated with obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), have been reported. The spectrum of these hepatic abnormalities extends from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), steatofibrosis, which sometimes leads to cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is one of the three main causes of cirrhosis and increases the risk of liver-related death and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the progression of a normal liver to steatosis and then more severe disease are complex and still unclear. The regulation of the autophagic flux, a dynamic response, and the knowledge of the role of autophagy in specific cells including hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, immune cells, and hepatic cancer cells have been extensively studied these last years. This review will provide insight into the current understanding of autophagy and its role in the evolution of the hepatic complications associated with obesity, from steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Monjur

    2015-01-01

    There is worldwide epidemic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a clinical entity related to metabolic syndrome. Majority of the patients are obese but the disease can affect non-obese individuals as well. Metabolic factors and genetics play important roles in the pathogenesis of this disorder. The spectrum of disorders included in NAFLD are benign macrovesicular hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the disease remains asymptomatic most of the time, it can slowly progress to end stage liver disease. It will be the most common indication of liver transplantation in the future. It is diagnosed by abnormal liver chemistry, imaging studies and liver biopsy. As there are risks of potential complications during liver biopsy, many patients do not opt for liver biopsy. There are some noninvasive scoring systems to find out whether patients have advanced hepatic fibrosis. At the present time, there are limited treatment options which include lifestyle modification to loose weight, vitamin E and thioglitazones. Different therapeutic agents are being investigated for optimal management of this entity. There are some studies done on incretin based therapies in patients with NAFLD. Other potential agents will be silent information regulator protein Sirtuin and antifibrotic monoclonal antibody Simtuzumab against lysyl oxidase like molecule 2. But they are still in the investigational phase. PMID:26085906

  6. The Natural Course of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Calzadilla Bertot, Luis; Adams, Leon Anton

    2016-05-20

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease in the world, paralleling the epidemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD exhibits a histological spectrum, ranging from "bland steatosis" to the more aggressive necro-inflammatory form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may accumulate fibrosis to result in cirrhosis. Emerging data suggests fibrosis, rather than NASH per se, to be the most important histological predictor of liver and non-liver related death. Nevertheless, only a small proportion of individuals develop cirrhosis, however the large proportion of the population affected by NAFLD has led to predictions that NAFLD will become a leading cause of end stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and indication for liver transplantation. HCC may arise in non-cirrhotic liver in the setting of NAFLD and is associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male gender. The MetS and its components also play a key role in the histological progression of NAFLD, however other genetic and environmental factors may also influence the natural history. The importance of NAFLD in terms of overall survival extends beyond the liver where cardiovascular disease and malignancy represents additional important causes of death.

  7. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A.; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l−1 of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l−1) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l−1), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value. PMID:27222209

  8. Production of Fatty Acid-derived valuable chemicals in synthetic microbes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes.

  9. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes. PMID:25566540

  10. Free fatty acids as markers of death from hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bańka, Krzysztof; Teresiński, Grzegorz; Buszewicz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The possibilities of using morphological markers of fatal hypothermia are limited; therefore, other diagnostic criteria of deaths from hypothermia are being researched. The initiation of protective mechanisms against adverse effects of low temperatures results in activation of hormonal systems and development of characteristic biochemical changes that can be impaired by alcohol intoxication. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of determinations of the profile of free fatty acid concentrations as potential markers of hypothermia-related deaths, particularly in intoxicated victims. The study group consisted of blood samples collected during autopsies of 23 victims of hypothermia. The control group included blood samples collected from 34 victims of sudden, violent deaths at the scene of an incident (hangings and traffic accidents) and 10 victims who died because of post-traumatic subdural hematomas with prolonged agony. The study and control groups were divided into three subgroups according to blood alcohol concentrations: 0.0-0.99; 1.0-2.99 and ≥3.0‰. Statistical analysis in the individual subgroups demonstrated significant increases in concentrations of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids (P<0.05), independent of blood ethanol concentration. Palmitic, stearic and oleic acids can be considered the potential markers of fatal hypothermia, including the cases of intoxicated individuals.

  11. Composition, assimilation and degradation of Phaeocystis globosa-derived fatty acids in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Christian E.; Rousseau, Veronique

    2003-12-01

    The fate of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea off Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany in May 1995 was investigated during a cruise with RV 'Belgica'. We used fatty acids as biomarkers to follow the fate of Phaeocystis-derived biomass of a Phaeocystis-dominated spring bloom. The bloom, in which up to >99% of the biomass was contributed by Phaeocystis, showed a fatty acid composition with a characteristically high abundance of polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids, which increased in concentration with number of double bonds up to 18:5 (n-3), and high concentrations of 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). In contrast to most previous studies, fatty acid analysis of the mesozooplankton community (mainly calanoid copepods) and meroplankton ( Carcinus maenas megalope) indicated that P. globosa was a major component (ca. 70% and 50%, respectively) in the diet of these organisms. Massive accumulations of amorphous grey aggregates, in which Phaeocystis colonies were major components, were dominated by saturated fatty acids and contained only few of the polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids. A hydrophobic surface slick that covered the water surface during the bloom showed very similar patterns. Foam patches contained few Phaeocystis-typical fatty acids, but increased amounts of diatom-typical compounds such as 16:1 (n-7) and 20:5 (n-3), and 38% fatty alcohols, indicating that wax esters dominated the lipid fraction in the foam with ca. 76% (w/w). The fatty acid compositions of surface sediment showed that no sedimentation of fresh Phaeocystis occurred during the study. The results indicate that Phaeocystis-derived organic matter degraded while floating or in suspension, and had not reached the sediment in substantial amounts.

  12. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  13. Assessment of alcohol ethoxylate surfactants and fatty alcohols mixtures in river sediments and prospective risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Scott D; Sanderson, Hans; Waite, Scott W; Van Compernolle, Remi; Price, Bradford; Nielsen, Allen M; Evans, Alex; Decarvalho, Alvaro J; Hooton, Dennis J; Sherren, Andrew J

    2006-09-01

    A feasible and relatively readily available analytical method was adapted for the assessment of alcohol ethoxylates (AE) and fatty alcohols (FA) in sediments. This study illustrates the simultaneous measurement of 38 of 114 possible alcohol ethoxylate ethoxymers (AE) and fatty alcohols (FA) found in commercially important AE products. We predicted toxicity for all identified fractions, as well as the total mixture toxicity, relative to three exposure scenarios via sewage treatment plants (STP) for these widely used chemicals in consumer products and hence generate a preliminary environmental risk screening for AE and FA in sediments. The method is based on derivatization of solvent or solid-phase extracts with 2-fluoro-N-methylpyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (Pyr+). The derivatized extracts were analyzed with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) operating in the positive ion electrospray mode. The extraction efficiency of AE and FA in three different sediments of varying composition was evaluated with spike-recovery studies, ranging from 64% to 80%. The detection limits for individual ethoxymers typically ranged from 1 to 5 ngg(-1)on a dry weight basis. The mean limit of detection (LOD) was 6 ngg(-1)and the median LOD was 3 ngg(-1). AE and FA in sediments were found to be stable for two weeks if preserved with 3% (v/v) formalin and stored at 4-6( composite function)C. Based on equilibrium partitioning, background concentrations of AE and FA were predicted to be below concentrations known to elicit chronically toxic effects. Total worst case mixture toxicities for all AE ethoxymers combined with FA were predicted to result in a risk quotient less than 0.6. Activated sludge treatment (STP) significantly reduced the release of total AE and FA by four-fold, suggesting that the total mixture risk quotient would be < 0.15 for sediment dependent organisms.

  14. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by fat deposition within liver cells. Liver fat content reflects the equilibrium between several metabolic pathways involved in triglyceride synthesis and disposal, such as lipolysis in adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, triglyceride esterification, fatty acid oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis/secretion in hepatic tissue. In particular, it has been demonstrated that hepatic de novo lipogenesis plays a significant role in NAFLD pathogenesis. It is widely known that the fatty acid composition of the diet influences hepatic lipogenesis along with other metabolic pathways. Therefore, dietary fat may not only be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, but may also prevent and/or reverse hepatic fat accumulation. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as a potential cause of hepatic fat accumulation or as a potential treatment for NAFLD are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fat influence triglyceride deposition in the liver. A high-fat diet or the dietary administration of conjugated linoleic acids induced hepatic steatosis. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with krill oil or pine nut oil helped in the prevention and/or in the treatment of steatotic liver. Quite interesting is the “case” of olive oil, since several studies have often provided different and⁄or conflicting results in animal models. PMID:24587652

  15. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r2-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  16. Applications of cellular fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D F

    1991-01-01

    More than ever, new technology is having an impact on the tools of clinical microbiologists. The analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) has become markedly more practical with the advent of the fused-silica capillary column, computer-controlled chromatography and data analysis, simplified sample preparation, and a commercially available GLC system dedicated to microbiological applications. Experience with applications in diagnostic microbiology ranges from substantial success in work with mycobacteria, legionellae, and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli to minimal involvement with fungi and other nonbacterial agents. GLC is a good alternative to other means for the identification of mycobacteria or legionellae because it is rapid, specific, and independent of other specialized testing, e.g., DNA hybridization. Nonfermenters show features in their cellular fatty acid content that are useful in identifying species and, in some cases, subspecies. Less frequently encountered nonfermenters, including those belonging to unclassified groups, can ideally be characterized by GLC. Information is just beginning to materialize on the usefulness of cellular fatty acids for the identification of gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes, despite the traditional role of GLC in detecting metabolic products as an aid to identification of anaerobes. When species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci is called for, GLC may offer an alternative to biochemical testing. Methods for direct analysis of clinical material have been developed, but in practical and economic terms they are not yet ready for use in the clinical laboratory. Direct analysis holds promise for detecting markers of infection due to an uncultivable agent or in clinical specimens that presently require cultures and prolonged incubation to yield an etiologic agent. PMID:1747860

  17. Fads1 and 2 are promoted to meet instant need for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in goose fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rashid H; Liu, Long; Xia, Lili; Zhao, Xing; Wang, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Biao; Zheng, Yun; Gong, Daoqing; Geng, Tuoyu

    2016-07-01

    Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a threat to human health. Goose is a unique model of NAFLD for discovering therapeutic targets as its liver can develop severe steatosis without overt injury. Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) is a potential therapeutic target as Fads expression and mutations are associated with liver fat. Here, we hypothesized that Fads was promoted to provide a protection for goose fatty liver. To test this, goose Fads1 and Fads2 were sequenced. Fads1/2/6 expression was determined in goose liver and primary hepatocytes by quantitative PCR. Liver fatty acid composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography. Data indicated that hepatic Fads1/2/6 expression was gradually increased with the time of overfeeding. In contrast, trans-C18:1n9 fatty acid (Fads inhibitor) was reduced. However, enhanced Fads capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis was not sufficient to compensate for the depleted LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver. Moreover, cell studies showed that Fads1/2/6 expression was regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Together, these findings suggest Fads1/2 as protective components are promoted to meet instant need for LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver, and we propose this is required for severe hepatic steatosis without liver injury.

  18. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool.

  19. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, ZengKui

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass−1·min−1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ∼1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

  20. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...

  1. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  2. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  3. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  4. Amelioration by chicory seed extract of diabetes- and oleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) via modulation of PPARα and SREBP-1.

    PubMed

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Vardasbi, Safura; Ahmadian, Shahram; Nowrouzi, Azin; Ghaffari, Seyed Mahmood; Abdirad, Afshin

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) seed extract (CI) on hepatic steatosis caused by early and late stage diabetes in rats (in vivo), and induced in HepG2 cells (in vitro) by BSA-oleic acid complex (OA). Different dosages of CI (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/ml) were applied along with OA (1 mM) to HepG2 cells, simultaneously and non-simultaneously; and without OA to ordinary non-steatotic cells. Cellular lipid accumulation and glycerol release, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) content were measured. The expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) were determined. Liver samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Significant histological damage (steatosis-inflammation-fibrosis) to the cells and tissues and down-regulation of SREBP-1c and PPARα genes that followed steatosis induction were prevented by CI in simultaneous treatment. In non-simultaneous treatment, CI up-regulated the expression of both genes and restored the normal levels of the corresponding proteins; with a greater stimulating effect on PPARα, CI acted as a PPARα agonist. CI released glycerol from HepG2 cells, and targeted the first and the second hit phases of hepatic steatosis. A preliminary attempt to characterize CI showed caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and chicoric acid, among the constituents.

  5. CER4 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase involved in cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Owen; Zheng, Huanquan; Hepworth, Shelley R; Lam, Patricia; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2006-11-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against uncontrolled water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It is composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of CER4, a wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis cer4 mutants exhibit major decreases in stem primary alcohols and wax esters, and slightly elevated levels of aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones. This phenotype suggested that CER4 encoded an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). We identified eight FAR-like genes in Arabidopsis that are highly related to an alcohol-forming FAR expressed in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). Molecular characterization of CER4 alleles and genomic complementation revealed that one of these eight genes, At4g33790, encoded the FAR required for cuticular wax production. Expression of CER4 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) resulted in the accumulation of C24:0 and C26:0 primary alcohols. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged CER4 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast cells by confocal microscopy. Analysis of gene expression by reverse transcription-PCR indicated that CER4 was expressed in leaves, stems, flowers, siliques, and roots. Expression of a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the CER4 promoter in transgenic plants was detected in epidermal cells of leaves and stems, consistent with a dedicated role for CER4 in cuticular wax biosynthesis. CER4 was also expressed in all cell types in the elongation zone of young roots. These data indicate that CER4 is an alcohol-forming FAR that has specificity for very-long-chain fatty acids and is responsible for the synthesis of primary alcohols in the epidermal cells of aerial tissues and in roots.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10682 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10682 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substances... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-63, P-13-64, P-13-65, P-13-69, P-13-70, P-13-71, P-13-72,...

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis in novel ufa mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M; Stafford, A E; Lin, J T; Makapugay, M I; Fuller, G; McKeon, T A

    1994-10-01

    New mutants of Neurospora crassa having the ufa phenotype have been isolated. Two of these mutants, like previously identified ufa mutants, require an unsaturated fatty acid for growth and are almost completely blocked in the de novo synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The new mutations map to a different chromosomal location than previously characterized ufa mutations. This implies that at least one additional genetic locus controls the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Neurospora.

  8. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  9. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  14. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  15. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibition of fatty acid synthase transcription is independent of PPAR activation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S D; Turini, M; Jump, D B; Abraham, S; Reedy, M

    1998-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the (n-6) and (n-3) families inhibit the rate of gene transcription for a number of hepatic lipogenic and glycolytic genes, e.g., fatty acid synthase (FAS). In contrast, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids have no inhibitory capability. The suppression of gene transcription resulting from the addition of PUFA to a high carbohydrate diet: occurs quickly (< 3 h) after its addition to a high glucose diet; can be recreated with hepatocytes cultured in a serum-free medium containing insulin and glucocorticoids; can be demonstrated in diabetic rats fed fructose; and is independent of glucagon. While the nature of the intracellular PUFA inhibitor is unclear, it appears that delta-6 desaturation is a required step in the process. Recently, the fatty acid activated nuclear factor, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) was suggested to be the PUFA-response factor. However, the potent PPAR activators ETYA and Wy-14643 did not suppress hepatic expression of FAS, but did induce the PPAR-responsive gene, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX). Similarly, treating rat hepatocytes with 20:4 (n-6) suppressed FAS expression but had no effect on AOX. Thus, it appears that the PUFA regulation of gene transcription involves a PUFA-response factor that is independent from PPAR.

  17. Engineering fungal de novo fatty acid synthesis for short chain fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Jan; Pavlovic, Renata; Fischer, Manuel; Boles, Eckhard; Grininger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are considered strategically important platform compounds that can be accessed by sustainable microbial approaches. Here we report the reprogramming of chain-length control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase (FAS). Aiming for short-chain FAs (SCFAs) producing baker's yeast, we perform a highly rational and minimally invasive protein engineering approach that leaves the molecular mechanisms of FASs unchanged. Finally, we identify five mutations that can turn baker's yeast into a SCFA producing system. Without any further pathway engineering, we achieve yields in extracellular concentrations of SCFAs, mainly hexanoic acid (C6-FA) and octanoic acid (C8-FA), of 464 mg l−1 in total. Furthermore, we succeed in the specific production of C6- or C8-FA in extracellular concentrations of 72 and 245 mg l−1, respectively. The presented technology is applicable far beyond baker's yeast, and can be plugged into essentially all currently available FA overproducing microorganisms. PMID:28281527

  18. Wood-Beaver modification improves fatty acid process for tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The original Herter process uses fatty acids as a solvent to recover bitumen from a tar sand. An improvement to the original process, known as the Beaver-Herter process, utilizes short-chain alcohols as a cosolvent to enhance the phase separation steps and to improve the saponification and desaponification reactions. The latest modification, known as the Wood-Beaver process, judiciously utilizes phase behavior to further improve the recovery of the fatty acids from the solvated mixture at greatly reduced chemical costs. This paper describes the latest modified process, discusses a conceptual design for a demonstration plant, and summarizes the equipment costs. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Algal swimming velocities signal fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Travis J; Hondzo, Miki; Mashek, Mara T; Mashek, Douglas G; Lefebvre, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The use of microalgae for biofuel production will be beneficial to society if we can produce biofuels at large scales with minimal mechanical energy input in the production process. Understanding micro-algal physiological responses under variable environmental conditions in bioreactors is essential for the optimization of biofuel production. We demonstrate that measuring micro-algal swimming speed provides information on culture health and total fatty acid accumulation. Three strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown heterotrophically on acetate and subjected to various levels of nitrogen starvation. Other nutrient levels were explored to determine their effect on micro-algal kinetics. Swimming velocities were measured with two-dimensional micro-particle tracking velocimetry. The results show an inverse linear relationship between normalized total fatty acid mass versus swimming speed of micro-algal cells. Analysis of RNA sequencing data confirms these results by demonstrating that the biological processes of cell motion and the generation of energy precursors are significantly down-regulated. Experiments demonstrate that changes in nutrient concentration in the surrounding media also affect swimming speed. The findings have the potential for the in situ and indirect assessment of lipid content by measuring micro-algal swimming kinetics.

  20. [Retinal and carotid changes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Baloşeanu, Cristina; Rogoveanu, I; Mocanu, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on 85 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluate the retinal vascular changes using retinal photography and carotid vascular changes, by ultrasounds, occured in this group of patients.

  1. Fatty acids profiling reveals potential candidate markers of semen quality.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, C; Caponecchia, L; Rago, R; Leoncini, E; Bottaccioli, A G; Ciacciarelli, M; Pacelli, A; Salacone, P; Sebastianelli, A; Pastore, A; Palleschi, G; Boccia, S; Carbone, A; Iuliano, L

    2016-11-01

    Previous reports showed altered fatty acid content in subjects with altered sperm parameters compared to normozoospermic individuals. However, these studies focused on a limited number of fatty acids, included a short number of subjects and results varied widely. We conducted a case-control study involving 155 patients allocated into four groups, including normozoospermia (n = 33), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 32), asthenozoospermia (n = 25), and varicocoele (n = 44). Fatty acid profiling, including 30 species, was analyzed by a validated gas chromatography (GC) method on the whole seminal fluid sample. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the associations between fatty acids and the four groups. Specimens from 15 normozoospermic subjects were also analyzed for fatty acids content in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa to study the distribution in the two compartments. Fatty acids lipidome varied markedly between the four groups. Multinomial logistic regression modeling revealed that high levels of palmitic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) confer a low risk to stay out of the normozoospermic group. In the whole population, seminal fluid stearic acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.53), and DHA was positively correlated (r = 0.65) with sperm motility. Some fatty acids were preferentially accumulated in spermatozoa and the highest difference was observed for DHA, which was 6.2 times higher in spermatozoa than in seminal plasma. The results of this study highlight complete fatty acids profile in patients with different semen parameters. Given the easy-to-follow and rapid method of analysis, fatty acid profiling by GC method can be used for therapeutic purposes and to measure compliance in infertility trials using fatty acids supplements.

  2. [Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

    2006-11-01

    Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids.

  3. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  4. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi.

  5. Identification of Lipid Species Linked to the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Saito, Masaya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is histologically characterized by the aberrant accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver, which is positively correlated with insulin resistance. Within the spectrum of this disease, patients can develop hepatitis and cirrhosis; i.e., non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The mechanisms responsible for the progression of NAFLD are not fully understood. Triacylglycerol (TAG), which is mainly found in lipid droplets, is currently considered to act as a buffer against the accumulation of non-TAG toxic lipid species. In line with this, recent studies have revealed that insulin resistance is driven by the accumulation of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol in hepatocytes and that cholesterol-overloaded stellate cells are associated with fibrosis in the liver. Therefore, it is important to identify the toxic lipid species that contribute to NAFLD progression in order to clarify the pathogenesis of NASH and find novel targets for its treatment. In this review, we divided lipids into five classes; i.e., into fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, glycerolipids, sphingolipids, and sterol lipids, and described their molecular structures, distributions, and metabolism under physiological conditions, as well as the contributions they make to the progression of NAFLD.

  6. Quantifying the anthropogenic fraction of fatty alcohols in a terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen M; DeLeo, Paul C; Dyer, Scott D

    2012-06-01

    Fatty alcohols are naturally produced hydrocarbons present in all living organisms. They are also used in detergent and cosmetic formulations, may be sourced from either petroleum or biological materials, and are typically disposed of down the drain. This study was conducted on the Luray catchment, Virginia, USA, where sales data indicate that approximately 2 kg of fatty alcohols from detergent enter the wastewater every day. Reconstructing fatty alcohols in the influent on the basis of sales data indicated a mix of odd and even chain compounds, with C(12) being dominant. This profile was influenced strongly by liquid laundry detergents (69%). Sediment and soil samples from the catchment were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to determine the δ(13)C and δ(2)H signatures. The long-chain components in agricultural soils and river sediments were distinguishable clearly from the algal fatty alcohols produced within the river system. The wastewater was a mixture of fecal and detergent sources of fatty alcohols in a ratio of 75:25%. The fatty alcohols in the effluent had different stable isotopic signatures and chain-length profiles from the influent, indicating that these compounds are not the same as those that entered the treatment plant. The total quantity of fatty alcohols leaving the treatment plant through the effluent pipe was low compared with the input. Analysis of the contributions based on the stable isotopes and profiles suggests that of the fatty alcohols present in the river system downstream of the treatment plant, 84% were derived from terrestrial plant production, 15% came from in situ algal synthesis, and 1% were derived from the effluent.

  7. Modulation of tissue fatty acids by L-carnitine attenuates metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C; Waanders, Jennifer; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-08-01

    Obesity and dyslipidaemia are metabolic defects resulting from impaired lipid metabolism. These impairments are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Correcting the defects in lipid metabolism may attenuate obesity and dyslipidaemia, and reduce cardiovascular risk and liver damage. L-Carnitine supplementation was used in this study to enhance fatty acid oxidation so as to ameliorate diet-induced disturbances in lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) were fed with either corn starch or high-carbohydrate, high-fat diets for 16 weeks. Separate groups were supplemented with L-carnitine (1.2% in food) on either diet for the last 8 weeks of the protocol. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinaemia, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. L-Carnitine supplementation attenuated these high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced changes, together with modifications in lipid metabolism including the inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 activity, reduced storage of short-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in the tissues with decreased linoleic acid content and trans fatty acids stored in retroperitoneal fat. Thus, L-carnitine supplementation attenuated the signs of metabolic syndrome through inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 activity, preferential β-oxidation of some fatty acids and increased storage of saturated fatty acids and relatively inert oleic acid in the tissues.

  8. Strategies, models and biomarkers in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease research.

    PubMed

    Willebrords, Joost; Pereira, Isabel Veloso Alves; Maes, Michaël; Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Colle, Isabelle; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Da Silva, Tereza Cristina; de Oliveira, Cláudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is currently the most dominant chronic liver disease in Western countries due to the fact that hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and drug-induced injury. A variety of chemicals, mainly drugs, and diets is known to cause hepatic steatosis in humans and rodents. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models rely on the application of a diet or the administration of drugs to laboratory animals or the exposure of hepatic cell lines to these drugs. More recently, genetically modified rodents or zebrafish have been introduced as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models. Considerable interest now lies in the discovery and development of novel non-invasive biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with specific focus on hepatic steatosis. Experimental diagnostic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, such as (epi)genetic parameters and '-omics'-based read-outs are still in their infancy, but show great promise. In this paper, the array of tools and models for the study of liver steatosis is discussed. Furthermore, the current state-of-art regarding experimental biomarkers such as epigenetic, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabonomic biomarkers will be reviewed.

  9. Strategies, models and biomarkers in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease research

    PubMed Central

    Willebrords, Joost; Pereira, Isabel Veloso Alves; Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Colle, Isabelle; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Da silva, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Cláudia P; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is currently the most dominant chronic liver disease in Western countries due to the fact that hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and drug-induced injury. A variety of chemicals, mainly drugs, and diets is known to cause hepatic steatosis in humans and rodents. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models rely on the application of a diet or the administration of drugs to laboratory animals or the exposure of hepatic cell lines to these drugs. More recently, genetically modified rodents or zebrafish have been introduced as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models. Considerable interest now lies in the discovery and development of novel non-invasive biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with specific focus on hepatic steatosis. Experimental diagnostic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, such as (epi)genetic parameters and ‘-omics’-based read-outs are still in their infancy, but show great promise. . In this paper, the array of tools and models for the study of liver steatosis is discussed. Furthermore, the current state-of-art regarding experimental biomarkers such as epigenetic, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabonomic biomarkers will be reviewed. PMID:26073454

  10. [Possible route for thiamine participation in fatty acid synthesis].

    PubMed

    Buko, V U; Larin, F S

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of thiamine partaking in the synthesis of fatty acids through the functions unrelated to the catalytic properties of thiamine-diphosphate was studied. Rats kept on a fat-free ration devoid of thiamine were given thiamine of thiochrome with no vitaminic properties. The total fatty acids content in different tissues and incorporation therein of tagged acetate and pyruvate was determined, while the fatty acids composition of the liver was investigated by using gas chromatography. Thiamine and thiochrome produced a similar effect on a number of the study factors, i.e. they forced down the total acids level in the spleen, intensified incorporation of tagged acetate and pyruvate in fatty acids of the heart and uniformly changed the fatty acids composition in the liver. It is suggested that the unindirectional effects of thiamine and thiochrome is due to the oxidative transformation of thiamine into thiochrome.

  11. Escherichia coli Unsaturated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youjun; Cronan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) synthetic pathway of Escherichia coli is the prototype of such pathways, several unresolved issues have accumulated over the years. The key players are the fabA and fabB genes. Earlier studies of fabA transcription showed that the gene was transcribed from two promoters, with one being positively regulated by the FadR protein. The other weaker promoter (which could not be mapped with the technology then available) was considered constitutive because its function was independent of FadR. However, the FabR negative regulator was recently shown to represses fabA transcription. We report that the weak promoter overlaps the FadR-dependent promoter and is regulated by FabR. This promoter is strictly conserved in all E. coli and Salmonella enterica genomes sequenced to date and is thought to provide insurance against inappropriate regulation of fabA transcription by exogenous saturated fatty acids. Also, the fabAup promoter, a mutant promoter previously isolated by selection for increased FabA activity, was shown to be a promoter created de novo by a four-base deletion within the gene located immediately upstream of fabA. Demonstration of the key UFA synthetic reaction catalyzed by FabB has been elusive, although it was known to catalyze an elongation reaction. Strains lacking FabB are UFA auxotrophs indicating that the enzyme catalyzes an essential step in UFA synthesis. Using thioesterases specific for hydrolysis of short chain acyl-ACPs, the intermediates of the UFA synthetic pathway have been followed in vivo for the first time. These experiments showed that a fabB mutant strain accumulated less cis-5-dodecenoic acid than the parental wild-type strain. These data indicate that the key reaction in UFA synthesis catalyzed by FabB is elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP produced by FabA. PMID:19679654

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Gil, A

    2002-10-01

    Inflammation is overall a protective response, whose main goal is to liberate the human being of cellular lesions caused by micro-organisms, toxins, allergens, etc., as well as its consequences, and of death cells and necrotic tissues. Chronic inflammation, which is detrimental to tissues, is the basic pathogenic mechanism of hypersensitivity reactions against xenobiotics. Other frequent pathologies, for instance atherosclerosis, chronic hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis are also chronic inflammatory diseases. Chemical mediators of inflammation are derived from blood plasma or different cell-type activity. Biogenic amines, eicosanoids and cytokines are within the most important mediators of inflammatory processes. The different activities of eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) versus those derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) are one of the most important mechanisms to explain why n-3, or omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in many inflammatory diseases. Dietary supplements ranging 1-8 g per day of n-3 PUFA have been reportedly beneficial in the treatment of IBD, eczema, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, recent experimental studies in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis, induced by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid, have documented that treatment with n-3 long-chain PUFA reduces mucosal damage as assessed by biochemical and histological markers of inflammation. Moreover, the defence antioxidant system in this model is enhanced in treated animals, provided that the n-3 PUFA supply is adequately preserved from oxidation.

  13. Deficits in docosahexaenoic acid and associated elevations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Stanford, Kevin E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Richtand, Neil M

    2008-09-30

    Previous antemortem and postmortem tissue fatty acid composition studies have observed significant deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cell (RBC) and postmortem cortical membranes of patients with unipolar depression. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, Brodmann area 10) of patients with bipolar disorder (n=18) and age-matched normal controls (n=19) by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, DHA (-24%), arachidonic acid (-14%), and stearic acid (C18:0) (-4.5%) compositions were significantly lower, and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) (+12.5%) composition significantly higher, in the OFC of bipolar patients relative to normal controls. Based on metabolite:precursor ratios, significant elevations in arachidonic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid conversion/metabolism were observed in the OFC of bipolar patients, and were inversely correlated with DHA composition. Deficits in OFC DHA and arachidonic acid composition, and elevations in arachidonic acid metabolism, were numerically (but not significantly) greater in drug-free bipolar patients relative to patients treated with mood-stabilizer or antipsychotic medications. OFC DHA and arachidonic acid deficits were greater in patients plus normal controls with high vs. low alcohol abuse severity. These results add to a growing body of evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as well as the OFC in the pathoaetiology of bipolar disorder.

  14. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  15. Site-selective Alkane Dehydrogenation of Fatty Acids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-14

    dehydrogenation of fatty acids Contract/Grant#: FA9550-10-1-0532 Final Reporting Period: 15 September 2011 to 14 September 2011...directly incorporate fatty acids into the ligand. The preparation of the acyl phosphines (1-5) was easily accomplished starting from the corresponding...AFOSR Final Report Final Report 
 The proposed research examines the site-selective dehydrogenation of alkanes. The alkanes employed were fatty

  16. Fatty acid composition of two Tunisian pine seed oils.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Hammami, Mohamed; Triki, Saida

    2005-01-01

    Oils were extracted from fully ripen Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. Seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. Qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. For P. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. For P. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportions 47.28%, 36.56%, and 6.67%, respectively. Extracted fatty acids from both species are mainly unsaturated, respectively, 89.87% and 88.01%. Pinus halepensis cis-5 olefinic acids are more abundant (7.84% compared to 2.24%). Results will be important as a good indication of the potential nutraceutical value of Pinus seeds as new sources of fruit oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cis-5 olefinic acids.

  17. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  19. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in lepidopteran caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Alborn, Hans T; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Suckling, David M; Nishida, Ritsuo; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in noctuid as well as sphingid caterpillar oral secretions; in particular, volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants. These induced volatiles, in turn, attract natural enemies of the caterpillars. In a previous study, we showed that N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine in larval Spodoptera litura plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation which might be an explanation for caterpillars synthesizing FACs despite an increased risk of attracting natural enemies. However, the presence of FACs in lepidopteran species outside these families of agricultural interest is not well known. We conducted FAC screening of 29 lepidopteran species, and found them in 19 of these species. Thus, FACs are commonly synthesized through a broad range of lepidopteran caterpillars. Since all FAC-containing species had N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and/or N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine in common, and the evolutionarily earliest species among them had only these two FACs, these glutamine conjugates might be the evolutionarily older FACs. Furthermore, some species had glutamic acid conjugates, and some had hydroxylated FACs. Comparing the diversity of FACs with lepidopteran phylogeny indicates that glutamic acid conjugates can be synthesized by relatively primitive species, while hydroxylation of fatty acids is limited mostly to larger and more developed macrolepidopteran species.

  20. Incorporated Fish Oil Fatty Acids Prevent Action Potential Shortening Induced by Circulating Fish Oil Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, Hester M. Den; Verkerk, Arie O.; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:21423389

  1. 6-methyl-8-hexadecenoic acid: A novel fatty acid from the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, N M; Maldonado, M E

    1988-07-01

    The novel fatty acid 7-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (1) was identified in the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata. Other interesting fatty acids identified were 14-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (2), better known through its methyl ester as one of the components of the sex attractant of the female dermestid beetle, and the saturated fatty acid 3-methylheptadecanoic (3), known to possess larvicidal activity. The main phospholipid fatty acids encountered inD. anchorata were palmitic (16∶0), behenic (22∶0) and 5,9-hexacosadienoic acid (26∶2), which together accounted for 50% of the total phospholipid fatty acid mixture.

  2. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  4. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  5. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  6. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  7. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  8. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  9. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  13. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  14. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understandingmore » of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.« less

  15. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  16. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  17. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  18. Oral Fructose Absorption in Obese Children with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jillian S; Le, MyPhuong T; Pan, Zhaoxing; Rivard, Christopher; Love-Osborne, Kathryn; Robbins, Kristen; Johnson, Richard J; Sokol, Ronald J; Sundaram, Shikha S

    2014-01-01

    Background Fructose intake is associated with NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease) development. Objective To measure fructose absorption/metabolism in pediatric NAFLD compared to obese and lean controls. Methods Children with histologically proven NAFLD, and obese and lean controls received oral fructose (1 gm/kg ideal body weight). Serum glucose, insulin, uric acid, and fructose, urine uric acid, urine fructose, and breath hydrogen levels were measured at baseline and multiple points until 360 minutes after fructose ingestion. Results Nine NAFLD (89% Hispanic, mean age 14.3 years, mean BMI 35.3 kg/m2), 6 Obese Controls (67% Hispanic, mean age 12.7 years, mean BMI 31.0 kg/m2), and 9 Lean Controls (44% Hispanic, mean age 14.3 years, mean BMI 19.4 kg/m2) were enrolled. Following fructose ingestion, NAFLD vs. Lean Controls had elevated serum glucose, insulin, and uric acid (p<0.05), higher urine uric acid (p=0.001) but lower fructose excretion (p=0.002) and lower breath hydrogen 180-min AUC (p=0.04). NAFLD vs. Obese Controls had similar post-fructose serum glucose, insulin, urine uric acid, and breath hydrogen, but elevated serum uric acid (p<0.05) and lower urine fructose excretion (p=0.02). Conclusions Children with NAFLD absorb and metabolize fructose more effectively than lean subjects, associated with an exacerbated metabolic profile following fructose ingestion. PMID:24961681

  19. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3) improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL) produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain p

  20. Influence of changes in dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental and fetal fatty acid profile in the rat.

    PubMed

    Amusquivar, Encarnación; Herrera, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could be modified in the fetus by maternal dietary fatty acids, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semipurified diets that differed only in the non-vitamin lipid component. The diets contained either 10 g palm, sunflower, olive or fish oil (FOD)/100 g diet. A total of 5-6 rats were studied in each group. At day 20 of gestation, corresponding to 1.5 days prior parturition, the fatty acids in maternal adipose tissue were closely related to the fatty acid composition in the corresponding diet. An important proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) appeared in maternal liver and plasma, although it was lower in the FOD than in the other groups. Except for saturated fatty acids, the proportion of individual fatty acids in the placenta correlated linearly with that in maternal plasma. Also, PUFA in fetal plasma and liver showed significant correlations with PUFA in maternal plasma. Again, AA showed the lowest proportion in the plasma and liver of the FOD group. Therefore, the maternal dietary fatty acid composition influences maternal and fetal plasma and tissue composition, and an increase in dietary omega-3 fatty acids decreases the amount of AA in maternal and fetal tissues.

  1. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  2. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers.

  3. Establishment of the tree shrew as an alcohol-induced Fatty liver model for the study of alcoholic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals' suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs.

  4. Trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: does origin matter?

    PubMed

    Dawczynski, Christine; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have aimed to unravel the contribution of different types of dietary fatty acids to human health and disease. Investigations have consistently shown that high consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils is harmful to human health, in particular cardiovascular health. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer 'generally recognized as safe', and trans-fatty acids are not permitted in the U.S. food supply. On the other hand, recent studies analyzing the association between circulating trans-fatty acids and disease have revealed that some ruminant-specific trans-fatty acids are associated with a reduction in incidence of disease. In this special report, we highlight recent findings and point out perspectives for future studies on this topic.

  5. Fatty acids as modulators of neutrophil recruitment, function and survival.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Hosana G; Takeo Sato, Fabio; Curi, Rui; Vinolo, Marco A R

    2016-08-15

    Neutrophils are well-known to act in the destruction of invading microorganisms. They have also been implicated in the activation of other immune cells including B- and T-lymphocytes and in the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation from where they migrate to tissues to perform their effector functions. Neutrophils are in constant contact with fatty acids that can modulate their function, activation and fate (survival or cell death) through different mechanisms. In this review, the effects of fatty acids pertaining to five classes, namely, long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and omega-3 (n-3), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-9 (n-9) unsaturated fatty acids, on neutrophils and the relevance of these effects for disease development are discussed.

  6. Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Patarra, R F; Leite, J; Pereira, R; Baptista, J; Neto, A I

    2013-04-01

    The content of total lipids and the fatty acid (FA) profile were determined for eight macroalgae (Cystoseira abies-marina, Fucus spiralis, Chaetomorpha pachynema, Codium elisabethae, Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaeroccoccus coronopifolius). Total lipids were extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform (2/1, v/v) and further derivatised to FA methyl esters (FAME). The analyses of FAME samples were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector. The total lipid content ranged from 0.06 to 3.54 g (per 100 g). The most abundant saturated FA were palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0), while oleic (C18:1 n-9) was the dominant monounsaturated acid. All seaweeds contained linoleic FA (C18:2 n-6). The α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) acids were present only in Porphyra sp. (3.34% ± 0.13) and C. pachynema (0.47% ± 0.12), respectively. The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were low, suggesting a high nutritional value of the algae studied.

  7. Cloning and functional expression of the first plant fatty acid elongase specific for Delta(6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zank, T K; Zähringer, U; Lerchl, J; Heinz, E

    2000-12-01

    In order to elucidate the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plants we searched for a cDNA encoding a Delta(6)-specific PUFA elongase from Physcomitrella patens, which is known to contain high proportions of arachidonic acid (20:4 Delta(5,8,11,14)). An EST clone from P. patens was identified by its low homology to the yeast gene ELO1, which is required for the elongation of medium-chain fatty acids. We functionally characterized this cDNA by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the presence of several fatty acids. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of the transgenic yeast revealed that the cDNA encodes a protein that leads to the elongation of the C(18) Delta(6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 Delta(6,9,12)) and stearidonic acid (18:4 Delta(6,9,12,15)), which were recovered to 45-51% as their elongation products. In contrast, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids were hardly elongated and we could not measure any elongation of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (including 18:1 Delta(6)), indicating that the elongase is highly specific for the polyunsaturated nature of the fatty acid acting as substrate.

  8. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Kosma, Dylan K.; Joubès, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  9. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates.

    PubMed

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Santos, Patricia; Kosma, Dylan K; Joubès, Jérôme; Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots.

  10. Relevant Aspects of Nutritional and Dietary Interventions in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Rodas, Maria Catalina; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Videla, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is linked to circumstances such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Since the obesity figures and related comorbidities are increasing, NAFLD has turned into a liver problem that has become progressively more common. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for NAFLD; therefore, interventions in lifestyles remain the first line of treatment. Bearing in mind that adherence rates to this type of treatment are poor, great efforts are currently focused on finding novel therapeutic agents for the prevention in the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. This review presents a compilation of the scientific evidence found in the last years showing the results of interventions in lifestyle, diet, and behavioral therapies and research results in human, animal and cell models. Possible therapeutic agents ranging from supplementation with vitamins, amino acids, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to interventions with medicinal plants are analyzed. PMID:26512643

  11. Toll-like receptor 7 affects the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sokho; Park, Surim; Kim, Bumseok; Kwon, Jungkee

    2016-06-09

    Recently, a possible link between toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and liver disease was suggested, although it was limited to fibrosis. Based on this report, we investigated whether TLR7 has a pivotal role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The TLR7 signaling pathway, which is activated by imiquimod (TLR7 ligand) naturally, induced autophagy and released insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) into medium from hepatocytes. Lipid accumulation induced by unsaturated fatty acid (UFA; arachidonic acid:oleic acid = 1:1) in hepatocytes, was attenuated in TLR7 and autophagy activation. Interestingly, TLR7 activation attenuated UFA-induced lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal (4-HNE). To clarify a possible pathway between TLR7 and lipid peroxidation, we treated hepatocytes with MDA and 4-HNE. MDA and 4-HNE induced 2-folds lipid accumulation in UFA-treated hepatocytes via blockade of the TLR7 signaling pathway's IGF-1 release compared to only UFA-treated hepatocytes. In vivo experiments carried out with TLR7 knockout mice produced results consistent with in vitro experiments. In conclusion, TLR7 prevents progression of NAFLD via induced autophagy and released IGF-1 from liver. These findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NAFLD.

  12. Toll-like receptor 7 affects the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sokho; Park, Surim; Kim, Bumseok; Kwon, Jungkee

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a possible link between toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and liver disease was suggested, although it was limited to fibrosis. Based on this report, we investigated whether TLR7 has a pivotal role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The TLR7 signaling pathway, which is activated by imiquimod (TLR7 ligand) naturally, induced autophagy and released insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) into medium from hepatocytes. Lipid accumulation induced by unsaturated fatty acid (UFA; arachidonic acid:oleic acid = 1:1) in hepatocytes, was attenuated in TLR7 and autophagy activation. Interestingly, TLR7 activation attenuated UFA-induced lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal (4-HNE). To clarify a possible pathway between TLR7 and lipid peroxidation, we treated hepatocytes with MDA and 4-HNE. MDA and 4-HNE induced 2-folds lipid accumulation in UFA-treated hepatocytes via blockade of the TLR7 signaling pathway’s IGF-1 release compared to only UFA-treated hepatocytes. In vivo experiments carried out with TLR7 knockout mice produced results consistent with in vitro experiments. In conclusion, TLR7 prevents progression of NAFLD via induced autophagy and released IGF-1 from liver. These findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27279075

  13. Inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, M; Endo, A

    1976-01-18

    Inhibitory effect of 44 species of fatty acids on cholesterol synthesis has been examined with a rat liver enzyme system. In the case of saturated fatty acids, the inhibitory activity increased with chain length to a maximum at 11 to 14 carbons, after which activity decreased rapidly. The inhibition increased with the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Introduction of a hydroxy group at the alpha-position of fatty acids abolished the inhibition, while the inhibition was enhanced by the presence of a hydroxy group located in an intermediate position of the chain. Branched chain fatty acids having a methyl group at the terminal showed much higher activity than the corresponding saturated straight chain fatty acids with the same number of carbons. With respect to the mechanism for inhibition, tridecanoate was found to inhibit acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase specifically without affecting the other reaction steps in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The highly unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonate and linoleate, were specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. On the other hand, ricinoleate (hydroxy acid) and phytanate (branched-chain acid) diminished the conversion of mevalonate to sterols by inhibiting a step or steps between squalene and lanosterol.

  14. Prenatal omega-3 fatty acids: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robin G

    2010-01-01

    The influence of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on health outcomes is widely recognized. The adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acids docasahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in particular can increase gestation length and improve infant cognitive and visual performance. Adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to reduce the incidence of preterm birth in some populations. Research on prenatal omega-3 intake and other outcomes, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, is inconclusive. Women in the United States consume low levels of omega-3 fatty acids compared to omega-6 fatty acids; this dietary pattern is associated with poor health outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acids are found primarily in fish, yet many pregnant women avoid fish because of concerns about potential mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination. It is important for prenatal care providers to assess women's diets for omega-3 fatty acid intake and ensure that pregnant women are consuming between 200 and 300 mg daily from safe food sources. Purified fish, algal oil supplements, and DHA-enriched eggs are alternative sources for pregnant women who do not eat fish.

  15. Fatty acids are precursors of alkylamines in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R; Huang, Y

    1992-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans contains novel phospholipids of which the structures of three have been previously described. These three lipids contain both fatty acids and alkylamines. Both the fatty acid and alkylamine constituents were found to be composed of a mixture of species, of which C15, C16, and C17 saturated and monounsaturated alkyl chains predominated. Alkylamines contained a relatively higher proportion of saturated species. Progression of bacterial growth through the mid-log to stationary phases was accompanied by an increase in the proportions of C15 and C17 alkyl chains in both fatty acid and alkylamine constituents. Radiolabeled palmitic acid was found to be rapidly incorporated into both fatty acid and alkylamine components of phosphatidylglyceroylalkylamine, which is the precursor of the more-complex phosphoglycolipids found in major amounts in D. radiodurans. After culturing D. radiodurans in the presence of a mixture of palmitic acids labeled with 14C and 3H in the 1 and 9,10 positions, respectively, the same 14C/3H ratio was recovered in both fatty acid and alkylamine constituents, strongly suggesting that alkylamines are derived from intact fatty acids rather than by a de novo pathway. The results identify a novel product of fatty acid metabolism which has not to date been observed in any other organism. Images PMID:1429439

  16. Production of medium chain length fatty alcohols from glucose in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Youngquist, J. Tyler; Schumacher, Martin H.; Rose, Joshua P.; Raines, Thomas C.; Politz, Mark C.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to produce a wide range of commodity chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum or other non-renewable resources. Microbial synthesis of fatty alcohols is an attractive process because it can control the distribution of chain lengths and utilize low cost fermentation substrates. Specifically, primary alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to 14 carbons have many uses in the production of detergents, surfactants, and personal care products. The current challenge is to produce these compounds at titers and yields that would make them economically competitive. Here, we demonstrate a metabolic engineering strategy for producing fatty alcohols from glucose. To produce a high level of 1-dodecanol and 1-tetradecanol, an acyl-ACP thioesterase (BTE), an acyl-CoA ligase (FadD), and an acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase (MAACR) were overexpressed in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli. Yields were improved by balancing expression levels of each gene, using a fed-batch cultivation strategy, and adding a solvent to the culture for extracting the product from cells. Using these strategies, a titer of over 1.6 g/L fatty alcohol with a yield of over 0.13 g fatty alcohol / g carbon source was achieved. These are the highest reported yield of fatty alcohols produced from glucose in E. coli. PMID:24141053

  17. Systematic review of genetic association studies involving histologically confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kayleigh L; Miller, Michael H; Dillon, John F

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has an increasing prevalence in Western countries, affecting up to 20% of the population. Objective The aim of this project was to systematically review and summarise the genetic association studies that investigate possible genetic influences that confer susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Design The MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched to identify candidate gene studies on histologically diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results A total of 85 articles have been summarised and categorised on the basis of the general pathway each candidate gene is involved in, including lipid metabolism, lipoprotein processing, cholesterol synthesis, glucose homoeostasis, inflammatory response, protection against oxidative stress and whole body metabolism. Conclusions The main findings demonstrate a small but consistent association of PNPLA3 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Genetic association studies have investigated general disease susceptibility, histological characteristics, severity and progression. However, further study is required to better elucidate the genetic factors influencing fatty liver disease. PMID:26462272

  18. Production of medium chain length fatty alcohols from glucose in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Youngquist, J Tyler; Schumacher, Martin H; Rose, Joshua P; Raines, Thomas C; Politz, Mark C; Copeland, Matthew F; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to produce a wide range of commodity chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum or other non-renewable resources. Microbial synthesis of fatty alcohols is an attractive process because it can control the distribution of chain lengths and utilize low cost fermentation substrates. Specifically, primary alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to 14 carbons have many uses in the production of detergents, surfactants, and personal care products. The current challenge is to produce these compounds at titers and yields that would make them economically competitive. Here, we demonstrate a metabolic engineering strategy for producing fatty alcohols from glucose. To produce a high level of 1-dodecanol and 1-tetradecanol, an acyl-ACP thioesterase (BTE), an acyl-CoA ligase (FadD), and an acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase (MAACR) were overexpressed in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli. Yields were improved by balancing expression levels of each gene, using a fed-batch cultivation strategy, and adding a solvent to the culture for extracting the product from cells. Using these strategies, a titer of over 1.6 g/L fatty alcohol with a yield of over 0.13 g fatty alcohol/g carbon source was achieved. These are the highest reported yield of fatty alcohols produced from glucose in E. coli.

  19. The efficacy and safety of statins for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Baratta, Francesco; Pani, Arianna; Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an emerging liver disease in Western countries and the most frequent cause of incidental elevation of serum liver enzymes. Dyslipidaemia is frequently observed in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and treatment of dyslipidaemia plays a critical role in the overall management of these patients. Moreover, coronary artery disease remains the most common cause of death. Statins are effective lipid-lowering agents, associated with a lowering the risk of cardiovascular events in several interventional randomized clinical trials. However, statins are often underused in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and many physicians are concerned about the prescription of statins to patients with unexplained persistent elevation of liver enzymes or active liver disease. Based on currently available data, statin therapy, at low-to-moderate doses, seems to be safe and has low liver toxicity. Treatment of dyslipidaemia in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is recommended and may also improve liver function tests. In these patients, the risks of not taking statins could outweigh the risks of taking the drug. Conversely, the usefulness of statins for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is still a matter of debate and randomized clinical trials of adequate size and duration are required.

  20. Targeted metabolomics of Physaria fendleri, an industrial crop producing hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Anderson, Brooke; Boyd, Alison; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2014-03-01

    Physaria fendleri (syn. Lesquerella) is a Brassicaceae producing lesquerolic acid, a highly valued hydroxy fatty acid that could be used for several industrial applications, such as cosmetics, lubricating greases, paints, plastics and biofuels. Free of toxins, Physaria oil is an attractive alternative to imported castor (Ricinus communis) oil, and is hence on the verge of commercialization. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that lesquerolic acid was synthesized and accumulated in the embryos, reaching 60% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. The sequential extraction and characterization of biomass compounds revealed that Physaria embryo metabolism switched from protein to fatty acid biosynthesis between 18 and 24 days post-anthesis (DPA). In order to unravel the metabolic pathways involved in fatty acid synthesis, a targeted metabolomics study was conducted on Physaria embryos at different stages of development. For this purpose, two novel high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed and validated to quantify sugars, sugar alcohols and amino acids. Specificity was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring, and the limits of quantification were in the pmole-fmole range. The comparative metabolomic study underlined that: (i) the majority of the metabolites accumulate in Physaria embryos between 18 and 27 DPA; (ii) the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, the tricarboxilic acid cycle and the anaplerotic pathway drain a substantial amount of carbon; and (iii) ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate is present, which specifically indicates that the Calvin cycle is occurring. The importance and the relevance of these findings regarding fatty acid synthesis were discussed.

  1. Fatty Acid Transport Protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC50 8–11μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC50 58μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of 13C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26284975

  2. Mitochondrial genome architecture in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sookoian, Silvia; Flichman, Diego; Scian, Romina; Rohr, Cristian; Dopazo, Hernán; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Martino, Julio San; Castaño, Gustavo O; Pirola, Carlos J

    2016-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, a decreased liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and impaired energy metabolism. To understand the clinical implications of mtDNA diversity in the biology of NAFLD, we applied deep-coverage whole sequencing of the liver mitochondrial genomes. We used a multistage study design, including a discovery phase, a phenotype-oriented study to assess the mutational burden in patients with steatohepatitis at different stages of liver fibrosis, and a replication study to validate findings in loci of interest. We also assessed the potential protein-level impact of the observed mutations. To determine whether the observed changes are tissue-specific, we compared the liver and the corresponding peripheral blood entire mitochondrial genomes. The nuclear genes POLG and POLG2 (mitochondrial DNA polymerase-γ) were also sequenced. We observed that the liver mtDNA of patients with NAFLD harbours complex genomes with a significantly higher mutational (1.28-fold) rate and degree of heteroplasmy than in controls. The analysis of liver mitochondrial genomes of patients with different degrees of fibrosis revealed that the disease severity is associated with an overall 1.4-fold increase in mutation rate, including mutations in genes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) chain. Significant differences in gene and protein expression patterns were observed in association with the cumulative number of OXPHOS polymorphic sites. We observed a high degree of homology (∼98%) between the blood and liver mitochondrial genomes. A missense POLG p.Gln1236His variant was associated with liver mtDNA copy number. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that OXPHOS genes contain the highest number of hotspot positions associated with a more severe phenotype. The variability of the mitochondrial genomes probably originates from a common germline source; hence, it may explain a fraction of the 'missing heritability

  3. Recent trends in the advanced analysis of bioactive fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibañez, Elena

    2010-01-20

    The consumption of dietary fats have been long associated to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, asthma, and cardiovascular disease; although some controversy still exists in the role of dietary fats in human health, certain fats have demonstrated their positive effect in the modulation of abnormal fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism, both of them associated to chronic diseases. Among the different fats, some fatty acids can be used as functional ingredients such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), stearidonic acid (STA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), among others. The present review is focused on recent developments in FAs analysis, covering sample preparation methods such as extraction, fractionation and derivatization as well as new advances in chromatographic methods such as GC and HPLC. Special attention is paid to trans fatty acids due its increasing interest for the food industry.

  4. Phytyl Fatty Acid Esters in the Pulp of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Krauß, Stephanie; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-08-17

    Phytyl fatty acid esters (PFAE) are esters of fatty acids with the isoprenoid alcohol phytol (3,7R,11R,15-tetramethylhexadec-2E-enol). In this study, PFAE were identified and quantified in bell pepper using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All red (n = 14) and yellow (n = 6) samples contained six or seven PFAE at 0.9-11.2 mg/100 g fresh weight. By contrast, PFAE were not detected in green bell pepper samples (n = 3). PFAE might eventually be a source for bioavailable phytol, which can be transformed into phytanic acid by humans. Phytanic acid cannot be properly degraded by patients who suffer from Refsum's disease (tolerable daily intake (TDI) ≤ 10 mg of phytanic acid). The phytol moiety of the PFAE (0.4-5.4 mg/100 g fresh weight) would contribute up to ∼50% to the TDI with the consumption of only one portion of bell pepper fruit pulp.

  5. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  6. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  7. Stability and composition of palm, coconut and soy oil fatty acid microemulsion diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Microemulsions fuels containing fully and partially coconut, palm, and soy fatty acids; varying amounts of C/sub 1/ to C/sub 4/ alcohols; varying amounts of water; and four fuel bases were evaluated between 0 and 60/sup 0/C for stability as a single phase system. In general, ability to form a stable single phase system rose with increasing alcohol chain length, decreasing water, and increasing dispersed phase content. It was possible to form 0 to 60/sup 0/C stable single phase systems in all four fuels tested using 30 to 50% v/v dispersed phase containing 1-butanol and either palm or soy fatty acids. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Separation and quantitation of free fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aveldano, M I; VanRollins, M; Horrocks, L A

    1983-01-01

    Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) on octadecylsilyl columns separates mixtures of either free fatty acids or fatty acid methyl esters prepared from mammalian tissue phospholipids. Acetonitrile-water mixtures are used for the elution of esters. Aqueous phosphoric acid is substituted for water for the separation of the free acids. Unsaturated compounds are detected and quantitated by their absorption at 192 nm. Saturates are detected better at 205 nm. The order of elution of fatty acids in complex mixtures varies as a function of acetonitrile concentration. At any given concentration, some compounds overlap. However, by varying the solvent strength, any fatty acid of interest can be resolved including many geometrical and positional isomers. Methyl esters prefractionated according to unsaturation by argentation thin-layer chromatography (TLC) are rapidly and completely separated by elution with CH3CN alone. Argentation TLC-reverse phase HPLC can be used as an analytical as well as a preparative procedure. Octylsilyl columns are used for rapid resolution and improved detection of minor or low ultraviolet-absorbing components in the fractions. For example, monoenoic fatty acids with up to 32 carbons have been detected in bovine brain glycerophospholipids. Specific radioactivities of 3H- and 14C-labeled fatty acids and the distribution of radioactivity among acyl groups from complex lipids are measured. The method is not recommended for complete compositional analysis, but is useful for determinations of specific radioactivities during studies on turnover and metabolic conversions of labeled fatty acids.

  9. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandre G; Ney, Jacqueline G; Meneses, Flávia; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2006-03-01

    Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (> or =50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

  11. Fatty acids are potential endogenous regulators of aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Goodfriend, T L; Ball, D L; Elliott, M E; Morrison, A R; Evenson, M A

    1991-05-01

    Adrenal glomerulosa cells washed with delipidated albumin produced increased amounts of aldosterone in response to angiotensin-II (AII) or (Bu)2cAMP. Albumin treatment also increased binding of 125I-labeled AII to high affinity binding sites on adrenal cells. Lipid extracts of albumin solutions that were used to wash cells inhibited AII binding and aldosterone responses by washed glomerulosa cells. Chromatographic fractionation and mass spectroscopic analysis indicated that the inhibitors removed from cells by albumin were long chain fatty acids. Exogenous fatty acids not only inhibited AII binding, but they inhibited basal aldosterone production and increments in aldosterone caused by AII or dbcAMP, suggesting an effect on postreceptor steps in aldosteronogenesis. The most potent and most abundant fatty acids removed from adrenal cells were oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic. These fatty acids inhibited at micromolar concentrations in the absence of albumin and at somewhat higher concentrations in its presence. Cells that had been washed, then inhibited by exogenous oleic acid in vitro, were restored to their enhanced responsiveness by a second albumin wash, making it unlikely that cell damage is the mechanism of inhibition by fatty acids. Responses of fasciculata cells were not potentiated by albumin washes, and cortisol production was less sensitive than aldosterone production to exogenous fatty acids. Binding of ANP to glomerulosa cells was not affected by albumin or fatty acids. These results combined with clinical correlations make it plausible that unesterified fatty acids are naturally occurring regulators of the adrenal glomerulosa. Insulin's ability to lower plasma levels of fatty acids may be one way that it causes sodium retention.

  12. [Proposed profile of omega 3 fatty acids in enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sanz París, A; Marí Sanchis, A; García Malpartida, K; García Gómez, M C

    2012-01-01

    We review the international recommendations on oral intake of n-3 fatty acids and their content in the enteral nutrition formulas. Their metabolic actions depend on their metabolization to EPA and DHA. The activity of desaturases catalyzing this process increases with exercise, insulin, estrogens in the fertile women, and peroxisomal proliferators, whereas it decreases with fasting, protein and oligoelements deficiencies, age < 30 years, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, alcohol, cholesterol, trans and saturated fatty acids, insulin deficiency, and stress hormones (adrenalin and glucocorticoids). Most of the guidelines recommend that 20-35% of the total energy comes from fat, being 7-10% saturated fats, 6-10% polyunsaturated, and 20% monounsaturated, in Spain. The recommendation for n-3 FA is 0.5-2 g/day or 0.5-2% of total caloric intake, with an upper limit of 3 g/day. For n-6 FA, 2.5-10% of total caloric intake, the n-6/n-3 ratio not being well established although most of the guidelines recommend 5:1. The EPA and DHA content should be at least 500 mg per day. Finally, the EPA/DHA ratio is 2:1 in most of them. Standard nutrition formulas present an appropriate fat content, although most of the products containing EPA and DHA exceed the limit of 3 g/day. Among the products with hyperprotein and/or concentrated, only of them contains EPA y DHA. Not all the formulas used for the frail elderly contain EPA or DHA, and in those containing them their concentration may be excessive and with a proportion very dissimilar to that of fish oil.

  13. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  14. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  15. It is all about fluidity: Fatty acids and macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Phagocytosis is an early and fundamental step for the effective clearance of disease causing agents. The ability to engulf and kill pathogens is considered as a major effector function of macrophages. In their phagocytic role macrophages are part of the first line of innate immune defense. A number of studies investigating fatty acid effects on macrophage phagocytosis have been conducted over many years. In vitro-data consistently report that alterations in macrophage membrane fatty acid composition are linked to an altered phagocytic capacity, i.e. an increase in membrane unsaturated fatty acid content is associated with an increase in engulfment and killing rate. The mode of action of fatty acids seems to be the modulation of the physical nature of the macrophage plasma membrane. It appears that the saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratio of macrophage membrane phospholipids is of importance in determining macrophage phagocytic capacity. Available in vivo-data are less clear. At present, there is a lack of systematic studies elucidating key factors such as fatty acid efficacy, effective dose or dosing intervals. Without this knowledge the targeted modulation of macrophage phagocytosis in vivo by fatty acids is still a distant possibility.

  16. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  17. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  18. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna; Musso, Giovanni; Scorletti, Eleonora; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered the most common liver disease in industrialized countries, and it is estimated that it will become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD may be associated with moderate (i.e. steatosis) to severe (i.e. steatohepatitis and fibrosis) liver damage and affects all age groups. Furthermore, subjects with NAFLD may be at a greater risk of other obesity-related complications later in life, and people with obesity and obesity-related complications (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease) are at increased risk of developing NAFLD. To date, there is no licensed treatment for NAFLD and therapy has been mainly centered on weight loss and increased physical activity. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for patients to adhere to the advised lifestyle changes. Therefore, based on the known pathogenesis of NAFLD, several clinical trials with different nutritional supplementation and prescribed drugs have been undertaken or are currently underway. Experimental evidence has emerged about the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of health-related functions. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in some foods (oils, nuts and seeds) that also contain omega-6 fatty acids, and the best sources of exclusively omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish, krill oil and algae. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and we also discuss the molecular and clinical evidence for the benefits of different omega-3 fatty acid preparations in NAFLD.

  20. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  1. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    van Kooten, Maria J.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; de Araujo, Ivan E.; O’Malley, Stephanie; Small, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, Intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers. PMID:26656766

  2. Hepatoprotective effects of Spirulina maxima in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases range from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The "two hits" hypothesis is widely accepted for its pathogenesis: the first hit is an increased fat flux to the liver, which predisposes our patient to a second hit where increasing free fatty acid oxidation into the mitochondria leads to oxidative stress, lipoperoxidation and a chain reaction with increased ROS. Clinical indications include abdominal cramps, meteorism and fatigue. Most patients, however, are asymptomatic, and diagnosis is based on aminotransferase elevation and ultrasonography (or "brilliant liver"). Spirulina maxima has been experimentally proven to possess in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective properties by maintaining the liver lipid profile. This case report evaluates the hepatoprotective effects of orally supplied Spirulina maxima. Case presentation Three Hispanic Mexican patients (a 43-year-old man, a 77-year-old man and a 44-year-old woman) underwent ultrasonography and were treated with 4.5 g/day of Spirulina maxima for three months. Their blood samples before and after the treatment determined triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The results were assessed using ultrasound. Conclusion Treatment had therapeutic effects as evidenced by ultrasonography and the aminotransferase data. Hypolipidemic effects were also shown. We conclude that Spirulina maxima may be considered an alternative treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and dyslipidemic disorder. PMID:20370930

  3. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.

  4. THE BASIS OF STABILITY IN LYSINE AND ARGININE SALTS OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LINOLEIC ACID , STABILIZATION), (* FATTY ACIDS , STABILITY), (*AMINO ACIDS , SALTS), (*ANTIOXIDANTS, AMINO ACIDS ), DEHYDRATED FOODS, ADDITIVES...PRESERVATION, COMPLEX COMPOUNDS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, INFRARED SPECTRA, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CRYSTAL LATTICES, MOLECULAR ISOMERISM, FATTY ACID ESTERS

  5. Retinoic acid stimulates essential fatty acid-supplemented human keratinocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1997-05-01

    The effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation of essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient and of EFA-supplemented adult human keratinocytes was investigated. EFA-deficient cell strains were supplied with one of four different fatty acid-supplemented media at the P0 to P1 passage. All-trans retinoic acid at 0.5 or 1.0 microM was added to the cultures at the P1 to P2 passage. At passage P3, and 3 and 7 d thereafter, the cell growth rate was determined. The fatty acid content of cultures grown in each medium was measured using gas chromatography. All the EFA media "normalized" the cellular fatty acid composition and drastically decreased the cell number and total DNA and protein of the cultures. All-trans retinoic acid at 1 microM prevented the loss of cell viability and growth usually associated with EFA supplementation but did not affect the control (EFA deficient) or 18:1 fatty acid-supplemented cultures. All-trans retinoic acid at 1 microM altered the fatty acid content of the EFA-supplemented cultures. A statistically significant increase in 14:0, 14:1, 16:1, 18:1, and 20:4 fatty acids occurred, whereas the amounts of 18:0 and 18:2 fatty acids decreased. The largest changes were in 16:1 fatty acid (8-14%) and 18:2 fatty acid (12-5%). All-trans retinoic acid at 0.5 microM also affected both cell growth and fatty acid composition without induction of the CRABP II message. These studies demonstrate that all-trans retinoic acid stimulates the growth of EFA-supplemented keratinocyte cultures while also altering the fatty acid composition of the cells.

  6. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-09-01

    Human beings evolved consuming a diet that contained about equal amounts of n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids. Over the past 100-150 y there has been an enormous increase in the consumption of n-6 fatty acids due to the increased intake of vegetable oils from corn, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, cottonseed, and soybeans. Today, in Western diets, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ranges from approximately 20-30:1 instead of the traditional range of 1-2:1. Studies indicate that a high intake of n-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is prothrombotic and proaggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction and decreases in bleeding time. n-3 Fatty acids, however, have antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and vasodilatory properties. These beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids have been shown in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and, in some patients with renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of the studies were carried out with fish oils [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. However, alpha-linolenic acid, found in green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, rapeseed, and walnuts, desaturates and elongates in the human body to EPA and DHA and by itself may have beneficial effects in health and in the control of chronic diseases.

  7. Esterification free fatty acid in palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated rice husk ash catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from palm oil industries. The use of PFAD can reduce the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes PFAD a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) on PFAD was studied using rice husk ash (RHA) as heterogeneous catalyst. The rice husk ash catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA catalyst were characterized by using different techniques, such as porosity analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, total number of acid sites and elemental analysis. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (4:1-10:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of FFA to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, the catalyst amount of 10 wt% of PFAD, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  8. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues.

    PubMed

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl- N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints.

  10. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer.